Return to home201.4Mil BC A mass extinction
occurred about this time. In 1999 it was reported that a titanic
volcanic eruption occurred about this time and split an ancient
super-continent. This process began the formation of the Atlantic
Ocean. Half of all marine species died in a few million years. [see
252 and 225 mil]
(SFC, 4/23/99, p.A3)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.78)(Econ,
1Mil BC Ascension Island, the top of a volcano,
broke through the surface of the Atlantic Ocean about this time.
Since then the island has grown to about 100 square km.
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.159)
74000BC The major Toba volcanic eruption occurred
in Sumatra about this time. It was later believed that this eruption
caused a major temperature drop and reduction in the human
population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA seemed to corroborate a
significant reduction in human population around this time.
(DC, 7/1/00)(DC, 9/2/02)
5000BC Mt. Mazama in what is now Oregon blew up
about this time and left what is now called Crater Lake.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 10/26/06, p.B8)
1626BC Jul, There was a volcanic eruption in the
Aegean. The date was counted from tree rings and climactic anoma
that create frost rings. [see 1645, 1500, 1470, 1450]
(SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)
1500 The explosion of Thira
(Thera or Santorini) about this time released energy equal to
200,000 H-bombs. [see 1645BCE and 1470BCE]
(NH, 5/96, p.3)
1470BC The volcano Thera, or Santorini, erupted in
the Mediterranean. It may correspond to the ninth plague of Egypt
recorded in Exodus as the “darkness over Egypt." [see 1645BC and
1500BC for alternate dates]
(NOHY, 3/90, p.129)
1450BC The eruption of the volcano on Santorini
Island about this time triggered earthquakes and tidal waves that
may have destroyed most of the Minoan cities and palaces. In 1939
Spyridon Marinatos authored “The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan
Crete." [see 1470BC]
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T11)(AM, 7/00, p.41)
79CE Aug 24, Pliny the Elder,
Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount
Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes as he tried to rescue
refugees. The eruption buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae,
Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements in 13 feet of volcanic
ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was
described by Pliny the Younger, the elder’s nephew, in a letter to
(HFA, '96, p.36)(DD-EVTT, p.70)(AP, 8/24/97)(WUD,
1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(HNQ, 6/16/98)
79CE Aug 25, Gaius Plinius
Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the
eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
535 Feb, There is evidence that
the Krakatoa volcano had a major eruption about this time. In 1869
Rangawarsita, a Javanese royal courtier, compiled the Books of
Kings, which mentioned an event from the middle of the first
millennium that sounded like a major eruption.
(WSJ, 5/15/00, p.A46)(Disc., 7/4/03)
940 Mount Paektu, a volcano
straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted about
this time and covered a swath of North-East Asia in ashes. The
millennium eruption is believed to have occurred between 930 and 940
(Econ, 10/26/13, p.48)(AP, 9/3/14)
1362 In Iceland the
Oraefajokull volcano erupted. This eruption was later believed to
have eclipsed the 79AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)
1600 Feb 19, Arequipa, Peru,
was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically,
in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic
times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March
and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and
neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate
around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in
six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
1610 Leon, Nicaragua, was
buried by the Mombotombo volcano.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)
1631 Dec 16, In Italy Mount
Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)
1669 Mar 11, Mount Etna in
Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10
villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the
town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous
accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths
related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the
number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and
the economic damage).
1707 Japan’s Mount Fuji
erupted. It produced only 2% as much ash as the 1815 Mount Tambora
(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.23)
1772 Aug 11, An explosive
eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were
1783 Jun 8, In Iceland the
Lakagicar volcano began erupting. Over the next 6 months it built a
lava dam 40 miles long and 540 feet high in a month. The Laki
volcano wiped out 75% of the crops, which led to a severe famine
that killed some 10,000 people, 20% of the population, reducing the
population to some 40,000 people. This was described by Haraldur
Sigurdson in an article titled Volcanic Pollution and Climate: Eos
63, Aug. 10, 1982. The Laki eruption sent poisonous gases across
Europe. In 2014 Alexandra Witze and Jeff Kanipe authored “Island on
Fire: The Extraordinary Story of Laki: the Volcano that Turned
Eighteenth-Century Europe Dark."
(NH, 9/97, p.38)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A18)(AM, 7/00,
p.40)(ON, 2/04, p.9)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.132)(Econ, 4/24/10,
p.62)(Econ, 5/29/10, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)
1783 Jun 8-1784 Feb, A series
of 10 eruptions from the Laki Craters on Iceland changed atmospheric
conditions in most of the Northern Hemisphere. This also generated a
cascade of events that led to record low levels of water in the Nile
River and brought famine to the region. By 1785 a sixth of Egypt’s
population had either perished or fled.
1783 Mount Asama, one of
Japan's largest and most active volcanoes, had a major eruption.
1783-1786 Japan suffered one of its worst famines
in history when exceptional cold destroyed the rice harvest. As many
as 1 million people died. Most of the impact for this was due to the
eruptions of the Laki volcano in Iceland beginning in June, 1783.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)
1793 Apr 1, The volcano
Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
1809 A large volcanic eruption
took place, but the exact location was unknown. Evidence was later
found in ice cores of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
(Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)
1815 Apr 5, Mount Tambora on
Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, in the Java Sea began erupting. [see Apr
1815 Apr 10, A third of the
13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, was blasted
into the air. Some 50,000 islanders were killed and the whole planet
was shrouded in a debris of sulfuric droplets. In 2006 scientist
reported finding traces of Tambora society. Tsunamis and starvation
that followed killed an estimated 60-120 thousand people.
2/28/06)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.21)
1816 Jun 6, There was a 10"
snowfall in New England in this "year without a summer". The
oceanographer Henry Stommel and his wife Elizabeth described this
year in their (1983) book “Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, The
year Without a Summer." The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora lofted a
cloud of ash that turned this summer into a virtual winter with snow
in Europe and New England.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.130)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.D1)
1816-1818 Bad weather around the world during this
period was a result of the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora
(Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)
1821-1823 In Iceland the Eyjafjallajokull volcano
erupted over this period.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)
1822 Oct 8, The Galunggung
volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left
4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top
on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.
1834 Aug 18, Mt. Vesuvius
1835 Jan, Consiguina volcano in
Nicaragua erupted and threw ash as far away as Mexico and Jamaica.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)
1851 Mt. Pelee volcano on the
French Island of Martinique erupted. It left the city of St. Pierre
(NH, 10/02, p.76)
1867 Mar 11, Great Mauna Loa
volcano eruption in Hawaii.
1868 Nov 28, Mt. Etna in Sicily
1872 Apr 24, Mt. Vesuvius
1883 Aug 26, The island volcano
Krakatoa in Indonesia began erupting with increasingly large
explosions and killed some 36,000 people, both on the island itself
and from the resulting 131-foot tidal waves that obliterated 163
villages on the shores of nearby Java and Sumatra. A book by Ian
Thornton: "Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island
Ecosystem" was published in 1996. [see Aug 27] The history of
hundreds of volcanoes is at a Volcano World Web page:
(AP, 8/26/97)(Nat. Hist, 3/96, p.6)(HN, 8/26/02)
1883 Aug 27, The island volcano
Krakatoa erupted; the resulting tidal waves in Indonesia's Sunda
Strait claimed some 36,417 lives in Java and Sumatra. In 2003 Simon
Winchester authored Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: Aug 27,
1883." [see Aug 26]
(AP, 8/27/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M2)
1883 Aug 29, Seismic sea waves,
created by Krakatoa eruption, created a rise in the English Channel
32 hrs after explosion.
1886 Jun 10, Mount Tarawera
erupted at Rotorua on the North Island. 155 people were killed and
several Maori and European settlements, including Te Wairoa, were
(SFEC, 1/9/00, p.T5)(SSFC, 10/28/12, p.M6)
1902 May 8, Mt. Pelee volcano,
on the French Island of Martinique in the east W. Indies, blew its
top and wiped out the town of St. Pierre. A pyroclastic flow
killed 29-40 thousand people. In 1972 Jacques Petitjean Roget
published a detailed report on the event. In 2002 Alwyn Scarth
authored “La Catastrophe."
(SFC, 8/13/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(NH,
1902 May, In Nicaragua the
Momotombo volcano erupted.
(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1902 The Soufrire volcano
erupted on St. Vincent and 1,680 people were killed.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)
1912 Jun 6, In Alaska the
Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the
eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across
southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful
volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada
and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash.
(http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)
1913 Mexico’s active Volcan de
Fuego, part of the Colima volcano complex, experienced a major
eruption. As of 2012 it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576.
Only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of
Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the
neighboring state of Jalisco.
1914 Jun, Mt. Lassen in
northern California began erupting and continued to spew volcanic
debris through 1921.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 6/15/14, DB p.46)
1915 May 22, At Mt. Lassen in
northern California a searing cloud of hot gas and vaporized lava
created the Devastated Area, a mile wide and 5 miles long.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T8)
1915 Jun 3, In northern
California the Mount Lassen volcano erupted.
(SSFC, 5/31/15, DB p.42)
1919 May 1, In Indonesia Mount
Kelud erupted. A powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of
miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160
when a boiling crater lake broke through the crater wall killing
people in 104 small villages.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(AP, 11/3/07)
1919 May 20, Volcano Keluit on
Java erupted killing 550. [see May 1]
1930 Sep 11, The Stromboli
volcano in Sicily threw 2-ton basaltic rocks 2 miles.
1930 Nov 21, In Indonesia lava
began flowing as the Mount Merapi volcano erupted. 13 villages were
destroyed and some 1369 people were killed by pyroclastic flows.
1943 A volcano erupted near
Sobetsucho, Japan, and formed a mountain, that was named Showa
(WSJ, 2/26/04, p.A1)
1943 Parcutin Volcano in
central Mexico began a 9-year eruption.
(AM, 3/04, p.50)
1944 Jan 6, In Italy lava began
flowing from the conelet of Mount Vesuvius. Lava flows continued
into March with several explosions thru the end of March.
1956 Mar 20, Mount Bezymianny
on Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR, exploded.
1962 Jan 10, Eruptions on Mount
Huascaran in Peru destroyed 7 villages and killed 3,500.
1968 Oct 23, In Nicaragua the
Cerro Negro volcano began erupting again and continued to Dec 10. It
had first appeared in 1850.
1971 Apr 5, In Sicily, Italy,
Mount Etna began a series of eruptions.
1972 Aug 26, In southern Chile
the Calbuco volcano erupted for four hours. It is considered one of
the top three most potentially dangerous among Chile's 90 active
1973 Jan 23, Helgafell, an
island of Heimaey, Iceland, erupted for the 1st time in 7,000 yrs.
1976 Jul 8, A volcano erupted
on Guadeloupe and frightened the capital, Basse-Terre. A phreatic
eruption of the Soufriere volcano cracked open the summit dome
1978 Oct 24, Mount Usu, 475
miles north of Tokyo, erupted. Mud flows killed 2 people and 196
homes were destroyed.
1980 Mar 27, Mount St. Helens,
dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam. A crater formed
at the summit and the north flank began to bulge.
1980 May 18, At 8:32 a.m. Mount
Saint Helens, in Washington, erupted. It burst 3 times in 24 hours
after rumbling for two months and left 57 people dead or missing.
The mountain lost over 1,300 feet of elevation and gained a
two-mile-long and one mile-wide crater.
(AAM, 3/96, p.84)(AP, 5/18/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98,
1980 May 25, Mount St. Helens
erupted again and deposited ash over western Washington and Oregon.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
1980 Jun 12, A 3rd major
eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens. A lava dome began to form in
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
1980 Jun 14, A 4th eruption
blasted through the lava dome at Mount St. Helens.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
1980 Aug 7, A 5th major
eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens. [see May 18]
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
1980 Oct 17, Mt. St. Helens
erupted 3 times in 24 hours, in Washington. The eruptions had begun
1980 Oct 18, A 6th major
eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens and a new lava dome emerged
that grew to 130 feet by the next day.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
1983 Jan 3, In Hawaii the Pu’u
O’o vent of the Kilauea volcano lit up the skies for the first time
and began a state of almost constant eruption.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.T6)
1990 Feb 10, In Indonesia Mount
Kelud erupted. Some 33 post eruption lahars took place from Feb
15-mar28 and more than 30 people were killed with hundreds injured.
1991 Jun 3, Mount Unzendake in
southern Japan erupted and left 43 people dead and nearly 2,300
homeless. The dead included volcano experts Maurice and Katia
(SFC, 3/31/00, p.A17)(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)(AP,
6/3/01)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)
1991 Jun 12, The Mount Pinatubo
volcano in the Philippines began erupting. [see Jun 15]
1991 Jun 15, Mount Pinatubo
(4,750 feet high) erupted. Due to early warning 56,000 people were
evacuated and only 450 people died. The eruption forced the closure
of Clark Air Force Base in Angeles City and displaced hundreds of
families of the Aeta tribe. [see June 1,12]
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.27)(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F4)
1991 Aug, Chile’s Hudson
Volcano erupted in Aisen province. It launched a cubic mile of ash
and piled ash 18 inches (45 cm) high killing an estimated 1.5
million sheep on the Argentine side of the Andean mountain chain.
(SFCM, 10/3/04, p.51)(AP, 10/28/11)
1991 Mount Lokon, one of about
129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, erupted. It killed a Swiss hiker
and forced thousands of people to flee their homes.
(AP, 10/26/11) (AP, 10/26/11)
1994 Nov 22, In Indonesia the
Merapi volcano erupted. Pyroclastic flows and surges killed 43
1996 May, In Montserrat a
series of eruption from a volcano in the Soufriere Hills sent a
plume of ash and rock soaring 3,000 feet.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-9)
1996 Jun 17, In New Zealand
Mount Ruapehu erupted.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A6)
1996 Aug 10, In the Philippines
Mount Canlaon erupted and killed 3 climbers. The mountain is one of
21 active volcanoes in the Philippines.
(SFC, 8/12/96, p.C1)
1997 Aug 11, In Hawaii lava
from Kilauea Volcano began to flow over the walls of a 700-year-old
temple believed to have been used for human sacrifice.
(SFC, 8/12/97, p.A3)
1998 May 23, From Guatemala it
was reported that the Pacaya volcano had erupted during the week and
covered Guatemala City with a half-inch of grit.
(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A5)
1998 Jul 1, In Sicily Mt. Etna
erupted for 30 minutes.
(SFC, 7/4/98, p.A7)
2002 Jan 17, The volcano Mount
Nyiragongo erupted near Goma, Congo (DRC), and rivers of lava
destroyed 14 villages. Goma was devastated and some 400,000 people
fled their homes. At least 50 people were killed and many sought
refuge in Rwanda.
(SFC, 1/18/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SSFC,
2002 Feb 10-11, A 2,100 foot
stretch of lava flowed down from Volcano del Fuego near Antigua.
(SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)
2002 Jun 22, The official
inauguration of the $89 million, Auvergne region European Volcanic
Park in was scheduled. It included a building complex designed by
Hans Hollein of Austria.
(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)
2002 Sep, Mount Pago spewed
silicone ash and a serious eruption was expected. Parts of New
Britain Island were made uninhabitable.
(SFC, 9/7/02, p.A18)
2002 Oct 27, In Sicily Mount
Etna began spewing thick clouds of ash and magma.
2004 Jun 10, In Indonesia Mount
Awu on Sangihe Island erupted. Nearly 12,000 people living around
the mountain had been evacuated to a nearby town.
2004 Oct 1, Mount St. Helens
quieted down after spewing a plume of steam and ash, but only
briefly. Within hours of the eruption, seismic readings suggested
pressure was building again inside the volcano, which had been
dormant for 18 years.
2006 May 15, Indonesia’s Mount
Merapi erupted violently, sending searing gas clouds and burning
rocks down its scorched flanks and threatening villagers who refused
to leave because of ancient mystical beliefs.
2008 Jan 2, In southern Chile
hundreds of people fled their homes overnight as the Llaima volcano
erupted, rocking the area with explosions and spewing lava and ash.
2008 Feb 6, Ecuador's
Tungurahua volcano shot columns of ash miles into the air, as
officials ordered the evacuation of 3,000 villagers living near its
2008 Apr 15, Colombia's Nevado
del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting
thousands of people to leave their homes.
2008 Apr 16, Mount Egon volcano
on Flores island in eastern Indonesia spewed ash and smoke 2 1/2
miles into the sky, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of nearby
2008 May 2, In southern Chile
authorities evacuated hundreds of people from villages after the
snowcapped Chaiten volcano, considered dormant for thousands of
2008 Nov 20, In southwestern
Colombia the Nevado del Huila volcano erupted and loosed avalanches
of mud and ash that injured nine, destroyed bridges and trapped
people in their towns. At least 10 people died in landslides
triggered by the eruption.
(AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/29/08, p.B6)
2009 Feb 2, A volcano near
Tokyo erupted, shooting up billowing smoke and showering parts of
the capital with a fine ash that sent some city residents to the car
wash and left others puzzled over the white powder they initially
mistook for snow.
2009 Mar 23, Alaska's Mount
Redoubt volcano erupted five times overnight, sending an ash plume
more than 9 miles into the air in the volcano's first emissions in
nearly 20 years.
2009 May 29, Indonesian
government marine geologist Yusuf Surachman said that a massive
underwater mountain discovered off the island of Sumatra could be a
volcano with potentially catastrophic power. It was discovered
earlier this month about 330 kilometers (205 miles) west of Bengkulu
city during research to map the seabed's seismic faultlines.
2009 Dec 15, The Philippines'
most active volcano oozed lava and shot up plumes of ash, forcing
thousands of people to evacuate their homes and face the possibility
of a bleak Christmas in a shelter. State volcanologists raised the
alert level on the cone-shaped, 8,070-foot (2,460-meter) Mayon
volcano overnight to two steps below a major eruption.
2010 Mar 21, In southern
Iceland a volcano erupted overnight, forcing hundreds of people to
evacuate the area and diverting flights after authorities declared a
local state of emergency.
2010 Apr 12, A British
scientific expedition said it has discovered the world's deepest
known underwater volcanic vent off the Cayman Islands.
2010 Apr 14, In Iceland a
volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier erupted for the second
time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam
into the air, closing a major road and forcing hundreds of people to
flee rising floodwaters.
2010 Apr 15, British airport
operator BAA Ltd. said all flights at London's Heathrow Airport have
been suspended for the rest of the day, causing travel chaos as ash
clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano halted air traffic across
2010 Apr 16, Volcanic ash
blanketed parts of rural Iceland and left a widening arc of grounded
aircraft across Europe, as thousands of planes stayed on the tarmac
to avoid the hazardous cloud. Travel chaos engulfed major European
cities and the UN warned of possible health risks from falling ash.
2010 Apr 17, A lingering
volcanic ash plume forced extended no-fly restrictions over much of
Europe, as Icelandic scientists warned that volcanic activity had
increased and showed no sign of abating, a portent of more travel
chaos to come.
2010 Apr 26, In Guatemala the
Santiaguito volcano showered sand and ash over a large western area
in an "unusual" and "violent" eruption.
2010 May 27, Authorities closed
Guatemala's international airport after the nearby Pacaya volcano
showered as much as 3 inches (8 centimeters) of ash over parts of
the city. A television reporter was killed by a shower of burning
rocks when he got too close to the volcano, about 15 miles (25 km)
south of Guatemala City.
(AP, 5/28/10)(AP, 5/29/10)
2010 May 28, In Ecuador strong
explosions rocked the Tungurahua volcano, prompting evacuations of
hundreds of people from nearby villages.
2010 Aug 6, In Indonesia the
Mount Karangetang volcano erupted, sending lava and a searing gas
cloud tumbling down its slopes. At least four family members were
swept away and feared dead.
2010 Aug 29, In Indonesia the
Sinabung volcano on the island of Sumatra erupted for the first time
in 400 years, spewing a vast cloud of smoke and ash into the air and
sending thousands of people fleeing from their homes.
2010 Sep 7, Indonesia’s Mount
Sinabung volcano shot a towering cloud of black ash high into the
air, dusting villages 15 miles (25 km) away in its most powerful
eruption since awakening last week from four centuries of dormancy.
2010 Oct 26, Indonesia’s Mount
Merapi volcano erupted, prompting terrified villagers to flee and
join the thousands already evacuated from its slopes.
2010 Oct 27, In Indonesia
helicopters with emergency supplies finally landed on the remote
islands slammed by a tsunami that killed at least 272 people.
Elsewhere in the archipelago the toll from a volcanic eruption rose
to 30, including the mountain's spiritual caretaker.
2010 Oct 28, Indonesia's Mount
Merapi erupted for the second time in a week, blasting vast plumes
of ash into the sky, as the death toll from the initial eruption and
a tsunami that hit remote western islands reached 377.
2010 Oct 30, In Indonesia
clouds of gray ash rumbled down the slopes of Mount Merapi in its
most powerful eruption of a deadly week, prompting soldiers to force
reluctant villagers to evacuate amid fears of a larger blast as the
death toll reached 36. Storms again prevented aid deliveries to
increasingly desperate survivors of a tsunami, including a teenage
girl with an open chest wound, that killed 413 people in the
Mentawai islands. The number of missing dropped by half to 163 as
searchers discovered survivors who had fled to the hills.
2010 Nov 1, Icelandic
Meteorological Office geophysicist Gunnar Gudmundsson said that
floodwater is coming from the subglacial Grimsvotn volcano, but
there are no signs of the underground tremors that would signal an
2010 Nov 1, Indonesia's most
volatile volcano, Mount Merapi, one of 22 that have been
increasingly active, spewed searing clouds of gas and debris for
hours in its most powerful eruption in a deadly week that has left
2010 Nov 4, In Indonesia clouds
of hot ash gushed from the Mount Merapi volcano, forcing motorists
in cities 20 miles (30 km) away to use their headlights in broad
daylight and raising aviation concerns. The death toll climbed to
2010 Nov 5, In Indonesia
searing gas avalanched down the Mount Merapi volcano with a
thunderous roar, torching houses and trees and incinerating
villagers as they fled. About 70 more people were killed raising the
death toll to 122.
(AP, 11/5/10)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.50)
2010 Nov 8, In Indonesia
frightened residents abandoned their homes in Yogyakarta, a bustling
city of 400,000 at the foot of Mount Merapi, as authorities warned
the volcano could erupt again at any time. 153 people have been
killed in the last two weeks.
(AP, 11/8/10)(AP, 11/9/10)
2010 Nov 10, Indonesia's Mount
Merapi volcano spewed clouds of ash high into the sky, forcing some
international airlines to again cancel flights and President Barack
Obama to cut short his visit.
2010 Nov 14, In Indonesia
rescuers digging through several feet of ash discovered nine more
bodies on the slopes of Mount Merapi, whose explosive eruption a
week ago buried whole villages. Confirmation of more deaths trickled
in and the toll from a series of blasts at the volcano rose to
at least 250.
2010 Nov 17, Indonesia’s
disaster agency said that the death toll due to Mount Merapi had
risen to 275 and that most of the people were killed by searing gas
clouds. Others died during panicked evacuations or from respiratory
problems and other illnesses linked to the volcano.
2010 Nov 21, In Indonesia the
death toll from the Mount Merapi volcano rose to 304 after more
victims succumbed to severe burns and illnesses.
(SFC, 11/22/10, p.A2)
2011 Jan 13, Italy's Mount Etna
has come back to life with a brief eruption that sent lava down its
slopes and a cloud of ash into the sky, forcing the overnight
closure of a nearby airport. Its last major eruption was in 1992.
2011 Mar 6, Scientists at
Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano said a new vent has opened, sending lava
shooting up to 65 feet high.
2011 May 22, Iceland closed its
main international airport and canceled all domestic flights as the
Grimsvotn volcano sent a plume of ash, smoke and steam 12 miles (20
2011 May 24, About 250 flights
to northern Britain were canceled over concerns about the ash cloud
spewing from an Icelandic volcano, but British and Irish officials
dismissed fears of a mass shutdown of airspace.
2011 Jun 4, In southern Chile
the long dormant Puyehue-Cordon Caulle, one of the volcanoes in the
Caulle Cordon, erupted violently, billowing smoke and ash high into
the sky and prompting more than 3,500 people living nearby to
(AP, 6/5/11)(Reuters, 6/5/11)(AP, 6/5/11)
2011 Jun 11, Chile’s
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano continued to sporadically spew a cloud
of ash, disrupting airline travel from Brazil and Argentina to as
far away as Australia and New Zealand.
2011 Jun 12, Chile's
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano continued to emit a cloud of ash,
disrupting flights to Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo,
Uruguay. Authorities were also monitoring the volcano for its
potential to cause landslides and avalanches.
2011 Jun 14, In Chile The cloud
of ash spewing from an erupting volcano grounded more flights in
countries from Uruguay to Australia and threatened to delay next
month's start of the Copa America football tournament in Argentina.
2011 Jul 7, Ash from a Chilean
volcano grounded flights across much of South America again,
disrupting travel for thousands of people just as the continent's
premier football tournament got going in Argentina.
2011 Jul 14, In Indonesia Mount
Lokon on Sulawesi island burst into life late at night and continued
to spew ash and searing gas into the air well into the next morning,
prompting more than 4,500 residents to head to safety.
2011 Jul 17, In Indonesia the
Mount Lokon volcano on northern Sulawesi island erupted again and
released the greatest amount of energy so far, shooting soot and
debris 11,400 feet (3,500 meters) into the sky.
2011 Oct 28, Chile's Hudson
Volcano released three huge columns of steam and ash that combined
in a cloud more than 3 miles (5 km) high.
2011 Nov 7, In the CongoDRC the
Nyamulagira volcano (also known as Nyamuragira) began an eruption
that happens about every two years. It has been described as
Africa’s most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since
2011 Dec 27, In eastern
Indonesia mudflows streaming from a volcano killed four villagers
and about 1,000 others have fled their homes. Mount Gamalama in the
Molucca Islands sprang to life this month with a powerful, non-fatal
2012 Apr 20, Mexico’s
Popocatepetl volcano shot a heavy plume of ash into the sky
southeast of Mexico City and spewed glowing rock from its crater at
2012 Aug 6, In New Zealand
Mount Tongariro spewed ash and rocks for about 30 minutes after a
few weeks of increased seismic activity. It didn't cause any
injuries or damage in the sparsely populated central North Island
2012 Sep 8, In Nicaragua the
San Cristobal volcano spewed out a column of ash and gas 2½ miles
high, leading authorities to evacuate about 3,000 people from nine
communities around the country's tallest mountain.
2012 Sep 13, In Guatemala the
Volcan del Fuego, or Volcano of Fire, erupted in a ferocious lava
flow 6 miles from Antigua.
2012 Nov 21, New Zealand’s
Mount Tongariro erupted with a brief blast of dark ash, canceling
flights but causing no significant damage. Tongariro National Park
has three active volcanoes.
2013 May 7, In the Philippines
the active Mayon volcano spewed room-sized rocks toward nearly 30
surprised climbers, killing 5 and injuring others who were fetched
with rescue helicopters and rope. The 2,460-meter (8,070-foot)
mountain, about 340 km (212 miles) southeast of Manila, has erupted
about 40 times during the last 400 years.
2013 Jul 4, In Mexico the
Popocatepetl volcano registered several tremors after spraying rock
and ash over the last 24 hours. At leaqst 40 commercial flights in
the Mexico City area were canceled.
(SFC, 7/5/13, p.A3)
2013 Aug 10, In eastern
Indonesia gushing hot lava from the erupting Mount Rokatenda volcano
killed 6 people sleeping in a beach village on Palue island. Ash and
smoke shot up to 2 km into the air.
2013 Oct 26, Mount Etna,
Europe's most active volcano, erupted, sending up a towering plume
of ash visible in much of eastern Sicily.
2013 Nov 3, Indonesia’s Mount
Sinabung volcano erupted for the third time in as many months on the
western island of Sumatra, forcing hundreds of villagers to
2013 Nov 16, Sicily’s Mount
Etna began erupting againt.
(SFC, 11/18/13, p.A2)
2013 Dec 17, In Sicily
eruptions at Mount Etna volcano died down, allowing the nearby
airport of Catania to re-open after a two-day stoppage that
disrupted dozens of flights.
2013 Dec 29, El Salvador
authorities evacuated an area around the Chaparrastique volcano
after the peak shot a cloud of gas and ash about 3 miles (5 km) into
2013 Dec 31, In Indonesia more
than 19,000 people were displaced by the Mount Sinabung volcano on
Sumatra that has been erupting for months and shot lava into the air
nine times overnight.
2014 Feb 1, Indonesia’s Mount
Sinabung volcano, that has been rumbling for months, unleased a
major eruption killing 14 people just a day after authorities
allowed thousands of villagers who had been evacuated to return to
2014 Feb 1, Indonesia’s Mount
Sinabung volcano, that has been rumbling for months, unleased a
major eruption killing at least 15 people just a day after
authorities allowed thousands of villagers who had been evacuated to
return to its slopes.
(AP, 2/1/14)(AFP, 2/3/14)
2014 Feb 3, Indonesia’s Mount
Sinabung shot hot ash and rocks high into the air again, halting a
search for any more victims from its Feb 1 eruption.
2014 Feb 14, In Indonesia a
volcanic eruption on Java sent a 17 km (10 mile) ash cloud into the
air. More than 56,000 people were forced to flee their homes and
four 4 were killed when Mount Kelud erupted.
2014 Apr 4, Ecuador's
Tungurahua volcano spewed a 6-mile (10-km) column of ash after a
powerful, five-minute explosion that shot pyroclastic material onto
its northern and northwestern flanks.
2014 May 31, Some flights
between Australia and southeast Asia and all domestic flights
operating out of Darwin airport in the country’s north were canceled
after the eruption a day earlier of Sangeang Api in Indonesia’s
south produced a large cloud of ash.
2014 Aug 22, Scientists in
Hawaii began warning the public on the lava flow at Pahoa on the Big
Island. The lava was flowing at 2-20 yards per hour and in late
October was 510 yards from Pahoa Village Road, which goes through
(SFC, 10/29/14, p.A6)
2014 Aug 23, Iceland said its
Bardarbunga volcano has begun erupting under the ice of Europe’s
largest glacier, prompting the country to close the airspace over
the volcano. Iceland the next day said no eruption took place, but
that one remained imminent following increased seismic activity.
(SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A10)(SFC, 8/25/14, p.A2)
2014 Aug 29, In Papua New
Guinea Mount Tavurvur erupted early today in Rabaul district on New
Britain Island. The eruption forced several communities to evacuate
and some international flights were diverted.
2014 Sep 27, In central Japan
the Mount Ontake volcano erupted in spectacular fashion, catching
mountain climbers by surprise. At least 51 people were killed with
(AP, 9/27/14)(Reuters, 10/1/14)(AP, 10/4/14)
2014 Nov 23, In Cape Verde the
volcano Pico do Fogo erupted forcing more than 1,000 people to
evacuate from the Cha das Caldeiras region. By mid-December lava
flow destroyed two villages and threatened a forest reserve.
2014 Nov 28, In southern Japan
the Mount Aso volcano blasted out chunks of magma in the first such
eruption in 22 years, causing flight cancellations and prompting
warnings to stay away from its crater.
2014 Dec 19, In eastern
Indonesia the Mount Gamalama volcano on Ternate island in North
Maluku province erupted, spewing towering clouds of hot ash into the
air and leaving four hikers injured and one missing when they
scrambled to safety.
2015 Mar 12, Costa Rica's
Turrialba volcano belched a column of gas and ash up to 3,280 feet
(1 km) into the air in its most powerful eruption in two decades.
2015 Apr 22, In southern Chile
the Calbuco volcano erupted for the first time in more than four
decades. LATAM airlines cancelled flights to and from Puerto Montt.
One hiker was reported missing.
2015 May 25, In Ecuador's
Galapagos islands the Wolf volcano erupted after being dormant for
33 years. The eruption threatened a unique species of pink iguanas.
2015 May 29, In Japan Mount
Shindake erupted on Kuchinoerabu island spewing out rocks and
sending black clouds of ash 9 km (5.6 miles) into the sky.
2015 Jun 13, In western
Indonesia the Mount Sinabung volcano on Sumatra unleashed a new
powerful burst high into the sky sending hot ash far down the
2015 Jun 15, In western
Indonesia hundreds more villagers were evacuated on Sumatra island
as Mount Sinabung volcano spewed at least 28 hot ash avalanches.
(SFC, 6/16/15, p.A2)
2015 Jul 9, In western Mexico
the Colima Volcano, also known as the Volcano of Fire, began
erupting and continued into the next morning.
2015 Jul 10, In Indonesia Mount
Raung in East Java province began spewing ash sparking chaos for
holidaymakers. Airports were closed and international airlines
canceled flights to tourist hotspot Bali, stranding thousands.
2015 Jul 11, In western Mexico
ash and cinders spewed from the Colima Volcano, prompting
authorities to close the airport in the state capital of Colima and
order the evacuation of a half dozen hamlets on the flanks of the
2015 Jul 16, In Indonesia
eruptions at Mount Raung and Mount Gamalama caused closures at three
airports, including Juanda International serving Surabaya, the
country's 2nd-largest city.
2015 Jul 22, In Indonesia
eruptions of ash at five volcanoes shrouded the skies over parts of
the archipelago, forcing three airports to close.
2015 Aug 15, In Ecuador several
villages were evacuated, as the Cotopaxi volcano rumbled to life,
angrily spewing ash into the sky and threatening nearby residents
with potential volcanic landslides.
2015 Nov 4, In Indonesia
thousands of tourists were stranded on three islands after ash from
Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island forced the closure of airports and
blanketed villages and farmlands.
2016 Mar 27, In southwestern
Alaska the Pavlof Volcano erupted sending ash 20,000 feet into the
(SFC, 3/29/16, p.A14)
2016 May 21, In Indonesia Mount
Sinabung in North Sumatra province blasted volcanic ash as high as 3
km (2 miles) into the sky. At least 7 people were killed while
working on their farms in the village of Gamber.
2016 May 25, Italy's Mount
Etna, Europe's highest and most active volcano, erupted spewing red
torrents of lava into the sky.