Timeline of Women

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Women's History: https://www.thoughtco.com/womens-history-4133260

33,000BC    Ivory carving dating to about this time depicted a busty woman. It was found in 2008 in a German cave and was unveiled in 2009 by archaeologists who believed it to be the oldest known sculpture of the human form. The carving found in six fragments in Germany's Hohle Fels cave depicts a woman with a swollen belly, wide-set thighs and large, protruding breasts.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

c29/30AD    Aug 28, John the Baptist was beheaded by King Herod, perhaps at whim of Salome.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(MC, 8/28/01)

420        Sep 30, Jerome, also known as Jerome of Stridon, died in Bethlehem. He was a Latin priest, confessor, theologian, and historian and is commonly known as Saint Jerome. Jerome focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life.

535        Apr 30, Amalaswintha, queen of Ostrogoten, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

600-700    Lady K'abel, considered the greatest ruler of the Mayan Late Classic period, ruled with her husband, K'inich Bahlam, for at least 20 years in the 7th century. She was the military governor of the Waka kingdom for her family, the imperial house of the Snake King, and she carried the title "Kaloomte" — translated as "Supreme Warrior," higher in authority than her husband, the king. In 2012 her tomb was discovered in northern Guatemala.
    {Maya, Guatemala}
    (AP, 10/4/12)

843        Apr 19, Judith, French empress, 2nd wife of Louis de Vrome, died.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

867        Feb 11, Theodora, the Saint, beauty queen, Byzantine Empress, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

912        Egyptian singer Nehmes Bastet died about this time. In 2012 Egyptian and Swiss archaeologists reported a roughly 1,100 year-old tomb of a female singer in the Valley of the Kings. It was the only tomb of a woman not related to the ancient royal families ever found in the Valley of the Kings. The singer's name, Nehmes Bastet, means she was believed to be protected by the feline deity Bastet. At the time of her death, Egypt was ruled by Libyan kings, but the high priests who ruled Thebes were independent.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

1057        Jul 10, Lady Godiva rode naked on horseback throughout Coventry on a dare from her husband, the Earl of Mercia, who abolished taxation in this year.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1204        Apr 1, Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1317        Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1359        Jeanne de Clisson (b.1300), also known as Jeanne de Belleville and the Lioness of Brittany, died. She was a Breton former noblewoman who became a privateer to avenge her husband after he was executed for treason by the French king. She plied the English Channel and targeted French ships, often slaughtering the crew, leaving few alive.

1384        Oct 16, The Polish princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a consort.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadwiga_of_Poland)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.N4)

1429        Apr 29, Joan of Arc led French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In 1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
    (ATC, p.107) (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10) (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1429        May 7, English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
    (HN, 5/7/98)

1431          May 30, Joan of Arc (19), condemned as a heretic [as a witch], was burned at the stake in Rouen, France. A silent movie of her life was made in 1927 by Carl Theodor Dreyer.
    (CFA, '96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)

1451        Apr 22, Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus, was born in Madrigal, Spain.
    (HN, 4/22/98)(AP, 4/22/01)(MC, 4/22/02)

1456        Jul 7, Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1465        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, consort of King Henry VII, was born in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1474        Dec 12, Isabella crowned herself queen of Castilia & Aragon.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1476        Apr 26, Simonetta Vespucci (b.~1453), nicknamed la bella Simonetta, died. She was an Italian Renaissance noblewoman from Genoa, the wife of Marco Vespucci of Florence. She also is alleged to have been the mistress of Giuliano de' Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent's younger brother. She was renowned for being the greatest beauty of her age - certainly of the city of Florence.

1480        Apr 18, Lucretia Borgia (d.1519), murderess, was born. Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara, was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, and the sister and political pawn of Cesare Borgia. She was also considered a patroness of the arts.
    (HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1485        Dec 16, Katherine of Argon, first wife of Henry VIII, was born.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1503        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, Consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1504        Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1515        Mar 28, Theresa of Avila (d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man." "To wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing but folly."
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP, 7/5/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1516        Feb 18, Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as "Bloody Mary," was born in Greenwich Palace.
    (HN, 2/18/98)(AP, 2/18/98)

1531        May 31, "Women's Revolt" in Amsterdam: wool house in churchyard.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1531        Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549), French noblewoman, authored “Le miroir de l'âme pécheresse" (The Mirror of the Sinful Soul) following the death of her young son. It combined her mysticism with her strong ideas for political action within the Church. Her most famous work “Heptameron," a collection of more than 70 short stories about women and their relationships with men, and whether it was possible to be virtuous and also experience real love, was published posthumously in 1558.

1533        Jan 25, England's King Henry VIII secretly married his second wife, Anne Boleyn (who later gave birth to Elizabeth I).
    (AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)

1533        Sep 7, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, was born in Greenwich. She led her country during the exploration of the New World and war with Spain which destroyed the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth Tudor (d.1603), the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
    (WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)(AP, 9/7/97)(HN, 9/7/98)(MC, 9/7/01)

1534        Apr 20, Elizabeth Barton, [St Magd van Kent], British prophet, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1534        Gratien du Pont, a French poet, published a chessboard with 64 rhyming insults to females, one for each square.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

1536        May 19, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Green after she was convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, who was executed two days before. It was the day before Henry VIII's marriage to Jane Seymour.
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1542        Feb 13, Catherine Howard (b.c1520), the fifth wife of England's King Henry VIII, was executed for adultery.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(AP, 2/13/98)

1542        Dec 7, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland (1560-1587), was born. [see Dec 8]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1542        Dec 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland (1542-67), was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/8/00)

1554        Jan 26, Florentine troops approached Siena. After an initial failed assault, the Marquess of Marignano laid siege to the city. During the siege repairs and improvements to the city walls were entrusted to the city's women.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marciano)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.73)

1554        Feb 12, Lady Jane Grey (17), who had claimed the throne of England for nine days, the Queen of England for thirteen days, was beheaded on Tower Hill.
    (AP, 2/12/98)(HN, 2/12/99)

1558        John Knox authored "The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women." He was referring to the governments of Mary Tudor in England and Mary, Queen of the Scots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.14)

1559        Jan 15, England's Queen Elizabeth I was crowned in Westminster Abbey and Lord Dudley soon became her favorite.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 1/15/98)

1587        Feb 1, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, signed the Warrant of Execution for Mary Queen of Scots.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1587        Feb 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1560-67), was beheaded at age 44 in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I.
    (HN, 2/8/99)(PCh, 1992, p.203)(MC, 2/8/02)

1589        Jan 5, Catherine de Medici, Queen Mother of France, died at age 69.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(AP, 1/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)

1591        Jul 20, Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her views, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1614        Apr 5, American Indian princess Pocahontas married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.  In 1616, the couple sailed to England. The "Indian Princess" was popular with the English gentry. Tragedy struck in March of 1617, went Pocahontas and Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia, before they could leave England, Pocahontas died reportedly from the wet English winter. She was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England.
    (AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(MC, 4/5/02)

1617        Mar 21, Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) died of either small pox or pneumonia while in England with her husband, John Rolfe.
    (HN, 3/21/01)

1617        Aug 30, Rosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1626        Dec 8, Christina (d.1689), queen of Sweden, was born. She negotiated the Peace of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years' War. "Fools are more to be feared than the wicked. "Dignity is like a perfume; those who use it are scarcely conscious of it."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)

1638        Mar 22, Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1647        May 27, In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a "witch."
    (AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)

1648        May 13, Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
    (HN, 5/13/99)

1657        Thomas Middleton (1580-1627), English playwright, published his play "Women Beware Women." The date of authorship of the play is deeply uncertain. Scholars have estimated its origin anywhere from 1612 to 1627; 1623–24 has been plausibly suggested. The play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 9 September 1653 by the bookseller Humphrey Moseley.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Middleton)(Econ, 4/11/20, p.63)

1665        Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), was born.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1675        Jan 31, Cornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1678        Nov 28, England's King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her crime? She had yet to bear him children.
    (DT net, 11/28/97)

1684        Feb 24, Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1725-27), was born in Dorpat, Estonia. [see Apr 15]
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1684        Apr 15, Catherine I, empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born. [see Feb 24]
    (HN, 4/15/98)(MC, 4/15/02)

1689        Apr 19, Christina, Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1692         Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1692        Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff authored “The Witches: Salem, 1692."
    (HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.84)

1693        Jun 27, The 1st woman's magazine "The Ladies' Mercury" was published in London.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1694        Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32) of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1717        May 13, Empress Maria Theresa, wife of Napoleon, was born.
    (HN, 5/13/98)

1721        Dec 29, Madam Jeanne Poisson de Pompadour, influential mistress of Louis XV, was born. She was later blamed for France's defeat in the Seven Years' War.
    (HN, 12/29/00)

1727        May 17, Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1725-27), died.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1729        Apr 21, Catharina II, the Great, writer, empress of Russia (1762-96), was born. [see May 2]
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1729        May 2, Catherine the Great (d.1796), (Catherine II), empress (czarina) of Russia (1762-1796), was born. She succeeded her husband Peter III to the throne in 1762. "I am one of the people who love the why of things." [see Apr 21]
    (AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 5/2/99)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1731        Jun 2, Martha Dandridge, the first First Lady of the United States, was born. Widow of Daniel Park Custis, she married George Washington in 1759.
    (HN, 6/2/00)

1733        May 12, Maria Theresa was crowned queen of Bohemia in Prague.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1750        Mar 16, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, 1st woman astronomer, was born in Hanover, Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1750        Dec 17, Deborah Sampson, was born. She fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1752        Jan 1, Betsy Ross (Elizabeth Griscom Ross), flag maker who contributed to the design of the American flag, was born.
    (HN, 1/1/99)(MC, 1/1/02)

1752-1840    Fanny Burney, English writer. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1755        Jan 12, Tsarina Elisabeth established the 1st Russian University.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1761        Dec 1, Madame Tussaud, Swiss-born modeler in wax, was born. She founded the world-famous exhibition in London's Baker Street. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/1/99)

1761        Dec 7, Madame Tussaud [Marie Grosholtz], creator of the wax museum, was born. [see Dec 1]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1764        Feb 21, John Wilkes was expelled from the English House of Commons for his "Essay on Women."
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1767        Kitty Fisher, a prominent British courtesan, died.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Fisher)

1768        May 20, Dolley Madison, first lady of President James Madison, was born. She was famous as a Washington hostess while her husband was secretary of state and president.
    (HN, 5/20/99)

1769        Apr 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV's "official" mistress.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1770        May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
    (AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)

1774        Aug 28, Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American-born saint and the founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph, was born in New York City. She was canonized in 1975.
    (AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1775        Feb 12, Louisa Adams, wife of John Quincy Adams was born.
    (HN, 2/12/98)

1775        Dec 16, Jane Austin (d.1817), novelist, was born in Hampshire, England, as the 6th of 7 children [7th of 8]. Her work included "Sense and Sensibility" (1811),  "Pride and Prejudice" (1812), "Mansfield Park" (1814) "Lady Susan" and "Emma" (1815). Her books "Persuasion" (1817) and "Northanger Abbey" were published posthumously. "One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering, nothing but suffering." Two biographies were published in 1997 with the same title: "Jane Austen: A Life," one by Calire Tomalin and the other by David Nokes.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.10)(Hem., 5/97, p.102)(AP, 5/31/97)(SFEC, 11/9/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/16/98)

1776        Mar 31, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were "determined to foment a rebellion" if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1777        Mar 31, A young Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government. She wrote to her husband on March 31, 1777, while he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention: "I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous to them than were your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands.  Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey any laws in which we have no voice or representation." Twenty years later her husband was a candidate in America’s first real election.
    (HNPD, 3/30/00)

1782        Debora Sampson (1760-1827) of Massachusetts, a former female indentured servant, enlisted to fight in the American Revolution as a male. In 2014 Alex Myers, a descendant of Sampson, authored his novel Revolutionary, based on her life.
    (http://prezi.com/c5yxg9qqii1n/debora-sampson/)(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.F6)

1783        Mar 8,  Hannah Hoes Van Buren, wife of Martin Van Buren, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

c1786        Apr 6,    Sacagawea (also Sacajawea), American explorer, was born.
    (HN, 4/6/01)

1787        Feb 23, Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in higher education for women, was born.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1787        Nov 18, Sojourner Truth, abolitionist and feminist, was born. [see Nov 19]
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1789        Sep 1, Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1790        Jul 3, In Paris the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1791        Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1791        Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1792        Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1792        Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1793        Jan 3,  Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793        Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1797        Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died days later.
    (AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797        Sep 10, Mary Wollstonecraft (b.1759), English writer, philosopher, advocate of women's rights and the spouse of journalist William Godwin, died of septicemia. This was several days after the birth of her daughter, who later as Mary Shelley authored Frankenstein.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wollstonecraft)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.73)

1797        Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women's rights advocate, was born. "Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff." [see Nov 18]
    (HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1798        Mar 13, Abigail Powers Fillmore, First Lady, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1800        Sep 6, Catherine Esther Beecher, educator who promoted higher education for women, was born in East Hampton, Long Island, NY.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1800        Mary Robinson (42/43), writer, actress, courtesan and fashion icon, died. In 2005 Sarah Gristwood authored “Perdita: Royal Mistress, Writer and Romantic." Paula Byrne authored Perdita: The Literary, Theatrical, Scandalous Life of Mary Robinson."
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E2)

1802        Apr 4, Dorothea Dix, American proponent of treatment of mental inmates, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/98)

1804        May 16, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, founder of the first U.S. kindergarten, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/98)

1805        Feb 11, Sixteen-year-old Sacajawea, the Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth to a son, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife.
    (HN, 2/11/99)

1806        Mar 6, Elizabeth Barrett Browning (d.1861), English poet, was born in Durham, England. She wrote "Sonnets from the Portuguese." "Since when was genius found respectable?"
    (AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/99)(AP, 8/12/99)

1809        May 5, Mary Kies was 1st woman issued a US patent (weaving straw).
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1809        Dec 16, Napoleon Bonaparte was divorced from the Empress Josephine by an act of the French Senate.
    (AP, 12/16/97)

1810        May 23, Margaret Fuller (d.1850), American social reformer, writer and critic, was born. She was the first female journalist for the New York Tribune. "Man is not made for society, but society is made for man. No institution can be good which does not tend to improve the individual."
    (AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 5/23/99)

1812        Dec 20, Sacagawea, Shoshone interpreter for Lewis & Clark, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1813        Jan 29, Jane Austin published "Pride and Prejudice," a blend of instruction and moral entertainment.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1815         Nov 12, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a social reformer and militant feminist, was born in Johnstown, New York, and graduated from the Troy Female Seminary in 1832. She worked closely with Susan B. Anthony and served as president of the National Woman Suffrage Association. She died on October 26, 1902. She said, "The male element is a destructive force" in an address to the Women’s Suffrage Convention in Washington, D.C. in 1868.
    (AP, 11/12/97)(HNQ, 5/17/98)

1817        Jul 14, Madame de Stael (51), writer and daughter of former French finance minister Jacques Necker, died. In 2005 Maria Fairweather authored “Madame de Stael."
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/stael.htm)

1818        Aug 13, Suffragist Lucy Stone, women's rights activist, founder of Woman's Journal, was born in West Brookfield, Mass.
    (HN 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1819        Feb 9, Lydia E. Pinkham, patent-medicine maker and entrepreneur, was born.
    (HN, 2/9/01)

1819        Mar 26, Louise Otto, German feminist author, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1819        May 24, Victoria Alexandrine, Queen Victoria (d.1901) was born in London. Her reign (1836-1901) restored dignity to the British crown. She had nine children. "Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 5/24/99)(AP, 2/24/99)

1819        May 27, Julia Ward Howe, writer of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," was born.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1819        Nov 22, George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), novelist who wrote "Adam Bede" and "Silas Marner," was born.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1819        Hawaii’s King Kamehameha II abolished the brutal kapu system of laws. Temples and sacred sites associated with the system began to fall into disrepair. Queen Kaahumanu, helped overturn the kapu belief system by sharing a meal with Kamehameha II following the death of King Kamehameha.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.M5)

1820        Jan 20, Anne Clough, promoter of higher education, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1820        Feb 15, American suffragist Susan Brownell Anthony (d.1906) was born in Adams, Mass. Her biography by Lynn Sherr was titled: "Failure Is Impossible."
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, Par p.4)(AP, 2/15/98)(HN, 2/15/98)

1820        May 12, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp," was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the founder of modern nursing.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale)

1821        Jan 4, Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first native-born American saint, died in Emmitsburg, Md.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1821        Feb 3, Elizabeth Blackwell (d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was born in Bristol, England.

1821        Jul 16, Mary Baker Eddy (d.1910), founder of the Christian Science movement (1879), was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)

1821        Dec 25, Clara Barton (d.1912), the founder of the American Red Cross, was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts. She worked as a volunteer nurse during the Civil War, distributing food and medical supplies to troops and earning herself the label "Angel of the Battlefield." She later served alongside the International Red Cross in Europe--however, she could not work directly with the organization because she was a woman. In 1882 she formed an American branch of the Red Cross. Barton lobbied for the Geneva Convention and she expanded the mission of the Red Cross to include helping victims of peacetime disasters. Clara Barton died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, on April 12, 1912, when she was 90 years old.
    (HNPD, 12/26/98)(WUD, 1994 p.123)

1822        Dec 4, Frances Crabbe, English feminist and founder of the Anti-Vivisection Society, was born.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1827        Nov 26, Ellen Gould White, founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, was born.
    (HN, 11/26/00)

1829        Dec 4, Britain abolished "suttee" in India. This was the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband's funeral pyre.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1830        Dec 5, Christina Rossetti (d.1894), poet (Winter Rain, Passing Away), was born in London. She wrote devotional verse, curious fairy tales and category defying poems. Her brothers, William Michael and Dante Gabriel, helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, whose professed aim was to revive the purity and vividness they admired in late medieval art. Her story is told by Jan Marsh in "Christina Rosetti: A Writer’s Life." "Better by far you should forget and smile, Than that you should remember and be sad."
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(AP, 12/11/98)(MC, 12/5/01)

1830        Dec 10, American poet Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Perhaps the best-known woman poet in the United States today, Dickinson led a rather secluded life. After studying at Amherst Academy and then for one year at the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, she lived with her family and never married. The few friends that Emily Dickinson did have received regular gifts of poetry and letters from her. Although she wrote poetry constantly, she never seriously pursued publishing her work. Only about 10 poems were published in her lifetime, and those were submitted for publication without her permission. After her death in 1886, more than 1,700 of her poems, which she had bound together in bundles, were discovered and published.
    (HNPD, 12/8/98)(HN, 12/10/98)

1832        Apr 19, Lucretia Rudolph, President Garfield's first lady, was born.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1833        Mar 14, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, first woman dentist, was born.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1833        Mar 16, Susan Hayhurst became the first woman to graduate from a pharmacy college.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1837        Sep 6, The Oberlin Collegiate Institute of Ohio went co-educational.
    (AP, 9/6/97)(http://tinyurl.com/lcgnj)

1838        Mar 7, Soprano Jenny Lind ("the Swedish Nightingale") made her debut in Weber's opera Der Freischultz.
    (HN, 3/7/01)

1838        Sep 2, Lydia Kamekeha Liliuokalani (d.1917), last sovereign before annexation of Hawaii by the United States, was born. Lili’uokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii (1891-1893). She composed Hawaii’s most famous song "Aloha Oe."
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)(HN, 9/2/98)

1838        Sep 23, Victoria Chaflin Woodhull (d.1927), American presidential candidate (1872), was born into a family of charlatans in Ohio. Woodhull, a militant suffragist, advocated free love and was Wall Street's first female broker after attracting Cornelius Vanderbilt. She was the first woman to address Congress. Her story is documented in “The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull" by Lois Beachy Underhill. In 1998 Mary Gabriel published "Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. In 1998 Barbara Goldsmith published "Other Powers--The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull."
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.5)(SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14)(HNPD, 4/28/00)

1840        Jul 25, Flora Adams Darling, founded Daughters of American Revolution, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1843        Feb 19, Adelina Patti, opera soprano (Lucio), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1843        May 9, Belle Boyd, Confederate spy, was born. She helped 'Stonewall' Jackson during his Valley campaign.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1843        Jun 7, Susan Elizabeth Blow, US pioneer in kindergarten education, was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1843        Margaret Fuller (1810-1850), journalist and writer, authored a feminist tract titled: “Women in the Nineteenth Century."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fuller)(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.F4)

1845        Mar 10, Hallie Quinn Brown, American educator, women's rights leader, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/01)

1846        Feb 21, Sarah G. Bagley became the first female telegrapher, taking charge at the newly opened telegraph office in Lowell, Mass.
    (AP, 2/21/00)

1846        Nov 25, Carry Nation was born Carry Amelia Moore in Kentucky. After her first husband died a drunkard, she married David Nation and they moved to Medicine Lodge, Kansas. There, she was elected president of the local chapter of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Even though Kansas was technically a dry state, Medicine Lodge had seven saloons. When Carry Nation's appeals to close the saloons were ignored, she took matters into her own hands--she drove a buggy, full of bricks and stones she had wrapped in newspapers, up to a saloon, smashed its mirrors, glasses, bottles and windows, and said to the proprietor as she left, "I have finished. God be with you." Nation repeated her barroom attacks across the state and the country. One of her last actions was at Washington's Union Depot, where she used three hatchets that she called Faith, Hope and Charity. Nation, who was arrested about 30 times for her saloon rampages, died in 1911.
    (HNPD, 11/25/98)

1846         Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the influential Godey's Lady's Book, began a tireless campaign to establish a national Thanksgiving holiday in November. She was the editor and founder of the Ladies' Magazine in Boston. Her editorials in the magazine and letters to President Lincoln urging the formal establishment of a national holiday of Thanksgiving resulted in Lincoln’s proclamation in 1863, which designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
    (HNPD, 11/26/98)

1847        Feb 3, Marie Duplessis (b.1824), French courtesan, died. She was mistress to a number of prominent and wealthy men, the inspiration for Marguerite Gautier, and the main character of La Dame aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas the younger, one of her lovers.

1847        Jun 11, Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, leader of English women's movement, was born.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1847        Oct 16, Charlotte Bronte's book "Jane Eyre" was published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the pen name Currer Bell.

1847        Dec 1, Julia Moore, poet, was born.
    (HN, 12/1/00)

1848        Feb 5, Belle Starr, Western outlaw, was born.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1848        Mar 19, The Prussian king promised many reforms in the face of an armed uprising, including an unfulfilled voting right for women.

1848        Jul 19, The first women’s rights convention convened in Seneca Falls, New York. Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the two-day convention discussed such topics as voting, property rights and divorce. It launched the women’s suffrage movement. The convention issued a "Declaration of Sentiments" based on the Declaration of Independence. "The ideal newspaper woman has the keen zest for life of a child, the cool courage of a man and the subtlety of a woman." Elizabeth Cady Stanton made her first public speech at the Woman's Rights Convention. After Cady Stanton was denied participation in an anti-slavery convention and was told that women were "constitutionally unfit for public and business meetings," she and four other women, including abolitionist Lucretia Coffin Mott, planned a convention to challenge that notion. They drafted a "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions," 11 resolutions calling for equal rights for women, including the right to vote. After lengthy debate, the document was amended and signed by 68 women and 32 men of the approximately 300 attendees, setting the American women's rights movement in motion. Susan B. Anthony joined the movement in 1852.
    (HNPD, 7/19/98)(SFEC, 7/20/97, Par p.8)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.D8)

1848        Samuel Gregory, a pioneer in medical education for women, founded the Boston Female Medical School. The school opened with an enrollment of 12 students. The establishment merged 26 years later with the Boston University School of Medicine, to form one of the first coed medical schools in the world.
    (HNQ, 12/27/02)

1849        Jan 23, English-born Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), the 1st woman to receive an American medical degree, graduated at the top of her class from the medical school of Hobart College, Geneva, NY.
    (http://campus.hws.edu/his/blackwell/biography.html)(ON, 4/03, p.2)

1849        Sep 1, Elizabeth Harrison, US educator (Natal Congress of Parents and Teachers), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1849        Nov 24, Frances Hodgson Burnett, author, was born. Her work includes "Little Lord Fauntleroy" and "The Secret Garden."
    (HN, 11/24/00)

1849        Dec 6, Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1849        Elizabeth Farnham, a matron of New York’s Sing Sing prison, formed the California Association of American Women to bring young women west to civilize the frontier. The plan failed but Farnham did emigrate to the Santa Cruz area and later oversaw the Stockton Insane Asylum. In 2004 JoAnn Levy authored “Unsettling the West: Eliza Farnham and Georgiana Bruce Kirby in Frontier California.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.M4)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.

1850        Apr 16, Marie [Gresholtz] Tussaud (89), Swiss-born maker of wax figures, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1850        Jul 19, Margaret Fuller (b.1810), America’s first foreign correspondent, died aboard the Elizabeth, along with her husband and child, as the ship slammed into a sandbar less than 100 yards from Fire Island, NY. In 2012 John Matteson authored “The Lives of Margaret Fuller."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fuller)(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.F4)

1850        Aug 23, The 1st national women's rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1850        Oct 12, The 1st women's medical school, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, opened to students.

1851        Feb 8, Kate (Katherine O'Flaherty ) Chopin (d.1904), American novelist, short story writer, was born. Her work included "The Awakening." She wrote tales of love and passion that presented women testing the boundaries of social convention. "There are some people who leave impressions not so lasting as the imprint of an oar upon the water."
    (AP, 3/11/99)(SFEC, 11/14/99, BR p.5)(HN, 2/8/01)

1851        May 28, Freed slave and abolitionist Sojourner Truth attended a national women's convention in Akron, Ohio, where the female delegates were heckled by men in the audience who claimed that men were superior to women. Frances Gage, president of the convention, recorded Sojourner Truth's words that day. "Dat man ober dar say dat women needs to be helped into carriages and lifted ober ditches, and to hab de best place everywhar. Nobody eber helps me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! And ain't I a woman! Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it--and bear de lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and seen 'em mos' all sold into slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?" Sojourner Truth's words, according to Gage, "turned the sneers and jeers of an excited crowd into notes of respect and admiration."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1 p.6)(HN, 7/13/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1851        Aug 3, Lady Isabella Caroline Somerset, temperance leader, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1852        Feb 11, The 1st British public female toilet opened at Bedford Street in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1852        Mar 4, Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, was born. She helped found the Abbey Theatre.
    (HN, 3/4/01)

1852        Mar 29, Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1852        May 1, Calamity [Martha] Jane [Burke], frontier adventurer, Indian fighter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1852        Nov 27, Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his "Analytical Engine," that performed mathematical calculations through the use of punched cards. Her last years were spent in a netherworld of addiction, gambling and adultery and she died of cancer. In 2001 Benjamin Wooley authored her biography: "The Bride of Science."
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/19/00, p.W9)

1852        Dec 29, Emma Snodgrass was arrested in Boston for wearing pants.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1852        In San Francisco the Hip Yee Tong association started trafficking women and by 1873 imported some 6,000 women from China making an estimated profit of $200,000.
    (SFC, 1/6/18, p.C2)

1853        Apr 2, Lucie de la Tour du Pin (83), born as Henriette-Lucie Dillon and former lady-in-waiting to Marie Antoinette, died Paris. Her memoir, “Journal of a Woman of Fifty Years," was not published until 1906. In 2009 Caroline Moorhead authored “Dancing to the Precipice: Lucie de la Tour du Pin and the French Revolution."
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.91)(http://tinyurl.com/co3xor)

1853        May 21, Lola Montez (1821-1861), Irish-born dancer and former lover of Franz Liszt and mistress of King Ludwig of Bavaria, arrived in San Francisco aboard a steamer from Panama.
    (SFC, 5/31/14, p.D1)
1853        Sarah Losh (b.1785), English architect, died. In 2012 Jenny Uglow authored “The Pinecone: The Story of Sarah Losh, Forgotten Romantic Heroine – Antiquarian, Architect and Visionary."
    (www.stmaryswreay.org/sara_losh.html)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.96)

1854        Lola Montez, international performer famed for her “Spider Dance," moved to Grass Valley, Ca., and taught her neighbor, Lotta Crabtree, how to sing and dance.
    (CVG, Vol. 16, p.11)

1855        Feb 11, Josephine Marshall Jewell Dodge, American educator, pioneer in the concept of day nurseries for children, was born.
    (HN, 2/11/01)

1857        Nov 5, Ida Tarbell, muckraker, was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1858        Feb 11, Bernadette Soubirous (14), a French miller’s daughter, claimed for the first time to have seen a vision of the Virgin Mary near Lourdes.
    (AP, 2/11/97)(HN, 1/11/02)

1858        Jul 14, Emmeline Pankhurst, British suffragist and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union, was born in Manchester, England.
    (HN, 7/14/98)(AP, 7/14/08)

1858        Nov 20, Selma Lagerdorf, Swedish novelist, was born. Her work included "The Story of Gosta Berling."
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1859        Jan 9, Carrie Lane Chapman Catt, founder of the League of Women Voters, was born.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1860         Mar 1, Suzanna Salter, first female mayor, was born. 
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1860        May 15, Ellen Louise Axson Wilson, first wife of President Woodrow Wilson, was born.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1860        Jul 19, Lizzie Borden, teacher, famous 1892 murder suspect, was born.
    (HN, 7/19/01)

1860        Aug 13, Annie Oakley (d.1926), sharp-shooter and entertainer, was born in Darke County, Ohio, as Phoebe Anne Oakley Mozee (Mosey). She became a markswoman and toured with the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show.
    (WUD, 1994, p.992)(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)(HN, 8/14/98)

1860        Sep 6, Jane Addams (d.1935) was born. She is known for her work as a social reformer, pacifist, and founder of Hull House in Chicago in 1889, and as the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize (1931). “The essence of immorality is the tendency to make an exception of one’s self." “You do not know what life means when all the difficulties are removed! I am simply smothered and sickened with advantages. It is like eating a sweet dessert the first thing in the morning."
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)(AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 9/6/98)(AP, 10/4/98)

1860        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses in London, the first secular institution in the world to train nurses.
    (ON, 12/11, p.6)

1861        Jan 17, Lola Montez (b.1821), dancer and actress, died in NYC. Born in Ireland as Eliza Rosanna Gilbert she became famous as a "Spanish dancer," courtesan, and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld.
    {NYC, USA, Women}
    (SFC, 5/31/14, p.D1)

1861        Apr 25, Women in New York held a meeting out of which plans were made for the formation of the Civil War related Women's Central Association of Relief. This led to the formation of the Civil War Sanitary Commission, a forerunner of the Red Cross.

1861        Sep 9, Sally Louisa Tompkins (b.1833) was commissioned as a Confederate captain of cavalry. Born into a wealthy and altruistic family in coastal Mathews County, Virginia, Tompkins was destined for a life of philanthropy. After moving to Richmond, she spent much of her time and a considerable portion of her fortune assisting causes she considered worthy. With the onset of civil war, she labored on the behalf of the South's wounded soldiers, and for this she became the first and only woman to receive an officer's commission in the Confederate army.
    (HNQ, 5/17/01)

1861        Dec 4, Lillian Russell, singer and actress, was born Helen Louise Leonard in Clinton, Iowa. She performed in burlesque and light opera, debuting in Gilbert and Sullivan's HMS Pinafore in 1879. Russell was praised for her voluptuous beauty and was frequently photographed. Women everywhere tried to emulate her plump physique by buying potions and corsets to accentuate their curves. Although Russell was the ideal beauty of her time, her 186-pound figure--which she kept by eating without restraint--would be quite a departure from today's standard of beauty. Russell later wrote a newspaper column on health, beauty and love, and she died in 1922.
    (HNPD, 12/3/98)

1862        Jan 24, Edith Wharton (d.1937), U.S. novelist was born. Her novels included Age of Innocence," House of Mirth," "Summer," and "Ethan Frome." She also wrote books on home design. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle, or the mirror that reflects it." "The essence of taste is suitability. Divest the word of its prim and priggish implications, and see how it expresses the mysterious demand of the eye and mind for symmetry, harmony and order. "Eleanor Dwight wrote her 1994 biography: "An Extraordinary Life."
    (AP, 8/17/97)(WSJ, 12/9/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/24/99)

1862        Feb 1, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" was first published in "Atlantic Monthly" as an anonymous poem. The lyric was the work of Julia Ward Howe and was based on chapter 63 of the Old Testament’s Book of Isaiah. "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" soon became the most popular Union marching song of the Civil War and is still being sung and to the tune of a song titled, "John Brown’s Body". Julia Ward Howe (b.1819-1908) was an influential social reformer and wife of fellow reformer and educator Samuel Gridley Howe. She was prominent in the anti-slavery movement, woman‘s suffrage, prison reform and the international peace movements. Julia Ward Howe was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Fine Arts and Letters in 1908. Ralph Waldo Emerson, said: "I honor the author of 'The Battle Hymn' ... she was born in the city of New York. I could well wish she were a native of Massachusetts. We have no such poetess in New England."
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(HNQ, 1/31/00,5/21/02)

1862        Mar 12, Jane Delano (d.1919), nurse, teacher and founder of the American Red Cross, was born in Montour Falls, New York. She helped the American Red Cross Nursing Service to be recognized as the nursing reserve for the Army and Navy.

1862        May 15, General Benjamin F. ("Beast") Butler decreed "Woman Order," that all captured women in New Orleans were to be his whores.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1862        Aug 28, Confederate spy Belle Boyd was released from Old Capital Prison in Washington, DC.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1863        Mar 18, Confederate women rioted in Salisbury, N.C. to protest the lack of flour and salt in the South.
    (HN, 3/18/00)

1863        Apr 2, In Richmond, Va., a large crowd of hungry women from one of Richmond's working-class neighborhoods demanded bread from Governor John Letcher. When the governor did not respond favorably to the rioters' demands, the women marched down Main Street, shouting "Bread" as they made their way to the commissary, where they smashed store windows and grabbed food and anything else they could get their hands on. Not until the mob faced President Davis and his troops did the rampage end. Varina Howell Davis wrote an account of the riots after her husbands death in 1889.
    (HNQ, 5/8/02)(AH, 6/02, p.24)

1864        Mar 1, Rebecca Lee was born. She became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston.
    (AP, 3/1/00)(SC, 3/1/02)

1865        Mar 1, Anna Paulowna Romanova (70), great monarch of Russia, died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1865        Apr 17, Mary Surratt was arrested as a conspirator in the Lincoln assassination.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1865        Jul 2, Lili Braun, feminist, socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), was born in Prussia.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1865            Nov 11, Dr. Mary Edward Walker, 1st Army female surgeon, was awarded the Medal of Honor by Pres. Andrew Johnson for her work as a field doctor, for outstanding service at the Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Chickamauga, the Battle of Atlanta, and as a Confederate prisoner of war in Richmond, Va. Her medal was rescinded 1917 along with 910 others, but restored by President Carter June 10, 1977.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, p.E10)(HNQ, 3/12/02)(www.army.mil/cmh-pg/mohciv2.htm)

1865        Dec 4, Edith Cavell, English nurse who tended to friend and foe alike during World War I, was born.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1865        Dec 20, Maude Gonne, Irish nationalist (Irish Joan of Arc), was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1865        Elizabeth Garrett Anderson started practicing as Britain’s first female doctor. She qualified via the Society of Apothecaries when medical schools refused to admit her. She and 5 other women began studying for a degree course from Cambridge in 1869. Cambridge did not let women graduate with degrees until 1948, and was the last English university to do so. In 2009 Jane Robinson authored “Bluestockings: The Remarkable Story of the First Women to Fight for an Education."
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.73)

1866        Feb 21, Lucy B. Hobbs became the first woman to graduate from a dental school, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1866        Apr 1, US Congress rejected presidential veto and gave all equal rights.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1867        May 5, Nellie Bly, [Elizabeth Cochran Seaman], journalist, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1867        May 20, British parliament rejected John Stuart Mill’s law on women suffrage.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1867        Nov 7, Marie Curie (d.1934), Polish-born French scientist, was born in Warsaw as Marya Salomee Sklodowska. Her discoveries included polonium, radium, which she isolated from pitchblende, and the radioactivity of thorium. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her husband, and in chemistry in 1911. "You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work for his own improvement, and at the same time share a general responsibility for all humanity."
    (AHD, 1971, p.323)(AP, 10/26/98)(HN, 11/7/98)

1868        Emily and Elizabeth Blackwell opened the world’s 1st medical school for women, the Women’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary."
    (ON, 4/03, p.3)

1869        Feb 23, In San Francisco a Pacific Mail steamer arrived with 369 Chinese women aboard. Police Capt. William Douglas and a team of officers met the women at the Brannon Street docks and escorted them to Chinatown. Eight months later another 246 Chinese women arrived and were similarly escorted and delivered to companies that had ordered them.
    (SFC, 1/20/18, p.C2)

1869        May 15, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association in NYC.

1870        Feb 12, Women in the Utah Territory gained the right to vote. However, that right was taken away in 1887.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

1870        Feb 14, Esther Morris became the world’s first female justice of the peace.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1870        Mar 17, The Massachusetts Legislature authorized the incorporation of Wellesley Female Seminary. It later became Wellesley College.
    (AP, 3/17/97)

1870        Apr 2, Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) became the first woman to run for president of the United States when she announced her candidacy for the 1872 election, but she spent Election Day in jail for sending obscene literature through the mail. Articulate and radical in her beliefs, she boldly challenged convention in Victorian-era America. Victoria and her sister, Tennessee Claflin, got their start as spiritual advisors to financier Cornelius Vanderbilt. With his backing, the sisters became the first women to open their own successful brokerage firm. Woodhull was the first woman newspaper publisher, a feminist and a militant suffragist, but most shocking to Victorian sensibilities, she also advocated free love.
    (HNPD, 4/28/99)

1870        Aug 31, Maria Montessori, educator, was born. She founded the Montessori schools.
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1870        Dec 25, Rosa Luxembourg, founder of the German Communist Party, was born.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1871        In San Francisco eight teenage girls founded the Little Sisters’ Infant Shelter to help care for the children of working mothers and babies from broken homes.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.C3)
1871        In Australia Sister Mary MacKillop (1842-1909) was briefly dismissed from the Roman Catholic Church after her order of nuns exposed a pedophile priest. She and 47 other nuns were thrown onto the streets of Adelaide, relying on the charity of friends to survive. In 2010 MacKillop was canonized as Australia's first saint.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_MacKillop)

1872        Mar 22, Illinois became 1st state to require sexual equality in employment.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1872        May 10, Victoria Woodhull became the first woman nominated for U.S. president. Thomas Nast depicted her as "Mrs. Satan." Woodhull adhered to a diet prescribed by Sylvester Graham, known for his ginger-colored crackers. Sylvester preached against demon rum and died at age 57 after administering himself a medicinal treatment with considerable liquor. Frederick Douglas, African-American statesman, was nominated as vice president on the Equal Rights Party ticket.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14-16)(SFC, 10/17/98, p.E5)(HN, 5/10/98)(WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)

1872        Nov 5, Suffragist Susan B. Anthony and a number of other women voted in Rochester, New York, in the US general election. On Nov 18, 1872, she was arrested for voting in the presidential election.
    (ON, 8/09, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_B._Anthony)

1873        Jun 18, Suffragist Susan B. Anthony (1815-1906) was fined $100 in Canandaigua, NY, for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election. The fine was never paid [see Nov 5, 1872].
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(ON, 12/09, p.4)

1873        Dec 7, Willa Cather, American author famous for "O Pioneers" and "My Antonia," was born.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1873        In Canada female property owners in British Columbia got the right to vote in municipal elections.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.16)

1874        Feb 3, Gertrude Stein (d.1946), poet and novelist, was born. Her older brother, Michael, managed the family business, which included San Francisco’s Market Street railway line. Her parents were Daniel and Milly. Her relationship with her brother, Leo (1872-1947), abruptly ended in 1914. Her work included "Three Lives,"  "G.M.P." and "Tender Buttons." The 40-year relationship between Gertrude and Leo is told by Brenda Wineapple in "Sister Brother, Gertrude and Leo Stein." "Everybody gets so much information all day long that they lose their common sense." "It is awfully important to know what is and what is not your business."
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.10)(AP, 12/27/97)(AP, 9/3/98)(HN, 2/3/99)

1874        Feb 9, Amy Lowell (d.1925), poet, critic, was born. "Youth condemns; maturity condones."
    (AP, 11/25/00)(HN, 2/9/01)

1876        Dec 20, Hannah Omish (12) was the youngest person ever hanged in US.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1877        Apr 30, Alice B. Toklas, expatriate American, was born. She was associated with Gertrude Stein, who wrote "The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" (1933).
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1878        Feb 1, Hattie Caraway, first woman elected to the U.S. Senate, was born.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1878        May 27, Isadora Duncan (d.1927), US pioneer in modern dance and choreographer, was born in San Francisco.
    (WUD, 1994, p.442)(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)(HN, 5/27/01)

1878        Sep 1, Emma M. Nutt became the first female telephone operator in the United States, for the Telephone Despatch Co. of Boston.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

1879        Feb 15, President Hayes signed a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1879        Mar 3, Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood became the 1st female lawyer heard by the US Supreme Court.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1879        May 19, Lady Nancy Astor, Nancy Witcher Langhorne, was born. She was the first woman to sit in the British House of Commons.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1879        Aug 29, Jeanne Jugan (b.1792), a French nun, died. She had helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor. In 2009 she was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church.
    (AP, 10/11/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Jugan)

1879        Radcliffe College was established as the "Harvard Annex" for women who were denied access to Harvard. Its name was changed to Radcliffe in 1894 in honor of Ann Radcliffe. Radcliffe merged with Harvard in 1977.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.22)

1880        Apr 10, Frances Perkins, Labor secretary, first woman cabinet member in an American Administration, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1880        Jun 5, Wild woman of the west Myra Maybelle Shirley married Sam Starr even though records show she was already married to Bruce Younger.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1880        Jun 11, Jeannette Rankin, Congresswoman from Montana, the first woman in Congress who also voted against U.S. participation in both world wars, was born.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1880        Jun 27, Helen Adams Keller (d. Jun 1, 1968 at 87) author, social reformer, educator, lecturer, was born in Tuscumbia, Ala. She lost her sight and hearing at 19 months of age from scarlet fever. She received a college degree and became an author (Let us Have Faith) and lecturer despite being blind and deaf most of her life. Helen Keller died in Westport, Connecticut. "No matter how dull, or how mean, or how wise a man is, he feels that happiness is his indisputable right." "There is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, and no slave who has not had a king among his."
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(AP, 11/17/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)(AP, 12/16/98)

1880         Jul, In the Battle of Maiwand an Afghan woman named Malalai carried the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valor. The 1892 Kipling poem "Barracks Room Ballads" recalled the Battle of Maiwand.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1880        Aug 31, Queen Wilhelmina of Netherlands (d. Nov 28, 1962 at 82) was born. She reigned from 1890-1947.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(YN, 8/31/99)

1880        Nov 11, Lucretia Mott, US Quaker (1st Woman's Rights Convention), died.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1881        May 14, Mary Seacole (b.1805), Jamaican nurse, died. She is best known for her efforts in the Crimean War during the 1850s. She borrowed money to make the 4,000-mile (about 6500 km) journey by herself and distinguished herself treating battlefield wounded, often nursing wounded soldiers from both sides while under fire.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1881        May 21, Clara Barton filed papers for the American Association of the Red Cross.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12) (AP, 5/21/97)

1882        Jan 25, Virginia Woolf (d.1941), English author, critic, was born. She was a member of the intellectual circle known as the Bloomsbury Group and wrote "Mrs. Dalloway" and "Orlando." "On the outskirts of every agony sits some observant fellow who points." "I read the Book of Job last night, I don’t think God comes out of it well." "The compensation of growing old was simply this: that the passions remain as strong as ever, but one has gained—at last! -- the power which adds the supreme flavor to existence, the power of taking hold of experience, of turning it round, slowly, in the light." In 1997 Panthea Reid published: "Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf." In 1998 Mitchell Leaska published: "Granite and Rainbow: The Life of Virginia Woolf."
    (AP, 7/6/97)(IW 12/29/97)(AP, 1/18/98)(SFC, 5/25/98, p.E6)(HN, 1/25/99)

1882        Feb 28, Geraldine Farrar, US soprano, actress (Story of American Singer), was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1882        Aug 28, Belle Benchley, the first female zoo director in the world, who directed the Zoological Gardens of San Diego, was born.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1883        Feb 16, "Ladies Home Journal" began publishing.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1883        Jun 16, The New York  Gothams admitted both escorted and unescorted ladies to the baseball park free in the 1st ladies’ day game against the Cleveland Spiders. NY won, 5-2.
    (HNQ, 12/21/01)(AP, 6/16/03)

1883        Nov 13, J. Marion Sims (b.1883), American physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, died in NYC. He known as the "father of modern gynecology" for work to develop a surgical technique for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula, a severe complication of obstructed childbirth. Sims used enslaved black women, unanesthetized, as experimental subjects in the development of this surgical breakthrough. In 2018 a statue of Sims in Central Park was removed and relocated to Brooklyn's Greenwood Cemetery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Marion_Sims)(AP, 4/18/18)

1883        Lydia Estes Pinkham (b.1819) died. She was in her mid-fifties when economic hardship forced her and her family to begin selling bottles of a homemade health remedy. Mrs. Pinkham's tonic, formulated from herbs and 20% alcohol as a "solvent and preservative," was first sold in 1875 as a cure for "female complaints."
    (HNPD, 6/30/01)(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)

1884        Mar 6, Over 100 suffragists, led by Susan B. Anthony, presented President Chester A. Arthur with a demand that he voice support for female suffrage.
    (HN, 3/6/99)

1884        Mar 12, Mississippi established the first U.S. state college for women.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1884        Dec 2, Ruth Draper, actress and writer, was born.
    (HN, 12/2/00)

1885        Feb 13, Elizabeth Virginia "Bess" Truman, 1st lady (1945-52), was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1886        May 15, Poet Emily Dickinson (b.1830) died in Amherst, Mass., where she had lived in seclusion for the previous 24 years. In 2001 Alfred Habegger authored her biography: "My Wars Are laid Away in Books."
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/01)(WSJ, 11/2/01, p.W11)

1886        Nov 24, Margaret Anderson, editor, was born. She founded "The Little Review."
    (HN, 11/24/00)

1887        Feb 24, Mary Ellen Chase (d.1973), New England writer, was born. "Suffering without understanding in this life is a heap worse than suffering when you have at least the grain of an idea what it’s all for."
    (AP, 6/23/97)(HN, 2/24/01)

1887        Mar 3, Anne Mansfield Sullivan arrived at the Alabama home of Capt. and Mrs. Arthur H. Keller to become the teacher of Helen, their blind and deaf 6-year-old daughter.
    (AP, 3/3/00)

1887        Mar 7, Helen Parkhurst, educator, was born. She developed a technique later known as the Dalton Plan.
    (HN, 3/7/01)

1887        Apr 4,    Susanna Medora Salter became the first woman elected mayor of an American community -- Argonia, Kan.
    (AP, 4/4/97)

1887        Sep 25, Elizabeth Cochran (1964-1922), under the pen name of Nellie Bly, managed to get herself sent to the New York Women’s Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell’s Island to do an undercover story of conditions there. She spent 10 days there a lawyer from the New York World obtained her release. Her 2-part story for the recounted her experiences and led to changes at the asylum.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.12)

1887        Nov 15, Marianne Moore, poet (Pulitzer 1951, Collected Poems), was born in St. Louis.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1887        Nov 15, Georgia O’Keeffe (d.1986), American painter,  was born in Wisconsin. An introduction to her work was published in 1997 ed. by Peter H. Hassrick: "The Georgia O’Keeffe Museum."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1002)(HFA, ‘96, p.42)(SFC, 7/16/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.9)

1887        Nov 19, Emma Lazarus (38), US poet ("Give us your tired & poor"), died in NY.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1888        Mar 6, Louisa May Alcott (55) died just hours after the burial of her father. Her novels included "Little Women." In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo.
    (HN, 3/6/01)(WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(MC, 3/6/02)

1888        Apr 3, Gertrude Bridget "Ma" Rainey, American singer, "the mother of the blues," was born.
    (HN, 4/3/01)

1888        Dec 7, Joyce Cary (d.1957), Irish-born novelist (The Horse's Mouth), was born. "It is the tragedy of the world that no one knows what he doesn't know -- and the less a man knows, the more sure he is that he knows everything."
    (HN, 12/7/00)(AP, 1/30/99)

1889        Nov 14, Nellie Bly, the pen name of journalist Elizabeth Cochran, sailed from New York to begin her record-breaking 24,899-mile trip around the world--a journey that would end on January 25, 1890. Cochran had become a reporter for the Pittsburgh Dispatch at age 18 and adopted the pen name "Nellie Bly" from a popular song by Stephen Foster. Her six-month series of stories from Mexico attracted the attention of Joseph Pulitzer and, in 1887, she went to work for Pulitzer's New York World. Feigning insanity, Nellie once had herself committed to the Blackwell's Island mental hospital and then wrote an expose that brought about needed reforms. The around-the-world trip originated in an attempt to beat the Jules Verne's fictional hero Phineas Fogg's 80-day journey. Millions of people followed the adventures of the plucky reporter through stories posted back to the World at every stop. Tremendous celebrations greeted Nellie when she arrived in New York. Her trip lasted 72 days, six hours and eleven minutes--a record that would stand until the Graf Zeppelin circled the globe in 20 days, four hours and fourteen minutes in 1929.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(HNPD, 11/14/98)

1890        Jan 25, Reporter Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) of the New York World received a tumultuous welcome home after she completed a round-the-world journey in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes.
    (AP, 1/25/00)

1890        Apr 7, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, environmentalist (1st Lady of Everglades), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1891        Nov 10, The 1st Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1892        Feb 22, Edna St. Vincent Millay, poet, was born.
    (HN, 2/22/01)

1893        Jan 20, Bessy Colman, first African American aviator, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1893        Jan 24, Hawaii's Queen Liliuokalani stepped down from the throne on, to avoid any bloodshed and to pardon her supporters who had been jailed by the Provisional Government, which had asked her to abdicate.
    (HNQ, 1/25/01)

1894        May 11, Martha Graham, choreographer (Appalachian Spring), was born in Allegheny, Penn.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1894        Dec 30, Amelia Jenks Bloomer (76), suffragist, died in Council Bluffs, Iowa; she had gained notoriety for wearing a short skirt and baggy trousers that came to be known as "bloomers."
    (MC, 12/30/01)(AP, 12/30/02)

1894        South Australia became the first place in the world to let women stand for parliament.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.34)

1895        Apr 15, Josephine Blatt of the US made a record hip-and-harness lift of 3564 lb.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1895        Apr, Donaldina Cameron (1869-1968) began working at the Mission Home in San Francisco beginning decades of work crusading against sex slavery in Chinatown. In 1977 Mildred Crowl Martin authored “Chinatown’s Angry Angel: The Story of Donaldina Cameron."
    (http://tinyurl.com/y7o5otm8)(SFC, 2/3/18, p.C1)

1895        Marian Sarah Parker became the 1st woman to acquire a Michigan degree in engineering as she graduated from the Univ. of Michigan’s dept. of civil engineering.
    (MT, Summer/04, p.6)
1895        Charles Crittenton, a businessman and philanthropist, and Dr. Kate Waller Barrett founded the Florence Crittenton mission for young women in Washington, DC. It was named in memory of Crittenton’s daughter. The Florence Crittenton Mission sought to support and empower unwed mothers and provide for the health of their infant children.

1896        Jan 7, Fanny Farmer published her 1st cookbook.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1896        Maria Montessori (22) graduated from the Univ. of Rome’s school of medicine, the 1st woman to earn a medical degree in Italy.
    (ON, 3/07, p.3)

1897        Feb 27, Miriam Anderson, was born. She became a world renown opera singer and civil rights pioneer, and is best remembered for singing "My Country Tis of Thee" in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
    (HN, 2/27/02)

1897        Dec 3, Kate O'Brien, Irish writer (Without My Cloak), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1897        The suffragette movement started in England as a peaceful protest. The movement turned militant in 1903. Women in England won the right to vote in 1918.
    (SFC, 8/23/06, p.G7)

1898        May 3, Golda Mier (d.1978), 4th Prime Minister of Israel (1969-1974) and the first woman PM, was born in Kiev, Ukraine. "Whether women are better than men, I cannot say -- but I can say they are certainly no worse."
    (AP, 5/11/97)(HN, 5/3/02)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golda_Meir)

1898        Mar, In Zimbabwe liberation war hero Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana, aka Mbuya Nehanda (b.~1840), was hanged by the British colonialists. She was a medium of Nehanda, a female Shona mhondoro.(powerful and respected ancestral spirit).
    {Britain, Zimbabwe, Lynching}

1899        Mar 20, Martha M. Place of Brooklyn, N.Y., became the first woman to be executed in the electric chair. She was put to death at Sing Sing for the murder of her stepdaughter.
    (AP, 3/20/99)

1900        Jun 11, Belle Boyd (b.1844), former Confederate spy, died in Wisconsin. Her 1865 autobiography was titled “Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison."

1900        Nov 19, Anna Seghers, [Netty Radvanyi-Reiling], German author (7th Cross), was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1900        Dec 2, John Hossack (b.1841), an Iowa farmer and a prosperous citizen of Warren County, was killed in his bed from two blows with an ax. His wife was accused of the murder. In 1927 Susan Gaspell (1876-1948), American novelist and playwright, authored “A Jury of Her Peers," a short story based on his murder trial.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Jury_of_Her_Peers)

1901        Jan 23, First female intern was accepted at a Paris hospital.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1901        Jan 30, Women Prohibitionists smashed 12 saloons in Kansas.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1901        Feb 10, Stella Adler, actress and teacher, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1901        A writer for a newspaper in Springfield, Mass., proposed “Ms." to guard against missteps in the use of Miss or Mrs. The honorific was later promoted by right’s activist Sheila Michaels (1939-2007).
    (SSFC, 7/9/17, p.C11)
1901        In Virginia the Sweet Briar Institute was founded. It opened its doors in 1906. Sweet Briar was chartered as Sweet Briar Institute for the education of white girls and young women as indicated in the will of Indiana Fletcher Williams (1828-1900).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_Briar_College)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A7)

1902        Feb 1, China's empress Tzu-hsi forbade binding woman's feet.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1902        Feb 11, Police beat up universal suffrage demonstrators in Brussels.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1902        Feb 19, Kay Boyle, short story writer ("The White Horses of Vienna"), was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)

1902        Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk (73), German author and poetess, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1903        Feb 21, Anais Nin (d.1977), novelist (Winter of Artifice, House of Incense), was born in Paris: "People do not live in the present always, at one with it. They live at all kinds of and manners of distance from it, as difficult to measure as the course of planets. Fears and traumas make their journeys slanted, peripheral, uneven, evasive."
    (AP, 9/7/97)(MC, 2/21/02)

1903         Mar 2, The Martha Washington Hotel opened for business in New York City. The hotel featured 416 rooms and was the first hotel exclusively for women.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1903        Apr 10, Clare Boothe Luce, U.S. ambassador to the Vatican, was born. 
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1903        Oct 10, Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), British suffragist, and her daughter Christabel (23) founder the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
    (ON, 10/2010, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmeline_Pankhurst)

1903        Nov 19, Carrie Nation attempted to address Senate.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1903        Dec 9, The Norwegian parliament voted unanimously for female suffrage.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1903        Dec 10, The Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to Pierre and Marie Curie and fellow physicist Henri Becquerel for their work with radioactivity. Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, had coined the term radioactivity. Working together after their marriage in 1895, the Curies made several significant discoveries. They showed that the elements uranium and thorium emitted radiation that Becquerel had detected in uranium and had found to be similar to X-rays. They also found that radioactivity caused particles to be electrically charged, and they discovered two new elements, polonium and radium. Their daughter Irène, later a famed scientist in her own right, was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for the synthesis of new radioactive elements.
    (HNPD, 12/10/98)

1904        Sep 1, Helen Keller with the faithful help of teacher Annie Mansfield Sullivan, graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College at age 24. This accomplishment was particularly remarkable because Keller had lost both sight and hearing at age 2 after contracting scarlet fever. Sullivan, who broke through Helen’s childhood isolation to teach her Braille and sign language, accompanied Helen to every class at Radcliffe, spelling lectures and books into her hand. After graduation, Keller embarked on a career of writing on behalf of woman suffrage, socialism and the rights of the handicapped. Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968, 32 years after the death of her beloved teacher, Annie Sullivan.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)(HNPD, 9/3/98)

1904        Nov 28, Nancy Mitford, English author (Love in a Cold Climate), was born. The eldest of 7 Mitford children was born to Lord and Lady Redesdale. In 2001 Mary S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family." Jessica Mitford, author of "The American Way of Death" (1963) died in 1996.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(MC, 11/28/01)

1905        Feb 2, Ayn Rand (d.1982), writer and social philosopher (Atlas Shrugged, Fountainhead), was born in St. Petersburg, Russia. Her work espoused the political-economic philosophy of Objectivism, capitalism and what she called "rational selfishness." She graduated from the University of Leningrad in 1924 and moved to the United States in 1926, becoming a citizen in 1931. In Objectivism, the individual alone and his acts of self-interest are seen as the positive driving force of society. Rand rejected ideologies of altruism and self-sacrifice. Her novels "Fountainhead" (1943) and "Atlas Shrugged" (1957) and a number of non-fiction works brought wide recognition to her and her theories. Rand founded the journal The Objectivist in 1962. She died in 1982. "Upper classes are a nation’s past; the middle class is its future." "So you think that money is the root of all evil. Have you ever asked what is the root of money?"
    (AP, 4/30/97)(AP, 5/13/98)(HNPD, 9/27/99)(MC, 2/2/02)

1905        Feb 25, Adele Davis, nutritionist, was born.
    (HN, 2/25/01)

1905        Mar 13, Margaretha Zelle made her debut as the oriental dancer "Mata Hari," in Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(AP, 3/13/97)

1905        Aug 3, Maggie Kuhn, social activist and founder of "The Gray Panthers," was born.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1906        Feb 17, Alice Lee Roosevelt, President Theodore Roosevelt's irrepressible eldest daughter, married Congressman Nicholas Longworth of Ohio in an elaborate White House ceremony. Heedless of social convention, Alice's behavior routinely shocked her family and friends. Once the president, when confronted with another of Alice's escapades, remarked, "I can do one of two things, I can run the country or control Alice. I cannot do both." Nevertheless, the world public was captivated with the first daughter, who seemed to embody the ideal Gay Nineties woman. In spite of its promising beginning, Alice's 25-year marriage to Longworth was not a happy one, but Alice reigned as the grande dame of Washington, D.C. society for another 50 years.
    (HNPD, 2/16/99)

1906        Mar 7, Finland became the first country to give women the right to vote, decreeing universal suffrage for all citizens over 24, however, barring those persons who were supported by the state. [see Mar 15, 1907]
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1906        Mar 13, Susan B. Anthony (b.1820), abolitionist and advocate of black suffrage as well as the rights of women to vote, died at age 85. Eleanor Roosevelt suggested that Susan B. Anthony should be added to the four faces of Mount Rushmore.  Eleanor Roosevelt later suggested that social reformer and woman suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony should be included with the images of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt, but her suggestion was not accepted.
    (AP, 3/13/99)(HNQ, 4/17/00)

1906        Dec 9, Grace Hopper, mathematician and computer pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 12/9/00)

1907        Feb 13, English suffragettes stormed the British Parliament and 60 women were arrested.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1907        Mar 15-1907 Mar 16, Finland held elections and Finnish women became the first in the world to attain full political rights.

1907        May 12, Katherine Hepburn, actress (The Philadelphia Story, The African Queen), was born in Hartford, CT.
    (HN, 5/12/01)(MC, 5/12/02)

1907        May 27, Rachel Carson (d.1964), biologist and writer (Silent Spring, The Sea Around Us), was born. "If a child is to keep alive his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it, rediscovering with him the joy, excitement and mystery of the world we live in."
    (AP, 12/29/98)(HN, 5/27/01)

1907        Jul 16, Barbara Stanwyck (d.1990), Oscar winning actress, was born as Ruby Stevens.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(MC, 7/16/02)

1907        Aug 30, Shirley Booth (Thelma Booth Ford) was born in New York City. Booth was best known from 1950s television as the zany maid Hazel. She won a Tony, an Oscar, the Cannes Festival award and numerous critics' commendations for her role as the slovenly Lola Delany in 'Come Back, Little Sheba'. Booth went on to act in more films including 'The Matchmaker' which was a precursor to  the musical 'Hello Dolly!'
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1907        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) became the first woman to receive the British Order of Merit.
    (ON, 12/11, p.6)

1908        Jan 9, Simone de Beauvoir, author (Mandarins, 2nd Sex), was born in France.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1908        Jan 21, New York City's Board of Aldermen passed the Sullivan Ordinance that effectively prohibited women from smoking in public. Two weeks later the measure was vetoed by Mayor George B. McClellan Jr.
    (AP, 1/21/08)(http://tinyurl.com/2zvwkc)

1908        Mar 7, Cincinnati Mayor Mark Breith stood before city council and announced that, "women are not physically fit to operate automobiles."
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1908        Mar 8, The House of Commons, London, turned down the women's suffrage bill.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1908        Mar 23, Joan Crawford, American actress, was born. She is best known for her role in Mildred Pierce.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1908        Apr 5, Bette Davis (d.1989), film actress (Jezebel, All About Eve), was born. "Love is not enough. It must be the foundation, the cornerstone -- but not the complete structure. It is much too pliable, too yielding."
    (AP, 7/15/99)(HN, 4/5/01)

1908        May 10, The first Mother’s Day observance took place during church services in Grafton, W.Va., and Philadelphia. In 1997 Anna Jarvis first proposed the idea that all mothers wear a carnation on the 2nd Sunday of May.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)

1908        Jul 22,     Amy Vanderbilt (d.1974), American journalist, etiquette expert: "One face to the world, another at home makes for misery."
    (AP, 5/12/97)(HN, 7/22/02)

1909        Feb 28, The earliest Women’s Day observance, organized by the Socialist Party of America, was held in NYC. Some 15,000 women marched demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.

1909        Apr 13, Eudora Welty, Southern writer (Delta Wedding, The Optimist's Daughter), was born in Jackson, Miss. In 1998 Ann Waldron published "Eudora Welty: A Writer’s Life."
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, BR p.4)(SFEC, 12/6/98, BR p.8)(HN, 4/13/01)

1909        Apr 30, Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, was born. She fled during the Nazi occupation and abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1909        Nov 24, Some 15,000 shirtwaist workers walked out of the factories in NYC, with more joining the strike the following day. The strike lasted until February 1910 and ended in a "Protocal of peace" which allowed the strikers to go back to work and met the demands of the workers, which included better pay, shorter hours, and equal treatment of workers who were in the union and workers who were not.

1909        Dec 19, U.S. socialist women denounced suffrage as a movement of the middle class.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1910        Feb 19, Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) was released from 4 years of quarantine on New York’s North Brother Island. In 1914 she caused a typhus outbreak in the Sloane Maternity Hospital. She was again arrested and returned to North Brother Island where she died Nov 11, 1938.
    (ON, 7/01, p.12)

1910        Mar 8, Baroness de Laroche became the first women to obtain a pilot's license in France.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1910        Mar 17, The Camp Fire Girls organization was formed in Lake Sebago, Maine. It was formally presented to the public exactly two years later.
    (AP, 3/17/97)(HN, 3/17/01)

1910        May 31, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (b.1821), the first American woman to become a doctor, died. She and colleagues founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children (1857).

1910        Jun 25, The Mann Act was passed in the US. It forbade transporting women across state lines for immoral purposes.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1910        Sep 2, Alice Stebbins Wells was admitted to the Los Angeles Police Force as the first woman police officer to receive an appointment based on a civil service exam.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1910        Aug 13, Florence Nightingale (90), British nurse famous for her care of British soldiers during the Crimean War, died. In 2004 Gillian Gill authored “Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale." In 2008 Mark Bostridge authored Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon."
    (HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 9/5/04, p.M3)(AP, 8/13/07)(WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A17)

1910        Nov 22, Amy Elizabeth Thorpe, a Minnesota-born British spy known as "Cynthia" was born in Minneapolis. She has been described as World War II's "Mata Hari." Family and friends called her Betty. William Stephenson, who ran Great Britain’s World War II intelligence activities in the Western Hemisphere, would one day give her a code name--"Cynthia." She reputedly was one of the most successful spies in history.
    (HNQ, 3/14/01)

1910        Dec 3, Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, died.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1911        Feb 8, Elizabeth Bishop, poet, was born.
    (HN, 2/8/01)

1911        Feb 19, Merle Oberon, film actress, was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)

1911        Mar 3, Jean Harlow (Harlean Carpenter), actress (Platinum Blonde, Red Dust, Bombshell, Dinner at Eight, China Seas, Libeled Lady), was born.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)

1911        Mar 19, International Women's Day (IWD) was observed for the first time in places like Austria, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and some other European countries. The date was chosen by German women because on 19 March, 1848, the Prussian king had promised many reforms in the face of an armed uprising, including an unfulfilled voting right for women.

1911        Apr 6, In San Francisco the Police Board examined 9 Mission saloon keepers who were cited for selling liquor to women decoys. Mission District Police Capt. Henry Gleeson faced a possible charge of neglect of duty.
    (SSFC, 4/3/11, DB p.46)

1911        Apr 30, Portugal approved woman suffrage.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1911        Jun 9, Carry Amelia Moore Gloyd Nation (b.1846), American temperance leader, died in Leavenworth, Kansas. She was buried in the Belton City Cemetery, Belton, Cass County, Missouri. Carry Nation was a social reformer, saloon smasher and scourge of barkeepers and drinkers everywhere.

1911        Jul 16, Ginger Rogers (d.1995), actress and dancer, was born as Virginia Katherine McMath.
    (HN, 7/16/01)(MC, 7/16/02)

1911        Oct 10, California voters approved amendments by Republican Gov. Hiram Johnson that included the recall, initiative and referendum process as part of his progressive reform package. Almost 2/3 of 178,115 voters affirmed the amendments. Voters granted women the right to vote in state and local elections. It was the 6th state of the union to pass suffrage. The initiative process was set up so that once passed, initiatives could not be undone except by another vote of the people.
    (SFC, 5/18/98, p.A7)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(SSFC, 8/3/03, p.D1)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.E3)(SSFC, 10/10/04, p.E1)(SSFC, 6/16/13, p.E5)
1911        Oct 10, San Francisco voters defeated an amendment on “Votes for Women" by some 12,000 votes. Charges of corruption and ballot abuse were cited. The amendment passed state-wide.
    (SSFC, 10/10/04, p.E1)(SSFC, 10/9/11, DB p.42)

1911        Nov 21, Suffragettes stormed Parliament in London. All were arrested and all chose prison terms.
    (HN, 11/21/98)

1911        Dec 31, Helene Dutrieu won the Femina aviation cup in Etampes. She set a distance record for women at 158 miles.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1912        Jan 30, Barbara Tuchman, U.S. historian best remembered for her book "The Guns of August," was born.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1912        Mar 1, Isabella Goodwin, 1st US woman detective, was appointed in NYC.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1912        Mar 12, Juliette Gordon Low organized the Girl Guides, the first Girl Scouts troop in America, at the 1848 Andrew Low House in Savannah, Ga.
    (AHD, p.225)(HFA, '96, p.26)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)(AP, 3/12/98)

1912        Mar 16, Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon, first lady (1968-75) to Richard Nixon, was born in Ely, Nevada.
    (HN, 3/16/01)(MC, 3/16/02)

1912        Mar 28, San Francisco women began voting for the first time.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.42)

1912        Apr 12, Clara Barton (b.1821), the founder of the American Red Cross, died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 90.
    {Medical, USA, Women}
    (ON, 8/12, p.12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Barton)

1912        May 4, More than ten thousand women and about a thousand men marched down Fifth Avenue in NYC to support woman's suffrage.
    (NYT, 5/5/1912, p1)

1912        May 29, Curtis Publishing fired 15 young women for dancing the "Turkey Trot" during their lunch break.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1912         Jul 1, Drama critic Harriet Quimby (b.1875) took a passenger up in her new Blériot monoplane from Boston to fly over Dorchester Bay at the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet. As she descended for landing, the plane went into a dive and, without seat belts, she and her passenger were thrown out into the shallow water of the bay, where they struck the muddy bottom and were crushed to death. Quimby was the first American to receive a pilot's license (1911) and was the first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912). Her interest in flight was piqued at an aviation meet in 1910.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Quimby)(HNPD, 7/31/98)(ON, 1/00, p.11)

1912        Nov 4, Arizona and Kansas granted women the right to vote. Wisconsin voted against suffrage for women.
    (HN, 11/5/98)(http://library.wisc.edu/etext/WIReader/WER0124-12.html)

1912        Christine Frederick authored “The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management," in the Ladies Home Journal. She argued that servants should get overtime and bonuses for mastering new tasks.
1912        Valentine de Saint-Point (1875-1953), French artist, authored “Manifesto of Futurist Woman."

1913        Jan 28, Pleasance Pendred, an active member of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), was arrested for taking part in a window breaking campaign mainly targeting government offices around Westminster. Her pamphlet “Why Women Teachers Break Windows" was first published circa 1912 by the Woman’s Press. The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) had recently declared all out war against public and private property in the United Kingdom. An orgy of vandalism followed.
    (http://suffragettes.nls.uk/media/28977/project_1_4_1.pdf)(ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1913        Feb 6, Mary Douglas Nicol, later archaeologist and paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey, was born in London. She met anthropologist Louis Leakey in 1933 and joined him in Kenya.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A6)(HN, 2/6/01)

1913        Apr 3, British suffragette Emily Pankhurst was sentenced to 3 years in jail. She protested with hunger strikes and was released and re-arrested 9 times over a period of 18 months under the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners for Ill-Health Act.
    (http://suffragettes.nls.uk/media/28977/project_1_4_1.pdf)(ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1913        Apr 7, The suffragists' marched to the Capitol in Washington, D.C. By the second decade of the 20th century, woman suffrage--women's right to vote--had become an issue of national importance in America. The growth in the numbers of American working women and the valuable contributions women made in war production during World War I further increased the suffragists' support. On August 20, 1919, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
    (HNPD, 4/7/99)

1913        May 7, British House of Commons rejected women's right to vote.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1913        Jun 8, Emily Wilding Davison (b.1872), a member of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), died from injuries 4 days earlier when she tried to block the path of a racehorse owned by King George V. See link for video of race.

1913        Oct 21, San Francisco Police Chief D.A. White swore in three female officers, the city’s first policewomen.
    (SSFC, 10/20/13, DB p.46)

1913        Nov 26, San Francisco Chief of Police White issued an order prohibiting women from visiting local pavilions during local prizefights.
    (SSFC, 11/24/13, DB p.46)

1913        Dec 1, Mary Martin, American actress famous for her roles in "South Pacific" and "The Sound of Music," was born.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1914        Mar 10, Suffragettes in London damaged painter Rokeby's Venus of Velasquez.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1914        May 6, British House of Lords rejected women suffrage.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1914        May 9, Pres. Wilson proclaimed Mother's Day.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1914        Jun 26, Babe (Mildred) Didrikson Zaharias (International Women's Sports Hall of Famer, Olympic Hall of Famer, World Golf Hall of Famer, LPGA Hall of Famer, National Track and Field Hall of Famer), was born in Port Arthur, Texas.

1914        The Int’l. Association of Policewomen was formed. 25 US cities had policewomen.
    (SFC, 6/25/04, p.F6)

1915        Jan 12, The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a proposal to give women the right to vote.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1915        Feb 1, San Francisco’s Police Commission appointed Mrs. Blanche Payson as the city’s first special police woman, following her request and letter of introduction from William Pinkerton.
    (SSFC, 2/1/15, DB p.42)

1915        May 12, Mary Kay Ash, chairman of Mary Kay Cosmetics, was born.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1915        Jun 10, Girl Scouts were founded. [see Mar 12, 1912]
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1915        Oct 23, Tens of thousands of women marched in NYC, demanding the right to vote.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

1915        Dec 19, Edith Piaf, internationally famous French cabaret singer, was born. She is best remembered for her songs "La Vie en rose" and "Non, je ne regrette rein."
    (HN, 12/19/99)

1915        The British Women’s Institute movement was formed with two clear aims: to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War. In 2013 Julie summers authored “Jambusters: The Story of Women’s Institute in the Second World War.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.85)

1916        Feb 11, Emma Goldman was arrested for lecturing on birth control.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1916        Feb 29, Dinah Shore, actress and singer, was born. [see Mar 1, 1917]
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1916        Jul 3, Hetty Green (b.1834), American investor, died in NYC. In 2012 Janet Wallach authored “The Richest Woman in America: Hetty Green in the Gilded Age."
    (SSFC, 10/21/12, p.F7)

1916        Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), American investigative journalist, authored "New Ideals in Business, An Account of Their Practice and Their Effects upon Men and Profits."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Tarbell)(Econ, 6/8/19, p.64)

1917        Mar 1, Dinah Shore, singer (See the USA in a Chevrolet), was born in Winchester, Ten. [see Feb 29, 1916]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1917        Mar 4, Republican Jeanette Rankin of Montana took her seat as the first woman elected to the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1917        Mar 8,  Russian women  commenced a strike for "bread and peace" in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. This was 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.

1917        Mar 20, Dame Vera Lynn, British songstress, was born. She sang "White Cliffs of Dover" and "Lily Marlene" during World War II.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1917        Mar 21, Loretta Perfectus Walsh was sworn in as the US Navy’s first chief petty officer.
    (AP, 3/22/21)

1917        Mar 28, The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was founded, these were Great Britain’s first official service women.
    (HN, 3/28/99)

1917        Apr 2, Jeannette Pickering Rankin, a representative from Montana, was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives.
    (HN, 4/2/01)(MC, 4/2/02)

1917        Aug 28, 10 suffragists were arrested as they picketed the White House.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1917        Nov 10, Forty-one US suffragettes were arrested for picketing in front of the White House.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

1917        Nov 19, Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India from 1967 to 1977 and 1978 to 1984, was born. She was assassinated by her own guards.
    (HN, 11/19/00)

1918        Jan 10, The US House of Representatives passed women's suffrage. The 19th Amendment for women's suffrage was also known as the Anthony Amendment in honor of Susan B. Anthony.
    (HN, 1/10/99)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.E12)

1918        Feb 6, Britain’s Representation of the People Act, aka the Fourth Reform Act, granted working class men in the armed forces the right to vote. Female property owners over age 30 were also granted the right to vote.

1918        Mar 13, Women were scheduled to march in the St. Patrick's Day Parade in New York due to a shortage of men.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1918        Mar 29, Pearl Bailey (d.1990), singer and actress, was born. "There is a way to look at the past. Don’t hide from it. It will not catch you if you don’t repeat it." "A man without ambition is dead. A man with ambition but no love is dead. A man with ambition and love for his blessings here on earth is ever so alive."
    (AP, 6/24/97)(AP, 6/12/98)(HN, 3/29/01)

1918        Jul 4, Ann Landers and Abigail Van Buren, twin sisters who became famous columnists, were born in Sioux City, Iowa, as Esther P. (Landers) and Pauline E. (Abbie) Friedman. Their "advice" columns are syndicated in more than 1,000 newspapers. Esther Friedman died in 2002 at age 83.
    (IB, 12/7/98)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A10)

1918        Jul 25, Annette Adams of Calif. was sworn in as the 1st US woman district attorney.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1918        Apr 21, In California's SF Bay Area 148 women raced seven miles from Mill Valley to Stinson Beach in what was called the "Dipsea Hike," to get around a ban on female participation in footraces. Women were not allowed to run in any race approved by the Amateur Athletic Union until 1971.
    (SFC, 4/21/18, p.A1)

1918        Marie Stopes (1880-1958), British academic, authored the groundbreaking "Married Love" in the field of birth control and women's sexual rights. She was the first female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester.
    (AFP, 11/19/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Stopes)

1919        Jan 15, Rosa Luxemburg (b.1870), Marxist revolutionary, was murdered.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1919        Feb 1, "There she is..." The first Miss America was crowned on this day, not in Atlantic City, but in New York City. Edith Hyde was not, the judges found, a Miss. She was a Mrs. Mrs. Tod Robbins, the mother of two children.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1919        Apr 13, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, American atheist (opposed prayer in school), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1919        Apr 15, Jane Arminda Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service, died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there. She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the 1st female recipient. In 1920 She was brought back to the U.S. and re-interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

1919            Jun 14, The US Congress passed the 19th amendment granting suffrage to American women.

1919        Jul 19, Raymonde de Larouche (1882-1919), Franch actress and aviatrix, died in a plane crash at Le Crotoy airport in France.

1919        Sep 2, Marge Champion, dancer (Marge & Gower Champion Show), was born in LA, California.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1919        Nov 28, American-born Lady Astor was elected the first female member of the British Parliament.
    (DT net, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

1919        Dec 1, Lady Astor was sworn in as the first female member of the British Parliament.
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1919        Nov 30, Women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1919        Dec 1, Lady Astor was sworn in as the first female member of the British Parliament.
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1919        California state work legislation restricted women and minors under 18 from working over 48 hours a week. Work with dangerous machinery was prohibited to those under 16.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)

1920        Jan 5, GOP women demanded equal representation at the Republican National Convention in June.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1920        Feb 8, Swiss men voted against women's suffrage.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1920        Feb 13, Eileen Farrell, opera soprano (Interrupted Melody), was born in Willimantic, Conn.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1920        Feb 14, The League of Women Voters was founded in Chicago; its first president was Maude Wood Park.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 2/14/98)

1920        Feb 16, Patty Andrews, vocalist (Andrews Sisters), was born in Minneapolis.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1920        Mar 20, Pamela Churchill Harriman (d.1997) was born. She was later appointed by Pres. Clinton as ambassador to France. In 1996 Sally Bedell Smith wrote her biography: "Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(SFC, 2/6/97, p.A14)

1920            Aug 18, Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right of all American women to vote. This completed the three-quarters necessary to put the amendment into effect.  Aaron Sargent, who wrote the 19th amendment, also built Grandmere's Inn in Nevada City. Carrie Chapman Catt, founder of the League of Women Voters, played a crucial role in its passage. She also held some very racist views: she called the ballots of proletarian voters "undesirable" and referred to Indians as "savages." [see Aug 26, 1920]
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-3)(SFC, 6/9/96, p.B-11)(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 8/18/01)

1920            Aug 26, US Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. The amendment had been first introduced in Congress in 1878, setting in motion supporters who demonstrated, lobbied, marched and spoke out for woman suffrage. They were often met with venomous opposition. Early on, the two main factions of the movement disagreed about how to achieve their goal, but they ultimately united in 1890 to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association and worked together to get the amendment passed. By August 18, 1920, three-fourths of the United States had agreed to the bill.
    (AP, 8/26/97)(HNPD, 8/26/99)

1920        Sep 4, Maggie Higgins, the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize (1951) for international reporting, for her work in Korean war zones, was born.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1920      Nov 2, Of the sixty-eight women who signed the Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls in 1848, only one, Charlotte Woodward Pierce (1830-1921), lived to see that day.

1920        Margaret Sanger authored “Woman and the New Race."
    (SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P2)

1921        Feb 4, Betty Friedan, writer, feminist, was born. She founded the National Organization of Women in 1966.
    (HN, 2/4/01)

1921        Mar 6, Police in Sunbury, Penn., issued an edict requiring Women to wear skirts at least 4 inches below the knee.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1921        Mar 17, Dr Marie Stopes opened Britain's 1st birth control clinic in London.

1921        Apr 8, Betty Bloomer Ford, first lady to President Gerald Ford, was born.
    (HN, 4/8/99)

1921        Sep 8, Margaret Gorman of Washington, D.C., was crowned the first Miss America in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(HN, 9/8/98)

1921        Oct 3, The first Soroptimist Club was started in Oakland, Ca.  Soroptimist International, formed in 1927, was awarded consultative status at the United Nations in 1948 and became known as “The Global Voice for Women." By 2021 the volunteer organization had a worldwide network with more than 70,000 members in 121 countries.
    (https://soroptimistpeterborough.ca/our-history/)(Miami Herald, 5/28/21)

1922        Jan 27, Elizabeth Cochran (1864-1922), renowned American journalist who had written under the pen name of Nellie Bly, died in NYC.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nellie_Bly)

1922        Feb 18, Helen Gurley Brown, editor of Cosmopolitan magazine, was born.
    (HN, 2/18/99)

1929        Jul 22, Lillie Hitchcock Coit (b.1843), a patroness of San Francisco's volunteer firefighters, died in San Francisco. Her funeral in Grace Cathedral was attended by 22 firefighters as representatives of the Fire Dept., as well as three old gentlemen who had been volunteer firemen and had known Lillie in her youth. Coit in her will left $100,000 to be used for the beautification of San Francisco. City officials and her heirs decided to build two memorials: the Coit tower on Telegraph Hill and a monument to the city's volunteer fire companies in Washington Square.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lillie_Hitchcock_Coit)(SFC, 5/15/21, p.B6)

1922        Oct 3, Rebecca L. Felton, D-Ga., became the first woman to be seated in the U.S. Senate. Mrs. Felton had been appointed to serve out the remaining term of Sen. Thomas E. Watson.
    (AP, 10/3/97)

1922        Ida Rosenthal (1860-1973), Belarus-born immigrant and Manhattan dressmaker, came up with the first Maidenform bra.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Rosenthal)(SSFC, 12/29/13, Par p.14)
1922        British women were admitted to the Law Society and allowed to become practicing lawyers. Carrie Morrison, Mary Pickup, Mary Sykes, and Maud Crofts became the first women in England to qualify as solicitors.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_law_in_the_United_Kingdom)(Econ., 3/7/20, p.59)

1923        Feb 15, Yelena Bonner, soviet dissident, wife of Andre Sakharov, was born in Moscow.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1923        Mar 2, In Italy, Mussolini admitted that women have a right to vote, but declares that the time was not right.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1923        Mar 14, Diane Arbus, photographer, innovator, was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1923        Mar 24, Edna Jo Hunter, expert on military families and prisoners of war, was born.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1923        May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1923        Dec 2, Maria M. Callas, soprano (Carmen), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1924        Feb 17, Margaret Truman, pres. daughter, writer (Murder at FBI), singer, was born in Mo.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1924        Feb 20, Gloria Vanderbilt, fashion designer, was born.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1924        Mar 10, The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a New York state law forbidding late-night work for women.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1924        Mar 27, Sarah Vaughan, 'the Divine One,' jazz singer, was born. She was famous for singing "What a Difference a Day Makes."
    (HN, 3/27/99)

1924        Apr 3, Doris Von Kappelhoff [Doris Day], American singer and actress, was born in Cincinnati, Oh.
    (HN, 4/3/01)(MC, 4/3/02)

1924        Apr 4, Eva Marie Saint, actress (Sandpiper, Loving, Exodus), was born in Newark, NJ.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1924        Aug 29, Dinah Washington, singer, was born. She was known in the 50s as "Queen of the Harlem Blues."
    (HN, 8/29/00)

1924        Nov 30, Shirley Chisholm, first African-American congresswoman, was born.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1925        Jan 5, Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1977) of Wyoming was sworn in as the first woman governor in the United States. She succeeded Frank E. Lucas, who had served as acting governor after the death of Ross' husband, William B. Ross. Ross took office as governor of Wyoming,  just 16 days before Miriam A. Ferguson became governor of Texas.
    (AP, 1/5/08)(http://wyoarchives.state.wy.us/articles/rossbio.htm)

1925        Feb 11, Virginia E. Johnson, doctor, sexologist (Masters & Johnson), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1925        Nov 26, Linda Hunt, actress (Bostonians, Eleni, Silverado), was born in Morristown, NJ.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1926        Jan 29, Violette Neatley Anderson became the first African-American woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1926        Jan 31, Jean Simmons, actress (Thorn Birds, Guys and Dolls), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1926        Jul 8, Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, author, physician, educator, was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1926            Nov 3, Annie Oakley (b.1860), US sharp shooting star, died at Greenville, Ohio. Chief Sitting Bull nicknamed her “Little Miss Sure Shot" when she was a member of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.

1927        Jan 17, Eartha Kitt, singer, actress (Catwoman-Batman), was born.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1927        Jan 17, Juliette Gordon Low (b.1860), founder of the Girl Scouts (1912), died in Savannah, Georgia. In 2012 Stacy A. Cordery authored “Juliette Gordon Low: The Remarkable Founder of the Girl Scouts."
    (SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliette_Gordon_Low)

1927        Feb 10, (Mary Violet) Leontyne Price, opera singer, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1927        Feb 21, Erma Bombeck, author and humorist, was born. She became an American syndicated columnist whose column "At Wit's End" humorously dealt with life as a wife and mother. Her work included "The Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank."
    (HN, 2/21/01)

1927        Apr 27, Coretta Scott King, civil rights activist, wife of Martin Luther King, Jr., was born.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1927        Aug 29, Marion Williams, gospel singer, was born.
    (HN, 8/29/00)

1927        Sep 8, A woman arrived in SF from China and claimed to be Gen. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife. The Gen. declared that he had divorced his legal wife in 1921 and freed 2 concubines this year.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.E6)

1927        Nov 29, Genevieve Paddleford arrived as the 1st woman inmate at the new women’s quarters at San Quentin Prison. She was serving 1 to 10 years for stealing $600 worth of clothing.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.E9)

1927        The Supreme Court decision of Buck vs. Bell supported a 1924 Virginia compulsory sterilization bill and Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes commented "three generations of imbeciles are enough."
    (NH, 7/02, p.12)

1928        Jan 12, Ruth Snyder became the 1st woman to die in the electric chair.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1928        Apr 4, Maya Angelou (d.2014), American poet and writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/98)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.98)

1928        Apr 23, Shirley Temple Black, child actress, was born. She sang "On the Good Ship Lollipop" and later became and American ambassador.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1928        May 12, In Italy Mussolini abolished women suffrage under a new law that restricted the franchise to men 21 and over who pay syndicate rates or taxes or 100 lire.
    (PCh, 1992, p.787)

1928        May 23, Rosemary Clooney (d.2002), singer, was born in Maysville, Ky.
    (HN, 5/23/01)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A20)

1928        Jun 14, British suffragette Emily Pankhurst (b.1858) died.

1928        Jun 17, Amelia Earhart embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Wales with pilots Wilmer Stultz and Louis Gordon, becoming the first woman to make the trip as a passenger.
    (ON, 12/07, p.9)(AP, 6/17/08)

1928        Jul 2, Britain enacted another Representation of the People Act granting women over 21 the same rights as men. British women over age 30 had voted since 1918.
    (Econ, 5/12/07, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_suffrage)(ON, 10/2010, p.9)

1928        Jul 28, The Olympics opened at Amsterdam. Track and field events opened for women for the 1st time despite objections from Pope Pius IX. Germany was allowed to participate for the 1st time since WWI.
    (SC, 7/28/02)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1928        Nov 20, Mrs. Glen Hyde became the first woman to dare the Grand Canyon rapids in a scow. Her flat bottomed boat used sweep oars for maneuvering.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1928        Dec 12, Helen Frankenthaler, abstract painter, was born.
    (HN, 12/12/00)

1928        In the Olympic games several women collapsed at the end of the 800-meter run. This led to a 32-year ban on women running in Olympic races over 200 meters.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.F1)

1929        May 4, Audrey Hepburn (Edda van Heemstra Hepburn-Rusten), Belgian-born actress, was born. She won an Oscar for her role Roman Holiday and later became a Special Ambassador for UNICEF.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1929        Aug 5, Millicent Fawcett (b.1847), British feminist leader, died in London. She had started campaigning for votes for women in 1866. In 2018 a statue of her was unveiled in London's Parliament Square, a public space previously occupied by 11 statues of men.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millicent_Fawcett)(Reuters, 4/24/18)

1929        Aug 18, The first cross-country women's air derby began. Louise McPhetride Thaden won first prize in the heavier-plane division, while Phoebe Fairgrave Omlie finished first in the lighter-plane category.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1929        Nov 21, Marilyn French, novelist and critic, was born. Her work includes "The Women's Room."
    (HN, 11/21/00)

1929        Nov 30, Joan Ganz Cooney, television executive, was born in Phoenix, Az. She founded the Children's Television Workshop and was the mastermind behind "Sesame Street."
    (HN, 11/30/00)(MC, 11/30/01)

1929        Dec 6, Turkey introduced female suffrage.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1930        Jan 15, Amelia Earhart set an aviation record for women at 171 mph in a Lockheed Vega.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1930        Feb 27, Joanne Woodward, actress, was born. Her films included "Rachel, Rachel" and "The Three Faces of Eve."
    (HN, 2/27/01)

1930        Mar 26, Sandra Day O'Connor, first woman US Supreme Court Justice (1981- ), was born in El Paso TX.
    (HN, 3/26/01)(SS, 3/26/02)

1930        May 15, Ellen Church, the first airline stewardess, went on duty aboard an Oakland-to-Chicago flight operated by Boeing Air Transport, a forerunner of United Airlines.
    (HN, 5/15/98)(AP, 5/15/07)

1930        May 24, Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly from England to Australia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1930        Jun 2, Sarah Dickson became the 1st woman Presbyterian elder in US in Cincinnati.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1930         Dec 10, Lady aviator Ruth Nichols set a new women's record for coast to coast flight, traveling from Los Angeles to New York in 13 hours 22 minutes.
    (NY Times, 11/12/1930, p.1)

1931        Feb 4, Isabel Peron, [Maria Martinez], dancer, president of Argentina, was born.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1931        Feb 15, [Patricia] Claire Bloom, actress (Charly, Look Back in Anger), was born in London.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1931        Feb 18, Toni Morrison, Nobel laureate and Pulitzer Prize-winning author (The Bluest Eye, Beloved), was born.
    (AP, 2/18/01)

1931            Mar 18, Jackie Mitchell became the 2nd female in professional baseball as she signed with the Chattanooga Lookouts, a Tennessee Class AA minor league team. In 1898, Lizzie Arlington played one game, pitching for Reading (PA) against Allentown.

1931        Apr 2, Virne "Jackie" Mitchell became the 2nd woman to play for an all-male pro baseball team. In an exhibition game against the New York Yankees, she struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
    (HN, 4/2/01)(www.exploratorium.edu/baseball/mitchell.html)

1931        Dec 10, Jane Addams became a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, for her efforts as the president of the Women’s International league for Peace and Freedom. She was the first American woman so honored. She was also known for her work as a social reformer and pacifist, and founded the Hull House in Chicago. The co-recipient was Nicholas Murray Butler.
    (HN, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A16)(AP, 12/10/06)

1931        Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (d.1942) founded the Whitney Museum in her New York Greenwich Village townhouse. In 2000 Flora Miller Biddle authored "The Whitney Women and the Museum They Made."
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)

1932        Jan 12, Mrs. Hattie W. Caraway (Ophelia Wyatt Caraway) a Democrat from Arkansas, became the first woman elected to the  US Senate.
    (AP, 1/12/98)(MC, 1/12/02)

1932        Feb 18, Sonja Henie won her 6th straight World Women's figure skating title.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1932        Feb 27, Elizabeth Taylor, actress, was born. Her films included "Cleopatra" and "Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?"
    (SFC, 2/16/97, Par. p.22)(HN, 2/27/01)

1932        Dec 30, The USSR barred food handouts for housewives under 36 years of age. They would now have to work to eat.
    (HN, 12/30/98)

1933        Jan 25, Corazon Aquino was born. She defeated the corrupt Ferdinand Marcos to become the President of the Philippines (1986-1992). Her husband had been killed by Marcos’ gunmen.
    (HN, 1/25/99)(MC, 1/25/02)

1933        Feb 13, Kim Novak, actress, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/01)

1933        Feb 28, Francis Perkins was appointed Secretary of Labor, the 1st female in cabinet.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1933        Mar 15, Ruth Bader Ginsberg, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)

1933        Apr 26, Carol Burnett, comedian, actress (Annie, 4 Seasons), was born in San Antonio, Tx.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1933        Jul 1, German Nazi regime decreed married women should not work.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1933        Sep 1, Ann Richards, Gov-Tx., was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1934        Feb 24, Renata Scotto, soprano (Violetta, La Traviata), was born in Savona, Italy.

1934        Mar 25, Gloria Steinem, political activist, editor, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/01)

1934        Apr 3, Jane van Lawick-Goodall, ethologist (studied African chimps, 1974 Walker Prize), was born in London, England. She was a British anthropologist, known for her work with African chimpanzees. In 2000 her autobiography "Africa in My Blood: An Autobiography in Letters, The Early Years, 1934-1966," was edited by Dale Peterson.
    (HN, 3/4/99)(SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.6)(SC, 3/4/02)(MC, 4/3/02)

1934        Apr 24, Shirley MacLaine, actress, mystic (Irma la Douce), was born in Richmond, Va.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1934        Jul 4, "Madame" Marie Curie-Sklodovska, Polish-born French chemist and Nobel Prize winner, died in Paris of leukemia caused by her long exposure to radiation. In 1937 Eve Curie authored "Madame Curie, a Biography."
    (ON, 3/00, p.2)(http://myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=madameCurie)

1934        Dec 5, Joan Didion, essayist and novelist, was born. Her work includes "Slouching Towards Bethlehem" and "Play it a it Lays."
    (HN, 12/5/00)

1934        Women in Turkey were given the right to vote and banned the wearing of the Islamic veil.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.49)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.52)

1935        Jan 11, Aviator Amelia Earhart began a trip from Honolulu to Oakland, Calif., becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1935        Feb 6, Turkey held its 1st election that allowed women to vote.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1935        May 21, Jane Addams (b.1860), a founder of ACLU (Nobel 1973), died. She was known for her work as a social reformer, pacifist, and founder of Hull House in Chicago in 1889. She was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize (1931). In 2001 Jean Bethke Elshtain authored "Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy" and edited "The Jane Addams Reader."
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)(HN, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A16)(MC, 5/21/02)

1935        Aug 26, Geraldine Ferraro, (Rep-D-NY) 1st female dem VP candidate (1984), was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1935        Zora Neale Hurston published her folk tale collection: Mules and Men." In 2001 the collection was reprinted as "Every Tongue Got to Confess: negro Folk Tales From the Gulf States."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M1)

1936        Mar 22, May Britt, actress (Young Lions), wife of Sammy Davis Jr., was born in Sweden.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1936        Mar 26, Mary Joyce ended a 1,000 mile trip by dog in Alaska.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1936        May 9, Glenda Jackson, actress (Women in Love), was born in Cheshire, England.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1936        May 25, San Francisco journalist Winifred Sweet Bonfils (b.1863), aka Annie Laurie, died at her home in the Marina. She was one of the most prominent "sob sisters", a label given female reporters who wrote human interest stories. Her first husband was Orlow Black, and her second was publisher Charles Bonfils.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winifred_Bonfils)(SFC, 8/22/20, p.B1)

1936        Aug 31, Marva Collins, innovative educator who started Chicago's one-room school, Westside Preparatory, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1936        Marjory B. Farquhar (d.1999) became the first woman to climb the Higher Cathedral Spire in Yosemite. Her oral history is on file at UC Berkeley.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A20)

1936        The Bendix Race title went to Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes.  A top event during the period known as aviation's Golden Age, the flight took them 14 hours and 55 minutes, and they won both the $4,500 first prize and the $2,500 "consolation" money that had been offered to encourage women to enter the contest. Since no one thought a woman could actually come in first, the Bendix organizers called the $2,500 a "consolation prize," an incentive for the first woman to cross the finish line.
    (HNQ, 5/31/02)

1937        Mar 6, Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova, Russian astronaut, was born. In 1963 she became the first women to orbit the Earth on Vostok 6.
    (HN, 3/6/99)(MC, 3/6/02)

1937        Mar 17, Amelia Earhart took off from Oakland, Ca., in an attempt to become the first pilot to fly around the globe at the equator.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.A8)

1937        Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960) wrote her novel: "Their Eyes were Watching God." It is about a young black woman from Florida who survives a bad marriage and finds true love with a younger man named Tea Cake. Cassette recordings were made in 1991. She made some films during research trips on life in the South in 1928 and 1929.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)

1938        Mar 18, NY 1st required serological blood tests of pregnant women.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1938        Jun 16, Joyce Carol Oates, American writer and university professor, was born. She wrote "Them" and "Garden of Earthly Delights."
    (HN, 6/16/99)

1938        Jul 20, Diana Rigg, actress (Emma Peel-Avengers, Hospital), was born in Doncaster, England.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1938        Jul 20, Natalie Wood (d.1981), (From Here to  Eternity, West Side Story, Splendor in the Grass, Rebel  Without a Cause), was born as Natasha Nikolaevna Gurdin.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1938        Jul 21, Janet Reno, US attorney general (1993-2001), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1939        Jan 29, Germaine Greer, feminist, author (Female Eunuch), was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1939        Feb 27, Nadezjda K. Krupskaja (70), Russian revolutionary, wife of Lenin, died.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1939        Mar 21, Singer Kate Smith recorded "God Bless America" for Victor Records. She introduced the song on her radio program in 1938.
    (HN, 3/21/98)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)

1939        Oct 16, Charlotte Maxeke (b.1871), South African social worker and activist, died in Johannesburg. She was the first black South African woman to receive a college degree (Ohio’s Wilberforce University, 1901).

1939        Dec 16, National Women’s Party urged immediate congressional action on equal rights.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1940        Mar 14, Rita Tushingham, actress (Green Eyes, Dr Zhivago), was born in Liverpool, England.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1940        Mar 26, Nancy Pelosi, (Representative-Democrat-CA), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1940        May 14, Emma Goldman, anarchist revolutionary, author (Living My Life), died in Toronto and was buried in Chicago. In 1974 Carol Bolt wrote a play on the formative years of Emma titled: "Red Emma: Queen of the Anarchists." In 1995 Ms. Bolt wrote a libretto based on the play for an opera with music by Gary Kulesha. In 1961 Richard Drinnon authored "Rebel In Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman." In 1971 Alex Shulman authored "To the Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman."
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(ON, 4/00, p.5)(MC, 5/14/02)

1940        Sep 5, Raquel Welch, film actress (Myra Breckenridge, 1,000,000 BC, 100 Rifles), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1941        Feb 20, Buffy Sainte-Marie, folksinger (Now That the Buffalo Are Gone), was born in Maine.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1941        Mar 28, Novelist and critic Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), born as Virginia Stephen, died in Lewes, England. She feared a mental breakdown and threw herself into the River Ouse near her home in Sussex. Her body was never found. She was an English novelist, essayist and critic and wrote standing up. Her diaries over nearly three decades filled 26 volumes. In 1997 "Art and Affection, A Life of Virginia Woolf" was published. In 1997 a biography by Hermione Lee was published.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEM, 1/12/97, BR p.7)(AP, 3/28/97)(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.8)(HN, 3/28/01)(Econ., 5/23/20, p.70)

1941        Sep 19, "Mama" Cass Elliot, singer for the Mamas & Papas, was born as Ellen Naomi Cohen.

1941        Dec 5, Sister Elizabeth Kenny's new treatment for infantile paralysis, polio, was approved.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1941        Dec, Wonder Woman, a comic book character created by William Moulton Marston (1893-1947) made her debut in All Star Comics #8.

c1941-1945    Russian women combat pilots were called the "Night Witches" by the Germans they haunted during dark, scary nights of World War II. The embattled skies of the Soviet Union regularly saw women proving their worth in combat as bomber, night bomber and even as fighter pilots.
    (HNQ, 2/19/02)

1942        Mar 13, Julia Flikke of the Nurse Corps became the first woman colonel in the U.S. Army.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1942        Mar 26, Erica Jong [Mann], poet, novelist (Fear of Flying, How to Save Your Own Life), was born in NYC.
    (HN, 3/26/01)(SS, 3/26/02)

1942        Apr 24, Barbra Streisand, singer, actress, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1942        May 14, The Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) was established.
    (AP, 5/14/97)

1942        Jun 15, Xaviera Hollander, [DeVries], celebrity "author" (Happy Hooker), was born in Surabaya, Indonesia.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1942        Jul 10, Himmler ordered the sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1942        Jul 20, The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), later known as WACs, began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
    (HN, 7/20/02)(AP, 7/20/02)

1942        Nov 19, Sharon Olds, poet, was born. Her work included "The Dead and The Living" and  "The Gold Cell."
    (HN, 11/19/00)
1942        Nov 23, US Coast Guard Woman's Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1943        Jan 19, Janice Joplin (d.1970), rock singer, was born.

1943        Feb 13, The US Marine Corps began allowing women to enlist as reserves.

1943        Mar 26, Elsie S. Ott, US army nurse, became the 1st woman to receive air medal.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1943        Jun 7, Nikki Giovanni, poet (LHJ Woman of the Year 1973), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1943        Jul 8, Faye Wattleton, women's rights advocate, was born.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1944        Feb 9, Alice Walker, Pulitzer prize winning author, was born. Her books include "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "The Color Purple."
    (HN, 2/9/99)

1944        Feb 26, Sue Dauser was appointed the 1st female US navy captain of nurse corps.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1944        Mar 26, Diana Ross [Earle], (Supremes, Lady Sings the Blues, Mahogany), was born Detroit, MI.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1944        May 21, Mary Bourke Robinson, first woman president of Ireland (1990-1997), was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1944        Jun 16, In San Francisco the first six women to qualify successfully for jobs as regular uniformed policewomen were sworn into the Police Dept. After 30 days of training they will be qualified to ride 3-wheeled motorcycles tagging cars in the downtown area for $200 a month.
    (SSFC, 6/16/19, DB p.38)

1944        Aug, In the weeks following the liberation of France some 20,000 women, accused of relations with the enemy, had their heads shaven.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, IL p.22)

1944        Dec 20, The Women's Air Force Service Pilots were deactivated. Before deactivation 1,074 WASPs logged 60 million miles flying for the U.S. Army Air Forces.
    (HNPD, 2/25/99)

1944        Rear Admiral Grace Hopper (1906-1992) became one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I electro-mechanical computer. She was later credited with popularizing the term "debugging" for fixing computer glitches, inspired by an actual moth removed from a computer.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper)w

1945        Feb 9, [Maria] Mia Farrow, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Purple Rose of Cairo, was born in LA.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1945        Dec 1, Bette Midler, singer, actress (Do You Want to Dance?), was born in Patterson, NJ.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1945        Dec 22, Diane Sawyer, newscaster (60 Minutes, ABC Prime Time), was born in Glasgow, Ky.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1946        Jan 19, Dolly Rebecca Parton, country singer (Dolly, 9 to 5), was born in Sevierville, Ten.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1946        Mar 12, Patricia Hampl, poet and memoirist (A Romantic Education, Virgin Time), was born.
    (HN, 3/12/01)
1946        Mar 12, Liza Minnelli, actress and singer, was born. She was the daughter of actress Judy Garland and director Vincente Minnelli.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 Par, p.22)

1946        Jul 27, Gertrude Stein (72), US-French author, poet (Ida, Tender Buttons), died in France. Her work included the murder mystery "Blood on the Dining-Room Floor." She once said of Oakland, Ca.: "There is no there there." Painter Francis Rose carved the headstone one her grave at the Pere Lachaise cemetery. A biography of Stein by Linda Wagner-Martin was published in 1996 titled "Favored Strangers. "
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 7/27/02)

1946        Nov 8, In Canada Viola Desmond (1914-1965) rejected racial discrimination by sitting in a whites-only section of a New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, movie theatre. She was arrested and fined. In 2010 she was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Desmond)(AP, 12/8/16)

1947        May 3, Japan's postwar constitution, drafted by the Americans, took effect. It included the creation of the House of Councilors and renounced war as a way of settling disputes. Beate Sirota (1923-2012) produced Article 24 which established women’s rights and the essential equality of the sexes. 
    (http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1947con.html)(AP, 5/3/07)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.54)(Econ, 1/12/12, p.86)

1948        Mar 10, Author Zelda Fitzgerald died in a fire at Highland Hospital, NC. She was locked in on the 3rd floor while undergoing insulin-induced coma therapy. In 2001 Kendall Taylor authored "Sometimes Madness Is Wisdom: Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald, a Marriage."
    (HN, 3/10/01)(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.61)

1948        Sep 2, Christa McAuliffe, the first civilian passenger on a space mission, was born in Boston, Mass. During that 1986 mission, she and the six other crew members on the space shuttle Challenger perished in an explosion shortly after launch.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1948        Sep 13, Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine was elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1949        Jan 20, Ivana Trump, former wife of Donald Trump, was born.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1949        Mar 10, Nazi wartime broadcaster Mildred E. Gillars, also known as "Axis Sally," was convicted in Washington D.C. of treason. She served 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/10/98)

1949        Mar 16, Bertha Knox Gilkey, welfare and tenement rights for urban women, was born.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1949        Jul 8, Vietta M. Bates became the first enlisted woman sworn into the U.S. Army when legislation was passed making the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps part of the regular Army.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1949        Sep 13, The Ladies Professional Golf Association of America was formed in New York City with Patty Berg as its first president.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1950        Jan 29, Ann Jillian, actress (Mr. Mom, Jennifer Slept Here), was born in Cambridge, Mass.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1950        Babe Didrikson Zaharias, golfer, was named Woman Athlete of the Half-Century by AP.
    (SFC, 5/21/03, p.A1)

1950        Martha M. Harper (b1857), businesswoman, died. She helped develop the American franchise system.
    (WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)

1951        Mar 16, Mary Louise Bochnak, the patron saint of embattled nonprofit committee chairmen, was born.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1951        May 26, Sally Ride, the first American woman in space, was born in LA, Calif. She flew on the Space Shuttle Challenger.
    (HN, 5/26/99)(MC, 5/26/02)

1951        Nov 26, La Cicciolina, [Ilona Staller], Italian MP, was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1952        Feb 8, Elizabeth was formally proclaimed Queen of England following the Feb 6 death of her father, King George VI. Elizabeth was crowned Jun 2, 1953.
    (HN, 2/8/98)(WSJ, 2/13/02, p.A21)

1952        Feb 19, Amy Tan, novelist (The Joy Luck Club, The Kitchen God’s Wife), was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)

1952        Evita Peron (b.1919), the first lady of Argentina, died of cancer at age 33. Her biography: "Eva Peron" was written by Alicia Dujovne Ortiz. "Santa Evita" was a (1996) novel by Tomas Eloy Martinez based on the fate of her corpse. Eva wrote a little book "Mi Mensaje" (My Message, or In My Own Words) that was unfinished and lost until 1987 and published in English under the title "In My Own Words." "My Mission In Life" was ghostwritten under Eva’s name by Manuel Penella de Silva.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, PM p. 8)(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)(AP, 7/26/97)

1952        Aug 28, Rita Dove, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, was born.
    (HN, 8/28/00)

1952        Hilda Krech (1913-2009) collaborated with her mother, Sidonie Matsner Gruenberg, to author the best-selling “The Many Lives of Modern Woman," an early forerunner of the feminist movement’s literature.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.D7)

1953        Mar 11, F.M. Adams became the 1st US commissioned woman army doctor.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1953        Mar 18, Margaret L. Augustine, project manager for Biosphere 2, was born in Buffalo, NY.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1954        Jan 29, Oprah Winfrey, actress, TV host (Color Purple, Oprah), was born in Mississippi.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1954        Feb 20, Patty Hearst, famous kidnap hostage (Tanya), was born in SF.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1954        Jul 3, In Salem Mass., champion female athlete Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias (1911-1956) won the US Women's Open. She had just come back from a battle with cancer, yet won the event by 12 strokes.

1955        Jul 13, Ruth Ellis, last English woman (murderess), was executed by hanging. Ten days before she had shot her husband, Ellis suffered a miscarriage after Blakely, the baby's father, punched her in the stomach
    (MC, 7/13/02)(AP, 9/16/03)

1955        Nov 5, Lady Idina Sackville (b.1893), notorious daughter of the eighth Earl of De La Warr, died of cancer. In 2009 Frances Osborne authored “The Bolter," an account of the “Woman Who Scandalized 1920's Society and Became White Mischief's Infamous Seductress."
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.F3)

1956        Apr 1, Libby Riddles, dogsled racer: 1st woman to win Iditarod (1985), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1956        Jun 23, Egyptians approved a new constitution and elected Gamal Abdel Nasser as president. The new constitution acknowledged the long struggle by women and for the first time provided them with equal political rights.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/875/eg4.htm)(AP, 6/23/97)

1956        Sep 27, Mildred E "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias (b.1911), track and field gold medalist  (1932) and Hall of Fame golfer, died in Galveston, Texas. Six years earlier the Associated Press had named her the Greatest Female Athlete of the First Half of the 20th Century.
    (http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/siforwomen/top_100/2/)(AP, 9/27/06)

1956        West Virginia began allowing women to serve on jury duty. The state had claimed that courthouses lacked female toilets.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.60)
1956        Tunisia a Personal Status Code extending several rights to women and abolishing polygamy.
    (AFP, 8/17/17)

1957        Sep 1, Gloria Estefan, singer (Miami Sound Machine-Conga, 1-2-3), was born in Cuba.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1957        Egypt became the first country in the Arab world to elect a woman to parliament.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.29)

1958        Feb 19, Rebecca ("Becky") Hoppe, founder of Soccer Moms of US, was born.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1959        May 23, Presbyterian church accepted women preachers.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1959        Dec 18, Dorothy L. Sayers (66), writer, died.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1959        In Afghanistan the Purdah was made optional under King Zahir Shah. Women began to enroll in the university, which had become co-educational, and they began to enter the workforce, as well as the government.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.88)

1960        Mar 6, The Swiss granted women the right to vote in municipal elections.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1960        The Lutheran Church of Sweden ordained its first female ministers.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)

1961        Jan 26, Janet G. Travell became the 1st woman personal physician to the US President (JFK).
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1961        Jan 30, Dorothy Thompson (b.1893), American journalist and radio broadcaster, died in Lisbon, Portugal. In 1939 she was recognized by Time magazine as the second most influential women in America next to Eleanor Roosevelt. In 2011 Susan Hertog authored “Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson, New Women in Search of Love and War."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Thompson)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.69)

1961        Apr 18, Pamella Bordes, British parliament prostitute, was born in New Delhi, India.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1961        Jul 15, Spain accepted equal rights for men and women.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1961        Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) authored "The Death and Life of Great American Cities." It was based on her experiences fighting urban renewal in Greenwich Village. In 2017 Matt Tyrnauer directed the documentary “Citizen Jane: Battle for the City."
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.4)(WSJ, 10/11/00, p.24)(SFC, 4/28/17, p.E5)
1961        Dorothy Butler Gilliam (23) made history by becoming the first black female reporter for The Washington Post. Gilliam later co-founded the Institute for Journalism Education, now renamed the Maynard Institute. She also guided the National Association of Black Journalists as a vice president and president. Her autobiography "Trailblazer: A Pioneering Journalist's Fight to Make the Media Look More Like America" was published in 2019.
    {DC, USA, Black History, Journalism, Women}
    (AP, 3/5/20)
1961        Dana Ulery (b.1938) became the first female engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion laboratory in Pasadena.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1962        Feb 14, First lady Jacqueline Kennedy conducted a televised tour of the White House.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1962         Aug 5, Actress Marilyn Monroe (36) was found dead in her Los Angeles home. Her death was ruled a "probable suicide" from an overdose of sleeping pills. Movie actress, model, singer, Judaism convert, RN: Norma Jean Mortenson Baker; Joe DiMaggio's, then Arthur Miller's ex-wife. Her films included "Some Like It Hot." In 1999 Barbara Leaming authored the biography "Marilyn Monroe." In 1969 Fred Lawrence Guiles (d.2000 at 79) authored "Norma Jean: The Life of Marilyn Monroe."
    (AP, 6/1/97)(DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.9)(SFC, 8/1/00, p.B2)

1962        Helen Gurley Brown (1922-2012) authored "Sex and the Single Girl." In 2009 Jennifer Scanlon authored “Bad Girls Go Everywhere: The Life of Helen Gurley Brown." In 2016 Brooke Hauser authored “Enter Helen: Helen Gurley Brown and the Rise of the Modern Single Woman."
    (NW, 6/23/03, p.65)(WSJ, 4/10/09, p.W7)(SFC, 8/14/12, p.A5)(Econ, 4/16/15, p.69)
1962        Janet Sammet, American computer scientist, directed the development of the FORMAC programming language at IBM.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1963        Feb 11, Sylvia Plath (30), American writer, committed suicide by gas in London after Ted Hughes left her for another woman. Her autobiographical novel "The Bell Jar" was published this year. She had been married to English poet Ted Hughes (d.1998), who in 1998 published a 198 page book of verse "Birthday Letters" based on their relationship. The woman for whom Hughes left Plath committed suicide 5 years later. Plath’s 1981 "Collected Poems" won a Pulitzer Prize. The Plath book of poems "Ariel" was published after her death. In 2000 her uncensored diaries: "The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath," were edited by Karen V. Kukil.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.C5)(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A25)(SFEC, 11/12/00, BR p.1)

1963        Feb 16, 1st round-trip swim of Straits of Messina, Italy, was made by Mary Revell of US.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1963        Mar 18, Vanessa L. Williams, 1st black Miss America (1983), singer, was born in Millwood, NY.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1963        May 18, It was reported that American Airlines has approved a new contract allowing its stewardesses to keep flying until they are 33, take a ground job when they reach 32, or retire at 32 with severance pay.
    (SSFC, 5/19/13, p.46)

1963        The "Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan (1921-2006) was published.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.A6)

1964        Mar 13, Some 38 residents of a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens failed to respond to the cries of Kitty Genovese, 28, as she was being stabbed to death.
    (AP, 3/13/97)

1964        Apr 17, Jerrie Mock (1925-2014) became the first woman to complete a solo airplane flight around the world. Her journey had begun on March 19 from Columbus, Ohio.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(SFC, 10/2/14, p.D4)

1964        Aug 27, Gracie Allen, comedian (Burns & Allen), died at  62.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1965        May 14, Frances Perkins (83), US 1st female minister of Labor (1933-45), died.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1965        Jul 31, J. K. Rowling, British writer, was born in Yate, Gloucestershire. She became famous for her Harry Potter fantasy series. By 2012 she was the world’s richest author with a net worth of some $910 million.
    {Britain, Writer, Women}   

1965        Oct 11, Dorothy Lange (b.1895), American photographer, died in San Francisco. She is best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). In 2009 Linda Gordon authored “Dorothy Lange: A Life Beyond Limits."
    (SSFC, 11/8/09, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothea_Lange)

1965        Mary Ann Wilkes, American computer programmer, became by most accounts the first person to use a home computer, a machine she built herself.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1966        Jan 19, Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter, was elected the 3rd prime minister of India.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(AP, 1/19/98)(MC, 1/19/02)

1966        Feb 9, Sophie Tucker (79), Russian-US singer, actress (My Yiddish Mama), died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1966        Mar 18, Hedda Hopper, American gossip columnist (1890-1966). died. "Having only friends would be dull anyway -- like eating eggs without salt."
    (AP, 3/18/97)

1966        Jun 30, Betty Friedan (1921-2006) and 27 other women and men founded the National Organization for Woman and served as its 1st president (1966-1970). Catherine S. East (1916-1996) persuaded Betty Friedan to found NOW.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)(Econ, 2/11/06, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betty_Friedan)

1966        Sep 6, Margaret Higgins Sanger (b.1883), birth control advocate and founder of the organization that became Planned Parenthood, died. In 1992 Ellen Chesler authored “Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. In 2011 Jean H. Baker authored “Margaret Sanger: A Life of Passion."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Sanger)(SSFC, 12/4/11, p.F1)

1966        Oct 29, The National Organization for Women was formally organized during a conference in Washington, D.C. 
    (AP, 10/29/07)

1966        Nov 20, Men in Zurich voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1967        Mar 9, Svetlana Alliluyeva (Allilueva), Josef Stalin's daughter defected to the U.S.
    (HN, 3/9/98)(MC, 3/9/02)

1967        Apr 19, Katherine Switzer (b.1947) ran in the Boston Marathon registered under the name K. Switzer. Up to this time women were not allowed to register for the race.
    (SFC, 2/22/13, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathrine_Switzer)

1967        Jul 7, Vivian Leigh (53), actress (Scarlet-Gone with the Wind), died.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1967        Colorado’s Rep. Gov. John Love signed a bill making his state the first to loosen restrictions on abortion.
    (SFC, 4/26/17, p.A4)

1968        Feb 10, Peggy Fleming of the United States won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Winter Olympic Games in Grenoble, France.
    (AP, 2/10/97)

1968        Feb 23, Edna Ferber (80), US author (Giant, Showboat), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1968        Sep 6, Feminists protesting outside the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City, N.J., tossed articles including cosmetics, girdles and bras into a trash can ostensibly for burning, although nothing was actually set on fire. Miss Illinois Judith Ford won the pageant.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

1968        Nov 5, Shirley Chisholm of Brooklyn, New York, was the first black woman elected to serve in the House of Representatives.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1968        Mary Daly (1928-2009), Boston College professor and feminist theologian, authored “The Church and the Second Sex."
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, p.C10)

1968        Barbara Liskov received a doctorate from Stanford Univ. in computer science, the first such degree ever awarded to a woman in the US. In 2009 she won the $250,000 Turing computing award from the Association for Computing Machinery for her work in organizing complex programs and efforts to make software more resistant to errors and hacking.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.C3)

1969        Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein (89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1969        Apr 18, Melina Mercouri established the Greek Aid Fund.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1969        Apr, In England Bernadette Devlin (b.1947) of Northern Ireland became the youngest woman ever elected to British Parliament. Her 1969 book, “The Price of My Soul," did much to publicize widespread discrimination against Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.A15)(www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=6234)

1969        May 14, Abortion and contraception was legalized in Canada.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1969        Leo Kanowitz (1926-2007), UC Hastings law professor, authored “Women and the Law: The Unfinished Revolution."
    (SFC, 1/1/08, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/7povpw)
1969        In the 13th round of the NBA draft the San Francisco Warriors picked Denise Long, an Iowa high school superstar who averaged just under 70 points a game.
    (SFC, 3/10/18, p.A1)

1970        Mar 16, Forty-six women filed suit against Newsweek management for sex discrimination. On Aug 26 they signed an agreement with management. In September Lynn Povich became Newsweek’s first-ever female senior editor. In 2012 Povich authored “The Good Girls Revolt."
    (SFC, 9/27/12, p.E1)

1970        Apr 26, Gypsy Rose Lee (56), stripper, actress (Pruitts of S Hampton), died.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1970        May 2, Diane Crump became the 1st woman jockey at Kentucky Derby.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1970        Aug 26, NOW Pres. Aileen Clarke 1926-2017) Hernandez led the Women’s Strike for Equality.
    (SFC, 3/2/17, p.D5)

1970        NY performance artist Joan Jonas in “Mirror Check" stood naked before an audience inspecting her body with a small round mirror in a silent commentary on women’s fixation with self-image.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.92)
1970        Susan Lydon (1943-2005) authored the feminist essay “The Politics of Orgasm" in the Rolling Stone rock magazine.
    (SSFC, 7/24/05, p.A19)

1971        Feb 7, Switzerland voted to introduce female suffrage at the federal but not the cantonal level.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 2/7/01)

1971        Jul 1, The state of Washington became the 1st US state to ban sex discrimination.

1971        Jul 26, Diane Arbus [Nemerov] (b.1923), photographer, committed suicide in NYC. In 1984 Patricia Bosworth authored: "Diane Arbus: A Biography." In 2011 William Todd Schultz authored “An Emergency in Slow Motion: The Inner Life of Diane Arbus."
    (http://photography.about.com/library/weekly/aa110600c.htm)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.86)

1971        Aug 27, Margaret Bourke-White (b.1904), US photographer, died.

1971        Sep 27, Pamela Churchill Harriman (1920-1997), English-born socialite, married her former lover and former New York Governor Averell Harriman (79). She was the former wife (1939-1946) of Randolph Churchill, the son of Winston Churchill. From 1993-1997 she served as the US ambassador to France.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_Harriman)

1971        Oct 12, The US House of Representatives passed the Equal Rights Amendment with a vote of 354 yeas, 24 nays and 51 not voting. It failed to gain ratification before the end of the deadline

1971        Nov 22, The US Supreme Court struck down dozens of state laws that discriminated against women when it ruled that an Idaho law violated the 14th Amendment guarantee of equal protection in the case of Mary Maxine Reed.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)

1971        Nov 28, The Anglican Bishop of Hong Kong ordained the first two women as priests.
    (HN, 11/28/98)(http://trushare.com/Mascall%20Women%20Priests.htm)

1971        Dec, The Ms. magazine first appeared as an insert in New York magazine. It was co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding editor Letty Cottin Pogrebin together with founding editors Patricia Carbine, Joanne Edgar, Nina Finkelstein, and Mary Peacock. The first stand-alone issue appeared in January 1972 with funding from New York editor Clay Felker.

1971        Elizabeth Janeway (1913-2005) authored “Man’s World, Woman’s Place: A Study of Social Mythology."
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)
1971        Bela Abzug submitted a resolution to the US Congress designating August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. Pres. Nixon issued the first proclamation in 1973.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Equality_Day)(SFC, 8/26/13, p.C3)

1972        Jan 25, Shirley Chisholm, the first African American woman elected to U.S. Congress, announced her candidacy for president as Democrat.
    (HN, 1/25/01)

1972        Mar 22, The US Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution and sent it to the states for ratification. The amendment died in 1982 when it fell three states short of the 38, two-thirds, needed for approval.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.html)

1972        Apr 17, A handful of women were first accepted as entrants to the Boston marathon.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D8)(www.boston.com/marathon/history/1972.shtml)

1972            Jun 3, Sally J. Priesand (25) was ordained the 1st female US rabbi by Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati, Ohio. Upon ordination Rabbi Pries accepted a position at Stephen Wise Free Synagogue in NYC where she served for seven years, first as Assistant Rabbi and then as Associate Rabbi. From 1979-1981, she was Rabbi of Temple Beth El in Elizabeth, New Jersey and also served as Chaplain at Manhattan's Lenox Hill Hospital. Since 1981, she has served as Rabbi of Monmouth Reform Temple in New Jersey.

1972        Jun 23, Pres. Nixon signed the federal Title IX of the Education Amendment for nondiscrimination and affirmative action as an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1975 it was bolstered strengthened to insure equal rights for women’s sports programs.
    (GEG, 6/96, p.4)(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/25/02, p.D9)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/14, p.C4)

1972        Jun 24, The song "I Am Woman," by Helen Reddy, was released by Capitol Records.

1972        Jul 1, Ms. Magazine published its first regular issue. Ms. was launched as a "one-shot" sample insert in New York Magazine in December 1971. The debut issue featured Wonder Woman on the cover.
    (www.msmagazine.com/about.asp)(SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P2)

1972        Jul 17, The first women since the 1920s were officially hired as special FBI agents.   

1972        Nov, Maryland ratified the Equal Rights Amendment.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/5bflsq)

1972        Dec 15, The Commonwealth of Australia ordered equal pay for women.
    (HN, 12/15/98)(http://tinyurl.com/5ry8re)

1972        Dr. Donna Allen (d.1999 at 78), critic, author, and labor activist, founded the Women's Institute on Freedom of the Press.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)(www.wifp.org/pcabout%20us.html)
1972        Katharine Graham (1917-2001) became the CEO of the Washington Post company and the first female CEO of a Fortune 500 company.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, SR p.7)
1972        Walter C. Righter, an Episcopal Bishop, broke a tie and voted in favor of ordaining women in the Episcopal Church. In 1998 he published "A Pilgrim’s Way: The Personal Story of the Episcopal Bishop Charged with Heresy for Ordaining a Gay Man Who Was in a Committed Relationship."
    (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_n9_v50/ai_n27531797)(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.9)
1972        Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, chartered in 1769, began admitting women.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.A3)(http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Dartmouth+College)

1973        Jan 22, The US Supreme Court in a 7-2 ruling handed down its Roe vs. Wade decision, which legalized abortion, using a trimester approach. The court ruled that a woman's right to privacy encompasses her decision to terminate a pregnancy. Norma McCorvey (1947-2017), the anonymous Jane Roe, revealed her identity in 1989. She ended up having her 3rd baby two and a half years before the final decision was made.
    (AP, 1/22/98)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)(SFC, 3/5/99, p.A15)(NW, 6/30/03, p.44)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.A10)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.78)

1973        Jan 29, Emily Howell Warner (b.1939) became the 1st woman pilot permanently employed by a commercial airline. Her first flight as co-pilot was on the Frontier Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter August 1, 1974.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(http://members.tripod.com/~LAMKINS/Emily_Howell_Warner.txt)

1973        Mar 1, In the Paumanok Handicap at Aqueduct, Robyn Smith rode North Star to victory, becoming the first woman jockey to win a stakes race.

1973        Mar 26, Ten newly elected lady members entered the London Stock Exchange on the first working day since their election took place. The decision to break a time-honored tradition and introduce equality was announced on 1 February and ended years of campaigning by women in the financial sector.

1973        May 14, US Supreme court approved equal rights to females in military.

1973        May 18, Jeannette Rankin (b.1880) of Montana, the 1st US Congresswoman (1917-19, 41-43), died in California.

1973        Aug 16, Pres. Richard Nixon proclaimed August 26 as Women’s Equality Day. A joint resolution of the US Congress, submitted in 1971, had designated August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. Roxcy O’Neal Bolton (1927-2017) had prompted Pres. Richard Nixon to proclaim August 26 as Women's Equality Day.
    (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=106917)(Econ 6/17/17, p.82)

1973        Sep 20, In their so-called "battle of the sexes," tennis star Billie Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in straight sets, 6-4, 6-3, 6-3, at the Houston Astrodome. In 2005 Selena Roberts authored “A Necessary Spectacle," an account of the match. In 2017 the film “Battle of the Sexes" re-created the spectacle.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F2)(SFC, 9/22/17 p.E1)

1973        Nov 25, Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, was stabbed to death in prison. DeSalvo, the self-admitted Boston strangler, had been tried and convicted on unrelated assaults. 13 women were killed in Boston between 1962-1964. DNA evidence was sought in 1999. Susan Kelly wrote a book in 1995 on the Boston Strangler.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A3)(www.us.imdb.com/name/nm1108915/)

1973        Mary Daly (1928-2009), Boston College professor and feminist theologian, authored “Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation."
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, p.C10)
1973        Hassan Turabi, Sudanese scholar, authored "Women in Islam and Muslim Society."
1973        Tunisia banned the marriage of Muslim to non-Muslims. The ban was lifted in 2017.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

1974        Feb 2, Barbra Streisand made her 1st #1 hit, "The Way We Were."

1974        Feb 9, US female Figure Skating championship was won by Dorothy Hamill.

1974        May, Tennis great Billy Jean King launched the pioneering magazine "WomenSports." Billie Jean and Larry King acted as publishers. Correspondent Susan Subtle (1941-2020) was hired to deliver stories that were both "smart and outrageous".
    {USA, Magazine, Tennis, Women}
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WomenSports)(SFC, 5/18/19, p.B1)

1974        Jul 29, The Episcopal Church ordained female priests in Philadelphia.

1974        Sep 20, Gail A. Cobb (24), a member of the Metropolitan Police Force of Washington, D.C., became the first female police officer to be killed in the line of duty. Cobb was murdered by a robbery suspect in an underground garage in downtown Washington.

1974        Sep 21, Jacqueline Susann (b.1918), author, died of cancer. Her books included "Valley of the Dolls" (1966). In 1987 Barbara Seaman authored Susann's biography: "Lovely Me." In 2000 the film "Isn't She Great" starred Bette Midler as Susann.
    (SFC, 1/26/00, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacqueline_Susann)

1974        Nov 5, Ella T. Grasso was elected governor of Connecticut, the first woman to win a gubernatorial office without succeeding her husband.
    (AP, 11/5/98)

1974        Molly Haskell (b.1939) authored “From Reverence to Rape: the Treatment of women in the Movies."
1974        Anica Vesel Mander (d.2002), Yugoslavian-born prof. of Women’s Studies, authored "Feminism as Therapy."
    (SFC, 6/22/02, p.A18)
1974        The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) began recruiting women for the first time.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.35)

1975        Feb 11, Margaret Thatcher was elected leader of the Tory Party, the first woman to lead the British Conservative Party. in England. She later became Prime Minister and held office from 1979-1990. Her second volume of memoirs is titled The Path to Power, (Harper-Collins, 1995) and documents her rise to power.
    (WSJ, 7/6/95, p. A-7)(HN, 2/11/99)

1975        Mar 8, The United Nations began observing International Women's Day.

1975        May 16, Junko Tabei (1939-2016), Japanese mountain climber, became the first woman to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. In 1992, she also became the first woman to complete the "Seven Summits," reaching the highest peaks of the seven continents.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junko_Tabei)(AP, 5/16/97)

1975        Nov 26, A federal jury in Sacramento, Calif., found Lynette Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, guilty of trying to assassinate President Ford. [see Sep 5]
    (HN, 11/26/98)(AP, 11/26/99)

1975        Dec 17, Lynette Fromme was sentenced to life in prison for her attempt on the life of President Ford.
    (AP, 12/17/97)

1975        President Ford signed legislation opening the service academies to women applicants.
1975        The SF Police Academy graduated a class that included 30 men and 30 women. A federal court order had mandated opening the ranks to women.
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.A16)

1976        Jan 14, "Bionic Woman," with Lindsay Wagner, debuted on ABC (later NBC).

1976        Jan 15, Sara Jane Moore was sentenced to life in prison for her attempt on the life of President Ford in San Francisco.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1976        Jul 6, US Naval Academy admitted women for the first time in its history with the induction of 81 female midshipmen.

1976        Jul 7, The 1st female cadets enrolled at the West Point Military Academy in NY.

1976        Jun 28, The first women entered the U.S. Air Force Academy.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1976        Jul 6, US Naval Academy admitted women for the first time in its history with the induction of 81 female midshipmen.

1976        Jul 7, The 1st female cadets enrolled at the West Point Military Academy in NY.

1976        Aug 14, Some 10,000 Northern Ireland women demonstrated for peace in Belfast.

1976        Sep 30, The US House of Representatives passed the Hyde Amendment 207-167, forbidding the use of federal funds for abortion with no exceptions for health or life endangerment, even though a similar but weaker measure had been voted down two years earlier. Henry Hyde (1924-2007), freshman Congressman from Illinois, had sponsored the amendment to cut federal funding for abortions by women on Medicaid.
    (www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue42/Fried42.htm)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.31)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.A6)

1976        Oct 4, Barbara Walters made her debut as the first female nightly network news anchor. She was hired by ABC-TV, and offered a then-unheard of million dollar a year salary to co-anchor with veteran Harry Reasoner.  But Reasoner was not pleased with having her there. In addition to their lack of chemistry, the network's ratings did not improve, and she was replaced in mid-1978. She joined another ABC show, 20/20, where she had much greater success.

1976        Oct 6, In his second debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted in SF that there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." Ford later conceded he'd misspoken. Carter charged the Ford administration with excessive secrecy, immorality and weakness in dealing with the Soviet Union and Arab nations. Some 3,000 people protested outside the Palace of Fine Arts. The US non-partisan League of Women Voters organized the presidential debates and continued to do so in 1980 and 1984. In 1988 Democrats and Republicans took control of the debates. 
    (AP, 10/6/97)(SFC, 10/5/01, WB p.6)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.16)

1976        Nov 28, Rosalind Russell (b.1907), film and stage actress, died in Beverly Hills, Ca.

1976        Dec, In Oregon Kitty O'Neill (1946-2018) drove the rocket powered SMI Motivator for an average speed of 512.7 mph shattering the land speed record for women.
    (SFC, 11/9/18, p.C6)

1976        The California Legislature extended a 1953 wage law requiring overtime pay for women and minors who work extra days or hours to all workers.
    (SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)
1976        In San Francisco the nonprofit group La Casa de las Madres (Mother's Home) was founded as the state's first shelter dedicated to women and children escaping domestic violence.
    (SFC, 1/1/20, p.C1)
1976        Shere Hite (1942-2020) authored “The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality," a landmark book on women’s sexuality.
    (NY Times, 9/14/20)
1976        South Australia became the first English-speaking jurisdiction to ban rape within marriage.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.34)

1977        Mar 2, Bette Davis (1908-1989) became the 1st woman to receive Life Achievement Award.

1977        Mar 12, The Commission on Judicial Appointments confirmed Rose Elizabeth Bird (40) as California’s 25th chief justice and the 1st woman to sit on the state’s Supreme Court. [see Mar 26]
    (SFC, 3/8/02, p.G8)

1977        May 10, Patti Hearst was sentenced to 5 years’ probation for her role in the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) crime spree May 16-17, 1974. She still faced a 7-year sentence for armed robbery.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.G7)
1977        May 10, Actress Joan Crawford (69) died in New York of liver cancer.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC,12/17/97, p.D6)

1977        May 29, Janet Guthrie (b.1938) became the 1st woman to drive in the Indianapolis 500. Her autobiography, "Janet Guthrie: A Life at Full Throttle," was published in 2005.

1977        Phyllis Schlafly (1924-2016), American constitutional lawyer and conservative activist, authored “The Power of the Positive Women." 
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllis_Schlafly)(Econ, 9/17/16, p.86)

1978        Jan 16, NASA named 35 candidates to fly on the space shuttle, including Sally K. Ride, who became America's first woman in space, and Guion S. Bluford Jr., who became America's first black astronaut in space. Six women, out of some 3,000 original applicants, graduated from NASA's rigorous training program to become the 1st female astronauts in the space program.
    (AP, 1/16/98)(www.astronautix.com/astrogrp/nas81978.htm)

1978        Feb 6, Muriel Humphrey took the oath of office as a U. S. senator from Minnesota, filling the seat of her late husband, former Vice President Hubert Humphrey.
    (AP, 2/6/97)

1978        Feb 24, Louise Woodward, nanny who killed Matthew Eappen, was born in Elton, England.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1978        Apr 25, The US Supreme Court ruled pension plans can't require women to pay more.

1978        May 17, Women were included in the White House honor guard for the first time as President Carter welcomed Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

1978        Jul 9, Nearly 100,000 demonstrators marched on Wash DC for ERA.

1978        Oct 29, The US Women’s Army Corp (WAC) was deactivated.
    (AH, 10/02, p.14)(www.armywomen.org/wacHistory.shtml)

1978        Oct 31, The US Pregnancy Discrimination Act was passed making it illegal to fire women for being pregnant or having a child. It amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to prohibit sex discrimination on the basis of pregnancy.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, SR p.9)

1978        Oct, An all-woman team climbed the 26,558-foot Mt. Annapurna. 2 women died in an accident 2 days after Irene Miller and Vera Komarkova reached the top.
    (SFC, 11/7/03, p.E3)

1978        Nov 15, Margaret Mead (b.1901), American cultural anthropologist, died in NY. Her books included “Coming of Age in Samoa." In 1983 Derek Freeman authored "Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth," in which he challenged all of Mead’s major findings.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, BR p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Mead)

1978        Dec 4, San Francisco got its first female mayor as City Supervisor Dianne Feinstein was named to replace the assassinated George Moscone.
    (AP, 12/4/98)

1978        Dec 8, Golda Meir, prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974, died in Jerusalem at age 80.
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1978        Dec 13, The Philadelphia Mint began stamping the Susan B. Anthony dollar, which went into circulation the following July. This was the 1st US coin to honor a woman.
    (AP, 12/13/97)(http://tinyurl.com/377b2l)

1978        Shirley Conran (b.1932), British journalist, authored her best seller “Superwoman."

1979        Feb 27, Jane M. Byrne confounded Chicago's Democratic political machine as she upset Mayor Michael A. Bilandic to win their party's mayoral primary. Byrne went on to win the election.
    (AP, 2/27/99)

1979        Apr 3, Democrat Jane M. Byrne was elected as the 1st woman mayor of Chicago, defeating Republican Wallace D. Johnson.
    (AP, 4/3/97)
1979        Apr 3, In Belgium Wilfried Achiel Emma Martens (b.1936) became prime minister for the 1st of 9 times.

1979        May 3,    Britain held general elections. Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher was chosen to become Britain's first female prime minister as the Tories ousted the incumbent Labor government in parliamentary elections. In 2008 Claire Berlinski authored “There Is No Alternative: Why Margaret Thatcher Matters."
    (AP, 5/3/97)(HN, 5/3/98)(WSJ, 11/18/08, p.A19)

1979        May 4, Margaret Thatcher, leader of the Conservative Party, was sworn in as Britain's first female prime minister.

1979        Jul 17, Simone Veil (1927-2017) of France began serving as the 12th president of the European Parliament.

1979        Oct 25, In Michigan US District Court Judge John Feikens, in Glover v. Johnson, ruled in favor granting women prisoners a constitutional right to court access and to parity in educational and vocational training. He granted declaratory and injunctive relief to the plaintiffs, holding: 1) that the educational and vocational programs offered to women inmates were markedly poorer than those offered to male inmates and this parity denied equal protection; 2) that the record demonstrated the constitutional inadequacy of the assistance given by the state to ensure the free exercise of the women inmates’ right of access to the courts; and 3) that the state’s use of a county jail as a temporary overflow facility was prohibited by the mandate of the state legislature setting the minimum conditions of confinement.
    (LSA, Fall, 2007, p.44)(http://clearinghouse.wustl.edu/detail.php?id=767)

1979        Dec 5, Feminist Sonia Johnson was formally excommunicated by the Mormon Church because of her outspoken support for the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.
    (AP, 12/5/99)

1979        Judy Chicago (b.1939) published “The Dinner Party: A Symbol of Our Heritage," a milestone of feminist art. It records 1,038 mythical and historical women of Western civilization, especially honoring 39 of these with place settings on a triangular banquet table 48' per side.
    (SFC, 10/1/09, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/ycrxrch)
1979        Catherine MacKinnon authored her path breaking "Sexual Harassment of Working Women."
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M6)
1979        Carol Shaw became the first female video game designer with the release of her Atari game, 3D Tic-Tac-Toe.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1980        Apr 11, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1980        Apr 30, Juliana Z(1909-2004), Queen of the Netherlands, abdicated. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, was crowned queen of Netherlands.

1980        May 21, Ensign Jean Marie Butler became the first woman to graduate from a U.S. service academy as she accepted her degree and commission from the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.
    (AP, 5/21/00)

1980        Jul 18, A US Federal court voided the Selective Service Act as it didn’t include women. The issue was resolved on June 25, 1981, when the Supreme Court ruled in Rostker v. Goldberg that “that Congress acted well within its constitutional authority when it authorized the registration of men, and not women."

1980        Nov 19, CBS TV banned Calvin Klein's jean ad featuring Brooke Shields (b.1965).

1980        Nov 22, Actress Mae West died in Hollywood at age 87.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1981        Jan 25, In China Jiang Qing (1914-1991), Mao's widow, received a suspended death sentence.

1981        Mar 23, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls seek abortions. U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(HN, 3/23/98)

1981        May 17, Jeannette Ridlon Piccard (b.1895), American teacher and 1st US woman free balloon pilot, died.

1981        Nov 27, Lotte Lenya (b.1898), Vienna-born singer, actress, wife of Kurt Weill (Three Penny Opera, From Russia With Love), died of cancer in NY.

1981        Nov 29, Actress Natalie Wood (b.1938) drowned off Santa Catalina, Calif. In 2001 Suzanne Finstad authored "Natasha: The Biography of Natalie Wood." In 2004 Gavin Lambert authored "Natalie Wood: A Life."
    (AP, 11/29/97)(SSFC, 7/22/01, DB p.62)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.M2)

1981        Dec 28, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American test-tube baby, was born in Norfolk, Va.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1982        Mar 6, Ayn Rand (77), author and founder of the Objectivist philosophy, died in NY. Her novels included "Atlas Shrugged" and "The Fountainhead." In 1987 Barbara Branden wrote the biography titled "The Passion of Ayn Rand." In 1999 Nathaniel Branden published "My Years With Ayn Rand," an account of his 18-year relationship with Rand. In 1999 the US Postal Service issued a 33 cent stamp in her honor.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2nl7hk)(http://tinyurl.com/3a34t9)(SFEC, 8/18/96, PM p. 2)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.D8)

1982        Caryl Churchill (b.1938), English dramatist, wrote “Top Girls." Here she used a dinner party of historical female martyrs to consider some empty promises of feminism and the rise of selfish ambition.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.79)

1983        Feb 4, Singer Karen Carpenter died at age 32.
    (AP, 2/4/97)

1983        Mar 6, In a case that drew much notoriety, a woman in New Bedford, Mass., reported being gang-raped atop a pool table in a tavern; four men were later convicted.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1984        Jan 10, Clara Peller (1902-1987) 1st asked, "Where's the Beef?" as part of a TV ad.

1984        Feb 15, Ethel Merman (76), singer, actress (Kid Million), died in her sleep.

1984        Jul 3, The US Supreme Court ruled that Jaycees may be forced to admit women as members.

1984        Jul 12, Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale announced he had chosen U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate; Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.
    (AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 7/12/98)

1984        Jul 25, Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space. She carried out more than 3 hours of experiments outside the orbiting space station Salyut 7.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1984        The private international organization Sisterhood Is Global was founded to promote women’s rights in conjunction with the publication of “Sisterhood is Powerful" by Robin Morgan.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-12)(www.feminist.com/resources/artspeech/inter/sisterhood.htm)

1985        Mar 3, The group, Women Against Pornography awarded one of its dubious "Pig Awards" to Huggies Diapers! The activists said that the diaper TV ads have "crossed the line between eye-catching and porn."

1985        May 16, Margaret Hamilton (b.1902), American film actress, died. She was best known for her role as the Wicked Witch in the Wizard of Oz.

1985        May 21, Patti Frustaci of Riverside, Calif., who was expecting septuplets, gave birth to six live babies, three of whom died in the following weeks.
    (AP, 5/21/05)(http://tinyurl.com/ypm8k4)

1985        Dec 14, Wilma Mankiller became the first woman to lead a major American Indian tribe as she took office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
    (AP, 12/14/97)

1985        Dec 19, In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mary Lund became the first woman to receive a Jarvik VII artificial heart. Lund received a human heart transplant 45 days later; she died October 14, 1986.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1985        The Kemp-Kasten amendment authorized the US Sec. of State to determine whether certain int’l. programs receiving US funds are involved in programs that entail coercive abortions or involuntary sterilizations.
    (SFC, 7/23/02, p.A3)
1985        Radia Perlman, software designer and network engineer, earned the name “Mother of the Internet" for her invention of the Spanning Tree Protocol, a fundamental function to the operation of network bridges.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)
1985        Female genital mutilation, intentionally altering or injuring female genital organs for non-medical reasons, was made a crime in England and Wales. The law was extended in 2003 to make it an offence for British nationals or permanent residents to carry out FGM abroad or seek FGM abroad, even where it is legal.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)

1986        Mar 12, Susan Butcher won the 1,158 mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska.

1986        Apr 24, Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (b.6/19/1896), the Duchess of Windsor, for whom King Edward VIII gave up the British throne, died in Paris at age 89. Wallis Simpson was King Edward VIII's wife. In the early 1950s Simpson engaged in an affair with playboy Jimmy Donahue. In 2000 Christopher Wilson authored "Dancing with the Devil: The Windsors and Jimmy Donahue."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/4/01, p.D10)

1986        Bram Dijkstra, Prof. of comparative literature, published "Idols of Perversity." The book described the archetypal good girl. In 1996 he published "Evil Sisters: The Threat of Female Sexuality and the Cult of Manhood." It was an exploration of the archetypal bad girl.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.10)
1986        Naomi Sims (1948-2009) authored “All About Health and Beauty for the Black Woman." Her 1968 cover shot on the Ladies’ Home Journal was a breakthrough for black fashion models.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Sims)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.D5)
1986        The US Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment constituted a violation of women’s civil rights.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M6)
1986        Henrietta Briones (26) of Compton, Ca., shot and killed Larry Daniels, her former live-in boyfriend, following abuse and threats to her life. She was convicted of 2nd degree murder and sentenced 17 years to life in prison. Domestic violence became admissible evidence in 1992.
    {California, USA, Murder, Women}
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A1)
1986        Japan passed equal-employment-opportunity legislation removing most legal barriers to women in the workplace. Discrimination remained rampant.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, SR p.8)

1987        Jan 3,  The first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was ‘Lady Soul’: Aretha Franklin (b.1942). Bill Haley was among the 14 others inducted.

1987        Mar 18, Susan Butcher won her second consecutive Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, covering the distance from Anchorage to Nome, Alaska, in 11 days, 2 hours, 5 minutes and 13 seconds.
    (AP, 3/18/97)

1987        Mar 25, The Supreme Court ruled employers may sometimes favor women and members of minority groups over men and whites in hiring and promoting in order to achieve better balance in the work force.
    (AP, 3/25/97)

1987        May 14, Actress Rita Hayworth died in New York at age 68. In 1983 James Hill (d.2001), producer and former husband (1958-1961), authored "Rita Hayworth: A Memoir."
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 1/16/01, p.C4)

1987        Jul 8, Kiwanis Clubs voted to admit women and ended its men-only tradition.

1987        Jul 18, Molly Yard was elected the new president of the National Organization for Women, succeeding Eleanor Smeal.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1987        Aug 10, In San Francisco 4 women began training and took the oath of office as rookie firefighters. They were the first women in the history of the department with roots to 1850.
    (SSFC, 8/12/12, DB p.42)

1987        Oct 9, Clare Boothe Luce (b.1903), former journalist, playwright and congresswoman, died in Washington DC. Her biography by Sylvia Jukes Morris, "Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce," was published in 1997. In 2014 Sylvia Jukes Morris authored “Price of Fame: The Honorable Clare Boothe Luce."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clare_Boothe_Luce)(SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.4)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.73)

1987        In Malaysia women’s groups began campaigning for a law against wife-beating. A weak law was passed in 1994.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)

1988        Jan 28, The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the nation's restrictive abortion law.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1988        Jan, Women in Black began at the start of the Palestinian uprising, when about 30 Israeli women gathered in the center of Jerusalem in silent protest, each with a sign saying "Stop the Occupation." By the 1990-1991 Gulf War, there were 30 vigils all over Israel.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

1988        Nov 19, Shipping heiress Christina Onassis (37) died in Buenos Aires of pulmonary edema. Her 4th marriage to Thierry Roussel had recently broken up.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, Par p.2)(AP, 11/19/98)
1988        Nov 19, Benazir Bhutto was elected Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)

1988        In Israel members of the multi-denominational Women of the Wall began coming to the Western Wall 11 times a year to pray on the first day of the new Jewish month, except on the New Year. They were not allowed to wear prayer shawls. A Supreme Court decision from 2003 ruled that allowing the group to pray with the shawls at the Western Wall constituted a danger to public safety.
    {Israel, Women}
    (AP, 12/15/12)

1989        Feb 6, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Barbara W. Tuchman died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 77.
    (AP, 2/6/99)

1989        Feb 11, Reverend Barbara C. Harris became the first woman consecrated as a bishop in the Episcopal Church, in a ceremony held in Boston.
    (AP, 2/11/99)

1989        Apr 26, Lucille Ball (b.1911), Actress-comedian and star of I Love Lucy, died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles at age 77. She left behind a manuscript that was published in 1996 titled "Love, Lucy." "The tremendous drive and dedication necessary to succeed in any field... often seems to be rooted in a disturbed childhood." In 1993 Tom Gilbert wrote :"The Story of Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz." Lucille Ball was married to Gary Morton (d.1999 at 74) for 29 years. In 2003 Stefan Kanfer authored "Ball of Fire: The Tumultuous Life and Comic Art of Lucille Ball."
    (SFC, 9/23/96, D1)(SFC, 4/1/99, p.C4)(AP, 4/26/99)(WSJ, 8/15/03, p.W10)

1989        Dec 6, In Canada 14 women were shot to death at the University of Montreal's school of engineering by Marc Lepine, who then took his own life.
    (AP, 12/6/97)

1990        Jan 20, Actress Barbara Stanwyck died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 82.
    (AP, 1/20/00)

1990        Jan 25, Actress Ava Gardner, star in 60 films, died in London at age 67. Her 3 husbands included Mickey Rooney (1942-1943), Artie Shaw (1945-1946) and Frank Sinatra (1951-1957).
    (AP, 1/25/00)(SFEC, 3/12/00, Par p.2)

1990        Feb 1, Jane Novak (b.1896), film actress (Ghost Town), died of stroke in Woodland Hills, Ca. Her career began with silent films.

1990        Mar 9, Dr. Antonia Novello was sworn in as surgeon general, becoming the first woman and the first Hispanic to hold the job.
    (AP, 3/9/98)

1990        Apr 15, Actress Greta Garbo died in New York City at age 84. In 1997 Karen Swenson authored "Greta Garbo: A Life Apart." In 2000 the Rosenbach Museum in Philadelphia opened 55 letters written by Garbo to her lesbian friend Mercedes de Acosta (d.1968) between 1931-1959. Acosta was a Spanish aristocrat turned Hollywood screenwriter.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A5)

1990        Apr 25, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro was inaugurated as president of Nicaragua for a six year term, ending 11 years of leftist Sandinista rule.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1990        May 17, The effective date for pension rights for both men and women as ruled by a European court in 1994.

1990        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia a group of women got into cars and drove the streets of Riyadh in defiance of a government ban. The protest, which made headlines around the world, cost the 47 female drivers and passengers dearly. They were arrested, lost their jobs for 2 1/2 years, were banned from travel for a year and were condemned by the powerful clergy as harlots. This led interior minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz to ban women from driving.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 6/16/12)

1990        Nov 27, In Switzerland the canton Appenzell Rhodes-Interieur was required to count women’s votes by a decision of the Swiss Federal Tribunal. It was the last Swiss state to finally give women the right to vote.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.26)

1990        Nov 28, Margaret Thatcher resigned as prime minister of Britain during an audience with Queen Elizabeth II, who conferred the premiership on John Major.
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1991        Feb 16, Tonya Harding won the US female Figure Skating championship.

1991        Feb 21, Dame Margot Fonteyn (b.1919), ballerina (1st lady of British Ballet), died in Panama City, Fl. In 2004 Meredith Daneman authored “Margot Fonteyn: A Life."
    (AP, 2/21/01)(Econ, 12/4/04, p.)

1991        Mar 30, Patricia Bowman, a resident of Jupiter, Florida, told authorities she’d been raped hours earlier by William Kennedy Smith, the nephew of Senator Edward Kennedy, at the family’s Palm Beach estate. Smith was later acquitted at trial.
    (AP, 3/30/01)

1991        Jun 6, Sylvia Porter (77), economist, author (Money Book), died.

1991        Jun 14, Swiss women blocked trams during a sit-in in the heart of Zurich's financial district and gathered outside schools, hospitals and across cities with purple balloons and banners to demand equal pay for equal work.
    (Reuters, 6/14/19)

1991        Jul 31, The US Senate voted to allow women to fly combat aircraft.

1992        Feb 10, Bonnie Blair of the United States won the women's 500-meter speed skating competition at the Albertville Olympics.
    (AP, 2/10/02)

1991        Sheila Isenberg authored “Women Who Love Men Who Kill."
    (SFC, 9/28/09, p.C4)

1992        Mar 18, Leona Helmsley was sentenced to 4 years for tax evasion.

1992        Apr 15, Hotel magnate Leona Helmsley began serving a prison sentence for tax evasion. She was released from prison after 18 months.
    (AP, 4/15/97)

1992        Apr 22, The Supreme Court heard arguments on Pennsylvania's restrictive abortion law. The court upheld most of the law's provisions the following June, but also reaffirmed a woman's basic right to an abortion.
    (AP, 4/22/97)

1992        Apr 25, The Ms. Foundation began its "Take Our Daughters to Work Day."
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A1)

1992        May 6, Actress Marlene Dietrich died at her Paris home at age 90.
    (AP, 5/6/97)

1992        May 16, Actress Marlene Dietrich, who had died in Paris at age 90, was buried in Berlin.
    (AP, 5/16/97)

1992        Nov 11, The Anglican Church and the Church of England voted to ordain women as priests.
    (AP, 11/11/97)

1992        Nov 22, A Washington Post story 1st revealed claims by several women that Sen. Bob Packwood, liberal Oregon Republican, had accosted them with unwanted touching and kisses.

1992        Nov 30, The U.S. Supreme Court sustained women's basic right to abortion, voting 6-3 against reviving a 1990 Guam law that would have prohibited nearly all such procedures.
    (AP, 11/30/97)

1992        Dec 10, Sen. Bob Packwood, R-Ore., apologized for what he called "unwelcome and offensive" actions toward women, but refused to resign.
    (AP, 12/10/97)

1992        In Bolivia Maria Galindo founded Mujeres Creando (Women Creating) in an effort to protest homophobia and the maltreatment of women.
    (Econ, 1/23/16, p.28)
1992        Ireland’s Supreme Court ruling found abortion should be legalized for situations when the woman's life is at risk from continuing the pregnancy. However five following governments since have refused to pass a law resolving the confusion. In 2010 the European Court of Human Rights called on Ireland to clarify its abortion law.
    (AP, 11/14/12)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.43)

1993        Jan 20, Audrey Hepburn, actress died in Switzerland at age 63. The 8th biography of her life was written by Barry Paris in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C6) (AP, 1/20/98)

1993        Feb 27, Actress Lillian Gish died in New York at age 99.
    (AP, 2/27/98)

1993        Mar 9, Janet Reno sailed through her confirmation hearing en route to becoming the nation's first female attorney general.
    (AP, 3/9/98)

1993        Mar 11, Janet Reno was unanimously confirmed by the Senate to be attorney general.
    (AP, 3/11/98)

1993        Apr 28, The first "Take Our Daughters to Work Day," promoted by the New York City-based Ms. Foundation, was held to boost self-esteem of girls with invitations to a parent's workplace.
    (AP, 4/28/98)

1993        Dec 25, In London, an unidentified 59-year-old woman who'd been implanted with donated eggs gave birth to twins in a case that sparked controversy.
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1993        Somaly Mam (b.~1970-71) escaped Cambodia following years of forced prostitution. She moved to Paris and later returned to Cambodia to help women caught in similar situations. In 2006 she was honored as one of Glamour magazine's women of the year. In 2007 she published her autobiography: "The Road of Lost Innocence." In 2008 she was the co-winner of the $150,000 World's Children's Prize for the Rights of the Child, awarded by the Swedish Children's World Association to recognize those who defend the rights of children. In 2014 she resigned from the New York-based foundation she helped found after reports alleged that she had distorted aspects of her personal history.
    (AP, 5/29/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somaly_Mam)

1994        Jan 20, Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to attend classes at The Citadel in South Carolina. She joined the cadet corps in August 1995, under court order, but soon dropped out, citing isolation and stress.
    (AP, 1/20/99)

1994        Feb 10, Jeannie Flynn (b.1966)), the first female combat pilot in the US Air Force, finished flight training in the F-15.
    (http://tinyurl.com/n5ehhg)(NPub, 2002, p.26)

1994        Feb 24, Entertainer Dinah Shore died in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 76.
    (AP, 2/24/99)

1994        Mar 6, Melina Mercouri (b.1920), Greek born actress turned politician, died of lung cancer in New York City.
    (AP, 3/6/99)(www.imdb.com/name/nm0580479/)

1994        Mar 7, The U.S. Navy issued its first permanent orders assigning women to regular duty on a combat ship -- in this case, the USS Eisenhower.
    (AP, 3/7/99)

1994        Mar 12, The Anglican Church of England ordained its first (33) women priests.
    (AP, 3/12/98)(SFC, 5/19/00, p.D7)

1994        Mar 18, Zsa Zsa Gabor, Hungarian-born actress, filed for bankruptcy.

1994        Apr 19, The Supreme Court outlawed the practice of excluding people from juries because of their gender.
    (AP, 4/19/99)

1994        Jun 9, Latin American countries signed the pioneering Convention of Belem, which required them to educate their people about women’s rights, to fight machismo and to pass laws to protect women from violence.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.39)(http://tinyurl.com/ldkqjyk)

1994        Sep 13, Pres. Clinton signed the Violence Against Women Act. The first lawsuit under the act was reinstated in 1997 in a case where a Virginia Tech student claimed to have been raped by two football players.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_Against_Women_Act)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/24/97, p.A1)

1994        Dec 30, John Salvi opened fire at two abortion clinics in suburban Boston and killed 2 clinic receptionists, Lee Ann Nichols and Shannon Lowney. He committed suicide in prison on Nov 29, 1996. His conviction was voided in 1997 because he died before his appeal was heard.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A1,15)(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A3)(AP, 12/30/99)

1994        In Malawi a ban on women wearing pants ended following the end of the long dictatorship of Kamuzu Banda.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)
1994        Oman became the first Gulf monarchy to give the vote to women.
    (AP, 12/25/16)

1995        Apr 9, Women’s rights supporters rallied near the U.S. Capitol to protest violence against women.
    (AP, 4/9/00)

1995        Apr 13, A federal appeals court opened the way for Shannon Faulkner to become the first woman to undergo military training at The Citadel.
    (AP, 4/13/00)

1995        Apr 25, Ginger Rogers, show business legend died in Rancho Mirage, Calif., at age 83.
    (AP, 4/25/00)

1995        May 29, Margaret Chase Smith (97), the first woman to serve in both the House and the Senate (R-ME), died in Skowhegan, Maine.
    (AP, 5/29/00)

1995        Aug 21, In Thailand Prince Thitiphan Yugala (60) was poisoned by his new wife Chalasai Yugala (23), aka Luk Pla (Baby fish). He died after 8 days and Luk Pla ran off with Uthet Choopwa (19), a chestnut peddler. She had become his lover at 14 and wife at 23. In 2002 she was sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A2)

1995        Sep 4, The Fourth World Conference on Women opened in Beijing with more than 4,750 delegates from 181 countries.
    (AP, 9/4/00)

1995        Nov 24, Voters in Ireland narrowly ended a 70-year ban on divorce and approved a constitutional amendment legalizing divorce and remarriage by 50.23%.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)(AP, 11/24/00)

1995        Monica Furlong (d.2003 at 72), Christian writer and feminist, authored her autobiography: "Bird of Paradise."
    (SFC, 2/3/03, p.B4)
1995        Djibouti made it illegal to practice female genital mutilation (FGM). By 2016 nearly 80% of women were still cut.
    (Econ, 6/18/16, p.63)

1996        Jan 1, Some 100,000 Bangladeshi women rallied to protest Islamic clerics’ attacks on female education and employment.
    (AP, 1/1/01)

1996        Mar 3, Marguerite Duras, French writer, died at age 81 in Paris. She was very prolific and was best known for her novel "The Lover."
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-1)

1996        Mar 22, Shannon Lucid, astronaut, went into space on the shuttle Atlantis. She transferred to the Russian Mir space station and broke the US space endurance record of 115 days on 7/15/96.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A7)(AP, 3/22/97)

1996        Apr 6, Actress Greer Garson died in Dallas at age 92.
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-5)(AP, 4/6/97)

1996        Apr 22, Homemaker-humorist Erma Bombeck died in San Francisco at age 69.
    (AP, 4/22/97)

1996        May 28, In Indonesia Pres. Suharto banned women from participating in beauty contests abroad.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)

1996        Jul 23, Jessica Mitford (78), author of "The American Way of Death," died. The 1963 book was an expose of the funeral industry in the US. Her attorney husband, Robert Treuhaft, died in 2001. In 2001 Mary S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family." In 2006 “Decca: The Letters of Jessica," edited by Peter Y. Sussman was published. In 2010 Leslie Brody authored “Irrepressible: The Life and Times of Jessica Mitford."
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 11/12/01, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(SFC, 11/3/06, p.E9)(SSFC, 11/14/10, p.F7)

1996        Aug 24, Four women began two days of academic orientation at The Citadel; they were the first female cadets admitted to the South Carolina military school since Shannon Faulkner.
    (AP, 8/24/97)

1996        Nov 11, The Army reported getting nearly 2,000 calls to a hot line set up after revelations of a sex scandal at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Meanwhile, a Pentagon official said the Army was ready to take action in another case of alleged sexual misconduct at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.
    (AP, 11/11/97)

1996        Dec 9, Archaeologist and anthropologist Mary Leakey died in Nairobi, Kenya at age 83.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A6)(AP, 12/9/97)

1996        Dec 10, On International Human Rights Day, President Clinton urged the Senate to embrace a 17-year-old treaty barring abuses against women.
    (AP, 12/10/97)

1996        Dec, Femmes Africa Solidarite (FAS), founded by Bineta Diop (46) of Senegal, gained official recognition as an international NGO.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

1996-2001    In 2002 the Thailand-based Shan Human Rights Foundation filed a report that Burma government military forces raped at least 625 girls and women in Shan state over this period in an effort to bring the area under control.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A16)

1997        Jan 12, Two recently enrolled female cadets at The Citadel announced they were not returning for the spring semester, citing harassment by male cadets.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1997        Jan 23, Cancer experts who were supposed to settle a furious controversy over whether women should start having mammograms at age 40 or 50 decided instead to leave the decision up to patients.
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1997        Jan 24, Publix Super Markets, accused of relegating women to dead-end, low-paying jobs, agreed to pay $81.5 million to settle a class-action lawsuit.
    (AP, 1/24/98)

1997        Jan 25, Astrologer Jeane Dixon died in Washington, D.C., at age 79.
    (AP, 1/25/98)

1997        Feb 3, The Army announced that a retired female sergeant major had accused Sgt. Maj. Gene McKinney of sexual assault and harassment. McKinney, who was accused of sexual misconduct by six women, faced court-martial, but was acquitted of 18 charges of pressuring enlisted women for sex. He received a reprimand and reduction in rank.
    (AP, 2/3/02)

1997        Mar 4, Brazil Senate allowed women to wear slacks.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1997        Mar 22, In Lausanne, Switz., Tara Lipinski, at age 14 years and 10 months, became the youngest women's world figure skating champion.
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1997        Mar 23, The American Cancer Society recommended that women begin annual mammograms at age 40.
    (AP, 3/23/98)

1997        May 12, Susie Maroney, Australian swimmer, became the first woman to swim the 105 mile swim from Cuba to Key West, Fla., in 24 hours and 31 min. AP says 118-mile distance in 24 1/2 hours
    (SFC, 5/13/97, p.A3)(AP, 5/12/98)

1997        May 22, Kelly Flinn, the Air Force's first female bomber pilot certified for combat, accepted a general discharge, thereby avoiding court-martial on charges of lying, adultery and disobeying an order.
    (AP, 5/22/98)

1997        May 31, Rosie Will Monroe (77), aka Rosie the Riveter, died in Indiana. During WW II she worked as a riveter at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory in Ypsilanti, Michigan, building B-29 and B-24 bombers for the Air Force. She appeared in films and poster used by the U.S. government to encourage women to go to work in support of the war effort.

1997        Jul 21, The General Convention of the Episcopal Church in Philadelphia voted to require all Episcopal dioceses to ordain women.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A2)

1997        Oct 25, The Million Woman March was in Philadelphia to revitalize black families and communities drew an estimated 300,000 to one million people.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A3)(SFEC,10/26/97, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/98)

1997        Nov 11, The EU high court upheld hiring and promotional preferences for women.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.C2)

1997        Dec 10, Julia Butterfly (23), nee Julia Hill, climbed into a redwood tree in Humboldt County, Ca., on Pacific Lumber Co. property and remained there for over 2 years. She named the tree Luna and in her meditations came up with the equation: truth + hope = action + change. Julia ended her protest Dec 18, 1999. A deal was reached to preserve Luna and a 200-foot buffer in exchange for a $50,000 payment to Pacific Lumber, which would be donated to Humboldt State Univ. for scientific research. In 2000 Hill published "The Legacy of Luna: The Story of a Tree, a Woman, and the Struggle to Save the Redwoods."
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.1)(KPFA, 12/9/99)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.A5)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.A24)(SFEC, 4/2/00, BR p.3)

1997        Dec 28, In Egypt the Health Ministry banned government certified doctors and health workers from performing female circumcision.
    (SFC, 12/29/97, p.A7)

1997        Esther I. Madriz (d.2001 at 58) authored "Nothing Bad Happens to Good Girls," a critical feminist work that looked at the fear of crime in women’s lives.
    (SFC, 12/5/01, p.A23)
1997        Anita Borg, computer scientist, founded the Institute for Women and Technology.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1998        Jan 12, Linda Tripp provided Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr's office with taped conversations between herself and former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
    (AP, 1/12/99)

1998        Mar 13, US Sergeant Major Gene McKinney (47), once the Army's top enlisted man, was cleared on 18 of 19 charges brought against him by women who said he pressured them for sex. He was convicted for obstruction of justice for trying to persuade his chief accuser to lie. McKinney was reprimanded and demoted by one rank.
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A1)(AP, 3/13/99)

1998        Mar 31, Former New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug died at age 77.
    (AP, 3/31/99)

1998        Apr 24, The American Health for Women magazine reported that Seattle was the healthiest city for women and that SF rated # 2 and Boston # 3.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A5)

1998        Apr 30, In Florida lawmakers passed a bill that required girls under 18 to notify at least one parent prior to an abortion.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 30, A study reported in the New England Journal of medicine that RU-486, an abortion pill, was 92% effective in causing abortions with 15 days without surgery.
    (SFC, 4/30/98, p.A3)

1998        Dec 22, The women's American Basketball League folded in the midst of its 3rd season.
    (SFC, 12/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Margot Magowan and Naomi Wolf purchased 368 acres in upstate New York and founded the Woodhull Institute to help women spur each other to success.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.E7)
1998        El Salvador banned abortions in all circumstances.
    (Econ, 12/3/16, p.52)

1999        Jan 11, Hillary Clinton unveiled a new silver commemorative dollar in honor of Dolly Madison. The coin, designed by Tiffany, was the first to honor a first lady but was not legal tender.
    (SFC, 1/12/99, p.A3)

1999        Jan, Doris Haddock (1910-2010) began walking from Pasadena to Washington, DC, in order to “sweep the scoundrels away." She arrived in Feb, 2000, becoming known as “Granny D," and later campaigned to persuade women to register to vote.
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.95)

1999        Feb 8, Iris Murdoch, English novelist, died at 79. Her husband, John Bayley, published "Iris: A Memoir of Iris Murdoch" in 1998. It was published in the US as "Elegy for Iris."
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)

1999        Mar 3, Monica Lewinsky, in an ABC interview, the 20/20 TV show, timed to coincide with the publication of her book, recounted for Barbara Walters some of the fondest, as well as most painful, aspects of her relationship with President Clinton.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/3/00)

1999        Mar 5, A federal appeals court in Virginia struck down the 1994 Violence Against Women Act which let rape victims sue for civil-rights violations.
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 5, Denmark's parliament voted 81-27 to legalize prostitution, effective Jul 1.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 8, Women around the world took part in ceremonies and protests marking Int'l. Women's Day.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)

1999        Jun 19, The USA beat Denmark 3-0 on the opening day to the Women's World Cup in Giants Stadium, New Jersey. 78,992 people watched in the largest ever attendance at a woman's sporting event in the world to date.

1999        Jul 23, After a 2 day delay the Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched from Cape Canaveral aboard the shuttle Columbia led by Commander Eileen Collins, the first woman to command a US space flight.
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.A3)(AP, 7/23/00)

1999        Dec 3, Tori Murden (36) of the United States became the 1st woman to complete a rowboat crossing of the Atlantic. Her 81-day, 7 hr. and 31 min. trip began in the Canary Islands and finished at Fort-du-Bas in Guadeloupe.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A3)

1999        Ljubica Gunj became the first woman in Venice, Italy, permitted to wait on customers at tables on St. Mark’s Square.
    (SFC, 5/14/07, p.A11)

2000        Jan 19, Actress Hedy Lamarr died in Orlando, Fla., at age 86. Her career began with the 1933 Czechoslovakian film "Ecstasy."
    (SFC, 1/20/00, p.A10,E1)

2000        Jan 27, In Egypt a new law which expanded women's right to divorce passed the People's Assembly. Travel freedoms were excised at the last minute.
    (SFC, 1/28/00, p.A15)(SFC, 9/28/01, p.D3)

2000        Feb 22, In Jordan a 15-year-old boy strangled his sister (14) in a "crime of honor" because he considered her to have shamed his family. An autopsy revealed that the girl was a virgin.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.D4)

2000        Feb 24, The state of Texas executed Betty Lou Beets, 62, by injection for the 1983 murder of her fifth husband. Governor George W. Bush refused to intervene. She was the 2nd woman executed in Texas since the Civil War.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A3)(AP, 2/24/01)

2000        Mar 22, The federal government agreed to pay a record $508 million to settle a sex discrimination lawsuit filed by some 1,100 women at the now-defunct US Information Agency in 1977. Another $23 million was for back pay, interest and retirement benefits. It was the largest-ever settlement of a federal sex discrimination case.
    (SFC, 3/23/00, p.A1)(AP, 3/22/01)

2000        Apr 2, It was reported that a Nov. 1999, 79-page CIA report: "International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery," claimed 50,000 victims per year in the US.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A3)

2000        Apr 8, Claire Trevor, Hollywood actress, died at age 90 [91]. She had starred in over 60 films which included "Key Largo" (1948) and "The High and the Mighty" (1954).
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C14)

2000        Apr 19, The new Oprah Winfrey magazine "O" hit the newsstands.
    (WSJ, 4/20/00, p.A24)

2000        May 2, Jockey Julie Krone became the first female elected to thoroughbred racing’s hall of fame.
    (AP, 5/2/01)
2000        May 2, Former nurse Christina Marie Riggs was executed by injection in Arkansas for smothering her two young children.
    (AP, 5/2/01)

2000        May 15, By a five-to-four vote, the US Supreme Court threw out a key provision of the 1994 Violence Against Women Act, saying that rape victims could not sue their attackers in federal court.
    (AP, 5/15/01)

2000        May 22, In Israel the Supreme Court ruled that women may read out load from the Torah and wear a prayer shawl at the Western Wall. In 2003 the Supreme Court rejected the rule.
    (SFC, 5/23/00, p.A10)(SFC, 4/7/03, p.A12)

2000        Sep 12, Hillary Rodham became the first first lady to win an election as she claimed victory in the New York Democratic Senate primary, defeating little-known opponent Dr. Mark McMahon.
    (AP, 9/12/01)

2000        Dec 3, Sandra Baldwin was elected the first female president of the U.S. Olympic Committee.
    (AP, 12/3/01)

2001        Feb 7, Dale Evans (born as Frances Octavia Smith), singer and wife of Roy Rogers, died at age 88. Her compositions included "Happy Trails" and "The Bible Tells Me So."
    (SFC, 2/8/01, p.C2)
2001        Feb 7, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, wife of Charles Lindbergh, died at age 94. In 1955 she authored "Gift From the Sea," a meditation on women’s lives in the 20th century. In 1999 Susan Hertog authored her biography "Anne Morrow Lindbergh."
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A26)(SFC, 2/8/01, p.C2)

2001        Mar 15, Ann Sothern (92), film and TV actress, died in Ketchum, Idaho. Her work included 64 movies and over 175 TV episodes.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A23)(AP, 3/15/02)

2001        Mar 21, The Supreme Court ruled that hospitals cannot test pregnant women for drug use without their consent.
    (AP, 3/21/02)

2001        May 20, In Iran a woman was stoned to death after her conviction for acting in pornographic films was upheld by the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 5/22/01, p.A11)

2001        Jul 1, The National Organization for Women announced in Philadelphia that delegates had chosen Kim A. Gandy to be its new president, succeeding Patricia Ireland.
    (AP, 7/1/02)

2001        Jul 17, Katharine Graham, Pulitzer Prize winner and publisher of the Washington Post, died at age 84 in Boise, Idaho.
    (SFC, 7/18/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 27, Jane Greer, film actress, died at age 76. Her close to 30 films included "Out of the Past," a top noir prototype.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A15)

2001        Nov 22, Mary Kay Ash (83), founder of the Mary Kay cosmetics firm, died in Dallas. By 2001 her 1963 sales force of 11 had grown to over 750,000 in 37 countries.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A29)

2001        In Pakistan Zafran Bibi was sentenced to death by stoning for being raped by her husband’s brother. She gave birth to a daughter and was confined to a solitary cell in Kohat as her case pended appeal under Islamic law of hudood. In 2002 her conviction was overturned.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A12)(SFC, 6/7/02, p.A13)

2002        Jan 15, Nancy Pelosi, California Senator, began her position as Democratic whip.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 26, The Honduras Congress elected Justice Vilma Cecilia Morales as the 1st woman to head the Supreme Court.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A19)

2002        Feb 17, In Saudi Arabia a man was sentenced to 6 years in prison and 4,750 lashes for having sex with his wife’s sister. The woman, who did not consent, was sentenced to 6 months and 65 lashes.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr 1, The 1897 Michigan law against swearing in front of women and children was declared unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 24, On the 10th anniversary of "Take Our Daughters to Work Day," the Ms. Foundation announced that boys would be included next year.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr, The Saudi government cracked down on factories producing women’s cloaks that violated religious rules.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.A16)

2002        May 9, In Bahrain voters cast ballots in elections for 50 municipal seats. Bahraini women were allowed to vote and run for office for the 1st time, though none were elected.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A20)

2002        May 14, It was reported that the Jordanian court had recently granted the country’s 1st divorce under a new law.
    (SFC, 5/15/02, p.A13)

2002        May 16, A military court convicted Toujan Faisal, Jordan’s 1st female lawmaker, of harming the government’s reputation for an open letter accusing the PM of financial wrongdoing. She was sentenced to 1 ½ years in prison.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A20)

2002        Jun 22, In Meerwala, Pakistan, a girl (18) was gang raped in the Punjab on orders from a tribal council after her brother (11) was accused of socializing with a higher-caste girl. Police sought the culprits.
    (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A10)

2002        Jul 9, The Women’s Health Initiative announced that estrogen-progestin pills, taken by millions of women as a hormone replacement therapy, do more harm than good.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 30, WNBA player Lisa Leslie became the first woman to dunk in a professional game on a breakaway in the first half of the Los Angeles Sparks' 82-73 loss to the Miami Sol.
    (AP, 7/30/03)

2002        Jul 9, The Women's Health Initiative announced that estrogen-progestin pills, taken by millions of women as a hormone replacement therapy, do more harm than good.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 25, Some 5,000 women came from all over Colombia, traveling hours by bus, all with one message: They want an end to 38 years of civil war.
    (AP, 7/25/02)

2002        Aug 10, Doris Wishman (82), director of bad films, died in Coral Gables, Florida. Her films included such works as "Bad Girls Go to Hell" and "Blaze Star Goes Nudist."
    (SFC, 8/20/02, p.A22)

2002        Sep 26, In Mexico Martha Sahagun de Fox launched a conference of first ladies of the Americas with a promise to forge creative answers to the problem of child poverty.
    (AP, 9/26/02)

2002        Nov 14, In Panevezys, Lithuania, LNK TV sponsored a Miss Captivity Pageant with 8 finalists from the local women’s prison. Kristina (21) won $1,150 in the contest that was broadcast nationally the next day.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.K10)

2002        Nov, In south-eastern Turkey Semse Allak, a pregnant woman, and Halil, her illicit love (or rapist), were stoned to death for shaming their families in the province of Mardin.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.53)

2002        Dec 11, A Pakistan human rights group said 461 women had been killed this year by family members in so-called honor killings in Punjab and Sindh, up from 372 last year.
    (SFC, 12/12/02, p.A14)

2002        Clara Bingham and Laura Leedy Gansler authored "Class Action: The Story of Lois Jenson and the Landmark Case That Changed Sexual Harassment Law."
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M6)
2002        Sharon Lamb authored "the Secret Lives of Girls: What Good Girls Really Do – Sex Play, Aggression, and Their Guilt."
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.M1)
2002        Emily White authored "Fast Girls: Teenage Tribes and the Myth of the Slut."
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.M1)
2002        In Iran Shahla Jahed, who had become what is known as a "temporary wife" of former soccer star Nasser Mohammad Khani, was charged with stabbing his wife, Laleh Saharkhizan, to death and convicted of murder in 2004 and again in 2009, after her appeal was denied. She was hanged on Dec 1, 2010.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2003          Mar 8, The first Afghan radio station programmed solely for women began broadcasting in Kabul. Daily broadcasts will increase to 2 hours next week and up to 4 hours in several months.
    (AP, 3/9/03)

2003        Jul 2, A group of 650 Kenyan women won the right to sue the British Ministry of Defense for rapes by British soldiers that took place over a 26 year period beginning in 1977.
    (SFC, 7/3/03, p.A14)

2003        Oct 23, Soong May-ling (b.1896), aka Madame Chiang Kai-shek, died in NYC. She became one of the world's most famous women as she helped her husband fight the Japanese during World War II and later the Chinese Communists. In 2009 Hannah Pakula authored “Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the Birth of Modern China."
    (AP, 10/24/03)(SSFC, 12/27/09, Books, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soong_May-ling)

2003        Leonard Shlain authored "Sex, Time & Power: How women's Sexuality Shaped Human Evolution."
    (SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M1)

2004        Apr 10, Rania al-Baz, a popular Saudi TV host, was severely beaten by her husband. She suffered 13 facial fractures that required 12 operations. She allowed photos to be broadcast and opened discussions of ongoing violence against women in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.A6)

2004        Jun 13, Saudi Arabia held a 3-day “national dialogue" in Medina on how women’s lives could be improved. On Jun 15, recommendations (19) were given to Crown Prince Abdullah.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.26)

2004        Jun, The Saudi parliament passed legislation overturning a law banning girls and women from participating in physical education and sports. In August the ministry of education announced that it had no intention of honoring the legislation.
    (SFC, 8/26/04, p.B1)

2004        Dec 28, Susan Sontag (71), writer, filmmaker and social critic, died of leukemia in NYC. Her 17 books included “Against Interpretation, and Other Essays."
    (SFC, 12/29/04, p.A1)(Econ, 1/8/05, p.77)

2004        Carmen bin Ladin authored “Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia." Carmen, the ex-wife of Osama’s older brother Yeslam, grew up in Geneva.
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.D8)
2004        Dea Birkett authored “Off the Beaten Track: Three Centuries of Women Travelers."
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.75)
2004        Marilyn Yalom authored “The Birth of the Chess Queen," a look at how the power of the chess queen reflects the evolution of female power in the Western world.
    (SSFC, 5/2/04, p.M1)(Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)
2004        In Saudi Arabia women until this year were legally required to conduct business through a male agent.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.86)

2005        Apr 11, Andrea Dworkin (58), feminist writer, died in Washington DC. Her books included “Woman Hating" (1974).
    (SFC, 4/12/05, p.B4)

2005        Aug, In Pakistan Nazo Dharejo and her sisters held off 200 armed men in a gunfight in Sindh province over her family's property after her father died leaving no male heir. In 2917 the 98-minute Urdu-language film My Pure Land, portrayed a version of Dharejo's story.
    (AFP, 11/25/17)

2005         Nepal outlawed the centuries-old Hindu practice of "chhaupadi," in which menstruating women and girls, seen as impure, are sent away to animal sheds or huts. The custom remained prevalent in Nepal's remote west where some communities feared misfortune, such as a natural disaster, unless menstruating women and girls are sent away to animal sheds or huts.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2006        Feb 4, Betty Friedan (85), feminist crusader and author of “The Feminine Mystique" (1963), died at her home in Washington. In 1966 she co-founded the National organization for Women (NOW).
    (SSFC, 2/5/06, p.A6)(Econ, 2/11/06, p.82)

2006        Frances E. Allen (b.1932), pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers, became the first woman to earn the Turing Award, regarded as the Nobel Prize of computing.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

2006        In India Sampat Pal (44) formed the Pink Gang with a handful of women in northern Uttar Pradesh state to forcefully address abuse, local injustice and corruption. By 2009 thousands of women had joined the group and trained themselves to wield bamboo batons.
    (SSFC, 6/14/09, p.A6)

2007        Apr, A court in Venice, Italy, allowed Alexandra Hai (40), a German of Algerian descent, to operate a gondola, but only for the residents of one of the city’s hotels. Her permit was opposed by the city’s male gondoliers.
    (SFC, 5/14/07, p.A11)

2007        Nov 16, The first summit of women leaders opened in NYC. The two-day "International Women Leaders Global Security Summit," opened under the co-chairmanship of former Irish president Mary Robinson and former Canadian prime minister Kim Campbell. At the close over 70 women leaders issued a call for action on global warming, terrorism, poverty and women's security. The women leadership initiative was launched in October 2006.
    (AFP, 11/18/07)

2007        Rebiya Kadeer, prominent Uighur exile, authored her memoir “Dragon Fighter: One Woman’s Epic Struggle for Peace with China." The original German publication was made available in English in 2009.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.77)
2007        James Smith, an English professor at Boston College, authored "Ireland's Magdalene Laundries and the Nation's Culture of Containment." The so-called Magdalene Laundries, a network of 10 workhouses, operated in independent Ireland from the 1920s to the mid-1990s. The Irish Human Rights Commission later said that Ireland's civil authorities for decades dumped women, often teenagers being punished for petty crimes or becoming pregnant out of wedlock, into the so-called Magdalene Laundries.
    (AP, 11/9/10)
2007        A topless advocacy group was founded by a spiritual leader named Rael after a topless advocate in New York was arrested and held in jail for 9 days before winning a lawsuit against the city. An annual topless day began to be held on the Sunday closest to Women’s Equality Day. In 1971 a joint resolution of Congress designated August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Equality_Day)(SFC, 8/26/13, p.C3)
2007        In Kenya Pastor Jacob Momposhi Samperu founded the Hope for the Maasai Girls center to rescue girls from circumcision.
    (AFP, 10/4/11)
2007        Venezuela became the first country to define "obstetric violence" in law and make it a criminal offense.
    (Econ., 5/23/20, p.24)

2008        Jan 21, In Saudi Arabia the daily Al-Watan, which is deemed close to the Saudi government, reported that the Interior Ministry issued a circular to hotels asking them to accept lone women, as long as their information is sent to a local police station.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Mar 8, Calls to end forced marriage, domestic abuse and job discrimination marked International Women's Day as demonstrators took to the streets worldwide.
    (AFP, 3/8/08)

2008        Aug 29, John McCain, on his 72nd birthday, tapped little-known Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin (44) to be his vice presidential running mate.
    (AP, 8/29/08)(SFC, 8/30/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 12, Dorothy Wiltse Collins (b.1923), star pitcher in women’s professional baseball in the 1940s, died in Fort Wayne, Indiana from a stroke. Pitching for six seasons in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, created in 1943 to provide home front entertainment while many major leaguers were off to war, Collins dazzled opposing batters. The All-American league went out of business after the 1954 season. She drew on her contacts to provide the Baseball Hall of Fame with memorabilia from the league, spurring creation of its Women in Baseball exhibit in 1988.

2008        Sep 2, Iran sentenced four female activists to six months in prison for writings demanding equality for women. Sweden had awarded a human rights prize to Parvin Ardalan, one of the activists, earlier this year.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 18, Rwanda became the first country in the world where women outnumber men in parliament, according to provisional results announced at the close of a four-day legislative vote.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Oct 27, A West African court ordered Niger to pay compensation to Hadijatou Mani (24), who was sold into slavery at age 12 and held for a decade. She had been forced to work as a domestic servant and a sexual slave until 2005.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A4)

2008        Nov 14, The US Army promoted its first woman, Ann Dunwoody, to the rank of four-star general.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 11, Bettie Page (85), the 1950s secretary-turned-model, died. Her controversial photographs in skimpy attire or none at all helped set the stage for the 1960s sexual revolution.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Esther Chavez, a women's rights activist, was named the winner of Mexico's National Human Rights Award. She first drew attention to the slayings of young women in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez in the early 1990s.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 14, Eva Habil (53) became Egypt's first female mayor. The Christian lawyer, beat five male candidates, including her younger brother, to become mayor of the predominantly Coptic Christian town of Komboha in southern Egypt.
    (AFP, 12/14/08)

2008        A report by the Egyptian Center for Women's Rights said two-thirds of women in Egypt experienced sexual harassment on a daily basis.
    (AP, 6/7/12)
2008        Kiev university students established Femen, a group whose main aims are to improve the role of women in Ukraine's male-dominated, post-Soviet society. By 2010 it had become a small army of 300 mainly student activists ready to peel off in public to support Ukrainian women's rights.
    (Reuters, 11/15/10)

2009        Jan 24, In India a right-wing Hindu nationalist group, outraged by what they viewed as "obscene" behavior, stormed a fashionable bar in the southern city of Mangalore and the assaulted female patrons. The Sri Ram Sena (Lord Ram's Army) claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AFP, 1/31/09)

2009        Mar 22, A group of Saudi clerics urged the kingdom's new information minister to ban women from appearing on TV or in newspapers and magazines, making clear that the country's hardline religious establishment is skeptical of a new push toward moderation.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        May 14, A British parliamentary report into human trafficking said more than 5,000 mostly women and children have been smuggled into Britain to work as sex slaves and beggars.
    (AFP, 5/14/09)

2009        Apr 15, Hundreds of Afghans swarmed a demonstration of more than 100 women protesting against a new marriage law they say restricts wives' rights. The women were pelted with small stones as police struggled to keep the two groups apart. A NATO soldier and 2 Afghan policemen were killed in fresh violence. Taliban insurgents beheaded a government employee on charges of spying for foreign forces in the Bala Murghab district of Badghis province.
    (AP, 4/15/09)(AFP, 4/16/09)

2009        May 16, Kuwaitis voted in the second parliamentary election in a year. 210 candidates for the 50-seat parliament included 16 women. Kuwaiti women won political rights in 2005, and practiced them for the third time. Kuwait’s population of about 3.4 million people included 2.3 million foreign workers. Kuwaitis elected 4 women and rejected a number of Islamic fundamentalist candidates.
    (AP, 5/16/09)(AP, 5/17/09)

2009        Jul 10, In Sudan Sudanese police arrested 13 women in a raid on a Khartoum cafe and flogged 10 of them in public for wearing trousers in violation of the country's strict Islamic law. One of those arrested, journalist Lubna Hussein, said she is challenging the charges, which can be punishable by up to 40 lashes.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 20, In Malaysia Kartika Sari Dewi Shukarno (32), a Muslim woman, was sentenced to six lashes and a fine of 5,000 ringgit ($1,400) for having a beer in a nightclub in Dec 2007. She would become the first woman in Malaysia to be given the punishment under Islamic law. Her caning was delayed on Aug 24 because of the holy month of Ramadan. On Mar 30, 2010, the state's sultan spared her the caning and instead ordered her to do 3 weeks of community service. 
    (AP, 7/21/09)(AP, 8/19/09)(AP, 8/24/09)(AP, 4/1/10)

2009        Jul 29, A Sudanese court adjourned the case of Lubna Ahmed al-Hussein, a woman journalist facing 40 lashes for wearing "indecent" trousers. 10 women had already been whipped on July 3 for similar offences against Islamic law. "I wish to resign from the UN, I wish this court case to continue," Hussein told a packed courtroom before the judge adjourned the case to August 4.
    (AFP, 7/29/09)

2009        Oct 6, The Hamas government banned motorcycle riders from carrying women on the back seat, the latest in the militants' virtue campaign in Gaza.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 20, Kuwait's highest court granted women the right to obtain a passport without their husband's approval, in the latest stride for women's rights in this small oil-rich emirate. The landmark decision "freed" Kuwaiti women from the 1962 law requiring their husband's signature to obtain a passport.
    (AP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 28, Germany's Lutheran Church elected Margot Kaessmann (51), the first woman to lead the nation's Protestants.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, Kuwait's highest court ruled that women lawmakers are not obliged by law to wear the headscarf, a blow to Muslim fundamentalists who want to fully impose Islamic Sharia law in this small oil-rich state.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Dec 25, Mexican authorities in the state of Chihuahua found the bullet-riddled bodies of six members of the same family in a mountainous area. Esther Chavez (73), a women's rights activist who first drew attention to the brutal slayings of women in the border city of Ciudad Juarez, died. She was the founder of Casa Amiga, a shelter for female victims of violence in Ciudad Juarez.
    (AP, 12/26/09)(AP, 12/27/09)

2009        Egypt passed a law allocating 64 seats out of 518 in the People’s Assembly to women.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.30)

2010        Jan 18, A group of 30 Mauritanian Muslim leaders issued a religious edict banning female genital mutilation in the West African country. The leaders also agreed to preach against the practice at their mosques.
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2010        Feb 9, Authorities in Malaysia caned three Muslim women for having extramarital sex, making them the first women in the country to receive such punishment under Islamic law. Each woman reportedly received between four and six strokes of a rattan cane.
    (AP, 2/17/10)

2010        Feb 15, Jeanne M. Holm, the first woman to rise to the rank of general in the US Air Force and the first woman to become a two-star general in any US armed service, died in Annapolis, Md.
    (SFC, 3/3/10, p.C5)

2010        Mar 14, Egypt's Constitutional Court backed the right of women judges to sit on the bench in the state's administrative courts, despite opposition from conservatives. The ruling was not "decisive" and debates within the administrative courts could still continue along the conservative-liberal fault line.
    (AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Apr 3, In Portland, Maine, about two dozen women drew a crowd of onlookers when they shed their shirts and marched downtown to promote what they call equal-opportunity public toplessness.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 12, Nebraska Republican Gov. Dave Heineman signed into law a bill requiring doctors to screen women for possible mental and physical problems before performing abortions and a 2nd law that would ban abortions after 20 weeks, based on the assertion that fetuses feel pain.
    (SFC, 4/13/10, p.A4)

2010        Apr 16, In Iran cleric Hojatoleslam Kazem Sedighi, the acting prayer leader of Tehran, said women who wear immodest clothing and behave promiscuously are to blame for earthquakes.
    (SFC, 4/20/10, p.A4)

2010        Apr 27, In Nepal Oh Eun-sun (44), a South Korean mountaineer, became the first woman to scale the world's 14 highest mountains, crawling on all fours as she reached the last summit. She reached the summit of  Annapurna 13 years after she scaled her first Himalayan mountain, Gasherbrum II, in 1997. She scaled Everest in 2004.
    (AP, 4/27/10)

2010        Apr 29, The US Navy said the first US women allowed to serve aboard submarines will be reporting for duty by 2012.
    (AP, 4/29/10)

2010        May 3, In Senegal lawmakers from 27 African countries gathered in Dakar for a two-day conference to push for a UN ban on female genital mutilation as a breach of human rights. Senegal hoped to eradicate the practice completely by 2015.
    (AFP, 5/3/10)

2010        May 10, President Barack Obama nominated Solicitor General Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court, pushing the former law school dean toward the pinnacle of her profession and positioning the United States to have three women justices for the first time in its history.
    (AP, 5/10/10)

2010        May 24, In Trinidad and Tobago attorney Kamla Persad-Bissessar (59) was elected as the first female prime minister. Preliminary elections results indicated that Persad-Bissessar and her five-party People's Partnership coalition won 29 of 41 seats in parliament.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May, Malaysia's Islamic Shariah courts appointed their first female judges. The news was not made public until July.
    (AP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jun 7, Iran's first women-only bank branch opened, allowing women to manage their finances without dealing with unrelated men, something likely to appeal to religious families who oppose mingling between the sexes.
    (Reuters, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, At the Vatican groups that have long demanded that women be ordained Roman Catholic priests took advantage of the Vatican's crisis over clerical sex abuse to press their cause, demanding the Vatican open discussions on letting women join the priesthood.
    (AP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 16, Human Rights Watch called on Kurdish authorities in northern Iraq to ban the practice of female genital mutilation, and said in a new report that the majority of women in the self-ruled region undergo the medically risky and emotionally painful procedure.
    (AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jul 12, The Church of England national assembly decided that women should be allowed to become bishops, making only minor concessions to theological conservatives who have threatened to break away over the issue.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Aug 9, Bibi Aisha, a young Afghan woman who said her nose and ears were sliced off last year to punish her for running away from her violent husband, gained worldwide attention when she appeared on the cover of Time magazine. She was sent to Los Angeles over the summer for reconstructive surgery. In November her father-in-law was arrested on charges of disfiguring Aisha and of being part of a Taliban network in Uruzgan province. The only suspect arrested in the case was released in July, 2011.
    (AP, 12/8/10)(SFC, 7/12/11, p.A2)

2010        Oct 25, In Egypt a planned website, Harrasmap, will allow women to quickly report instances of harassment via text message or Twitter, to be loaded onto a digital map of Cairo to show hotspots and areas that might be dangerous for women to walk alone. The data will be shared with activists, media, and police. Cairo's online map will run off a platform called Ushahidi, an open-source software first developed to report violence in Kenya after 2008 elections there. Since then test models of it have run in South Africa, Gaza and India.
    (AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 31, Saudi Arabia's top government-sanctioned board of senior Islamic clerics endorsed a fatwa that calls for a ban on female vendors because it violates the kingdom's strict segregation of the sexes.
    (AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Nov 24, In India a local official said the northern Lank village council in Uttar Pradesh state has banned unmarried women from using cell phones for fear they will arrange forbidden marriages that are often punished by death.
    (AP, 11/24/10)

2010        Dec 9, Jordan appointed a woman, Ihsan Barakat (46), as chief district attorney of the country's capital, marking the first time a woman has held a top prosecutor's post in the pro-American Arab kingdom.
    (AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 14, The US Coast Guard named Rear. Adm. Sandra Stosz (50) to lead its academy at New London, Conn., beginning next summer.
    (SFC, 12/15/10, p.A16)

2010        Dec 26, Geraldine Doyle (86), a Michigan factory worker used as the unwitting model for the wartime Rosie the Riveter poster, died. The term "Rosie the Riveter" stems from a 1942 song honoring the women who took over critical factory jobs when American men went off to war. The inspirational "We Can Do It!" poster was not widely seen until the 1980s when it was embraced by the feminist movement as a potent symbol of women's empowerment.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        Elizabeth Abbott authored “Mistresses: A History of the Other Woman."
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.164)
2010        Leila J. Rupp authored “Sapphistries: A Global History of Love Between Women."
    (SSFC, 2/14/10, p.F5)
2010        Kelly Valen authored “Twisted Sisterhood: Unraveling the Dark Legacy of Female Friendships."
    (SFC, 11/3/10, p.E1)

2010        California’s federal prison receivership put a stop to all tubal ligations on female prisoners. In 2013 the Center for Investigative Reporting found that 148 women in state prisons had received tubal ligations without required state approvals from 2006-2010. This prompted state lawmakers to call for an investigation.
    (SFC, 7/12/13, p.D8)

2010        In Saudi Arabia an estimated 4 million women over the age of 20 were unmarried in the country of 24.6 million. Many male guardians forcibly kept women single, a practice known as "adhl." Saudi feminist Wajeha al-Hawaidar described male guardianship as "a form of slavery."
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2011        Jan 13, France's parliament gave final approval to a law forcing large companies to reserve at least 40 percent of their boardroom positions for women within six years.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.11)(http://tinyurl.com/447vuoy)

2011        Jan 18, It was reported that around 187,000 women in Turkey are in polygamous marriages even though polygamy is illegal.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

2011        Feb 14, A group of Japanese citizens filed a lawsuit challenging a civil law that effectively stops women from keeping their surnames when they marry.
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Mar 1, The European Court of Justice said insurers must stop setting prices based on gender, in a move that could raise costs for women drivers, cut male pensions, and prompt more legal challenges to insurance pricing practices.
    (Reuters, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Egypt a protest by hundreds of women demanding equal rights and an end to sexual harassment turned violent when crowds of men heckled and shoved the demonstrators, telling them to go home where they belong.
    (AP, 3/8/11)
2011        Mar 8, Palestinian women took to the streets to call for unity and an end to the Israeli occupation in a series of rallies called to mark International Women's Day.
    (AP, 3/8/11)
2011        Mar 8, Sudanese riot police arrested more than 40 women minutes after they started a protest against rape and rights abuses in the Khartoum suburb of Omdurman.
    (Reuters, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 9, In Egypt attackers, said to be pro-Mubarak thugs, armed with knives and machetes waded into hundreds of pro-democracy activists in Cairo's Tahrir Square, as insecurity raged. Military authorities detained women in Tahrir Square and forced 18 of them to undergo “virginity tests."
    (AFP, 3/9/11)(SFC, 6/1/11, p.A6)(SFC, 6/28/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 10, Human Rights Watch issued a report saying "The enforcement of a compulsory Islamic dress code on women in Chechnya violates their rights to private life, personal autonomy, freedom of expression, and freedom of religion, thought, and conscience."
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        May 10, Pakistani lawmakers adopted tougher penalties for acid attacks in a step towards eradicating a form of violence that can disfigure around 200 women a year. The lower house of parliament passed the amendment, but the legislation needs to be formally rubber stamped by the Senate.
    (AFP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 11, In Istanbul 13 European countries signed a Council of Europe convention on combating violence against women.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, p.68)(https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1785485&Site=DC)

2011        May 22, Saudi authorities re-arrested activist Manal al-Sherif, who defied a ban on female drivers. She was detained for several hours a day earlier by the country's religious police and released after she signed a pledge agreeing not to drive. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that bans women, both Saudi and foreign, from driving.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 28, Thousands of people turned out for Australia's first "SlutWalk," protesting for women to be able to wear whatever they like without fear of being sexually assaulted. SlutWalk began in Canada in April after a Toronto police official said that "women should avoid dressing like sluts in order not to be victimized."
    (AFP, 5/29/11)

2011          Jun 2, The New York Times announced the appointment of Managing Editor Jill Abramson to the position of Executive Editor, effective September 6th. She will become the first woman Executive Editor in the history of the Times.
            (Agence France Presse, 6/2/11)(Washington Post, 6/2/11)
2011        Jun 2, In London Nobel-winning writer V.S. Naipaul (78) faced criticism for saying he does not regard any female authors as his equal, even famed novelist Jane Austen, because they are "sentimental."
    (AFP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 8, Turkey’s PM Erdogan said he would scrap the ministry for women along with 7 other cabinet jobs.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.59)(http://tinyurl.com/3tw6omd)

2011        Jun 16, Malaysia opened an investigation into allegations that two immigration officers forced a pair of Singaporean women to do squats naked. The officers were suspended.
    (AFP, 6/17/11)

2011        Jun 18, Yelena Bonner (b.1923), Russian rights activist and widow of Nobel Peace Prize winner Andrei Sakharov, died in Boston.
    (SFC, 6/20/11, p.C3)

2011        Jun 19, In Pakistan Muhammad Riaz chopped off his wife’s nose before turning himself over to the Khanpur police. Riaz, a resident of Choee village, said he believed his wife, Ansar Bibi (22), was having an affair. Bibi denied the allegation saying he did it because she is infertile. Police later arrested the alleged boyfriend, Ashiq Hussain, from Riaz’s house and registered separate cases against both men.
    (www.muslimwomennews.com/)(SSFC, 6/26/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 20, The US Supreme Court denied a sex discrimination suit on behalf of over 1 million Wal-Mart employees saying they failed to pinpoint any company policy that denied them equal pay of promotions.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A1)

2011        Jun 21, Iraqi Kurdistan approved a draft law banning female genital mutilation by the regional government. The Family Violence Bill has to be ratified by the regional president, Massud Barzani.
    (AFP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jun 28, Saudi police detained one woman while driving in Jiddah on the Red Sea coast. Four other women accused of driving were later detained in the city.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 6, The EU Parliament passed a resolution calling for EU-wide legislation stipulating that at least 40% of seats on listed companies’ supervisory boards be reserved for women by the year 2020.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.61)

2011        Jul 31, In India hundreds of protesters took to the streets of New Delhi for India's first "Slut Walk," to protest at an alarming rise in sexual assault cases and the growing sense of insecurity among women.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)

2011        Aug 7, Nancy Wake (98), Australia's greatest World War II heroine, died in London. She was a prominent figure in the French Resistance.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.82)

2011        Aug 20, In South Africa some 2,000 women draped sexy lingerie over their street clothes and marched through Cape Town, bringing the international "SlutWalks" campaign against the notion that a woman's appearance can excuse attacks to a country where rape is seen as a national crisis.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Sep 25, Saudi King Abdullah announced that the nation's women will gain the right to vote and run as candidates in local elections to be held in 2015 in a major advancement for the rights of women in the deeply conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 26, Australia opened frontline combat roles to women for the first time in its history under a new policy allowing all military positions to be filled on merit rather than gender.
    (AFP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 27, In Saudi Arabia Shaima Jastaina was sentenced to be lashed 10 times with a whip for defying the kingdom’s prohibition on driving. King Abdullah quickly overturned the court ruling.
    (SFC, 9/28/11, p.A2)(SFC, 9/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 6, The UN said increased access to technology that allows parents to know the sex of their fetus has left Asia short of 117 million women, mostly in China and India.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Nov 24, Israeli women's rights activists marched through Tel Aviv carrying black coffins to raise awareness about domestic violence in Israel, which so far this year has claimed 24 women's lives.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)
2011        Nov 24, The UN human rights chief urged the Maldives to end the "degrading" practice of flogging women found to have had sex outside marriage. The country of 300,000 people forbids practicing religions other than Islam.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 30, The United Arab Emirates announced that children of Emirati women married to foreigners could apply for citizenship once they turned 18, moving closer to giving women the same nationality rights as men.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Afghan Pres. Karzai pardoned an Afghan woman (19) serving a 12-year sentence for having sex out of wedlock after she was raped by a relative. Karzai said she had agreed to marry her attacker. She had a child while in prison and had previously refused a judge’s offer of freedom in exchange for marrying the rapist.
    (SFC, 12/2/11, p.A5)

2011        Dec 3, The London-based Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organization (IKWRO) reported that more than 2,800 so-called honor attacks, punishments for bringing shame on the family, were recorded by Britain's police in 2010.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, In Singapore hundreds of people gathered at a park to protest sexual violence against women as part of the global "SlutWalk" movement, in a rare public demonstration in the tightly controlled city state.
    (AP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 8, Britain’s Defense Secretary Philip Hammond announced that women will be allowed to serve on British navy submarines, with female officers taking up roles from late 2013.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)
2011        Dec 8, Liberia and Senegal pledged to reform their laws so that women can confer citizenship on their children. They were among at least 30 countries that let only fathers pass their citizenship to children from marriages with a foreigner.
    (AP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 9, Mexico's navy said the first woman has joined the ranks of its special forces.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Ripa Rashid authored “Winning the War for Talent in Emerging Markets: Why Women Are the Solution."
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.58)

2012        Jan 20, In Malawi hundreds of outraged girls and women, among them prominent politicians, protested the recent public stripping of women of their miniskirts and pants. Many wore pants or miniskirts and T-shirts emblazoned with such slogans as: "Real men don't harass women." Men also took part.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 23, British adventurer Felicity Aston (34) finished her Antarctic crossing, becoming the first woman to ski across the icy continent alone.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Feb 10, Pres. Obama offered a compromise that would allow women to obtain free contraception, but would require them to obtain it directly from their insurance companies if their employers object to birth control because of religious beliefs.
    (AP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb, In Saudi Arabia a royal order stipulated that women who drive should not be prosecuted by the courts.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.60)

2012        Mar 4, ProFlowers of San Diego said it has suspended advertising on the Rush Limbaugh radio show, becoming the 7th advertiser in recent days to do so, due to his comments about Georgetown Univ. law student Sandra Fluke. He had called her a “slut" and a “prostitute" after she testified in support of health insurance that covers birth control for women.
    (SFC, 3/5/12, p.A8)

2012        Mar 5, Singapore Minister of State for Manpower Minister Tan Chuan Jin said a mandatory weekly rest day would apply to maids whose work permits are issued or renewed from January 1, 2013.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 6, Afghan President Hamid Karzai endorsed the Ulema Council's “code of conduct" document issued March 3. It allows husbands to beat wives under certain circumstances and encourages segregation of the sexes.
    (AP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 27, Adrienne Rich (b.1929), American feminist poet, died in her Santa Cruz, Ca., home after a long struggle with rheumatoid arthritis.
    (SFC, 3/29/12, p.A1)

2012        Mar 28, Human Rights Watch said hundreds of Afghan women were languishing in prison for so-called moral crimes, which included running away from home and having sex outside marriage. The group estimated a total of 400 women were in prison and girls in juvenile detention facilities having been accused or convicted of offences including "running away", which is not a crime under the Afghan penal code.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Apr 5, Pope Benedict XVI denounced priests who have questioned church teaching on celibacy and ordaining women, saying they were disobeying his authority to try to impose their own ideas on the church.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 19, The Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith ordered an overhaul of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR), based in Silver Spring, Md. I cited radical feminist themes and questioned official positions on homosexuality and the ordination of women.
    (SFC, 4/20/12, p.A6)

2012        May 22, The first woman to command a major Royal Navy warship took up her post. Commander Sarah West (40) took control of the frigate HMS Portland. West has served in the Royal Navy for 16 years.
    (AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 23, The annual index by Business Review Weekly said Australia's richest person, Gina Rinehart (58), has eclipsed Wal-Mart heiress Christy Walton to become the world's wealthiest woman. The index put the mining tycoon's personal fortune at Aus$29.17 billion (US$28.48 billion).
    (AFP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 23, In Saudi Arabia a Saudi woman defied orders by the notorious religious police to leave a mall because she is wearing nail polish and recorded the interaction on her camera. Her video went viral, attracting more than a million hits in just five days.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 29, In Tanzania a leading local rights group said some 3,000 people suspected of witchcraft, mainly old women, have been lynched in Tanzania from 2005 to 2011.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        Jun 8, In Egypt a mob of hundreds of men assaulted women holding a march demanding an end to sexual harassment, with the attackers overwhelming the male guardians and groping and molesting several of the female marchers in Cairo's Tahrir Square.
    (AP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jul 23, Sally Ride (61), the first US woman to travel into space and an advocate for science education, died in Florida after a 17-month battle with pancreatic cancer. Her death made it public that her surviving partner of 27 years was a woman. Ride first launched into space in 1983 aboard Challenger on the 7th mission of US space shuttle program. In 2014 Lynn Sherr authored “Sally Ride: America’s First Woman in Space."
    (Reuters, 7/24/12)(SSFC, 7/13/14, p.N3)

2012        Aug 30, Palestinian religious authorities announced sweeping reforms of divorce laws making it easier for a woman to end her marriage. The changes would no apply in Gaza.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A3)

2012        Sep 24, Saudi Arabian authorities began holding some 908 female Nigerian pilgrims heading to Mecca over a rule requiring them to travel with a husband or male companion.
    (SFC, 9/27/12, p.A2)(AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia began expelling over a thousand Nigerian women on religious pilgrimage to the country because they had arrived without male guardians.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Botswana a judge nullified a customary law that denied women the right to inherit a family home, a decision seen as a crucial step forward for women's rights in the southern African country.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Nov 13, In eastern China Yao Defen (39), the world's tallest woman at 7 feet and 7 inches, died at her home in Anhui province.
    (AP, 12/5/12)

2012        Nov 17, In Swaziland Ellinah Wamukoya (61) was consecrated to serve as the Anglican church's bishop and first female bishop in Africa.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 20, The Church of England’s governing General Synod failed to get a required two-thirds majority to allow women to serve as bishops.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 27, Four female service members filed a lawsuit challenging the Pentagon's ban on women serving in combat, hoping the move will add pressure to drop the policy just as officials are gauging the effect that lifting the prohibition will have on morale. A 1994 rule that barred women from being assigned to ground combat units.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Hanna Rosin authored “The End of Men and the Rise of Women."
    (Econ., 3/7/15, p.62)
2012        Saudi courts licensed their first female lawyer.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.45)

2013        Jan 11, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah issued two royal decrees granting women 30 seats on the Shura Council, which has 150 members plus a president. The council reviews laws and questions ministers, but doesn't have legislative powers.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 23, Senior defense officials said Pentagon chief Leon Panetta is removing the military's ban on women serving in combat, opening hundreds of thousands of front-line positions and potentially elite commando jobs after more than a decade at war.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 26, In Switzerland 3 women from Ukrainian feminist activist group Femen, angry over sexism and male domination of the world economy, ripped off their shirts and tried to force their way into a gathering of corporate elites in Davos.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Mar 5, A UN aid agency canceled the Gaza marathon after the Palestinian territory's militant Hamas rulers banned women from participating in the annual sporting event.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 8, In South Africa statistics say someone gets raped every four minutes. A woman is also killed by an intimate partner every eight hours, a probable underestimate because no perpetrator is identified in 20 percent of killings.
    (AP, 3/8/13)

2013        Mar 26, President Barack Obama chose veteran agent Julia Pierson as Secret Service director, the first woman to lead the male-dominated agency.
    (Reuters, 3/26/13)

2013        Apr 1, Pakistani housewife Badam Zari (40) made history by becoming the first woman to run for parliament from the country's northwest tribal region.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, A Saudi newspaper said the kingdom's religious police are now allowing women to ride motorbikes and bicycles but only in restricted, recreational areas. They also have to be accompanied by a male relative and dressed in the full Islamic head-to-toe abaya.
    (AP, 4/1/13)

2013        Apr 4, The Ukraine-based group Femen, which stages pranks for women's and gay rights, held an International Topless Jihad day in support of Muslim women. In Tunisia a woman named Amina participated and went into hiding after reportedly receiving death threats. On Apr 6 she reappeared in an interview on French cable TV station Canal Plus saying she fears for her life and wants to take refuge abroad.
    (AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 11, Israeli police detained five women at a Jerusalem holy site for e for wearing prayer shawls and performing religious rituals that ultra-Orthodox Jews say are reserved for men. An ultra-Orthodox man was also detained for burning a prayer book in protest and was still in custody.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 14, Marcella Pattyn (92), the world’s last Beguine, died in Belgium. She was the last woman living in a lay Christian order that dated back some 800 years in Germany and the Low Countries. 
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.86)

2013        Apr 27, In Kentucky Rosemarie Smead (70), former Carmelite nun, was ordained a priest as part of a dissident group operating outside of official Roman Catholic Church authority. The modern woman priest movement started in Austria in 2002, when seven women were ordained by the Danube River by an independent Catholic bishop.
    (Reuters, 4/27/13)

2013        May 10, Israeli police with metal barriers and human chains held back thousands of ultra-Orthodox protesters who tried to prevent a liberal Jewish women's group from praying at a key holy site, the first time police have come down on the side of the women and not the protesters.
    (AP, 5/10/13)

2013        May 13, Dr. Joyce Brothers (b.1927), advice columnist and media star, died in NYC. She initially gained fame in 1955 for winning top prize in “The $64,000 Question" TV quiz show.
    (SFC, 5/14/13, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joyce_Brothers)

2013        May 18, Conservative religious lawmakers in Afghanistan blocked legislation aimed at strengthening provisions for women's freedoms, arguing that parts of it violate Islamic principles and encourage disobedience. 4 Afghan army soldiers died in Bakwa district when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 21, New York-based Human Rights Watch said 600 females are now detained in Afghanistan under charges listed as moral crimes, a catch-all category that covers running away from home and sex outside of marriage. It said the number of females behind bars has jumped by 50% since late 2012.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 22, In Afghanistan hard-line Islamist students protested in Kabul demanding the repeal of a presidential decree for women's rights that they say is un-Islamic.
    (AP, 5/22/13)

2013        May 24, The Church of England published a plan to approve the ordination of women bishops by 2015, a widely supported reform it just missed passing last November after two decades of divisive debate.
    (Reuters, 5/24/13)

2013        Jun 12, A Tunisian court convicted 3 European feminist activists, who staged a topless courthouse protest last month, sentencing them to four months and a day in prison.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 23, In Texas more than 800 women's rights protesters crowded into the Austin Capitol to watch Democrats try a series of parliamentary maneuvers to stop the Republican majority from passing some of the toughest abortion restrictions in the country.
    (AP, 6/24/13)

2013        Jun 24, Texas Republicans used their majority to cut short debate and give preliminary approval early today to some of the toughest abortion restrictions in the country as time was running out on the Texas Legislature's special session.
    (AP, 6/24/13)

2013        Jun 25, Texas state Sen. Wendy Davis staged an 11-hour filibuster to prevent passage of a law that would limit women’s access to abortion. A raucous crowd of shouting demonstrators effectively took over the state Capitol and blocked the bill that abortion rights groups warned would close most abortion clinics in the state.
    (AP, 6/26/13)(Econ, 6/29/13, p.29)

2013        Jun 26, A Tunisian court decided to release three European feminist activists who staged a topless protest in Tunis last month against the Islamist-led government.
    (Reuters, 6/26/13)

2013        Jun, In Afghanistan an eight article decree was issued late this month  by clerics in the Deh Salah region of Baghlan province barring women from leaving home without a male relative and shutting cosmetic shops on the pretext they were being used for prostitution - an accusation residents and police rejected.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 8, In Israel several thousand ultra-Orthodox protesters effectively blocked Jewish women activists campaigning for equal worship rights at the Western Wall from holding a monthly prayer session at the holy site.
    (Reuters, 7/8/13)

2013        Jul 12, Irish lawmakers overwhelmingly voted to back the country’s first bill on abortion, legalizing the practice in exceptional cases where doctors deem the woman's life at risk from her pregnancy.
    (AP, 7/12/13)

2013        Jul 17, In Dubai Marte Deborah Dalelv (24), a Norwegian woman, was sentenced to 16 months in jail for having sex outside marriage after she reported an alleged rape. On July 19 she decided to speak out in hopes of drawing attention to the risks of outsiders misunderstanding the Islamic-influenced legal codes in this cosmopolitan city. Norwegian diplomats secured her release and she has been allowed to remain at the Norwegian Seamen's Center in central Dubai. She said her alleged attacker received a 13-month sentence for out-of-wedlock sex and alcohol consumption.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 19, Clerics in northwest Pakistan issued a temporary ban on women shopping in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa unless accompanied by a male relative, in a step designed to keep men from being distracted during the holy month of Ramadan.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)

2013        Jul 20, Helen Thomas (92), the first woman to head a White House news bureau, died.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.78)

2013        Jul 27, Lindy Boggs (b.1916), former Louisiana congresswoman (1973-1991), died.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.78)

2013        Jul 30, Ireland's President Michael D. Higgins signed the country's first bill on abortion into law, legalizing the practice in exceptional cases where doctors deem a woman's life at risk.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 15, Rosalia Mera (69), Spain's richest woman, died in La Coruna. The former seamstress and her then-husband, Armancio Ortega co-founded a clothing store in 1975 in La Coruna that grew into Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains. Ortega is listed by Forbes as the world's third-richest person.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 29, Iran reported that its foreign ministry has appointed Marzieh Afkham as its first-ever spokeswoman. Pres. Hassan Rowhani appeared to welcome the move as part of a campaign to empower women.
    (AFP, 8/29/13)

2013        Sep 3, An Indian report said a woman dies at the rate of almost one an hour in disputes over how much her family has paid in dowry for her marriage.
    (SFC, 9/4/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 5, In Afghanistan Sushmita Banerjee, an Indian woman whose memoir about life under Taliban rule was turned into a Bollywood movie, was shot dead by suspected members of the Islamist militia. On Sep 10 police said they have detained two insurgents suspected in her killing.
    (AP, 9/5/13)(Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 23, British adventurer Sarah Outen arrived at Adak in the Aleutian Islands becoming the first woman to row solo from Japan to Alaska. She had left Choshi, Japan, on April 27.
    (SFC, 9/25/13, p.A6)

2013        Oct 15, The Church of Sweden elected the country's first female archbishop. Antje Jackelen (58) will join a growing number of female church leaders around the world.
    (AP, 10/15/13)(SFC, 10/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 24, Saudi Arabia warned it will take measures against activists who go ahead with a planned weekend campaign to defy a ban on women drivers in the conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 26, Saudi activists said more than 60 women claimed to have answered their call to get behind the wheel in a rare show of defiance against a ban on female driving. At least 16 Saudi women received fines for taking the wheel in defiance of the traditional ban on female driving.
    (AP, 10/26/13)(AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Nov 20, The Church of England's ruling body voted overwhelmingly for proposals that could see the ordination of women bishops next year.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 29, Japan's PM Shinzo Abe named the country's first ever female aide to the prime minister, just weeks after Caroline Kennedy arrived as the first woman US ambassador to Tokyo.
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 10, General Motors named Mary Barra to succeed Dan Akerson as CEO making her the first female CEO in the global automotive industry.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.C1)

2013        Dec 28, Saudi police pulled over a woman minutes after she got behind the wheel in the Red Sea city of Jeddah after activists called for a new challenge to a driving ban.
    (AFP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 30, Pakistan's national sharia court, which hears cases under the country's Islamic legislation, appointed a female judge for the first time in its 33-year history. Ashraf Jehan (56) made history as she took the oath in Karachi.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)

2013        Amana Fontanella-Khan authored “Pink Sari Revolution: A Tale of Women and Power in India."
    (SSFC, 9/1/13, p.F2)
2013        Estelle B. Freedman authored “Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation."
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.F7)
2013        Sheryl Sandberg authored “Lean In: Women and the Will To Lead."
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.82)

2014        Jan 6, The US Senate confirmed Janet Yellen as the first woman to lead the Federal Reserve.
    {USA, Women}
    (SFC, 1/7/14, p.A6)
2014        Jan 6, Tunisia's national assembly voted to enshrine gender equality "without discrimination" in its draft constitution, a key step towards safeguarding the most liberal laws in the Arab world on women's rights. Unemployed Tunisian youths ransacked an empty police post in the impoverished central region of Gafsa overnight and torched its contents.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Feb 6, Human Rights Watch said Bangladeshi garment factory owners use beatings, the threat of murder and sexual intimidation to stop workers from forming trade unions.
    (AP, 2/6/14)
2014        Feb 6, Human Rights Watch said Iraqi authorities are illegally detaining thousands of women, many of whom are subjected to torture and ill-treatment including the threat of sexual abuse. Many were rounded up for alleged terrorist activities by male family members.
    (AP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 13, Afghan women marched in Kabul to protest violence against women and decry a new draft law that activists say will severely limit justice for victims of domestic abuse.
    (SFC, 2/14/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 15, In Pakistan a cleric ordered that a woman be stoned to death after her husband found her with another man. She was stoned to death and an autopsy revealed that her skull had been shattered with a brick, and that she had multiple ax wounds. Six people were arrested on Feb 17 in connection with the stoning.
    (AP, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 24, Hamas authorities said Gaza police have arrested family members over the deaths of two Palestinian teenage girls, one of them the victim of a suspected "honor" killing."
    (AF P, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 20, Kenya's parliament passed a bill allowing men to marry as many women as they want, prompting a furious backlash from female lawmakers who stormed out. Women are not allowed to marry more than one man in Kenya. The bill must now pass before the president to be signed before becoming law.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 21, British state prosecutors said a London doctor and another man have become the first people to be charged in Britain over female genital mutilation.
    (AP, 3/21/14)
2014        Mar 21, Nigerian police raided a home near Lagos where eight pregnant girls, most under age 20, were staying with plans to sell each of their newborns for nearly two thousand dollars.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 22, The UN Commission on the Status of Women approved a 45-page document to promote equality for women that reaffirms the sexual and reproductive rights of all women and endorses sex education for adolescents.
    (AP, 3/22/14)

2014        Apr 1, Lebanon's parliament approved a much-anticipated law that protects women against domestic violence after a years-long campaign by women's rights activists and the recent slaying of four women.
    (AP, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 5, In France Anne Hidalgo (54), the first female mayor of Paris, took office, hailing a "great advance for all women" and saying she feels the weight of responsibility in her new job.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        May 15, In Sudan Meriam Ibrahim (26), a pregnant woman doctor who married a Christian man in 2011 and who was convicted earlier this week on charges of "apostasy," was sentenced to death. The court in Khartoum also ordered Ibrahim be given 100 lashes for committing "zena" — an Arabic word for illegitimate sex. On May 27 Ibrahim gave birth to her child in jail. On June 23 the Court of Cassation canceled her sentence and ordered her release. On June 24 Khartoum airport passport police arrested Meriam Ibrahim after she presented emergency travel documents issued by the South Sudanese embassy and carrying an American visa. She was freed again on June 26.
    (AP, 5/15/14)(AP, 5/18/14)(AP, 5/29/14)(AP, 6/23/14)(AP, 6/26/14)

2014        May 28 Maya Angelou (b.1928), American poet, writer and civil rights activist, died. Her 1969 memoir “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" was the first of her seven memoirs.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.98)

2014        Jun 4, In Pakistan an 18-year-old woman "miraculously survived" after being shot and thrown into a canal by her father for marrying against the family's wishes in Hafizabad. The woman told police her two uncles looked on as her father shot her in the face, put her in a burlap sack and threw her into a canal.
    (AP, 6/7/14)

2014        Jun 6, Karen DeCrow (b.1937), former head of NOW (1974-1977), the National Organization for Women, died at her home in Jamesville, NY.
    (SFC, 6/9/14, p.C4)

2014        Jul 1, The US Navy promoted Michelle Janine Howard to the rank of four-star admiral, making her the first woman to reach its highest rank.
    (SFC, 7/2/14, p.A6)

2014        Jul 2, London Metropolitan Police expressed disappointment about an employment tribunal's finding that police discriminated against a black female officer because of her gender and race.
    (AP, 7/2/14)

2014        Jul 14, The Church of England voted overwhelmingly in favor of allowing women to become bishops.
    (SFC, 7/15/14, p.A3)

2014        Jul 24, UN official Jacqueline Badcock said Jihadists in Iraq have ordered that all women between the ages of 11 and 46 must undergo female genital mutilation, which could affect up to four million women and girls in the war-ravaged country.
    (AP, 7/24/14)

2014        Aug 5, France passed a sweeping gender equality law that eases current restrictions on abortion, encourages paternity leave and promotes gender parity at home and in the workplace.
    (Reuters, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 7, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan branded Amberin Zaman, a prominent female journalist, a "shameless woman" and told her "to know your place".
    (AFP, 8/8/14)

2014        Aug 13, At the Int’l. Congress of mathematicians in South Korea, Stanford Prof. Maryam Mirzakhani, an Iranian-born mathematician, became the first woman to be awarded the Fields Medal for her work in understanding the mathematical symmetry of curved surfaces and saddle-shaped spaces.
    (SFC, 8/14/14, p.D1)

2014        Aug 22, Asma Shirazi, Pakistan's first female war correspondent and host of popular TV talk shows, was named 2014 Winner of Peter Mackler Award for Courageous and Ethical Journalism.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Sep, Yemen's culture minister, Arwa Othman, was honored for her work combatting extremism and discrimination against women.
    (AP, 11/21/14)

2014        Oct 30, UN chief Ban Ki-moon launched a global campaign to end the often deadly practice of female genital mutilation within a generation.
    (AFP, 10/30/14)

2014        Nov 2, In Iran Ghoncheh Ghavami (25), an Iranian-British woman detained last June 20 while trying to attend a men's volleyball game in Iran, was found guilty of spreading propaganda against the ruling system and sentenced to a year in prison. Charges against her were reported dropped on April 2, 2015, as a court waived the remaining seven months of her sentence.
    (AP, 11/2/14)(AP, 4/2/15)

2014        Nov 7, A Saudi Arabia advisory committee recommended that the government lift its ban on female drivers for women over 30. It said the women must be off the road by 8pm and cannot wear makeup behind the wheel.
    (SFC, 11/8/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 9, Monitors said that that officials in a predominantly Kurdish province of northeastern Syria have issued a women's rights decree, in an apparent rebuke to the hardline views of Islamic State insurgents who have advanced in the region.
    (Reuters, 11/9/14)

2014        Nov 10, India's Supreme Court ordered the lifting of a ban on women working as makeup artists in the movie industry, ending a decades-long discriminatory practice.
    (AP, 11/10/14)

2014        Nov 12, British police arrested 13 people in the Manchester area in an investigation of an alleged trafficking ring which tricked women into visiting Britain, then sold them into forced marriages.
    (AP, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 14, At the Vatican three members of the Femen group appeared on St Peter's square wearing only leather mini-skirts and flower garlands in their hair in what they described as a protest over Pope Francis's upcoming visit to the European Parliament.
    (AP, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 24, Turkey’s Pres. Erdogan set off a new controversy, declaring that women are not equal to men and accusing feminists of not understanding the special status that Islam attributes to mothers.
    (AP, 11/24/14)

2014        Dec 12, A Saudi woman arrested for attending a soccer game at  Jiddah's new al-Jawhara stadium.
    (AP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 17, The Church of England named Libby Lane, a saxophone-playing vicar with a taste for football, as its first female bishop in a move hailed as an important step towards greater equality.
    (AFP, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 23, In India two men riding a motorcycle threw acid on a woman in a crowded neighborhood in New Delhi, causing serious injuries. The men also stole her purse before fleeing.
    (AP, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 25, Saudi activists said two detained women's rights campaigners have been transferred to a special tribunal for terrorism.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)
2014        Dec 25, At the Vatican Femen protester and Ukrainian activist Yana Zhdanova shouted "God is woman" when she uncovered her chest in St. Peter’s Square, about an hour after Pope Francis had greeted and blessed tens of thousands of faithful. She was detained by police and released on Dec 27 with orders to never set foot again in Vatican City State.
    (AP, 12/27/14)

2014        Leta Hong Fincher authored “Leftover Women: The Resurgence of Gender Inequality in China."
    (Econ, 5/3/14, p.74)
2014        Jill Lepore authored “The Secret History of Wonder Woman."
    (SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P1)(Econ, 11/29/14, p.76)
2014        Chile passed legislation allowing women 14 and older to receive the contraception of their choice, including the morning-after pill.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.27)
2014        In Saudi Arabia the first female-run law firm opened this year after authorities lifted a ban preventing women law graduates from practicing.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.45)

2015        Jan 12, Hundreds of Tanzanian schoolgirls returned home after spending three months hiding in safe houses to escape genital mutilation.
    (AFP, 1/12/15)

2015        Jan 26, The Church of England ended centuries of male-only leadership as Libby Lane became its first female bishop in a ceremony briefly disrupted by a traditionalist priest's protest.
    (AFP, 1/26/15)

2015        Jan 28, A new study said an estimated 550 women who have traveled to Iraq and Syria are expected to marry, keep house and bear children.
    (AFP, 1/28/15)

2015        Feb 10, Scotland’s Royal and Ancient Golf Club announced its first seven female members, including Swedish great Annika Sorenstam and Britain's Princess Anne.
    (AP, 2/10/15)

2015        Feb 19, Thailand passed a law banning foreign couples from using Thai women as surrogates after a series of high-profile scandals tainting the image of the hitherto unregulated industry.
    (AFP, 2/19/15)

2015        Mar 5, Algeria's parliament passed a law criminalizing violence against women, in a move criticized by both Islamist lawmakers as well as Amnesty Int’l. Amnesty International called for an amendment dropping a clause which allows the survivor of domestic violence to pardon the perpetrator, warning it was "a dangerous precedent".
    (AFP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 9, Beijing police said five women activists have been criminally detained for planning to put up anti-sexual harassment posters in three Chinese cities.
    (AP, 3/13/15)

2015        Apr 4, Iran's State Security Council was reported to have approved a plan by the sports ministry to allow women and families to attend some sports events.
    (AP, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 13, Lawyers said Chinese authorities have unexpectedly decided to release three women activists, taken into custody on the weekend of March 8, International Women's Day, and detained on suspicion of "picking quarrels and provoking trouble." Li Tingting (25) and Wu Rongrong (30) were also released.
    (Reuters, 4/13/15)(SFC, 4/23/15, p.A4)

2015        Apr 16, The Vatican unexpectedly ended its controversial takeover of the main umbrella group of US nuns. A six-year row between activist American nuns (LCWR) and Vatican officials, who had branded them radical feminists, ended with the nuns conceding to demands that they keep within the doctrine of the Roman Catholic church. The umbrella group “Leadership Conference of Women Religious" represented 80 percent of US nuns.
    (AP, 4/16/15)    (Reuters, 4/16/15)

2015        Apr 29, Pope Francis added his voice to the feminist anthem of equal pay for equal work.
    (AP, 4/29/15)

2015        May 24, A group of international women activists crossed the heavily-fortified Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) between North and South Korea in what they said was a symbolic act for peace.
    (Reuters, 5/24/15)

2015        May 27, Zimbabwe’s Constitutional Court ruled that it was illegal and sexist for police to indiscriminately arrest women on the streets and in public establishments because it was discriminatory and deprived women of equal rights and the right to liberty. By 2017 a flood of young women and girls joined professional prostitutes driving down prices.
    (AP, 6/3/15)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.38)

2015        May, The film "Much Loved" was banned in Morocco the day after its premiere at the Cannes Film Festival. It showed how young girls are often tricked into sex work. In November Moroccan actress Loubna Abidar (30), who played a prostitute in the film, was dragged off the street and into a car in Casablanca by three young men and beaten, then mocked by police and hospital doctors when she turned to them for help.
    (AFP, 11/12/15)

2015        Jun 4, US government experts recommended approval for a pill, flibanserin made by Sprout Pharmaceuticals, to boost sexual desire in women.
    (SFC, 6/5/15, p.A7)

2015        Jun 11, Tim Hunt (72), British Nobel Prize-winning scientist (2001), resigned from his post at University College London over controversial comments he made about female scientists. He had suggested that female scientists could not take criticism without crying, and that relationships between men and women in the laboratory disrupted work.
    (AFP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 30, It was reported that the Islamic State in Syria has beheaded one women this week along with her husband in Deir al-Zor city. In al-Mayadeen city to the south east, the group beheaded another woman and her husband. All were accused of sorcery.
    (Reuters, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 8, In Turkey Cilem Karabulut (28) killed her husband Hasan Karabulut (33) in the southern Adana region with a pistol stored at home. She was detained by police and admitted to murdering her husband out of "honor" after he repeatedly beat her and tried to force her into prostitution.
    (AFP, 7/10/15)

2015        Aug 1, In Canada dozens of topless women — and men — attended a "Bare With Us" rally meant to educate the public about women's right to go shirtless if they choose. Ontario women have had the right to go topless in public since 1996.
    (AP, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 8, San Francisco resident Kim Chambers (38) completed a 30-mile swim from the Farallon Islands to the Golden Gate Bridge in 17 hours and 12 minutes, becoming the first woman to do so.
    (SSFC, 8/9/15, p.A12)
2015        Aug 8, In eastern India dozens of villagers beat to death 5 women, accusing them of practicing witchcraft and blaming them for a series of misfortunes in Kinjia village, Jharkhand state. Police arrested around 50 people involved in the attack.
    (AP, 8/8/15)

2015        Aug 17, US Army officials said two women will graduate from Ranger School in Fort Benning, Georgia, on August 21. The two West Point officers were the first women to complete the Army’s premier leadership course.
    (SFC, 8/19/15, p.A5)

2015        Aug 28, Japanese lawmakers approved a law requiring large employers to set and publicize targets for hiring or promoting women as managers.
    (AP, 8/28/15)

2015        Aug 30, Saudi Arabia allowed women to register to stand in local elections, in a historic first for the ultra-conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)

2015        Sep 1, At the Vatican Pope Francis called on priests to pardon women who have abortions, and the doctors who perform them, during the upcoming Jubilee year -- overruling hardline traditionalists within the Catholic Church.
    (AFP, 9/1/15)

2015        Sep 6, In Turkey the W-20 — a grouping of female leaders — was launched in Ankara, aimed at boosting the role of women in global economic growth, as G20 finance ministers and central bank governors met for talks on the global economy.
    (AP, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 20, Australia's new PM Malcom Turnbull announced sweeping changes to his first Cabinet and promoted more women, including Australia's first female defense minister.
    (AP, 9/20/15)

2015        Sep 28, In northern Afghanistan Taliban fighters battled their way into the center of Kunduz city and freed hundreds of fellow militants from jail, in one of the most serious security breaches in 14 years of war. 3 militants and at least 17 Afghan police were reported killed in the fighting. Over the next three days the Taliban hounded women of public profile and looted and destroyed offices of many organizations that supported and protected women in the city.
    (Reuters, 9/28/15)(Reuters, 9/29/15)(SFC, 10/15/15, p.A4)

2015        Oct 6, California Gov. Jerry Brown singed SB358, a bill known as the Fair Pay Act. It closed loopholes in existing antidiscrimination statutes and barred employers from paying women less than men when they do substantially similar work.
    (SFC, 10/7/15, p.A1)

2015        Oct 9, Yeonmi Park (22), a North Korean defector who was trafficked and raped at the age of 13 after fleeing to China, promoted her new book: “In Order To Live: A North Korean Girl's Journey to Freedom" to the Women in the World summit in London.
    (Reuters, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 17, Addyi, the first drug to boost sexual desire in women, became available from Sprout Pharmaceuticals.
    (SFC, 10/17/15, p.A5)

2015        Oct 28, Nepal's parliament elected communist lawmaker Bidhya Bhandari as the country's first female president.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)

2015        Nov 8, Iran announced the appointment of its first woman ambassador since the 1979 Islamic revolution, naming foreign ministry spokeswoman Marzieh Afkham to head its embassy in Malaysia.
    (AFP, 11/8/15)

2015        Nov 15, Iranian police warned that women who fail to wear the veil when driving will have their cars impounded for a week and are likely to be fined.
    (AFP, 11/15/15)

2015        Nov 25, Gambia's President Yahya Jammeh advocated banning female genital mutilation, giving hope to human rights activists who are urging Gambia to adopt a law against the practice.
    (AP, 11/26/15)

2015        Nov 29, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said airstrikes believed to have been carried out by Russian warplanes killed at least 18 people and wounded dozens in the insurgent held town of Ariha. Ariha Today, a Facebook page that covers events in the town, said the airstrikes killed 40 people and wounding more than 70.
    (AP, 11/29/15)

2015        Dec 3, Saudi local media said female divorcees and widows in Saudi Arabia are set to get their own ID cards allowing them to act independently from men.
    (AFP, 12/3/15)
2015        Dec 3, It was reported that three Tanzanian universities are offering a new course on female genital mutilation (FGM) to train health care professionals how to deal with victims of the harmful practice that is still widespread although illegal.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 12, Saudi women voted for the first time, in a tentative step towards easing sex discrimination in the ultra-conservative Islamic kingdom. Women were also allowed for the first time to stand as candidates in the polls for municipal councils, the country's only elected public chambers. Saudi Arabians voted 17 women into public office in municipal elections.
    (AFP, 12/12/15)(Reuters, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec 14, Lillian Vernon (b.1927), founder of the Lillian Vernon catalog business, died in New York. In 1987 Lillian Vernon was the first company owned by a woman to be listed on the American Stock Exchange.
    {USA, Women}
    (SFC, 12/16/15, p.D8)

2015        Dec 28, Gambian lawmakers passed a bill criminalizing female circumcision and introducing prison terms of up to three years for anyone flouting the ban.
    (AFP, 12/29/15)

2016        Jan 3, In southeastern Yemen Al-Qaeda militants stoned a woman to death after accusing her of adultery and prostitution in Mukalla, Hadramawt province.
    (AFP, 1/4/16)

2016        Jan 5, Zimbabwe media reported that Ellen Chiweshe, whose title was group captain, has been promoted to become the southern African country's first female Air Commodore, the No. 3 post in the air force.
    (AP, 1/5/16)

2016        Jan 16, Taiwan elected its first female president. Independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) leader Tsai Ing-wen won a convincing victory in presidential elections and pledged to maintain peace with giant neighbor China, which warned it would oppose any move towards independence.
    (Reuters, 1/16/16)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.34)

2016        Feb 4, The U.N. children's agency released a report saying at least 200 million girls and women in 30 countries are estimated to have undergone female circumcision — half of them in Egypt, Ethiopia and Indonesia.
    (AP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 24, Pakistan’s Punjab province passed a law to protect women from violence. A constitutionally empowered body of mullahs quickly declared the law to be un-Islamic.
    (Econ, 3/5/16, p.37)

2016        Mar 3, A powerful Pakistani religious body that advises the government on the compatibility of laws with Islam declared a new law that criminalizes violence against women to be "un-Islamic." The Women's Protection Act, passed by Punjab province, last week, gives unprecedented legal protection to women from domestic, psychological and sexual violence.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)

2016        Mar 6, In Poland hundreds of women marched in Warsaw for a 17th year to demand greater accessibility to abortion, better working conditions and more state support in raising children.
    (AP, 3/6/16)

2016        Mar 8, Today marks the 108th annual International Women's Day. A rally in Istanbul ended violently when Turkish police fired rubber bullets into a crowd of hundreds of people and detained at least one woman.
    (CSM, 3/8/16)
2016        Mar 8, Japanese women still faced a 100 day wait before they can remarry following legal changes approved by the country’s cabinet, a move condemned as discriminatory by a UN rights group.
    (AFP, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 18, US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said President Barack Obama will name the first woman to head a US combatant command, selecting Air Force General Lori Robinson as the next head of the military's Northern Command.
    (Reuters, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 24, Indiana Gov. Mike Pence signed a bill that added broad limits to women’s access to abortions. The bill prohibited abortions on the grounds of Down’s syndrome or any other disability. On April 7 the American Civil Liberties Union and Planned Parenthood of Indiana and Kentucky sued Indiana over the law.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zlxr6zj)(SFC, 3/25/16, p.A4)(Econ, 4/2/16, p.30)(SFC, 4/8/16, p.A6)
2016        Mar 24, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said Sudanese security forces have used threats, assault and rape to silence female human rights activists, forcing many to abandon their work or flee the country.
    (Reuters, 3/24/16)

2016        Mar 31, Vietnam's parliament elected Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan (61) as its chairwoman, making her the first woman to lead the Communist-dominated legislature.
    (AP, 3/31/16)

2016        Apr 2, In western India around 25 female activists were prevented from entering the Shani Shingnapur temple in Maharashtra state, traditionally open only to men, a day after a Mumbai court ruled that women have a fundamental right to enter and pray inside temples.
    (AP, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 12, On Equal Pay Day Pres. Obama designated the iconic home and headquarters of the National Woman’s Party as a national monument to highlight the push for women's equality. The currently named Sewall-Belmont House and Museum in Washington, D.C., will become the new Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument.
    (CSM, 4/12/16)

2016        Apr 24, In Israel a liberal women's group held a special Passover prayer service at a Jerusalem holy site, drawing criticism from the site's ultra-Orthodox rabbi, who called it a "provocation." The group planned to hold an all-female "priestly blessing," a prayer typically done by men, but Israel's attorney general banned it from doing so.
    (AP, 4/24/16)

2016        May 21, Jan Fawcett (neé Janet Caroline Hughes), WWII  British codebreaker and savior of Victorian buildings, died.
    (Econ, 6/4/16, p.90)

2016        May 23, In Massachusetts the 108-year-old Harvard Club of Boston elected Karen Van Winkle (58) as its first female president.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zezx7xa)(SFC, 5/26/16, p.A6)

2016        May 28, In Egypt a girl (17) died while undergoing female circumcision. Authorities ordered the hospital closed and referred doctors for prosecution after the girl died. Female genital mutilation was criminalized in 2008 but remains widespread in Egypt.
    (AP, 5/31/16)

2016        Jun 7, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 40% of US women are obese.
    (SFC, 6/8/16, p.A4)

2016        Jun 9, A UN panel said Ireland’s abortion ban subjects women to discriminatory, cruel and degrading treatment and should be ended immediately for cases involving fatal fetal abnormalities.
    (SFC, 6/10/16, p.A5)

2016        Jun 27, NATO appointed the highest-ranking woman in its history, naming US Under Secretary of State Rose Gottemoeller as its next deputy secretary-general. She will take up her new position October 1.
    (AP, 6/27/16)

2016        Jun, Russia decriminalized battery. The Duma exempted domestic abuse and made it subject to the same two-year maximum sentence as racially motivated offences.
    (Econ, 1/28/17, p.46)

2016        Jul 8, PM David Cameron announced that Britain is lifting a ban on women serving in frontline combat roles in the army.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 26, Hillary Clinton made history by becoming the first woman nominee of a major-party for president of the United States.
    (SFC, 7/26/16, p.A1)

2016        Jul 28, At the Democratic convention in Philadelphia, Pa., Hillary Clinton became the first woman to accept a major party’s nomination for president.
    (SFC, 7/29/16, p.A1)

2016        Jul 31, In Japan veteran politician Yuriko Koike (64), fluent in English and Arabic, was elected as Tokyo's first woman governor.
    (AFP, 7/31/16)

2016        Aug 13, In Peru more than 50,000 people marched in Lima and eight other cities to protest violence against woman and what they say is the indifference of the judicial system.
    (AP, 8/14/16)

2016        Sep 5, Phyllis Schlafly (92), critic of American feminism, died. Her first book “A Choice Not an Echo", a 121-page self-published polemic, sold 3m copies and helped populist Barry Goldwater win the 1964 Republican nomination. 
    (Econ, 9/17/16, p.86)

2016        Nov 2, In Israel protesters demanding equal prayer rights for women at one of Judaism's holiest sites scuffled with ultra-Orthodox Jews as they sought to approach Jerusalem's Western Wall.
    (AFP, 11/2/16)

2016        Nov 16, Albania's Defense Ministry says Manushaqe Shehu (51) has been promoted to the rank of general, becoming the first female general for the nation.
    (AP, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 21, Germany’s port city of Hamburg named a street after Domenica Niehoff (d.2009), the country’s most famous dominatrix. Niehoff gained fame in the 1980s by campaigning for the rights of sex workers. She also worked to help women struggling with drug addiction.
    (AP, 11/21/16)

2016        Nov 29, In Egypt an amended law that toughens penalties for female genital mutilation to up to 15 years in jail came into effect.
    (AFP, 12/4/16)

2016        Dec 6, A dozen Lebanese women, dressed as brides in white wedding dresses stained with fake blood and bandages, gathered outside government buildings in Beirut to protest a law, in place since the late 1940s, that allows a rapist to get away with his crime if he marries the survivor.
    (AP, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 8, Canada’s Finance Minister Bill Morneau said that Viola Desmond will grace the front of the $10 bill when the next series goes into circulation in 2018. In 1946 she rejected racial discrimination by sitting in a whites-only section of a New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, movie theatre. She was arrested and fined.
    (AP, 12/8/16)

2016        Dec 13, Rheal LeBlanc, head of UN press and external relations, said the appointment of Wonder Woman as an honorary ambassador for the Empowerment of Woman and Girls would end this week, a move that come less than two months after a splashy ceremony at the UN.
    (AP, 12/13/16)

2016        Dec 22, Pope Francis told Vatican officials to start appointing women and lay people to top jobs in the Curia, the Holy See bureaucracy that he is seeking to shake-up.
    (AFP, 12/22/16)

2016        In New Hampshire three women were arrested after taking off their tops at a beech in Laconia. The members of the Free the Nipple campaign called the case gender-based discrimination, and appealed to the state Supreme Court after a lower court refused to dismiss the case.
    (SFC, 2/2/18, p.A6)
2016        In Brazil a woman was reportedly murdered every two hours this year.
    (SFC, 3/14/18, p.A4)
2016        The South Korean film “Spirits Homecoming" portrayed the story of the “comfort women" enslaved by the Japanese during WW II.
    (Econ, 3/26/15, p.47)

2017        Jan 20, Kosovo’s Deputy PM Hajredin Kuci said that the government wanted to modernize its property system and foster greater equality and prosperity in the Balkan country. This will, for the first time, clearly define formal ownership and encourage women to inherit and own land in their own right.
    (Reuters, 1/20/17)

2017        Jan 21, Large crowds of women, many wearing bright pink knit hats, poured into downtown Washington to march in opposition to US President Donald Trump. Legions of women flooded parks, streets and city squares from Sydney to Paris to Philadelphia, marching in solidarity as a show of empowerment and a stand against Donald Trump.
    (Reuters, 1/21/17)(AP, 1/21/17)

2017        Jan 23, President Donald Trump signed an executive action reinstating the so-called Mexico City Policy, which bars international non-governmental organizations that perform or promote abortions from receiving US government funding.

2017        Jan 28, The Dutch government announced that it is putting 10 million euros into an int’l. fund to finance access to birth control, abortion and sex education for women in developing nations after Pres. Trump cut US funding for such services.
    (SSFC, 1/29/17, p.A4)

2017        Feb 8, Mexican electoral authorities annulled the results of town council elections in San Juan Achiutla, Oaxaca, because married women had been prevented from voting. Achiutla officials had argued that married women don't perform community work and thus can't vote.
    (AP, 2/9/17)

2017        Feb 13, Canada’s PM Justin Trudeau met with US Pres. Trump at the White House ahead of a roundtable discussion about women in the workplace. Ivanka Trump, the president's daughter, was involved in recruiting participants and setting the agenda for the roundtable.
    (AP, 2/13/17)
2017        Feb 13, Aileen Clarke Hernandez (b.1926), civil rights activist and the 2nd leader of NOW (1970-1971), died  in Orange County, Ca.
    (SFC, 3/2/17, p.D1)

2017        Feb 16, France's parliament approved a bill criminalizing websites that carry purposely false information with the aim of dissuading women from having abortions.
    (AP, 2/16/17)

2017        Feb 17, In Montenegro dozens of women who braved cold weather to spend a night outside government headquarters to protest cuts in state aid for mothers of three or more children dispersed and agreed to meet a government delegation next week.
    (AP, 2/17/17)

2017        Feb 22, The British government announced that Cressida Dick (56) is to be commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, making her the first woman to serve as Britain's most senior police officer.
    (AFP, 2/22/17)

2017        Feb 24, Guatemala's immigration office ordered the expulsion of a ship run by a Dutch nonprofit organization that performs free abortions onboard in international waters. The ship, operated by Women on Waves, travels the globe offering abortion services to women in countries where the procedure is illegal.
    (AP, 2/25/17)

2017        Mar 1, Polish European Parliament lawmaker Janusz Korwin-Mikke told the European parliament that "women must earn less than men because they are weaker, they are smaller, they are less intelligent." Two days later in Warsaw he said it is a "20th-century stereotype that women have the same intellectual potential as men," and that the stereotype "must be destroyed because it is not true."
    (AP, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 8, The leaders of Cyprus' Christian and Muslim faithful banded together in a pledge to work with authorities and help end violence against women and girls on the ethnically divided island.
    (AP, 3/8/17)
2017        Mar 8, Iceland on International Women's Day said it will be the first country in the world to make employers prove they offer equal pay regardless of gender, ethnicity, sexuality or nationality. Iceland wants to eradicate the gender pay gap by 2022.
    (AP, 3/8/17)

2017        Mar 14, The European Parliament suspended Polish lawmaker Janusz Korwin-Mikke for 10 days after he said during a March 1 debate that women should earn less than men because they are weaker, smaller and less intelligent.
    (AP, 3/14/17)

2017        Mar 29, Melania Trump helped present the Sec. of State’s Int’l. Women of Courage awards to 13 women from around the world.
    (SFC, 3/30/17, p.A6)

2017        Apr 5, In Switzerland Geneva's regional council voted to modify a 1929 ordinance that banned women from swimming topless in the city's main natural waterways. The change doesn't apply to public swimming pools or swimming totally naked.
    (AP, 4/6/17)

2017        Apr 25, Israel appointed its first female judge in its Muslim sharia court system. Hana Khatib, an attorney from the northern town of Tamra, was selected by an Israeli justice committee alongside three men to become a religious judge.
    (AFP, 4/25/17)

2017        Apr 27, In Indonesia female Islamic clerics declared a series of fatwas, including one to tackle child marriage, a rare example of women taking a leading religious role in the Muslim-majority country.
    (AFP, 4/27/17)

2017        May 5, Saudi Arabia media reported that Saudi women no longer need a man's consent to carry out certain activities, but activists said the royal order does not go far enough. A royal decree issued by King Salman ordered that women are no longer required to obtain a guardian's consent for official services "unless there is a legal basis for this request" under Islamic law.
    (AFP, 5/5/17)

2017        May 20, Jean Sammet (89), American tech innovator, died in Maryland. She was one of six people who designed the COBOL computer language in 1959.
    {Maryland, USA, Computer, Language, Women}
    (SSFC, 6/4/17, p.C10)

2017        May 25, Florida’s Gov. Rick Scott signed law that will eliminate taxes on feminine hygiene products starting in January. Florida joined 13 other states and the District of Columbia in enacting such legislation.
    (SFC, 5/26/17, p.A5)

2017        May 29, Serbia introduced May 18 as a Remembrance Day for women killed by their husbands or partners as part of efforts to curb domestic violence in the conservative Balkan country. The date was chosen because seven women were killed in just three days in May 2015.
    (AP, 5/29/17)

2017        Jun 29, Britain pledged to fund abortions for Northern Irish women who travel to England after a Belfast court overturned a ruling that Northern Ireland's restrictive abortion laws breach human rights in certain cases.
    (Reuters, 6/29/17)

2017        Jun 30, Simone Veil (b.1927), a survivor of Auschwitz and one of France's most respected politicians, died. As a member of the center-right Union for French Democracy, she was named health minister under president Valery Giscard d'Estaing and led a battle that marked her generation: the legalization of abortion.
    (AP, 6/30/17)(Econ 7/8/17, p.78)

2017        Jul 8, The World Bank launched a public-private loan program, conceived by Ivanka Trump, to support women entrepreneurs in developing countries. Initial funding of $325 million for the project included large donations from Germany, the United States, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
    (Reuters, 7/8/17)(SSFC, 7/9/17, p.A4)

2017        Jul 10, Spain's Iberia airline said it has decided to scrap a pregnancy test for new employees after it was fined 25,000 euros ($29,000) by a regional government for discrimination.
    (AP, 7/10/17)

2017        Jul 11, Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder signed legislation that would subject doctors and parents involved in female genital mutilation up to 15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A4)
2017        Jul 11, Saudi Arabia said its public schools will begin offering physical education for girls in the coming academic year, a long-awaited step toward social reform in the Islamic kingdom.
    (Reuters, 7/11/17)

2017        Jul 14, Maryam Mirzakhani (40), an Iranian-born mathematician and a professor at Stanford University, died after a battle with cancer. She was the first woman to win the coveted Fields Medal (2014).
    (AFP, 7/15/17)(Econ 7/22/17, p.72)

2017        Jul 29, Hundreds of Turkish women marched in Istanbul to protest against the violence and animosity they face from men demanding they dress more conservatively.
    (Reuters, 7/30/17)

2017        Aug 5, In the Philippines some 2,000 mothers breastfed their babies in public in a gathering in Manila aimed at cutting infant deaths and dispelling taboos over the practice.
    (AFP, 8/5/17)

2017        Aug 8, In Nepal a parliamentary report released today said immigration officials at its international airport are colluding with traffickers to illegally send Nepali women to the Gulf where they are often exploited and abused.
    (AFP, 8/8/17)

2017        Aug 14, Simone Askew (20) became the first black woman to captain the 4,400 member Corps of Cadets at West Point.
    (SFC, 8/1517, p.A5)

2017        Aug 22, India's Supreme Court struck down “triple talaq" as unconstitutional. The Muslim practice allowed men to instantly divorce their wives by saying “I divorce you" three times. The judgement did not ban other forms of Muslim divorce that favor men.
    (AP, 8/22/17)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.34)

2017        Aug 28, Spanish mother Juana Rivas, at the heart of a bruising public custody battle, agreed to hand her sons over to  her Italian ex-partner, Francesco Arcuri, closing a case that has sparked fierce debate in Spain. Rivas accused her ex-partner of domestic violence and after running away last year from Italy where they lived with their boys, aged 11 and three, she refused to let him see them.
    (AFP, 8/28/17)

2017        Sep 1, Britain’s RAF started taking applications from women interested in joining its ground-fighting force, a 2,000-strong regiment that protects bases and airfields around the world. It became the country's first military service to open up all roles to women.
    (AP, 9/1/17)

2017        Sep 2, Astronaut Peggy Whitson (57) returned to Earth late today, wrapping up a record-breaking flight that catapulted her to first place for US space endurance. Her 665 days off the planet, 288 days on this mission alone, exceeds that of any other American and any other woman worldwide.
    (AP, 9/3/17)

2017        Sep 6, Kate Millett (82), activist, artist and educator, died while on a visit in Paris. Her best-selling "Sexual Politics" (1970) was a landmark of cultural criticism and a manifesto for the modern feminist movement.
    (AP, 9/7/17)

2017        Sep 11, A group of German women's organizations wrote to Chancellor Angela Merkel demanding more support for their goals of equal participation, equal pay and better monitoring of gender policies after the Sept. 24 election.
    (Reuters, 9/11/17)

2017        Sep 14, Tunisia said it has abolished a decades-old ban on Muslim women marrying non-Muslims. The ban dated back to 1973.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

2017        Sep 17, State-owned Saudi Air Navigation Services (SANS) announced that it was offering theoretical and practical training to 80 women per year to prepare them for work in the air traffic control sector.
    (Reuters, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia celebrated the 87th anniversary of its founding with an unprecedented array of concerts and performances, including allowing women into King Fahd International Stadium in Riyadh for an evening operetta - a first in the conservative Islamic kingdom.
    (Reuters, 9/23/17)

2017        Sep 26, Saudi Arabia lifted its decades-old ban on women driving. The kingdom will issue driving licenses to women from next June.
    (AP, 9/27/17)

2017        Sep 30, In Ireland tens of thousands rallied for abortion rights in Dublin, campaigning on one side of a fierce debate after Ireland announced it will hold a referendum on the issue next year.
    (AFP, 9/30/17)

2017        Oct 8, Thousands of Israeli and Palestinian women trekked through a biblical desert landscape, converging on the shores of the Jordan River in a march for peace.
    (Reuters, 10/8/17)

2017        Oct 11, Fatima Goss Graves, president of the Washington-based National Women’s Law Center, announced the formation of the Legal Network of Gender Equity.
    (SFC, 10/12/17, p.A5)

2017        Oct 19, Egyptian lawyer Nabih el-Wahsh said on a TV talk show that harassing or raping women wearing ripped jeans is a "national duty." On Nov. 2 Egypt's highest women's rights body said it has filed a complaint to the top prosecutor seeking legal action against El-Wahsh.
    (AP, 11/2/17)

2017        Oct 24, In Portugal a women's rights group called a rally to protest against an Oct. 11 court ruling that upheld a light sentence for a woman's attackers on the grounds they may have been driven to it by her adultery. In the 2015 attack, one of the men assaulted and held the victim while the other attacked her with a nail-spiked club.
    (AP, 10/24/17)

2017        Oct 29, The state-run Saudi Press Agency reported that Saudi Arabia will for the first time allow women to attend sports events, preparing special sections in three selected stadiums from early next year.
    (Reuters, 10/30/17)

2017        Nov 4, It was reported that an Egyptian court has convicted female TV presenter Doaa Salah of inciting immorality for offering on-air advice to women last July on how to be single mothers, sentencing her to three years in prison. Her imprisonment was suspended pending an appeal and she remained free.
    (AP, 11/4/17)

2017        Nov 17, Britain named Sarah Clarke as the first female "Black Rod". Tasked with banging on the House of Commons door to summon MPs to the Queen's Speech, Black Rod plays a key role in the opening of British parliament following an election.
    (AFP, 11/17/17)

2017        Nov 24, Italian police launched a campaign to reduce the murder rate against women on the eve of the UN-backed International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. Femicides now account for 37 percent of the total compared to 24 percent a decade ago.
    (AFP, 11/24/17)

2017        Nov 25, France’s President Emmanuel Macron announced an initiative to address violence and harassment against women in France marking the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. His plans aimed at erasing the sense of shame that breeds silence among victims and changing what he said is France's sexist culture.
    (AP, 11/25/17)

2017        Nov 28, In India Ivanka Trump described the hurdles faced by women during a speech at a business conference in Hyderabad. The city had cleared away beggars and filled potholes ahead of her visit.
    (AP, 11/28/17)

2017        Nov 29, In Iceland over 400 women political leaders from around the world met for an annual summit, sponsored by the Women Political Leaders Global Forum, aimed at promoting gender equality inside and outside of the political sphere.
    (AP, 11/29/17)

2017        Nov, A Chinese video emerged showing students at a female morality school at the northeastern Fushun Traditional Culture School being told to “shut your mouths and do more housework" and “Don’t fight back when beaten."
    (SSFC, 2/4/18, p.A7)

2017        Dec 15, A federal judge in Philadelphia ordered the Trump administration not to enforce new rules that could significantly reduce women’s access to free birth control.
    (SFC, 12/16/17, p.A6)

2017        Dec 21, The Huffington Post published leaked emails showing Miss America pageant officials ridiculing past Miss Americas, including crass and sometimes vulgar comments about them.
    (SSFC, 12/24/17, p.A9)

2017        Dec 22, Dozens of former Miss Americas called on the leaders of the Atlantic City, NJ, pageant organization to step down in the wake of an email scandal in which CEO Sam Haskell and others used crass and vulgar terms to refer to past winners. Pres. Josh Randall, president of the Miss America Organization, and two other officials resigned the next day.
    (SFC, 12/23/17, p.A5)(SSFC, 12/24/17, p.A9)

2017        Dec 25, At the Vatican topless activist Alisa Vinogradova from the feminist group Femen tried to snatch the statue of the baby Jesus from the Nativity scene in St. Peter's Square but was stopped by police as she grabbed it.
    (Reuters, 12/25/17)

2017        British Labor MP Harriet Harman authored “A Woman’s Work."
2017        Angela Saini authored “Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong."
    (Econ 7/1/17, p.75)

2018        Jan 1, Some 300 prominent women announced an initiative called “Time’s Up" in an effort to fight sexual harassment.
    (SFC, 1/2/18, p.A7)
2018        Jan 1, In Iceland a new law took effect requiring all companies to prove that their wage practices don't discriminate against women, in what is thought to be a global first in the effort to reduce gender pay gaps.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 12, Saudi women for the first time were allowed to enter a sports stadium to watch a soccer match between two local teams. They were segregated from the male-only crowd with designated seating in the so-called "family section".
    (AP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 14, A federal judge in Detroit dismissed one of several charges against two doctors in connection with a female genital mutilation case. US District Judge Bernard Friedman ruled that Dr. Jumana Nagarwala and Dr. Fakhruddin Attar didn't commit conspiracy to transport a minor with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity.
    {Michigan, USA, Medical, Women}
    (AP, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 15, Sri Lanka reimposed a decades-old law banning the selling of alcohol to women and preventing women from working in liquor stores, just days after it was lifted.
    (Reuters, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 20, A team of British soldiers became the first all-female group to cross Antarctica using only muscle power. The team skied a total of 1,700 km (1,056 miles), traveling coast to coast pulling sleds weighing 80 kg (176 pounds) over 62 days.
    (AP, 1/20/18)   

2018        Jan 21, Thousands of people turned out in central London despite sleet and snow to show solidarity with women around the world in demanding equality, justice and an end to harassment.
    (AP, 1/21/18)

2018        Jan 27, In Lebanon dozens of people protested outside the parliament against violence against women, denouncing inaction by the authorities after eight women have been killed since early December.
    (AFP, 1/27/18)

2018        Jan 29, India’s annual economic survey was released with statistics indicating that India has 63 million fewer women than it should have, a "missing" population explained by sex-selective abortions and a range of other issues.
    (AP, 1/30/18)

2018        Feb 5, In India survivors of female genital mutilation (FGM) called on the government to ban female genital mutilation, an age-old ritual practiced by the small Dawoodi Bohra Muslim sect in the country.
    (AFP, 2/5/18)
2018        Feb 5, In Nepal a visiting UN rights official said Nepal's restrictions on woman migrating for work are discriminatory and inconsistent with international law. Nepal last year introduced a ban on women working as domestic helpers in the Gulf.
    (AFP, 2/5/18)

2018        Feb 7, British supermarket chain Tesco faced legal claims that it is paying women less than men for work of equal value, in a case that lawyers estimate could ultimately cost it as much as 4 billion pounds ($5.6 billion) in compensation payments.
    (AP, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 9, In Saudi Arabia a senior member of the top Muslim clerical body said Saudi women need not wear the abaya - the loose-fitting, full-length robes symbolic of religious faith, another indication of the Kingdom's efforts towards modernization.
    (Reuters, 2/10/18)

2018        Feb 12, The Saudi public prosecutor's office said it will recruit women as investigators for the first time, as the kingdom seeks to boost female employment under a reform plan for a post-oil era.
    (AFP, 2/12/18)

2018        Feb 14, Bulgaria's ruling GERB party withdrew from parliament a European treaty designed to combat violence against women after language around gender roles triggered uproar in the European Union's poorest country.
    (Reuters, 2/15/18)

2018        Feb 15, Saudi Arabia announced a policy change allowing women to open their own businesses without the consent of a husband or male relative.
    (AFP, 2/18/18)

2018        Feb 18, Almost 200 British female entertainment stars called for an international movement to end sexual misconduct across society in a letter published ahead of today’s British Academy Film Awards.
    (AP, 2/18/18)

2018        Feb 21, Slovakia’s PM Robert Fico said his country will not ratify a European treaty designed to combat violence against women, bowing to opposition from junior coalition partner and religious groups. Fico said that though Slovakia would adopt into law all measures aimed at combating violence against women, it would not ratify the treaty, which he said was a controversial document that could violate the constitution and lead to the introduction of same-sex marriage.
    (Reuters, 2/22/18)

2018        Feb 23, A report by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said the United Kingdom violates women's rights in Northern Ireland by unduly restricting their access to abortion.
    (Reuters, 2/23/18)

2018        Mar 2, At the Vatican three nuns lashed out against the menial work they have to do for clergymen, often for no money, in a rare public criticism of the Catholic Church's male hierarchy in the monthly magazine "Women, Church, World" published with the official Vatican daily L'Osservatore Romano.
    (AFP, 3/2/18)

2018        Mar 8, Women across Europe and Asia shouted their demands for equality, respect and empowerment to mark International Women’s Day. Protesters in Spain launching a 24-hour strike and crowds of demonstrators filling the streets of Manila, Seoul and New Delhi.
    (AP, 3/8/18)

2018        Mar 10, Ugandan male lawmaker Onesmus Twinamasiko exhorted men to beat their wives in order to discipline them, in comments carried by a Ugandan TV channel. His remarks triggered mostly condemnation online and in the Ugandan press.
    (Reuters, 3/14/18)

2018        Mar 28, In Romania Bucharest Mayor Gabriela Firea adopted a project that will provide 13,800 lei ($3,700) for women who seek in-vitro fertilization in a bid to increase falling birthrates. Up to 1,000 women will be able to benefit from the aid, to be paid in three installments.
    (AP, 3/28/18)

2018        Apr 9, The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals court ruled that employers can't set different pay levels for women and men doing the same job by relying, even in part, on their salary at a previous job.
    (SFC, 4/10/18, p.C1)

2018        Apr 13, Croatia's parliament ratified the Council of Europe's so-called Istanbul Convention, a treaty safeguarding women, despite opposition from conservatives and the powerful Catholic Church.
    (AFP, 4/13/18)

2018        Apr 20, Saudi sports authorities shut down a female fitness center in Riyadh over a contentious promotional video that appeared to show a woman in figure-hugging workout attire.
    (AFP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 29, Saudi national oil giant Aramco said that five new members had been appointed to its board of directors, including the first woman in the firm's history. Lynn Laverty Elsenhans (60) is the former head of US oil company Sunoco Inc. and has been director of oil services company Baker Hughes since July last year.
    (AFP, 4/29/18)

2018        May 2, Britain's health minister apologized for what he called a "serious failure" that resulted in 450,000 women in England not being invited to a screening test for breast cancer.
(AFP, 5/2/18)

2018        May 5, Japanese bullfighting organizers said they had lifted a long-standing ban on women entering the sport's "sacred" ring, in a bid to modernize the traditional activity for the #Metoo generation.
    (AFP, 5/5/18)

2018        May 7, In Louisiana LaToya Cantrell became the first woman to serve as mayor of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 5/8/18, p.A5)

2018        May 12, In France 82 female film industry professionals protested on the steps of the Palais des Festivals to represent, what they describe as pervasive gender inequality in the film industry, at the 71st international film festival, Cannes.
    (AP, 5/13/18)

2018        May 21, Faith Whittlesey (b.1939), former US Ambassador to Switzerland and former director of the White House Office of Public Liaison (1983-1985) under Pres. Ronald Reagan, died in Washington, DC. She helped lay the foundation for the religious right's enduring allegiance to the Republic Party.
    (SSFC, 5/27/18, p.C10)
2018        May 21, A Japanese researcher said a survey of women working for Japanese newspapers and TV networks has found 156 cases of alleged sexual misconduct reported by 35 women, about one-third of which involved lawmakers, government officials and law enforcers.
    (AP, 5/21/18)

2018        May 22, Amnesty International said Saudi Arabia has arrested at least three more women's rights activists in a widening crackdown just weeks before a ban on women driving is set to end.
    (Reuters, 5/22/18)

2018        Jun 10, Thousands of women wearing the colors of the Suffragettes marched through British cities in a living artwork to mark 100 years since British women won the right to vote.
    (AFP, 6/10/18)

2018        Jun 22, In Brazil hundreds of women marched in Rio de Janeiro to demand the legalization of abortion.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 24, In Saudi Arabia a ban ended on female drivers getting behind the wheel on the Gulf kingdom's roads.
    (Reuters, 6/24/18)

2018        Jun 27, Victoria Burgess (34) arrived in Key West after paddling on a standup paddleboard across the Florida Straits from Cuba in just under 28 hours.
(AP, 6/28/18)

2018        Jun 28, British jurors at Birmingham Crown Court convicted Liberian-born Josephine Iyamu of being the ringleader of a network that brought the women from Nigeria to Europe. The victims also were forced to take oaths at a Voodoo or "juju" ceremony in which they promised to repay the debts and not to go to police.
    (AP, 6/28/18)   

2018        Jun 29, Polish sprinter Irena Szewinska (72), the most famous athlete in Polish sports history, died in Warsaw. She dominated women's athletics for two decades, winning seven Olympic medals.
    (AP, 6/30/18)

 2018        Jun 30, In Uganda hundreds of protesters marched through the streets of Kampala demanding police action to stop a spate of kidnappings and murders of women that have gripped the country.
    (AFP, 6/30/18)

2018        Jul 16, In Somalia a girl (10) bled to death in a hospital two days after her mother took her to a traditional circumciser in central Galmudug state. The UN says about 98 percent of women and girls in the Horn of Africa nation undergo female genital mutilation.
    (AP, 7/20/18)

2018        Jul 23, Oksana Shachko (31), one of the founders of the Femen feminist protest movement, was found dead in her Paris apartment with a suicide note next to her body. She was one of four feminist activists who founded Femen in Ukraine in 2008.
    (AFP, 7/24/18)
2018        Jul 23, The chief justice of Pakistan's Supreme Court appointed judge Tahira Safdar as the first woman chief justice to Baluchistan province's highest court.
    (AP, 7/24/18)

2018        Jul 26, Britain's Royal Air Force led tributes to Mary Ellis, an aviation pioneer and World War II-era pilot who has died at 101. As a member of the Air Transport Auxiliary, Ellis flew over 1,000 Spitfires and bombers, bringing the aircraft from factories to airfields and afterward managed Sandown airport on the Isle of Wight.
    (AP, 7/26/18)

2018        Jul 27, Bulgaria's top court ruled that a European treaty to combat violence against women violates the constitution, likely eliminating any chance the treaty can be ratified.
    (Reuters, 7/27/18)

2018        Aug 1, Human Rights Watch said Saudi Arabia has arrested two more women's rights activists. HRW said authorities arrested Samar Badawi and Nassima al-Sadah in the past two days. Badawi's former husband is already in prison, serving a 15-year sentence for human rights activism, and her brother Raif Badawi, a prominent blogger, is serving a 10-year sentence for expressing controversial opinions online.
    (Reuters, 8/1/18)

2018        Aug 3, Japan's government urged a medical university to promptly disclose the results of an investigation into its admissions process after reports alleged it had altered the test scores of female applicants for years to deny them entry and ensure fewer women became doctors.
    (AP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 4, In South Korea tens of thousands of women staged a mass rally in Seoul to protest against spycam porn, urging tougher punishments for peeping Toms as anger over the growing scourge boils over.
    (AFP, 8/4/18)

2018        Aug 7, Arvonne Fraser (92), a leading voice on women's issues in Minnesota, nationally and abroad, died in Hudson, Wis.
    (SSFC, 8/12/18, p.C10)

2018        Aug 10, Japan launched an unprecedented probe into gender discrimination at all the nation's medical universities after a Tokyo medical school admitted to altering the entrance test results of female applicants to exclude them.
    (AFP, 8/10/18)

2018        Aug 13, Tunisia's President Beji Caid Essebsi proposed giving women equal inheritance rights despite protests from thousands of people objecting to any challenge to Islamic law.
    (Reuters, 8/13/18)

2018        Sep 5, Freddie Oversteegen (b.1925), Dutch communist resistance member, died in Driehuis. She, her sister, and friend Hannie Schaft had worked to sabotage the Nazi military presence in the Netherlands during WWII. They used dynamite to disable bridges and railroad tracks. Additionally, they aided Jewish children by smuggling them out of the country or helping them escape concentration camps.  They also lured soldiers to the woods under the pretense of a romantic overture and then killed them.

2018        Sep 18, South Africa's largest trade union federation elected a woman president, a first for the 33-year-old labor movement that helped lead the fight against apartheid. Zingiswa Losi (42) was nominated unopposed at an annual meeting of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu).
    (AFP, 9/18/18)

2018        Sep 21, Canada began hosting a two-day summit bringing together more than half of the world's top female foreign ministers in Montreal.
    (AFP, 9/22/18)

2018        Sep 28, India's Supreme Court lifted a temple's ban on women of menstruating age, holding that equality is supreme irrespective of age and gender. The historic Sabarimala temple had barred women age 10 to 50 from entering the temple, one of the largest Hindu pilgrimage centers in the world.
    (AP, 9/28/18)

2018        Oct 10, France's highest court overturned an appeals court ruling that required around 1,700 women around the world to pay back compensation they received over rupture-prone breast implants. The decision means that the years-long case must be retried.
    (AP, 10/10/18)

2018        Oct 13, In Italy women's rights groups marched in protest in the northern city of Verona, after the local council passed a motion to fund Catholic anti-abortion groups.
    (AFP, 10/13/18)

2018        Oct 16, In India tensions rose at the Sabarimala hill temple in Kerala state before an expected face-off between women of menstrual age who can enter for the first time in centuries and conservative Hindu groups who want to stop them.
    (Reuters, 10/16/18)

2018        Oct 17, In India conservative Hindu groups prevented women from entering an Indian hill temple, in defiance of India's top court which says a centuries-long ban at the holy site is illegal.
    (Reuters, 10/17/18)
2018        Oct 17, Norway's government officially apologized to Norwegian women targeted for reprisals by authorities for having intimate relations with German soldiers during the country's war-time occupation.
    (AP, 10/17/18)
2018        Oct 17, UN agencies called for an end to the practice in some countries of determining whether a girl or woman is a virgin through gynecological testing.
    (SFC, 10/18/18, p.A2)

2018        Oct 18, A new UN report said South Sudan's armed opposition abducted women and girls as young as 12 and lined them up so commanders could choose "wives," and those not selected were left to be raped repeatedly by other fighters. The report focused on the Western Equatoria region between April and August, saying 900 people were abducted and some 24,000 people forced to flee their homes as fighting surged after months of relative calm.
    (AP, 10/18/18)

2018        Oct 19, In India dozens of Hindu priests joined conservative protesters to block women of menstruating age from the Sabarimala temple, one of the world's largest Hindu pilgrimage sites, defying a ruling from India's top court to let them enter.
    (AP, 10/19/18)

2018        Oct 27, In southern India protesters set fire to a Hindu religious center in Kerala state for supporting a Supreme Court decision allowing women of menstruating age at one of the world's largest Hindu pilgrimage sites.
    (AP, 10/27/18)

2018        Nov 7, Japan's Tokyo Medical University, that acknowledged systematically discriminating against female applicants, announced plans to accept more than 60 who were unfairly rejected over the past two years.
    (AP, 11/7/18)

2018        Nov 16, In India thousands of protesters blocked all the exits at a southern airport for more than 14 hours, stopping rights activist Trupti Desai from heading to a Hindu temple to defy a centuries-old ban on most women entering. Desai has led a successful campaign to give women the right to enter the inner sanctums of three temples in the western state of Maharashtra under the slogan "Right to Pray".
    (Reuters, 11/16/18)

2018        Nov 17, In Norway thousands of protesters demonstrated in cities against restricting women's access to abortion, the subject of talks between the ruling minority coalition and a small party seeking to join the government.
    (Reuters, 11/17/18)

2018        Nov 21, South Korea said it will dissolve a foundation funded by Japan to compensate South Korean women who were forced to work in Japan's World War II military brothels. The widely expected decision, if carried out, would effectively kill a controversial 2015 agreement to settle a decades-long impasse over the sexual slavery issue. Japan still hasn't acknowledged legal responsibility for atrocities during its colonial occupation of the Korean Peninsula from 1910 to 1945.
    (AP, 11/21/18)

2018        Nov 25, In Spain tens of thousands of protesters, many wearing purple, marched through Madrid and other cities to mark the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.
    (Reuters, 11/25/18)

2018        Nov 26, Socialite, codebreaker, British government minister and bon vivant Jean Barker (b.1922), better known by her title, Baroness Trumpington, died.
    (AP, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 27, Slovenia said it has appointed Major General Alenka Ermenc as chief of the army, making her the only woman in charge of a NATO country's military.
    (Reuters, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 30, Hundreds of women took part in a race in Cairo to campaign for an end to violence against women and push for acceptance of women running in public spaces.
    (Reuters, 11/30/18)
2018        Nov 30, In Vietnam Huynh Thuc Vy (33), founder of the organization Vietnamese Women for Human Rights, was sentenced to two years and nine months in prison for spraying paint on Vietnamese flags and posting a photo of them on Facebook.
    (Reuters, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 4, Thousands of Israeli women protested against domestic violence in a nationwide strike, calling for more action and state funding to deal with the problem.
    (AFP, 12/4/18)

2018        Dec 8, In Russia Lyudmila Alexeyeva (91), the founder of Russia's oldest human rights group, died in hospital in Moscow.
    (Reuters, 12/8/18)

2018        Dec 13, United Nations human rights experts expressed concern over recent rollbacks of women's rights in Poland, especially those regarding reproductive health and societal roles.
    (AFP, 12/13/18)

2018        Whitney Chadwick authored "Farewell to the Muse: Love, War and the Women of Surrealism."
    (SFC, 3/29/18, p.E1)
2018        Tunisia granted women equal rights under inheritance laws.
    (Econ, 8/3/19, p.41)

2019        Jan 1, In southern India millions of women stood should to shoulder along highways in Kerala state creating a human wall 300 miles long standing fast against sexism and oppression.
    (SFC, 1/3/19, p.A4)
2019        Jan 1, Pope Francis ushered in the New Year with an ode to motherhood, reminding the faithful that a mother's example and embrace is the best antidote to today's disjointed world of solitude and misery.
    (AP, 1/1/19)

2019        Jan 2, In India two women entered the Sabarimala temple in Kerala state, one of the country's largest Hindu pilgrimage sites that had been forbidden to females between the ages of 10 and 50, sparking protests across the state.
    (AP, 1/2/19)

2019        Jan 4, In India the office of the chief minister of Kerala state said a woman (46) has become the third to enter the Sabarimala Hindu temple in defiance of an ancient ban on females of menstruating age. Temple management denied that the Sri Lankan woman had in fact entered. Only small protests were reported from across the state.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)
2019        Jan 4, In Iraq a fire at a women's shelter in Baghdad killed several lodgers. A police chief called it a "group suicide" caused by women rioting in the shelter. Two women died from stab wounds and seven perished in the fire.
    (AP, 1/4/19)

2019        Jan 6, In Saudi Arabia a new regulation that took effect aimed at curbing seemingly rampant cases of men secretly ending marriages without informing their wives. Saudi courts will now notify women by text message when they get divorced.
    (AFP, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 9, In Nepal a woman (35) and her sons were found dead by family and villagers in a small hut next to their family home due to suspected smoke inhalation. A local tradition exiled women from their homes and forced to live in huts during menstruation.
    (AP, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 15, Spain's powerful feminist movement rallied across the country against far-right party Vox for seeking to scrap tough laws against gender violence which it argues "criminalizes" men.
    (AFP, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 17, It was reported that another Saudi woman has turned to social media for protection from her father, just days after Canada granted refuge to Rahaf al-Qunun, the 18-year-old Saudi who fled her family. Nojoud al-Mandeel has not fled the kingdom, has not revealed her face and has only made her pleas for help on Twitter in Arabic.
    (AP, 1/17/19)

2019        Jan 19, In San Francisco thousands of protesters marched as part of the thrid Women's March. More than 100 crowds gathered elsewhere in the US and around the world for social justice and reproductive rights.
    (SSFC, 1/20/19, p.A15)

2019        Feb 6, In southern India the board of the ancient Hindu Sabarimala hill temple said it now favored allowing female worshippers of menstruating age to enter, reversing its previous support for a centuries-old ban.
    (Reuters, 2/6/19)
2019        Feb 6, Raya El Hassan, Lebanon's new interior minister, assumed her post, becoming her country's and the Arab world's first female official in charge of powerful security agencies.
    (AP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 8, New Hampshire's Supreme Court upheld the conviction of three women who were arrested for going topless on a beach.
    (SFC, 2/9/19, p.A5)

2019        Feb 11, In France the left-wing Liberation newspaper suspended two of its journalists, including Vincent Glad, who founded the closed Facebook group "League of LOL," a secret "boys club" of journalists that has been accused of harassing women writers and feminists during a near-decade long campaign of online bullying.
    (Reuters, 2/12/19)

2019        Mar 6, An activist group said Nasrin Sotoudeh, a prominent human rights lawyer in Iran who defended protesters against the Islamic Republic's mandatory headscarves for women, has been convicted and faces years in prison. She had previously served three years in prison for her work.
    (AP, 3/6/19)

2019        Mar 7, First lady Melania Trump joined Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the State Department to confer international courage awards on 10 women from Bangladesh, Djibouti, Egypt, Ireland, Jordan, Montenegro, Myanmar, Peru, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. The State Department has honored more than 120 women from scores of countries since it created the International Women of Courage Award in 2007.
    (AP, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 8, Campaigners for gender equality marked International Women's Day with protests, discussion panels and walkouts as well as celebrations.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 8, On International Women’s Day Yasaman Aryani, her mother Monireh Arabshahi and Mojgan Keshavarz handed out flowers to female passengers on the Tehran metro and spoke of a day when women have the freedom to choose what they wear. Aryani and her mother were each sentenced to 16 years in prison for “inciting and facilitating corruption and prostitution," though the sentence was later reduced.
    (AP, 3/8/21)
2019        Mar 8, One of Spain's largest unions, UGT, said an estimated six million people walked out of their jobs for at least two hours in a strike to demand equal pay and rights for women, which it said mobilized more people than a similar action a year ago.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 14, PEN American announced that Saudi women Nouf Abdulaziz, Loujain al-Hathloul and Eman al-Nafjan have won the PEN/Barbey Freedom to Write Award. The award was established in 1987 and is given to writers imprisoned for their work.
    (AP, 3/14/19)

2019        Mar 26, The all-female staff of the Vatican newspaper's monthly magazine on women's issues resigned abruptly en masse, saying the new editor was trying limit their autonomy and put them "under direct male control".
    (Reuters, 3/26/19)

2019        Mar 29, Slovakia's lawmakers approved a resolution to reject an international treaty on women's rights. Opponents of the 2011 Istanbul Convention charged that some provisions would violate the Slovak constitution — for example because the constitution defines marriage as a union of a man and a woman.
    (AP, 3/29/19)

2019        Apr 2, In Chicago Lori Lightfoot (56), a former federal prosecutor, was elected mayor, becoming the city's first black woman and openly gay person to lead the city.
    (SFC, 4/3/19, p.A6)

2019        Apr 16, India's Supreme Court agreed to consider a petition from a Muslim couple to allow women into mosques, seeking to overturn a centuries-old practice that largely bars women from the places of worship.
    (Reuters, 4/16/19)

2019        Apr 26, Human Rights Watch called on China and Pakistan to take action to end bride trafficking, warning in an April 26 statement of "increasing evidence that Pakistani women and girls are at risk of sexual slavery in China".
    (AP, 5/07/19)

2019        Apr 30, The Vatican announced a new editorial leadership team for its women's magazine (Women Church World), following the clamorous exit of its previous editor who alleged a campaign of delegitimization by the Holy See's communications operation.
    (AP, 4/30/19)

2019        May 1, The Swiss-based IAAF, the sports world's highest court, ruled that Olympic champion Caster Semenya and other female runners like her with unusually high testosterone must take medication to reduce their levels of the male sex hormone if they want to compete in certain events. South Africa's Olympic athlete Caster Semenya said the decision will not hold her back.
    (AFP, 5/1/19)

2019        May 2, More than 200 of the world's top female hockey players declared they will not compete in North America next season in a dramatic attempt to establish a single, economically viable professional league.
    (AP, 5/2/19)

2019        May 17, Missouri's Republican governor, Mike Parson, signed a bill into law that prohibits women from seeking an abortion after the eighth week of pregnancy, days after Alabama enacted the most restrictive abortion law in the United States.
    (Reuters, 5/21/19)

2019        May 18, In France actress Eva Longoria said restrictive abortion laws passed in Alabama and Missouri are a threat to women, with stars set to protest against the bans on the Cannes red carpet.
    (AFP, 5/18/19)

2019        May 21, The United Nations human rights office called on US authorities to ensure that women have access to safe abortions, saying bans lead to risky underground abortions that can endanger a woman's life.
    (Reuters, 5/21/19)

2019        May 22, It was reported that a smartphone app developed by Japanese police is being widely downloaded by women trying to protect themselves from gropers on packed rush-hour trains. The "Digi Police" app was originally issued by Tokyo police three years ago, but a function to scare off molesters was only added a few months ago.
    (AP, 5/22/19)

2019        Jun 5, Japan's health minister said in response to a petition seeking a ban on requiring women to wear high heels at work that such dress code expectations are "necessary and appropriate" in the workplace.
    (Reuters, 6/5/19)

2019        Jun 14, Europol issued a report, "Women in Islamic State Propaganda," saying "female jihadis are as ideologically motivated as their male counterparts and their sense of empowerment lies in contributing to the building of an Islamic state".
    (AP, 6/14/19)
2019        Jun 14, Women across Switzerland held a strike to highlight their wealthy nation's poor record on female rights, recreating the passion of the first such walkout in 1991.
    (Reuters, 6/14/19)

2019        Jun 14, At the Vatican church officials said Pope Francis has accepted the resignation of Carlos Eugenio Irarrázabal, the auxiliary bishop of the Chilean capital city, just 24 days after he appointed him to the post. Irarrázabal had become embroiled in controversy after he recently said there were no women at the Last Supper of Jesus and his disciples so "we have to respect that." He also said that perhaps women "like to be in the back room".
    (AP, 6/14/19)

2019        Jun, In Japan Ishikawa Yumi submitted a petition to the government with 18,800 signatures calling for a ban on employers requiring women to wear high heel shoes.
    (Econ, 4/11/20, p.28)

2019        Aug 2, Saudi Arabia published new laws that loosen restrictions on women by allowing all citizens — women and men alike — to apply for a passport and travel freely, ending a long-standing guardianship policy that had controlled women's freedom of movement. The new laws are to go into effect by the end of the month.
    (AP, 8/2/19)

2019        Sep 8, Mexican women took to the streets of Mexico City again to demand justice for women who have been killed, kidnapped and sexually assaulted.
    (AP, 9/8/19)

2019        Sep 10, Canadian author Margaret Atwood said a deterioration in women's rights in some parts of the world including in the United States prompted her to write a sequel to her best-selling 1985 novel "The Handmaid's Tale".
    (Reuters, 9/10/19)

2019        Sep 17, Cokie Roberts (75), journalist and commentator for ABC News and National Public Radio, died of breast cancer. Her eight books included "Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation" (2008).
    (SFC, 9/18/19, p.A6)

2019        Sep 24, It was reported that Turkish artist Vahit Tuna has mounted 440 pairs of high heels on the facade of a building on a busy Istanbul street, to symbolize the number of women murdered in domestic or sexual violence in Turkey in 2018.
    (Reuters, 9/24/19)

2019        Oct 8, It was reported that three Albanian 16-year-old girls have developed an app to help victims of domestic violence access support, hoping to tackle a huge problem in Albania, where one in two women suffered abuse last year. The app, known as GjejZâ, (Find your Voice), will launch on Oct. 11 after winning an international technology competition for girls in the US.
    (Reuters, 10/8/19)

2019        Oct 10, Sudan appointed a woman as the head of its judiciary for the first time in the history of the Arab Muslim country. Taj-Elsir Ali, a former prosecutor and lawyer, was named as the public prosecutor.
    (Reuters, 10/10/19)

2019        Oct 11, Today marked the eighth annual International Day of the Girl, a UN observance that focuses attention and resources on the fight for girls’ rights and empowerment.

2019        Oct, A Pakistani court acquitted 31 Chinese nationals charged in connection with trafficking women to be sold as brides in China. Investigators later revealed a list of 629 girls and women who were sold as brides and taken to China since 2018. Investigations were said to have ground to a halt in June because of pressure from government officials fearful of hurting lucrative ties with Beijing.
    (SFC, 12/5/19, p.A5)

2019        Nov 17, A French damning justice ministry report said police missed opportunities to save the lives of 41 per cent of women murdered in France by current or former partners.
    (The Telegraph, 11/17/19)

2019        Nov 18, Adela Raz, Afghanistan’s first female ambassador to the UN, launched a UN group to protect the rights Afghan women gained after the Taliban was ousted from power 18 years ago, amid fresh efforts to rekindle talks with the fundamentalist group to end the country’s long-running war.
    (AP, 11/20/19)

2019        Nov 23, In France tens of thousands of people took the streets of Paris and other cities to protest against domestic violence, after more than 130 women are believed to have been killed by their partner or ex-partner in France this year.
    (Reuters, 11/23/19)

2019        Nov 25, Today marked International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. Tens of thousands of women marched as the UN women's agency kicked off 16 days of activism against gender-based violence.
    (Reuters, 11/25/19)(SFC, 11/27/19, p.A4)

2019        Dec 3, The Dutch parliament voted to require companies listed in the Netherlands to have at least 30% of supervisory board seats held by women. The motion also requires around 5,000 other large companies to draw up detailed plans to increase the number of women on their supervisory and executive boards.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2019        Dec 4, In Chile thousands of women, blindfolded and dressed in black, descended on Santiago chanting what has now become their rallying cry: “El violador eres tu", or, “The rapist is you".
    (The Independent, 12/7/19)

2019        Dec 7, In Lebanon scores of women marched through the streets of Beirut to protest sexual harassment and bullying and demanding rights including the passing of citizenship to children of Lebanese women married to foreigners.
    (AP, 12/7/19)

2019        Dec 28, NASA astronaut Christina Koch broke the record set by retired astronaut Peggy Whitson for the longest single spaceflight by a woman with 289 days in space.
    (Good Morning America, 12/30/19)

2020        Jan 8, The Trump administration said it was too late to renew the effort to push through a decades-old proposed amendment to the US Constitution that would ensure American women have equal rights to men. Virginia could, under the theory proposed by supporters of the amendment, become the 38th state as it is expected to vote this year. The Democratic-controlled House Judiciary Committee voted in November to approve a measure that would retroactively remove the ratification deadline.
    (Reuters, 1/8/20)

2020        Jan 15, Virginia became the 38th state to approve the Equal Rights Amendment, first proposed in 1923. The deadline for the ERA had expired in 1982 and the measure was expected to be tied up in courts for years.
    (SFC, 1/16/20, p.A6)
2020        Jan 15, Pope Francis tapped Italian lawyer Francesca Di Giovanni (66) to be the first woman to hold a management position in the Vatican’s Secretariat of State.
    (AP, 1/15/20)

2020        Jan 18, Thousands gathered in cities across the USA as part of the nationwide Women's March rallies focused on issues such as climate change, pay equity, reproductive rights and immigration.
    (AP, 1/18/20)

2020        Jan 29, Illinois, Nevada and Virginia, the last three states to pass the Equal Rights Amendment, sued the archivist of the US government, demanding that an amendment to the US Constitution guaranteeing equal rights for women be declared valid.
    (Reuters, 1/30/20)

2020        Feb 13, The US House of Representatives passed a bill to write women's rights into the US Constitution. The ERA Amendment still faced passage in the Senate.
    (SFC, 2/14/20, p.A1)

2020        Feb 17, India's top court ordered the federal government to grant permanent commission and command positions to female officers in the army on par with men.
    (SFC, 2/17/20, p.A4)

2020        Feb 22, In New York Barbara "B." Smith (70), a model, restaurateur and lifestyle tastemaker, died at her Long Island home. Her hme products line was the first from a black woman to be sold at a nationwide retailer when it debuted in 2001 at Bed Bath and Beyond.
    (SFC, 2/24/20, p.A7)

2020        Feb 24, Katherine Johnson (101), a mathematician who calculated rocket trajectories and earth orbits for NASA’s early space missions, died in Virginia. She was portrayed in the 2016 hit film “Hidden Figures," about pioneering black female aerospace workers.
    (AP, 2/24/20)(Econ., 2/29/20, p.74)
2020        Feb 24, In South Africa the Commission for Gender Equality (CGE) reported that dozens of HIV-positive South African women have been sterilized without consent or after being pressured to agree just before giving birth, sometimes being told while in pain on their way to the operating theater.
    (Reuters, 2/24/20)

2020        Mar 2, Chilean President Sebastian Pinera signed a law that strengthens existing legislation against femicide, expanding the definition to include the killing of non-married partners and boosting penalties for killing pregnant women and minors.
    (Reuters, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 3, A Pakistani court gave the go-ahead to the country's largest women's rights event but told organizers to ensure participants adhere to "decency and moral values." The Aurat March, using the Urdu word for women, has been attended by tens of thousands over the last two years to mark International Women's Day on March 8.
    (Reuters, 3/3/20)

2020        Mar 5, A new UN study said nearly 90 percent of the world's population holds some prejudice against women.
    (AFP, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 8, Women filled the streets of the world's largest cities to protest gender violence and inequality on International Women’s Day.
    (AP, 3/9/20)
2020        Mar 8, Police in Kyrgyzstan detained dozens of women's rights activists shortly after journalists witnessed the protesters being attacked by masked men.
    (AP, 3/8/20)
2020        Mar 8, Turkish riot police fired tear gas to disperse thousands of demonstrators who, in defiance of a government ban, tried to march along Istanbul's main pedestrian street to mark International Women's Day.
    (AP, 3/9/20)

2020        Mar 9, In Mexico untold thousands of women stayed home from work and school as part of a strike billed as "A Day Without Women." a day after an unprecedented number of them filled the streets to protest rampant gender violence on Int'l. Women's Day.
    (SFC, 310/20, p.A2)
2020        Mar 9, The UN adopted a stripped-down political declaration on women's rights that seeks to preserve gains under threat but does not advocate new ways to ensure progress toward equality. The adopted text follows the main lines of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action of 1995, which sought to promote women's emancipation and advancement around the world.
    (AFP, 3/9/20)

2020        Mar 13, In Greece Katerina Sakellaropoulou (63) was formally sworn in as the country's first female president.
    (SFC, 3/14/20, p.A4)

2020        Mar 18, Catherine Hamlin (b.1924), Australian obstetrician and gynaecologist, died in Ethiopia. She and her husband, Reginald Hamlin, co-founded the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital. The Hamlins, together with the hospital staff, have treated more than 60,000 women to date for obstetric fistula.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_Hamlin)(Econ, 4/11/20, p.70)

2020        Mar 30, Sierra Leone overturned a ban on pregnant girls attending school in a victory for human rights activists who had fought against it for five years.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)

2020        Apr 5, E. Margaret Burbidge (100), an astrophysicist who made pathbreaking findings about the state of the cosmos, died at her home in San Francisco.
    (NY Times, 4/6/20)

2020        Apr 18, Barbara Babcock (81), a pioneering legal voice in women's rights, died at her Stanford home. She became Stanford's first female law professor in 1972. Her books included "Woman Lawyer: The Trials of Clara Foltz" (2011), a biography of the first woman lawyer in the west, and the founder of the public defender movement.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yadpoywn)(SSFC, 5/31/20, p.C3)

2020        Apr 21, Kenya has confirmed almost 300 cases of COVID-19. It was reported that village chiefs in Kenya will make house-to-house checks after reports some rural communities were taking advantage of school closures due to the coronavirus to perform female genital mutilation (FGM) on girls.
    (Reuters, 4/21/20)

2020        Apr 22,  The UN in a report said there was evidence of rising violence against women in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia, and a doubling in the number of femicides in Argentina during the coronavirus-related quarantine.
    (NBC News, 4/27/20)

2020        Apr 28, It was reported that almost one thousand women were murdered in Mexico in the first three months of the year. The government said at least 720 women were murdered in the first quarter of the year and 244 women were victims of femicide.
    (The Independent, 4/28/20)

2020        Apr 29, It was reported that women in Yemen who dare dissent, or even enter the public sphere, have become targets in an escalating crackdown by the Houthis. Estimates of women currently detained range from 200 to 350 in the governorate of Sanaa alone.
    (AP, 4/29/20)

2020        May 1, It was reported that Sudan has criminalized carrying out female genital mutilation (FGM), making it punishable by three years in jail. The law must still be ratified by a joint meeting of the Cabinet and the sovereign council.
    (BBC, 5/1/20)(AP, 5/2/20)

2020        Jun 30, The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) released its annual report. It said more than 140 million females are considered missing today because of a preference for sons over daughters and extreme neglect of young girls. The report also said child marriages occur 33,000 times a day, despite being almost universally banned.
    (SFC, 7/2/20, p.A4)
2020        Jun 30, It was reported that politicians around the world have called for a UN probe into a Chinese government birth control campaign targeting largely Muslim minorities in the far western region of Xinjiang, even as Beijing said it treats all ethnicities equally under the law. The forced abortions and sterilization on Uighur women reportedly caused birth rates to plunge 24% in Xinjiang last year.
    (AP, 6/30/20)(Econ., 7/4/20, p.36)

2020        Jul 8, The US Supreme Court ruled 7-2 to uphold Trump administration rules allowing some employers to decline to provide contraceptive coverage on religious or moral grounds, which could leave more than 70,000 women without cost-free birth control.
    (AP, 7/8/20)

2020        Jul 9, Sudan's ruling body ratified a law banning the widespread practice of female genital mutilation, handing the movement for women’s rights in the African country a long-sought victory.
    (AP, 7/11/20)

2020        Jul 22, It was reported that violence against women has surged in Mexico since the start of the coronavirus pandemic, but the country’s president has downplayed the problem and slashed the budgets of agencies charged with addressing women’s issues. Figures released this week show that crimes such as femicides climbed 7.7% in the first half of 2020, when compared with the same period last year.
    (The Guardian, 7/22/20)

2020        Jul 28, Diana E.H. Russell (81), a leading feminist activist and scholar who popularized the term “femicide" to refer to the misogynist killing of women, and to distinguish these killings from other forms of homicide, died at a medical facility in Oakland, Calif.
    (NY Times, 8/7/20)
2020        Jul 28, Gisèle Halimi (93), a prominent French lawyer, activist and author who championed feminist causes and human rights efforts for decades, died. She founded a feminist group with Simone de Beauvoir and played a key role in the decriminalization of abortion in France.
    (NY Times, 8/19/20)
2020        Jul 28, Authorities in Peru said more than 900 women and girls have gone missing and are feared to be dead in Peru since the country’s coronavirus lockdown started.
    (AP, 7/28/20)
2020        Jul 28, The UN human rights office reported that scores of North Korean women who had traveled abroad in a desperate search for work were abused by security officials and police through beatings, detention in unsanitary conditions, undernourishment and invasive body searches after being sent back home. The women spoke to UN human rights officials after eventually fleeing North Korea following their detention.
    (AP, 7/28/20)

2020        Aug 8, Italy’s health minister announced that women in Italy can now use the abortion pill on an outpatient basis rather than be hospitalized to terminate a pregnancy.
    (AP, 8/8/20)

2020        Aug 4, Frances Allen, a computer scientist and researcher who helped create the fundamental ideas that allow practically anyone to build fast, efficient and useful software for computers, smartphones and websites, died at a nursing home in Schenectady, NY.
    (NY Times, 8/8/20)

2020        Aug 11, Joe Biden selected Senator Kamala Harris of California as his running mate. She is the first Black woman, and the first person of Indian descent, to be nominated for national office by a major party.
    (NY Times, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 12, Hundreds of women rallied across Belarus’ capital to protest a brutal police crackdown that left hundreds injured and thousands detained while challenging election results extending the 26-year rule of the country’s authoritarian leader. More than 300 CEOs of IT companies and investors signed a letter demanding a new election as well as an end to state-sponsored violence. Otherwise, they claimed, they'll head elsewhere.
    (AP, 8/12/20)(The Week, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 18, President Donald Trump said that he will pardon Susan B. Anthony, a women's suffrage leader arrested for voting in 1872 in violation of laws permitting only men to vote.
    (AP, 8/18/20)

2020        Jul 22, Joan Feynman (93), American astrophysicist, died in Ventura, Ca. She made important contributions to the study of solar wind particles and fields; sun-Earth relations; and magnetospheric physics.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Feynman)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.86)

2020        Jul 24, Ann Syrdal (74), psychologist and computer science researcher, died at her home in San Jose, Ca. She helped develop synthetic voices that sounded like women and laid the groundwork for such modern digital assistants as Apple’s Siri and Amazon’s Alexa.
    (NY Times, 8/21/20)

2020        Aug 5, Dr. Hawa Abdi (73), human rights activist and a rescuer of Somalia's refugees, died in Mogadishu.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawa_Abdi)(Econ., 10/31/20, p.78)

2020        Aug 28, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution calling on the United Nations and its 193 member nations to step up action to increase the number of women in military and civilian positions at all levels in the UN’s far-flung peacekeeping operations.
    (AP, 8/28/20)

2020        Sep 1, The Afghan government said Afghan citizens will soon have their mothers’ names printed along with their fathers’ on their national identification cards, after years of campaigning by activists to do away with the shame associated with female names in public.
    (NY Times, 9/3/20)

2020        Sep 9, Shere Hite (77), author of the landmark 1976 book on women’s sexuality, “The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality," died in London. Her work enraged some men and Christian groups, and criticism and threats drove her to leave the US.
    (NY Times, 9/14/20)

2020        Sep 10, Jane Fraser will be the next chief executive of Citigroup, making her the first woman to lead a major US financial institution.
    (NY Times, 9/11/20)
2020        Sep 10, In Mexico a group of women in the city of Ecatepec took over offices of the human rights commission of the state of Mexico, which surrounds the capital. Shortly after midnight, police entered the building and beat the women and children with them, before taking them away in unmarked vehicles to the prosecutor’s office in a neighboring municipality. Protesters have focused their anger on the president, popularly known as Amlo, who has repeatedly downplayed the country’s human rights crisis.
    (The Guardian, 9/16/20)

2020        Sep 18, US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg (87) died of metastatic pancreatic cancer at her home in Washington DC. She was well known for championing gender equality, abortion rights, affirmative action, and other progressive causes.
    (AP, 9/18/20)
2020        Sep 18, The US Embassy in Afghanistan warned that extremists groups are planning attacks against a “variety of targets" but are taking particular aim at women.
    (AP, 9/18/20)

2020        Oct 4, Lee Hyo-jae (95), South Korean champion of women’s rights, died in Changwon.
    (NY Times, 11/14/20)

2020        Oct 11, Today is the International Day of the Girl Child. In 2011 the UN declared Oct. 11 as the International Day of the Girl Child to promote girls’ rights and address the challenges girls face around the world.
    (AP, 10/11/20)

2020        Oct 17, Women’s March protesters took to the streets in Washington DC, galvanized by their opposition to Mr. Trump and his nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court. The march was met with a counterprotest in support of Judge Barrett.
    (NY Times, 10/18/20)

2020        Nov 13, The Miami Marlins announced Kim Ng has been hired as the team's general manager, making her the first female Major League Baseball GM.
    (The Week, 11/14/20)

2020        Nov 20, It was reported that Germany will make it compulsory for most listed and cooperative companies to have at least one woman on their boards after representatives of the ruling conservative and Social Democrat (SPD) parties reached agreement on the long-sought measure.
    (Reuters, 11/20/20)

2020        Nov 23, In Poland police detained several people, including a photo reporter, as women-led protests over abortion rights flared up again in Warsaw and elsewhere.
    (AP, 11/23/20)

2020        Nov 25, Pope Francis called for global action to mark the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.
    (AP, 11/25/20)

2020        Nov 26, It was reported that feminist activists and crime victims have settled in after nearly three months of occupying the headquarters of Mexico's National Human Rights Commission. The women said they took over the building because the government has been slow to protect or support women who have suffered abuse.
    (SFC, 11/26/20, p.A4)

2020        Dec 6, In Japan Shoko Arai, the only female assembly member in the town of Kusatsu, was voted out of office in a recall election orchestrated by the mayor and other assembly members. Last November she had accused mayor Nobutada Kuroiva of forcing her into sexual relation in 2015.
    (SFC, 12/10/20, p.A4)

2020        Dec 10, In Afghanistan gunmen shot and killed Malala Maiwand, a female TV anchor and women's rights activist, as she left her home in Nangarhar province.
    (SFC, 12/11/20, p.A2)

2020        Dec 12, Vanderbilt kicker Sarah Fuller made history again, when she knocked through an extra point during the Commodores' SEC matchup with in-state rival Tennessee. Last month, Fuller became the first woman to play in a Power Five game when she took the second half kick off against Missouri.
    (The Week, 12/13/20)

2020        Dec 27, It was reported that nearly 1,000 girls from religious minorities are forced to convert to Islam in Pakistan each year, largely to pave the way for marriages that are under the legal age and non-consensual.
    (AP, 12/27/20)

2020        Dec 28, Prominent Saudi Arabian activist Loujain al-Hathloul (31), who campaigned for the right to drive and was arrested in 2018, was sentenced to five years and eight months in jail, despite international criticism of her trial and claims she had been tortured. The court suspended two years and 10 months of her sentence and backdated the start of her term, so she would serve only three more months.
    (The Telegraph, 12/28/20)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.32)

2020         In Japan, 6,976 women took their lives this year, nearly 15 percent more than in 2019. It was the first year-over-year increase in more than a decade.
    (NY Times, 2/22/21)

2021        Jan 1, Britain became the latest country to abolish the so-called "tampon tax," eliminating sales taxes on women's sanitary products.
    (AP, 1/1/21)

2021        Jan 2, Mary Catherine Bateson (81), cultural anthropologist, died in Lebanon, NH. She was the author of quietly groundbreaking books on women’s lives the only child of Margaret Mead. Her book “Composing a Life" (1989) is an examination of the stop-and-start nature of women’s lives and their adaptive responses.
    (NY Times, 1/14/21)

2021        Jan 4, A court in Lahore, Pakistan, abolished so-called virginity tests for women in sexual assault cases, saying the practice is humiliating and casts suspicion on victims rather than the accused.
    (NY Times, 1/6/21)

2021        Jan 6, Germany's cabinet approved legislation to force larger listed companies to have at least one woman on their boards, following years of debate over the issue.
    (Reuters, 1/6/21)

2021        Jan 11, In Bellingham, Wa., Margo St. James (83), proud prostitute and union organizer, died. She is best known for the creation of COYOYE, which stood for Cast Off Your Old Tired Ethics, to fight for the rights of sex workers.
    (SFC, 1/16/21, p.B1)
2021        Jan 11, Pope Francis changed its law to allow women to serve as readers at liturgies, altar servers and distributors of communion. With the change in the Code of Canon Law, conservative bishops will not be able to block women in their diocese from those roles.
    (AP, 1/11/21)

2021        Jan 12, The US Supreme Court ordered that women must visit a doctor's office, hospital or clinic in person to obtain an abortion pill during the COVID-19 pandemic, though similar rules for other drugs have been suspended during the public health emergency.
    (AP, 1/12/20)

2021        Jan 22, The US Senate Finance Committee unanimously approved Janet Yellen's nomination as the first woman Treasury secretary, indicating that she will easily win full Senate approval, but Republicans called for her to work with them in developing economic policies.
    (Reuters, 1/22/21)

2021        Feb 12, In Nepal hundreds of women’s right activists and their supporters rallied in Kathmandu to call for an end to violence and discrimination against women and the scrapping of a proposed law that would restrict travel for many women.
    (AP, 2/12/21)

2021        Feb 14, A Hamas-run Islamic court in the Gaza Strip ruled that women require the permission of a male guardian to travel, further restricting movement in and out of the territory that has been blockaded by Israel and Egypt since the militant group seized power.
    (AP, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 15, In New York a new surrogates' bill of rights took effect providing the nation's strongest protections for women serving as surrogates.
    (SFC, 2/16/21, p.A6)
2021        Feb 15, Nigeria's Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala (66) was appointed to head the World Trade Organization, becoming the first woman and first African to take on the role amid disagreement over how the body decides cases involving billions in sales and thousands of jobs.
    (AP, 2/15/21)
2021        Feb 15, Norway's $1.3 trillion sovereign wealth fund, the world's largest, said it wants the companies it invests in globally to boost the number of women on their boards and to consider setting targets if fewer than 30% of their directors are female.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 18, It was reported that in Mexico City tampons with plastic applicators, that many women rely on as a monthly necessity, are gradually disappearing from the shelves following a ban on single-use plastics.
    (Reuters, 2/18/21)

2021        Feb 24, It was reported that women now hold more than a third of the seats on the boards of Britain’s biggest companies, meeting a government target set five years ago.
    (AP, 2/24/21)
2021        Feb 24, It was reported that a divorce court in China has ordered a man to pay his wife £5,500 as compensation for the housework she did during their five-year marriage, in what is believed to be a landmark legal first.
    (The Telegraph, 2/24/21)

2021        Mar 8, In France activists laid flowers near the Iranian Embassy in Paris to show support for a women's rights campaigner sentenced to prison after handing out flowers to women on the Tehran metro in 2019 while not wearing a headscarf.
    (AP, 3/8/21)
2021        Mar 8, Women's rights activists in Poland marked International Women's Day caught between reasons to celebrate and a heavy sense that they are facing a long battle ahead.
    (AP, 3/8/21)
2021        Mar 8, In Ukraine thousands of women marched through the center of Kyiv on International Women's Day to draw attention to domestic violence, which has risen sharply amid restrictions imposed to block the spread of coronavirus.
    (AP, 3/8/21)

2021        Mar 9, The UN WHO and its partners reported in a new study that nearly one in three women worldwide have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetimes.
    (AP, 3/9/21)

2021        Mar 15, In Australia more than 100,000 people took to the streets in dozens of rallies across the country to protest violence against women and the government’s handling of two rape cases involving high-level political figures.
    (The Telegraph, 3/15/21)

2021        Mar 17, Kenya's high court upheld a ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) in a landmark ruling welcomed by campaigners seeking to eradicate the internationally condemned procedure.
    (Reuters, 3/17/21)

2021        Mar 19, Samia Suluhu Hassan made history when she was sworn in as Tanzania’s first female president after the death of her controversial predecessor, John Magufuli, who denied that COVID-19 is a problem in the East African country.
    (AP, 3/19/21)

2021        Mar 20, Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan annulled the Istanbul Convention, a landmark European treaty protecting women from violence. Turkey was the first country to sign it 10 years ago. Rights groups say violence against and the killing of women is on the rise in Turkey.
    (AP, 3/20/21)

2021        Mar 21, Dr. Nawal el Saadawi (89), Egyptian author, physician and advocate for women’s rights in the Arab, died in Cairo. She told her own story of female genital mutilation in her memoirs.
    (NY Times, 3/21/21)

2021        Mar 22, Boston Mayor Marty Walsh resigned to become Pres. Joe Biden's labor secretary. City Council Pres. Kim Janey became the city's first female and first person of color to take office as acting mayor.
    (SFC, 3/24/21, p.A7)

2021        Apr 10, Director Chloé Zhao won the top prize at the 73rd annual Directors Guild of America Awards for Nomadland. She is only the second woman, and the first woman of color, to earn the DGA award.
    (The Week, 4/11/21)

2021        Apr 14, It was reported that several Chinese feminist channels on Douban, a popular social networking forum in China, were abruptly shut this week, triggering online anger and prompting calls for women to "stick together".
    (Reuters, 4/14/21)
2021        Apr 14, A UN report said nearly half of women in 57 developing countries are denied the right to decide whether to have sex with their partners, use contraception or seek health care.
    (AP, 4/14/21)

2021        Apr 20, Tempest Storm (93), one of the most celebrated strippers of midcentury burlesque, died at her home in Las Vegas.
    (NY Times, 4/21/21)

2021        May 5, Lucinda Franks (74), a widely published writer and investigative journalist who was the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for national reporting, died in Hopewell Junction, NY.
    (NY Times, 5/6/21)

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Subject = Women
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