Timeline of Writers (A) thru 1919

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wiki: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_years_in_literature

496BC    Sophocles (d.406BC), the 2nd Greek dramatist after Aeschylus, was born about this time. He is considered by some as the greatest of the Greek dramatists. His works include: "Oedipus Rex" and "Antigone."
    (eawc, p.11)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.D6)

350BC-283BC    Kautilya, Indian political advisor, lived about this time. He is generally called Chanakya (derived from his father's name "Chanak") but, in his capacity as author of the Arthashastra, is generally referred to as Kautilya derived from his clan's name "Kotil" (Kautilya means "of Kotil"). He was a master of the shrewd act of diplomacy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya)

8BCE    Horace (b.65BCE), Roman poet, died. In 2002 J.D. McClatchy edited "Horace: The Odes, New Translations by Contemporary Poets.
    (SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)

79CE        Aug 25, Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
    (MC, 8/25/02)

158        Apulieus of Madaura (~124-~180), Romanised Berber and author of “The Golden Ass" (aka the Metamorphoses) defended himself at the Roman basilica in Sabratha (Libya) against charges of witchcraft in an oration known as Pro de se magia, or more commonly the Apologia. The Golden Ass is the only Latin novel which has survived in its entirety, and is an imaginative, irreverent, and amusing work which relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, who experiments in magic and is accidentally turned into an ass.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/lrgfb8)

430        Augustine (b.354) died in Hippo with a Vandal army outside the gates of the city. His writings included "The Confessions." In 1999 Garry Wills authored the biography "St. Augustine." Augustine had developed the theory of a "just war" and said a nation’s leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. In 2003 Garry Wills authored "Saint Augustine's Sin."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.94)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.M2)(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A16)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M6)

833        Jul 20, Ansegis (Ansegius, 63), French abbot of Fontenelle, author, died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

840        Mar 14, Eginhard (69), French nobleman, biographer (Vita Karoli Magni), died.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1002-1019    In Japan Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote her classic court novel "The Tale of Genji." The novel "Genji Monogatari" (Genji the Shining One) was later considered the world's 1st novel. The long work explored the imperial court of the Heian period through the life and many loves of Genji, son of the emperor's favorite concubine. Arthur Waley made an English translation in 6 installments between 1925 and 1933. Edward Seidensticker made a translation in 1976. Royall Tyler made a new translation in 2001.  In 2000 Liza Dalby authored her novel "The Tale of Murasaki."
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W14)(SFEC, 7/16/00, BR p.3)

1265        May 9, Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (Divine Comedy), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.367)(MC, 5/9/02)

1321        Sep 14, Dante Alighieri, author of the "Divine Comedy," died of malaria just hours after finishing writing "Paradiso." The poem was completed in Italian rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006 Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker, the Man."
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/04628a.htm)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.84)

1343        Geoffrey Chaucer (d.1400), English poet, was born about this time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Chaucer)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1400        Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer (b.~1343), author (Canterbury Tales), died in London. In 1965 Charles Muscatine (1920-2010) authored “Chaucer and the French Tradition: A Study in Style and Meaning."
    (AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)(SFC, 3/16/10, p.C5)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1457        Aug 14, The first book ever printed was published by a German astrologer named Faust. He was thrown in jail while trying to sell books in Paris. Authorities concluded that all the identical books meant Faust had dealt with the devil. This is the oldest known exactly dated printed book. [see 1452]
    (HN, 8/14/00)(MC, 8/14/02)

1466        Oct 26, Desiderius Erasmus (d.1536), scholar and author (In Praise of Folly), was born in Rotterdam. He was of illegitimate birth, but became a priest and a monk. He excelled in philology, the study of ancient languages, namely Latin and Greek and worked on a new translation of the New Testament. The more he studied it, the more he came to doubt the accuracy of the Vulgate, St. Jerome's translation into Latin, dating from around 400. "In Praise of Folly" is his most famous work... In it Erasmus had the freedom to discourse, in the ironic style of Lucian (the Greek author whose works he translated), concerning all the foolishness and misguided pompousness of the world.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(MC, 10/26/01)

1469        May 3, Nicolo Machiavelli (d.1527), political advisor and author, was born. He was a historian and author of "The Prince." He saw in Cesare Borgia, the bastard son of Pope Alexander VI, the prospect of an Italy free of foreign control. "Men are more apt to be mistaken in their generalizations than in their particular observations."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(AP, 11/15/98)(HN, 5/3/99)

1471        May 1, Thomas A. Kempis (91), spiritual writer, died.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1471        Jul 25, Thomas A. Kempis (91), [Thomas Hammerken von Kempen], German writer, monk, died. His popular "Imitation of Christ" went through 99 editions by the end of the century.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Internet)

1471        Nicolo Perotti (1430-1480), Italian humanist scholar, complained: “Now that anyone is free to print whatever they wish, they often disregard that which is best and instead write, merely for the sake of entertainment, what would best be forgotten, or better still, be erased from all books."
    (http://tinyurl.com/lehgso2)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.55)

1476/1477    The first edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) was printed by William Caxton. A copy of the red, leather-bound edition sold at auction in 1998 for $7.5 million. In 1905 the Caxton Club in Chicago published the leaf book “William Caxton" by E. Gordon Duff. Each book contained one of 148 leaves from a Caxton 1st edition of the Canterbury Tales.
    (SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1483-1505    Trithemius, author and monk, served as the abbot of a Benedictine monastery. His work included "De Laude Scriptorium" (In Praise of Scribes).
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)

1490        Mar 23, 1st dated edition of Maimonides "Mishna Torah" was published.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1500        Apr 11, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1513        Niccolo Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. He dedicated it to Lorenzo de Medici, the successor to Giuliano. It was not published until 1532. In it he justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics. A 1998 translation by Prof. Angelo M. Codevilla included 428 footnotes and attempted to maintain the peculiar language of Machiavelli.
    (WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A15)(ON, 11/04, p.5)

1530        Dec 26, (OS) Zahir al-Din Mohammed Babur Shah (47), founder Moguls dynasty (India), died. Babur left power to his son Humayun, who built a royal city called Purana Qila that is part of Delhi today. His memoirs, known as the Baburnama, are considered the first true autobiography in Islamic literature. The first English translation was made in 1922 by Annette Beveridge.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babur)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.80)

1530        Erasmus (1469-1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist, authored “On Good Manners for Boys" (De civilitate morum puerorum).
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.102)

1531        Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549), French noblewoman, authored “Le miroir de l'âme pécheresse" (The Mirror of the Sinful Soul) following the death of her young son. It combined her mysticism with her strong ideas for political action within the Church. Her most famous work “Heptameron," a collection of more than 70 short stories about women and their relationships with men, and whether it was possible to be virtuous and also experience real love, was published posthumously in 1558.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptameron)

1531        Michael Servetus (1511-1553) published his 1st book: "De Trinitatis Erroribus." He was forced underground by the Inquisition emerged as Michael Villeneuve in Lyons. He later undertook medical studies in Paris. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored "Out of the Flames."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1536        Desiderius Erasmus (b.1469 in Rotterdam) died. His most famous works included "In Praise of Folly" and a Greek text of the New Testament. In 1999 Prof. Charles Trinkaus published "Collected Works of Erasmus: Controversies," an examination of the religious conflict between humanism and the Reformation.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W13)

1538        Apr 26, Giovanni P. Lomazzo, Italian writer, poet (Trattato), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1544        Mar 11, Torquato Tasso, Italian Renaissance poet (Aminta, Apologia), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1546        Aug 3, French printer Etienne Dolet, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake for printing reformist literature.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1547        Sep 29, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (d.1616) was born, at Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. "He was first a soldier and was captured by Barbary pirates in 1575. His family was unable to raise the ransom money until 1580. He was not initially successful as a writer until he wrote "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha" (1604).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)

1569        May 10, Juan Avila, Spanish minister, writer, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1580        Apr 18, Thomas Middleton, English playwright (Game of Chess), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1580        Michel de Montaigne, French scholar and nobleman, wrote his personal essays entitled "Les Essais." His 107 essays included “On the Cannibals."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essays_%28Montaigne%29)

1582        Apr 8, Phineas Fletcher, poet, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1586        Apr 17, John Ford (d.1640), English dramatist ('Tis Pity She's a Whore), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.554)(MC, 4/17/02)

1593        Apr 3, George Herbert (d.1633), English metaphysical poet (5 Mystical Songs), was born. "The best mirror is an old friend."
    (AP, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/3/02)

1593        May 30, Christopher Marlowe (b.Feb 26, 1564), British dramatist (Tamburlaine the Great), poet, was murdered. Marlowe reportedly died in a barfight. It was later speculated that his death was faked and that he fled to Italy and continued writing plays that were produced by Shakespeare. In 2004 Rodney Bolt authored “History Play: The Lives and Afterlife of Christopher Marlowe."
    (SFC, 1/2/03, p.E11)(www.canterbury.co.uk)(Econ, 9/4/04, p.78)

1593        Aug 9, Izaak Walton (d.1683), biographer, fisherman, writer (Compleat Angler), was born in England. "That which is everybody's business is nobody's business."
    (AP, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/9/02)

1601        Aug 22, Georges de Scudery, French writer (Observations sur le Cid), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1602        Apr 30, William Lilly, astrologer, author, almanac compiler, was born in England.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1604        Apr 4, Thomas Churchyard, poet, pamphleteer, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1604        Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) published the first part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha." Don Quixote and his friend Sancho Panza seek what a modern poet has called an impossible dream, a dream of justice in an earthly paradise, a contradiction in terms, as practical men have always known... Cervantes was the first to see that the new world coming into being needed such heroes; otherwise it would go mad." In 2006 Manuel Duran and Fay R. Rogg authored “Fighting Windmills."
(V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)(WSJ, 6/10/06, p.P8)

1605        Oct 19, Thomas Browne (d.1682), British writer (Garden of Cyrus), was born.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Browne)

1612        Feb 7, Thomas Killigrew, English humorist, playwright, leader (King's Men), was born.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1613        Sep 15, Francois, duc de la Rochefoucauld (d.1680), writer (Memoires), was born in Paris, France. "When we cannot find contentment in ourselves it is useless to seek it elsewhere."
    (AP, 12/2/98)(www.bookrags.com)

1616        Mar 6, Francis Beaumont (b.1584), Elizabethan playwright, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.131)(MC, 3/6/02)

1616        Apr 23, Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1616        Apr 23, William Shakespeare (b.1564), poet and playwright, died in Stratford-on-Avon, England. In 2004 Stephen Greenblatt authored “Will In the World." In 2006 Colin McGinn authored “Discovering the Meaning Behind the Plays."
    (AP, 4/23/97)(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)(SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)

1619        Mar 6, Cyrano de Bergerac (d.1655), French poet, playwright (Voyage to the Moon), swordsman, was born. His radical writings prefigured Voltaire and Diderot. His noted nose was an invention of the poet Theophile Gautier introduced in an 1844 book. Edmond Rostand’s play on Cyrano was unveiled in 1897.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, DB p.3)(MC, 3/6/02)

1620        Mar 9, Aegidius Albertinus (59), German writer (Lucifer's Kingdom), died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1621        Mar 31, Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1622        Apr 17, Henry Vaughan (d.1695), English poet and mystic, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1582)(HN, 4/17/98)

1631        Mar 31, John Donne, metaphysical poet, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1635        May 5, Philippe Quinault, French playwright (L'amant indiscret), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1635        Aug 27, Lope Felix de Vega (72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1645        Aug 16, Jean de la Bruyere, French writer and moralist famous for his work "Characters of Theophratus," was born.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1649        Sep 6, Robert Dudley, English navigator and writer (Arcano del Mare), died.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1651        Aug 6, Francois Fenelon (d.1715), French theologian and writer (Playing for Time), was born. "Nothing is more despicable than a professional talker who uses his words as a quack uses his remedies."
    (AP, 11/27/98)(MC, 8/6/02)

1651        Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English philosopher, authored “Leviathan." In it he tried to deduce from 1st principles the shape that society should take.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.M3)

1653        Izaak Walton (b.1593-1683) wrote "The Compleat Angler."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Par p.19)

1655        Jul 28, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
    (AP, 7/28/05)

1666        Apr 19, Sarah Kembel Knight, diarist, was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1667        Apr 29, John Arbuthnot, Scottish writer (Alexander Pope), was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1668        Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1668        May 8, Alain Rene Lesage, French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his works "The Adventures of Gil Blas" and "Turcaret."
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1671        Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1672        May 1, Joseph Addison (d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. "We are always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see posterity do something for us." "A man must be both stupid and uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own side."
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1679        Thomas Hobbes (b.1588), English philosopher and author of Leviathan, died. "The reputation of power IS power."
    (HN, 5/5/97)(AP, 5/31/99)(WSJ, 7/30/03, p.A12)

1681        May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1682        Oct 19, Thomas Browne (b.1605), British writer, died. The Norwich doctor wrote mysterious-sounding books such as “Religio Medici" and “Pseudodoxia Epidemica." In 2015 Hugh Aldersey Williams authored “The Adventures of Sir Thomas Browne in the Twentieth Century: The Life and Afterlife of the Seventeenth Century’s Most Inquiring Mind."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Browne)(Econ, 7/4/15, p.71)

1688        May 21, Alexander Pope (d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His "Essay on Criticism" contains the line: "A little learning is a dangerous thing..."
    (NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)

1689        May 26, Mary Wortley Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1689        Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1694        Nov 21, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After the success of his tragedy "Oedipe" in 1718, he was pronounced the successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The author of "Candide" (1759) and the "Philosophical Dictionary" (1764), Voltaire's works often attacked injustice and intolerance and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that "Self-love resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be concealed." "All styles are good except the tiresome sort." "Love truth, but pardon error." "The great errors of the past are useful in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled." S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1600)    (G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)

1695        Apr 13-14, Jean de la Fontaine (73), French poet (Fables), died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)(MC, 4/14/02)

1697        Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1697        Jun 7, John Aubrey (b.1626), author of "Monumenta Britanica," died. In 1948 Anthony Powell authored the biography "John Aubrey." In 2015 Ruth Scurr authored “John Aubrey: My Own Life," an autobiography in the form of a diary that he never wrote.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aubrey)(ON, 4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)

1699        Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1699        Apr 21, Jean Racine (59), French playwright (Phèdre), died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1700        May 1, John Dryden (b.1631), English poet, playwright (Rival Ladies), died.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1703        May 26, Samuel Pepys (b.1633), English diarist, died. In the 1930s Sir Arthur Bryant authored a 3-volume biography. In the 1970s Richard Ollard authored a single volume biography. In 2001 Stephen Coote authored "Samuel Pepys: A Life" and another was expected by Claire Tomalin. In 2002 Claire Tomalin authored "Samuel Pepys: The Unequaled Self."
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M3)(MC, 5/26/02)

1703        Jul 31, English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire "The Shortest Way With Dissenters."
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1707        Apr 22, Henry Fielding (d.1754), English novelist and essayist, was born in Sharpham Park, Somerset, England. His work included "Tom Jones."
    (WUD, 1994 p.528)(AP, 4/22/07)

1708        Apr 23, Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (Versuch einiger Poem), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1708        Apr 30, Simon de Vries, book seller, writer (Unequal), died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1715        Mar 7, Ewald Christian von Kleist, German lyric poet (Der Freuhling), was born.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1717-1718    Voltaire (1694-1778), French writer, was imprisoned in the Bastille for his lampoons of the Regency.
    (www.online-literature.com/voltaire/)

1719        Apr 25, Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe" was published in London. Crusoe was based on the story of Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721), a man who was voluntarily put ashore on a desert island (1704-1709).
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe)

1721        Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
    (HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)

1726        Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish born clergyman and English writer, authored Gulliver's Travels.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.14)

1731        Apr 26, Daniel Defoe (~70), English author, died. His work included the novels "Robinson Crusoe," "Roxana" and the pamphlet "The Shortest Way With Dissenters."  In 1998 Richard West published the biography "Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures."
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(MC, 4/24/02)(MC, 4/26/02)

1735        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) translated a book on Abyssinia by a Portuguese Jesuit: “A Voyage to Abyssinia." In 1759 Johnson authored his prose fiction “The History of Rasellas, Prince of Abissinia." In the novel morality and happiness are shown not as matters of simple alternatives but sometimes impossible ones.
    (www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_se/personal/cjmm/Rasselas.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ld7bp)

1738        May 9, John Pindar, [Peter], physician, poet, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1740        Jun 2, Donatien Alphonse Francois, writer, Marquis de Sade, was born in Paris. He was the French nobleman who was imprisoned for holding orgies in which he whipped and sodomized prostitutes. He wrote "The 120 Days of Sodom" and "Justine." In 1998 Francine du Plessix Gray authored "At Home With the Marquis de Sade."
    (http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Atrium/3539/)
    (WUD, 1994, p.1259)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 6/2/99)

1740        Henry Fielding began working as a lawyer and read "Pamela or Virtue Rewarded" by Samuel Richardson. Fielding soon authored his satire "Shamela" in response.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1741        Apr 8, Jose B. da Gama, Portuguese poet (O Uraguai), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1742        Henry Fielding authored his novel "Joseph Andrews." It dealt seriously with moral issues using a comic approach and was later regarded as a milestone in English literature.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1745        Oct 19, Jonathan Swift (b.1667), Irish born clergyman and English writer (Gulliver's Travels), died. In 1963 Prof. Edward Rosenheim (1918-2005) authored “Swift and the Satirist’s Art." In 1999 Victoria Glendinning published the biography: "Jonathan Swift: A Portrait."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1437)(SFEC, 8/1/99, BR p.8)(SFC, 12/1/05, p.B7)

1749        Feb 28, The 1st edition of "The History of Tom Jones: A foundling" was published. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote the book and a film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 2/28/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1749        Aug 28, German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (d.1832), "the master spirit of the German people," was born at Frankfurt am Main. Scientist, philosopher, novelist, and critic as well as lyric, dramatic, and epic poet, he was the leading figure of his age after Napoleon. He had early pretensions in the visual arts and was an avid draftsman into old age. He is best known for "Faust."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.239)(AP, 8/28/97)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)(HN, 8/28/98)

1753        Mar 25, Voltaire left the court of Frederik II of Prussia.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1755        Apr 15, English lexicographer Dr. Samuel Johnson publishes his Dictionary of the English Language, a selective English dictionary.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)

1758        Apr 17, Frances Williams, the first African-American to graduate for a college in the western hemisphere, published a collection of Latin poems.
    (HN, 4/17/99)

1759        Apr 27, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (d.1797), English writer, feminist (Female Reader), was born. "The mind will ever be unstable that has only prejudices to rest on, and the current will run with destructive fury when there are no barriers to break its force."
    (AP, 11/10/97)(MC, 4/27/02)

1759        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, authored his novel “History of Rasselas," on the elusive nature of happiness.
    (WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1760        May 10, Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, soldier, author, composer ("La Marseillaise"), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1761        May 13, Adrian Loosjes Pzn (1818, Dutch publisher, writer (Mauritius Lijnslager), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1761        Jul 4, Samuel Richardson, English novelist, died at 72 in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1231)

1762        Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his didactic novel "Emile," which spelled out his idea of his "natural system," and his work of political philosophy "The Social Contract." The books were banned in France and he was forced to leave.
    (WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)

1763        Feb 12, Pierre de Mariveaux (b.1688), French novelist and playwright, died. 
    (SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Marivaux)

1763        May 16, The English lexicographer, author and wit Samuel Johnson first met his future biographer, James Boswell.
    (AP, 5/16/97)

1764        Jul 9, Ann Radcliffe, novelist who wrote Gothic romances set in Italy, was born.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1765        Apr 5, Edward Young (81), English poet (Love of Fame), died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1766        Jul 9, J. Schopenhauer, writer, was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1770        Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote "The Prelude" and "Lyrical Ballads." In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published "The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy." The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: "love of nature," "love of man," and "emotion recollected in tranquility."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1771        Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott (d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy," was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)

1772        Mar 10, Friedrich Von Schlegel (d.1829) was born. He was a German romantic poet and critic whose books included "Philosophy of History" and "History of Literature." "A historian is a prophet in reverse."
    (AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 3/10/99)

1772        Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1774        Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith, Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1774        Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) published his novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther." In 1887 French composer Jules Massenet (1842-1912) turned into an opera. The opera premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna on February 16, 1892.
    (SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1776        Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published "Common Sense," a scathing attack on King George III's reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. It sold some 120,000 copies in just a few months, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. He advocated an immediate declaration of independence from Britain. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)

1776        Feb 17, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian, published his 1st volume of "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." He completed the 6-volume classic in 1788.
    (WUD, 1994 p.596)(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.P6)

1776        Mar 10, "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine was published.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1777        Jul 27, Thomas Campbell, Scottish writer (The Pleasures of Hope), was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1778        Apr 10, William Hazlitt (d.1830), essayist, critic, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England. 
    (AP, 11/10/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1778        May 30, Voltaire (b.1694), French writer born as Francois-Marie Arouet, died. His books included Candide (1759).
    (www.online-literature.com/voltaire/)

1779        May 28, Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1781        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, essayist and poet, authored “Lives of the English Poets."
    (ON, 11/06, p.9)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1782        Pierre Choderlos de Laclos authored his novel “Les Liaisons dangereuses" (The Dangerous Liaisons). In 1988 a historical drama film of the same name was based upon Christopher Hampton's play Les liaisons dangereuses, an adaptation of the novel. In 1994 composer Conrad Susa (1935-2013) and Philip Littell created an opera of the same name based on the novel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_Liaisons)(SSFC, 11/24/13, p.C10)(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A20)

1783        Apr 3, Washington Irving (d.Nov 28, 1859), essayist, author, historian, biographer, attorney/lawyer, American writer (Legend of Sleepy Hollow & Rip Van Winkle), was born in New York City. "No man is so methodical as a complete idler, and none so scrupulous in measuring out his time as he whose time is worth nothing."
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 4/3/98)(AP, 9/10/98)

1783        Noah Webster (1758-1843), a Connecticut schoolmaster, published a spelling textbook. As a Grammatical Institute of the English Language, the Spelling Book was influential in standardizing and differentiating, from the British forms, English spelling and pronunciation in America.
    (HNQ, 8/9/98)(ON, 12/09, p.9)

1784        Dec 13, Samuel Johnson (b.1709), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for "The Dictionary of the English Language," died. "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel." -- (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, "I beg to submit that it is the first.") Johnson, an antagonist of slavery, left behind an annuity and much of his personal property to his black valet, Francis Barber (b.1735-1801). In 1791 Boswell wrote the celebrated "The Life of Samuel Johnson." In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (1918-1999) published "The Achievement of Samuel Johnson" and in 1977 the biography "Samuel Johnson." In 2000 Adam Potkay authored "The Passion for Happiness," in which he argued that Samuel Johnson should be included in the Anglo-Scottish Enlightenment along with David Hume, Adam Smith and Edward Gibbon. In 2000 Peter Martin authored "A Life of James Boswell." In 2008 Peter Martin authored “Samuel Johnson: A biography."
    (AP, 10/8/97)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)(ON, 11/06, p.10)(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1785        Mar 7, Alessandro Manzoni, poet, novelist (Betrothed), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1785        Aug 15, Thomas De Quincey, English writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater), was born.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1787        Peter Markoe (1752?-1792) authored “An Algerine Spy in Pennsylvania." His satirical provocation helped to push the US Congress authorized a Navy and to dispatch Marines to subdue the pirates of Tripoli.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1789        Sep 15, James Fenimore Cooper (d.1851), American novelist, was born in Burlington, NJ. He is best known for "The Pioneers" and "Last of the Mohicans." "The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master."
    (AP, 6/25/97)(HN, 9/15/99)

1789        Rev. Gilbert White (1720-1793) authored “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton." One chapter was about a local tortoise named Timothy. In 2006 Verlyn Klinkenborg authored “Timothy; Or, Notes Of an Abject Reptile," a look at the parson from the point of view of the tortoise.
    (WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P11)

1791        May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1791        May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1794        William Blake painted "The Ancient of Days." "He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss." From the epic "The First Book of Urizen." Urizen is a pun and stands for "Your Reason." On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)

1796        Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1796        Jane Austen began her novel “Pride and Prejudice." Its initial title was “first Impressions." It was finally published in 1830.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1797        Jul 9, Edmund Burke (68), Irish-British author, parliament leader (Reflections), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.198)(MC, 7/9/02)

1797        Aug 30, The creator of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), was born in London.
    (AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)

1797        Thomas Paine (1737-1809), English-American political activist, authored the pamphlet Agrarian Justice. Here he discussed the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.64)

1798        Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life." The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy."
    (www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1799        May 20, Honore de Balzac, French novelist, was born in Tours, France. He is considered the founder of the realistic school and wrote "The Human Comedy" and "Lost Illusions."
    (AP, 5/20/99)(HN, 5/20/99)

1799        May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. "I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence."
    (AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799        May 26, Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d.1837), was born. His bicentennial in Russia was celebrated Jun 6,1999. [see Jun 6]
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)

1801        Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), French writer, authored his novel “Atala" following a trip to the US.
    (WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A13)

1801        Friedrich von Hardenberg (b.1772), German poet (Novalis), died. He was later known as the father of German romantic nationalism.
    (WUD, 1994 p.645)(WSJ, 4/8/03, p.D4)

1802        Jul 24, Alexandre Dumas (d.1870), French novelist and dramatist who wrote "The Count of Monte Cristo" and "The Three Musketeers," was born. Alexandre Dumas, pere, French author of romantic plays and novels. He wrote "The Man in the Iron Mask." He was the father of Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-1895), French author of plays of social realism.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.403)(WUD, 1994, p.441)(HN, 7/24/98)

1802        French author Chateaubriand (1768-1848) authored “Rene" and introduced to the world the French youth whose existence embodied the mal du siècle.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.84)

1803        Mar 14, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (78), German poet, died.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1803        Mar 19, Johann von Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1803        May 25, Ralph Waldo Emerson (d.1882), American essayist and philosopher, was born. A biography of Emerson that includes information about his friends was written in 1996 by Carlos Baker and titled: "Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait." It includes such people as: the transcendental visionary Bronson Alcott, essayist Henry David Thoreau, mad poet Jones Very, activist Margaret Fuller, poet Ellery Channing. Other people included are  Hawthorne, Melville, Theodore Parker, and the family of Henry James. "Money often costs too much."
    (AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 5/25/98)

1803        Sep 28, Prosper Merimee (d.1870), archeologist and playwright (Carmen-1845), was born in Paris, France.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/merimee.htm)(www.nndb.com/people/584/000107263/)

1804         Jul 1, George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucille Dupin de Francueil, d.1876), French novelist, was born in Paris. She wrote some 80 novels that included “Consuelo" (1842) and “La Comtesse de Rudolstadt" (1843). In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than believe that He was indifferent."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1265)(HN, 7/1/01) (AP, 10/17/98)(HN, 7/1/01)(Econ, 7/31/04, p.72)

1804        Jul 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Marblehead, [Salem], Massachusetts. Hawthorne was born to a prominent but decaying family. One of his ancestors, a judge in the Salem witchcraft trials, became the model for the accursed founder of The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne would often wonder whether the decline of his family’s fortune was a punishment for the sins of his "sable-cloaked steeple-crowned progenitors. "Marblehead is also the location of the house in his book "The House of Seven Gables." He also wrote "The Scarlet Letter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.651)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)(HN, 7/4/98) (IB, 12/7/98)

1805        Apr 2, Hans Christian Andersen (d.1875), author of 150 fairy tales, was born in Odense, Denmark.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(HN, 4/2/98)(AP, 4/2/99)

1805        May 9, Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (45), poet, playwright, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1806        Noah Webster (1758-1843), a Connecticut schoolmaster, published a short dictionary. He then began work on a longer work: “An American Dictionary of the English language," which was completed in England 1825 and published as a 2-volume set in 1828.
    (ON, 12/09, p.9)

1807        Feb 27, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (d.1882), was born in Portland, Maine. He was an American poet famous for "The Children's Hour," and "Evangeline." "What is time? The shadow on the dial, the striking of the clock, the running of the sand, day and night, summer and winter, months, years, centuries—these are but arbitrary and outward signs, the measure of Time, not Time itself. Time is the Life of the soul."
    (AP, 10/11/97)(AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)

1807        Apr 18, Erasmus Darwin, physician, writer (Influence), died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1807        Apr 20, Aloysius Bertrand ("Gaspard de la Nuit"), French poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1809        Mar 31, Edward Fitzgerald, American writer, was born. He is famous for writing "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam."
    (HN, 3/31/99)
1809        Mar 31, Nikolai V. Gogol (d.1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, was born (NS) in Sorochyntsi, Poltava Governorate (later Ukraine). Some sources give April 1 as his birthday. His work included the play “The Inspector General" (1836) and the novels  “Taras Bulba" (1835) and “Dead Souls" (1842).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)(WSJ, 4/14/09, p.D7)

1809        Aug 29, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., poet, essayist and father of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., was born.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1810        A German folk tale appeared in “Gespensterbuch" (The Book of Ghosts), which formed the basis for the 1821 opera “Der Freishutz" (The Free-Shooter) by Carl Maria von Weber. In 1991 American writer William Burroughs wrote “The Black Rider," an English version of the story with music by Tom Waits.
    (SFC, 8/31/04, p.E7)

1811        Jul 18, William Makepeace Thackeray (d.1863), English novelist and satirist, was born. His books were published as monthly serials. "Next to excellence is the appreciation of it."
    (HN, 7/18/98)(AP, 10/28/00)

1811        Aug 31, Théophile Gautier, French poet, novelist and author of "Art for Art's Sake," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1811        The book "Sense and Sensibility," by Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published. It appeared anonymously as “written by a lady."
    (SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.4)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1812        Feb 7, Charles Dickens (d.1870), English novelist, was born in Portsmouth, England. His stories reflected life in Victorian England. In his novel "Dombey & Son," Dickens confronted the subject of money, and its use as a measure of success. His work also included "Master Humphrey’s Clock," published in installments like most of his novels. The closing line of A Christmas Carol: "And so, as Tiny Tim observed, God Bless Us, Every One!" Some of his more famous novels include "Oliver Twist" and "A Tale of Two Cities."
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 2/7/97)(HN, 2/7/99)
1812        Feb 7, Lord Byron made his maiden speech in House of Lords.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1812        Mar 25, Alexander Herzen (d.1870), Russian author: "Life has taught me to think, but thinking has not taught me how to live."
    (AP, 8/15/99)(www.bookrags.com/biography/aleksandr-ivanovich-herzen/)

1812        May 7, Poet Robert Browning was born in London. His works include "The Piper of Hamelin" and "The Ring and the Book."
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/99)

1812        May 12, Edward Lear, English writer, was born (d.1888).
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(WUD, 1994, p.815)

1815        Apr 24, Anthony Trollope (d.1882), British novelist, was born. His 47 novels included "The American Senator." His 33rd novel was "The Way We Live Now." "Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of himself." An essay by Cynthia Ozick on the novel is in her 1996 book "Fame and Folly."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1517)(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)(AP, 10/13/97)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(HN, 4/24/01)

1815        May 5, Eugene-Marin Labiche, French playwright, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1815        Aug 1, Richard Henry Dana (d.1882), US jurist, novelist, lawyer and sailor, was born. He wrote "Two Years Before the Mast."
    (WUD, 1994, p.366)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W5)(MC, 8/1/02)

1815        The novel "Emma," by English writer Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published.
    (ON, 12/09, p.8)

1816        Apr 21, Charlotte Bronte (d.1855), English novelist, writer of "Jane Eyre," was born in Thornton, England. Her sister Emily wrote "Wuthering Heights": "Better to be without logic than without feeling."
    (WP, 1952, p.37)(AP, 9/13/99)(HN, 4/21/98)

1816        Lord Byron, English romantic poet, separated from his wife Annabella (d.1860) following an incestuous relationship with his half-sister Augusta Leigh (d.1851). In 2002 David Crane authored "The Kindness of Sisters: Annabella Milbanke and the Destruction of the Byrons."
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M2)

1817        Apr 18, George Henry Lewes, philosophical writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1817        Jul 12, Henry David Thoreau (d.1862), essayist, naturalist and poet, was born in Concord, Mass. His work included "On Walden Pond." He referred to the three Greek goddesses of fate: Clotho (spinner of the thread of destiny), Lachesis (disposer of lots) and especially Atropos (who holds the scissors that will cut endeavor short). "We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside." He was also the author of the essays "Civil Disobedience and Slavery in Massachusetts."
    (AHD, p.1339)(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.66)(HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/12/98)

1817        Jul 14, Madame de Stael (51), writer and daughter of former French finance minister Jacques Necker, died. She was intimate with Benjamin Constant and their intellectual collaboration made them one of the most important intellectual pairs of their time. In 2005 Maria Fairweather authored “Madame de Stael." In 2008 Renee Winegarten authored the dual biography “Germaine de Stael & Benjamin Constant."
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/stael.htm)(WSJ, 6/23/08, p.A15)

1817        Jul 18, Jane Austen (b.1775), English writer, died at age 41. In 1869 her nephew James Edward Austen-Leigh published “A Memoir of Jane Austen."
    (SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.3)(www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1817        Aug 24, Aleksei K. Tolstoy, [Kozjma Prutkov], Russian poet, writer, was born.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1817        Dec 28, Benjamin Robert Haydon (d.1846), British painter, threw a dinner party in London to show his nearly completed painting "Christ’s Entry Into Jerusalem" and to introduce poet John Keats to William Wordsworth. Other guests included essayist Charles Lamb. In 2002 Penelope Hughes-Hallett authored "The Immortal Dinner."
    (WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)

1817        Dec, The book “Northanger Abbey," by English novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published following her death in July. It was written around 1798-1799 and revised in 1803.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northanger_Abbey)

1818        Jan 1, The novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) was published anonymously. It was an attack on industrialization. The work stemmed from a contest in 1816 at Byron’s Villa Diodati in Geneva, between Byron, Shelley and Mary to produce a ghost story. In 1998 Joan Kane Nichols published "Mary Shelley: Frankenstein’s Creator." In 2006 Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler authored “The Monsters: Mary Shelley and the Curse of Frankenstein." In 2007 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Frankenstein: A Cultural History."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M6)(WSJ, 10/30/07, p.D6)(ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        Apr, Dr. John William Polidori published “The Vampyre," a novel based on an unpublished story fragment by Lord Byron. Polidori was Byron’s personal physician.
    (ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        Oct 28, Ivan Turgenev (d.1883), Russian novelist, poet, playwright (Fathers & Sons), was born. [Old Style date]
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9073831)

1818        Nov 9, Ivan Turgenev, Russian author, was born. His work includes "Fathers and Sons" and "A Month in the Country." [New Style date]
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1819        Mar 26, Louise Otto, German feminist author, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1819        May 31, Poet Walt Whitman (d.1892) was born in West Hill, N.Y. He became America’s national poet with vibrant works such as 1855’s Leaves of Grass. He poems included: "When Lilacs Last in the Doorway Bloomed." Some of Whitman’s poems were inspired by his Civil War experience as a hospital volunteer in Washington. Although a staunch supporter of the Union cause, Whitman comforted dying soldiers of both sides, as described in one of the poet's wartime newspaper dispatches: "I stayed a long time by the bedside of a new patient.... In an adjoining ward I found his brother...It was in the same battle both were hit. One was a strong Unionist, the other Secesh; both fought for their respective sides, both badly wounded, and both brought together after a separation of four years. Each died for his cause."
    (AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)(HNQ, 6/1/98)(V.D.-H.K.p.278)(HNPD, 5/25/99)(HN, 5/31/99)

1819        Nov 22, George Eliot (d.1880), English writer, was born as Mary Ann Evans. Her books included “Adam Bede," “Silas Marner" and “Middlemarch." She was driven out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while for not being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian life and revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see. "The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gelliot.htm)(HN, 11/22/98)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.F7)

1820        Mar 30, Anna Sewell, English novelist, was born. Her "Black Beauty" has become the classic story about horses.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1820        Apr 20, Arthur Young, author (Annals of Agriculture), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1820        May 4, Joseph Whitaker, bookseller and publisher, was born. He founded Whitaker's Almanac.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1821        Apr 9, Charles Baudelaire (d.1867), French poet, was born. His works were censored and he was considered a pathetic psychopath; he also became the most acute critic of his age in France. He was photographed by Felix Nadar in 1855.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HN, 4/9/01)

1822        May 26, Edmond de Goncourt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1822        Jun 25, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (ETA) Hoffmann (46), German writer, judge, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1824        Apr 19, George Gordon, (6th Baron Byron, b.1788) aka Lord Byron, English poet, died of malaria in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1999 Benita Eisler published the biography "Byron: Child of Passion, Fool of Fame." In 2002 Fiona MacCarthy authored "Byron : Life and Legend."
    (WUD, 1994, p.204,917)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A16)(HN, 4/1901)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)

1824        Jul 27, Alexandre Dumas fils, French playwright, novelist (Camille), was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1824        Lydia Maria Child of Wayland, Mass., authored "Hobomok," a novel of a Puritan girl who falls in love with an Indian after her fiancé is lost at sea. She later founded Juvenile Miscellany, the 1st children’s magazine in the US. She later authored "The Frugal Housewife" and "An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans" (1833) and the poem: "The New England’s Boy’s Song About Thanksgiving Day" (Over the river, and through the woods…). In 1994 Carolyn Karcher authored her biography: "The First Woman in the Republic."
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)

1824        James Morier authored “The Adventures of Haji Bab of Ispahan," the tale of a barber’s son who seeks his fortunes in Persia.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)

1825        Jun 7, R.D. Blackmore, author (Norie), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1825        Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), French lawyer and professor, invented the genre of food writing with his book “The Physiology of Taste."
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1827        Apr 10, Lewis Wallace (d.1905), soldier, lawyer, diplomat and author (Ben Hur), was born. "As a rule, there is no surer way to the dislike of men than to behave well where they have behaved badly."
    (HN, 4/10/98)(AP, 12/5/00)

1828        Mar 20, Henrik Ibsen (d.1906), Norwegian dramatist was born. His work included "Peer Gynt" and "Hedda Gabler." "The worst enemy of truth and freedom in our society is the compact majority. Yes, the damned, compact, liberal majority." In 1971 the 3rd and final volume of "Ibsen: A Biography" by Michael Meyer (d.2000) was published.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(HN, 3/20/98)(AP, 7/22/98)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)

1828        Apr 14, The first edition of Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language" was published. Webster had finished writing it in England in January, 1825.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/98)(http://tinyurl.com/2hyj76)

1828        May 12, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English poet and painter, was born.
    (HN, 5/12/01)

1828        Aug 28, Leo Tolstoy (d.1910), Russian novelist, was born near Tula. His work included "War and Peace" and  "Anna Karenina." "History would be an excellent thing if only it were true." "It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness." [see Sep 9]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1491)(AP, 4/15/97)(AP, 10/14/99)(HN, 8/28/00)

1828        Sep 9, Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist, was born. His work included “War and Peace" and “Anna Karenina." [see Aug 28]
    (HN, 9/9/00)

1829        Sep 12, Charles Dudley Warner, essayist and novelist who, with Mark Twain, wrote "The Guilded Age," was born.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1829        Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) published his first literary work: “A Walking Tour from Holmen’s Canal to the Eastern Point of Amager."
    (ON, 7/06, p.7)
1829        William Cobbett, British writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide," offering advice on settling in the New World.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A17)

1830        Apr 5, Alexander Muir, poet (Maple Leaf Forever), was born in Lesmahagow, Scotland.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1830        May 24, "Mary Had a Little Lamb," was written. Sarah Josepha Hale of Newport, N.H., published a collection of poems "Poems for Our Children," that included "Mary Had a Little Lamb." [see 1815]
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)(MC, 5/24/02)

1830        May 25, Jules de Geyter, Belgian poet (International), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1830        Sep 18, William Hazlitt (b.1778), in his time England’s finest essayist, died. "A nickname is the heaviest stone that the devil can throw at a man." In 2008 Duncan Wu authored “William Hazlitt: The First Modern Man."
    (AP, 11/10/99)(WSJ, 1/16/09, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1830        Dec 8, Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (b.1767), Swiss-born thinker, writer and French politician, died. He was intimate with Anne Louise Germaine de Staël and their intellectual collaboration made them one of the most important intellectual pairs of their time. In 2008 Renee Winegarten authored the dual biography “Germaine de Stael & Benjamin Constant."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Constant)

1830        Stendhal (1783-1842), the nom de plume of French author Henri Beyle, authored “The Red and the Black," the story of a peasant who reaches for upward mobility through the favors of two mistresses.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)

1831        Mar 6, Edgar Allan Poe failed out of West Point. He was discharged from West Point for "gross neglect of duty." His parade uniform was supposedly incorrect.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1832        Feb 22, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (b.1749), poet, (Faust, Egmont) died in Weimar, Germany. Goethe had served as minister of mines under Bismarck. He completed "Faust" just before his death: "When Ideas fail, words come in handy." In 1988 Kenneth Weisinger authored "The Classical Facade: A Non-Classical Reading of Goethe's Criticism." In 2006 John Armstrong authored “Love, Life, Goethe: How to Be Happy in an Imperfect World."
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 8/7/03, p.A19)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/13/07, p.P10)

1832        Sep 21, Sir Walter Scott (b.1771), Scottish poet and novelist, died at Abbotsford near Melrose in the Scottish Borders. His novels included "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy." Scott was later credited with inventing the genre of historical fiction. In 2010 Stuart Kelley authored “Scott-land: The Man Who Invented a Nation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scott)(SSFC, 3/11/07, p.G3)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)

1832        Nov 29, Louisa May Alcott (d.1888), American author who wrote "Little Women," was born in Germantown, Pa. Under the pen name A.M. Barnard she wrote stories of violence and revenge that included "Pauline’s Passion and Punishment." "It takes people a long time to learn the difference between talent and genius, especially ambitious young men and women."
    (WUD, 1994, p.35)(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/12/98)(HN, 11/29/98)

1833        James Boardman (1801-1855), English traveler and writer, authored “America and the Americans."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2olhxh)

1834        Frederick Marryat authored the novel “Jacob Faithfully." The term Shiver My Timbers!, an expletive denoting surprise or disbelief, was first seen in this book. It alluded to a ship's striking a rock or shoal so hard that her timbers shiver. In 1881, Robert Louis Stevenson found the term to be the perfect exclamation for the irascible Long John Silver: "So! Shiver me timbers, here's Jim Hawkins!" This stereotypical expletive became extremely popular with writers of sea yarns and Hollywood swashbucklers.
    (www.answerbag.com/q_view.php/16871)

1835        Apr 17, William Henry Ireland (b.1775)), English forger of Shakespeare’s works, died. He is less well-known as a poet, writer of gothic novels and histories.
    {Britain, Writer}
    (ON, 8/10, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Ireland)

1835        Apr, Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) published novel “Improvisatore," an alternative version of his own life based on his travel experiences in Italy.
    (ON, 7/06, p.7)

1835        Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville (25) wrote "Democracy in America." He had been dispatched by the French government to study America’s penal system. His book predicted that henceforth equality would always increase everywhere, and justice be thereby served in the life of mankind. He also foresaw that democratic man, no longer protected by traditional institutions, found himself in danger of being exposed to the absolute tyranny of the state that he himself had created, i.e. a case of totalitarianism. He also predicted that the extremes of social diversity would be lost and that more human beings would tend to cluster around a central norm. He stated that: "Americans of all ages, all conditions and all dispositions constantly form associations." In 1938 George Wilson Pierson wrote "Tocqueville in America."
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.134)(SFEC, 6/14/98, Par p.10)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.92)

1836        Feb 7, The essays "Sketches by Boz" were published by Charles Dickens.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1836        Mar 31, The first monthly installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens was published in London.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1836        Aug 14, Walter Besant (d.1901), English writer, philanthropist (Rebel Queen), was born.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1836         Aug 25, Bret Harte (d.1902), American author and journalist (Outcasts of Poker Flat), was born in Albany, NY. "The only sure thing about luck is that it will change." [1839 also given as a birth date]
    (WUD, 1994 p.648)(AP, 4/2/98)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)

1837        Apr 3, John Burroughs (d.1921), American author and naturalist, was born. "Time does not become sacred to us until we have lived it, until it has passed over us and taken with it a part of ourselves."
    (HN, 4/3/01)(AP, 5/28/98)

1837        Apr 5, Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet (Atalanta in Calydon), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1837        Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) wrote "Twice Told Tales."
    (www.novelguide.com)

1838        Apr 17, J. Schopenhauer (71), writer, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1838        Jun 27, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Bengali novelist (Anandamath), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1838        Charlotte Bronte authored her novella "Stancliffe’s Hotel." It was published for the 1st time in 2003.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A2)

1839        Apr 11, John Galt (59), Scottish writer (Last of the Lairds), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1839        Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841), Russian writer, authored “A Hero of Our Time." It is an example of the superfluous man novel, noted for its compelling Byronic hero (or anti-hero) Pechorin and for the beautiful descriptions of the Caucasus.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Hero_of_Our_Time)

1840        Apr 2, Emile Zola (d.1902), French novelist, reporter (Nana) , was born. He tried to wake the consciousness of the fin de siecle.
    (HN, 4/2/98)(SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)

1840        May 13, Alphonse Daudet, writer, was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1840        Jun 2, Thomas Hardy, English novelist and poet, was born in Higher Bockhampton and almost given up for dead until an observant midwife noticed he was breathing. He was driven by a sense of somber doom by the failure of his readers to wake up to the dreary fraud of their beliefs, and he devoted the last half of his long life to writing poems that expressed his haunted vision. When Hardy died (1928) his heart was removed and buried in the churchyard of St. Michael’s in Stinsford in the grave of his first wife, Emma, and his second wife, Florence. His ashes were buried in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey in London. His work included "Tess of D'Ubervilles" and "Jude the Obscure."
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-4)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HN, 6/2/99)

1840        Aug 13, Giovanni Verga, Italian writer (Eros), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1840s        Julia Ward Howe wrote her “Laurence Manuscript." In 2004 it was edited by Gary Williams and published for the 1st time as “The Hermaphrodite."
    (SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M4)

1841        Mar 20, Edgar Allen Poe's The Murders in the Rue Morgue, considered the first detective story, was published. [see April 14, 20, 1841]
    (HN, 3/20/01)

1841        Apr 14, Edgar Allen Poe's "Murders in the Rue Morgue," published. [see Mar 20, Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1841        Apr 20, Edgar Allen Poe’s first detective story, "Murders in Rue Morgue," was published. Poe published in this year 2 secret messages, as the work of W.B. Tyler, that were not deciphered until 1992 and 2000. [see Mar 20, Apr 14 1841]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)(MC, 4/20/02)

1841        Jul 27, Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (b.1814), poet, novelist, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1842        Mar 18, Stephane Mallarme (d.1898), French essayist and symbolist poet, was born. "Every soul is a melody which needs renewing."
    (AP, 7/17/98)(HN, 3/18/01)

1842        Mar 23, Stendhal [Marie-Henri Beyle], French author (b.1783), died at 59.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stendhal)

1842        Nikolai V. Gogol (1809-1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, published his novel “Dead Souls." It appeared in Moscow under the title, imposed by the censorship, of “The Adventures of Chichikov."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)(WSJ, 4/14/09, p.D7)

1843        Apr 15, Henry James (d.1916), US novelist, writer and critic, was born in England. His older brother was William James, the psychologist and philosopher. Henry James Sr. in the 1850s dragged his 4 sons and daughter across Europe in search a “sensual education." Henry’s first 40 years are documented by Sheldon M. Novick in "Henry James: The Young Master." There is also a 5-vol. biography by William Edel. His novels included "The Princess Casamassima," a work about the folly of radical politics. "It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature." In 2008 Paul Fisher authored “House of Wits: An Intimate Portrait of the James Family."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)(HN, 4/15/98)(AP, 8/3/98)(WSJ, 6/17/08, p.A21)

1843        Dec 17, British author Charles Dickens published “A Christmas Carol" at his own expense. It was one of many public and private efforts by Dickens to bring about social reform: prison visits, charity drives, promotion of the so-called "Ragged Schools" for the poor, cash for a fired worker, or a child's education.
    (www.todayinliterature.com/stories.wk.asp?Event_Date=12/17/1847)

1844        Apr 16, Anatole France (d.1924), French novelist and essayist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1921. His love for Madame de Caillavet, whose salon helped make him famous, formed the backdrop for his novel "Le Lys Rouge," (The Red Lily). "All the historical books which contain no lies are extremely tedious."
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)(AP, 10/11/98)(HN, 4/16/01)

1844        Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) authored his novel “Coningsby." Disraeli used his young friend George Smythe as the model for the novel’s scrupulously upright hero.
    (WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coningsby_%28novel%29)

1844        Englishman Alexander Kinglake (25) authored his travel book “Eothen." The name was from the Greek for “from the east." It told of his adventures traveling across the Ottoman Empire from Belgrade to Cairo.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)

1844        William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863), English novelist, authored “The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq."
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.81)

1845        May 12, August Wilhelm Schlegel (77), German poet, interpreter, critic, died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1845        Jul 4, American writer Henry David Thoreau began his 26 month experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, Mass. He chose this day to move to a rustic hut in the peace and quiet of Walden Pond. He doubted that there was a spot in Massachusetts where one could not hear a train whistle. The Fitchburg trains passed Walden Pond about a hundred rods south of his cabin. He lived there until September 6, 1947. His writings about his thoughts and experiences there are still read and remembered by millions around the world. "I went to the woods because I wished to see if I could not learn what it [life] had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.76) (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)

1845        Benjamin Disraeli, future British prime minister, authored his novel “Sybil," a look at class through the lens of a romance between the daughter of a working class activist and the aristocratic hero.
    (WSJ, 1/10/08, p.W2)
1845        Der Struwwelpeter, a popular German children's book, was published by Heinrich Hoffmann. It comprises ten illustrated and rhymed stories, mostly about children. Each has a clear moral that demonstrates the disastrous consequences of misbehavior in an exaggerated way. The title of the first story provides the title of the whole book. Literally translated, Struwwel-Peter means Shaggy-Peter.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Struwwelpeter)

1846        May 5, Henryk Sienkiewicz (d.1916), author (Quo Vadis, Nobel 1905), was born in Poland: "The greater the philosopher, the harder it is for him to answer the questions of common people."
    (AP, 2/5/97)(MC, 5/5/02)

1846        Charles Dickens authored "Pictures from Italy."
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C8)

1847        May 20, Mary Lamb, writer, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1847        Sep 6, Henry David Thoreau left Walden Pond and moved back into town, to Concord, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 9/6/00)

1847        Oct 16, Charlotte Bronte's book "Jane Eyre" was published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the pen name Currer Bell.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Eyre)(http://tinyurl.com/84e3uwp)

1847         Dec 16, Mary Catherwood (d.1901), American novelist, was born in Luray, Ohio. "Next to the slanderer, we detest the bearer of the slander to our ears."
    (http://ntweb1.cpl.org/ocb/index.php?q=node/11&id=149)(AP, 6/9/97)

1847        George Bush, a professor of Hebrew at New York Univ., authored “The Valley of Vision," in which he called on the US government to militarily wrench Palestine from the Turks and return it to the Jews.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1847        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British writer, published his first novel.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1848        Jul 4,    Vicomte Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (b.1768), French writer and statesman, 79, died in Paris. 
    (WUD, 1994, p.250)

1848        Jan 26, Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) of Massachusetts presented an essay at the Concord Lyceum that explained his motives for refusing to pay taxes. In 1849 it was published as “Resistance to Civil Government."
    (ON, 10/09, p.12)

1848        Charles Dickens (1812-1870, English author, published his novel “Dombey and Son."
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.28)
1848        Turgenev authored his comedy "A Poor Gentleman." A 2002 Broadway production of the play was called "Fortune’s Fool."
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A20)

1849        In Canada Josiah Henson (b.1789), former Maryland slave, authored his autobiography. It became the model for Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin."
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A31)

1849        Alphonse Karr authored the novel “Les Guepes." It included the classic line: “The more things change, the more they stay the same."
    (SSFC, 2/20/05, p.C1)

1849        Henry David Thoreau published “A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers." It described a camping trip made with his brother in 1839.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Week_on_the_Concord_and_Merrimack_Rivers)

1850         Mar 16, Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter" was first published. It was about adultery, revenge and redemption in Puritan Massachusetts.
    (AP, 3/16/00)

1850        Mar 26, Edward Bellamy (d.1898), writer, was born. His work included the utopian novel "Looking Backward, 2000-1887," which forecast what America might look like if people worked together for the common good.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W17)(HN, 3/26/01)

1850        Mar 30, Charles Dickens published the first issue of his magazine “Household Words."
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.95)(www.victorianweb.org/periodicals/hw.html)

1850        Apr 23, William Wordsworth (80), poet, died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1850        Jun 27, Lafcadio Hearn (d.1904), Irish-American journalist, author, was born in Greece.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafcadio_Hearn)
1850        Jun 27, Ivan Vazov, poet, novelist, playwright (Under the Yoke), was born in Bulgaria.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1850        Aug 5, Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne met at a picnic with friends at Monument Mountain near Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Two days later, Melville visited Hawthorne at his little red farmhouse in Lenox. Hawthorne gave him two bottles of champagne and they took a walk to the lake. That same day, Hawthorne wrote to a friend, "I met Melville, the other day, and liked him so much that I have asked him to spend a few days with me before leaving these parts." For a year and a half, the two friends lived six miles apart during the most productive time in their writing lives. Their five greatest books - The Scarlet Letter, The House of the Seven Gables, Moby-Dick, The Blithedale Romance, and Pierre - were either being written or published. In fact, The Blithedale Romance and Pierre were written at the same time, and The Scarlet Letter and Moby-Dick were published only a year apart. In the fall of 1851, Melville dedicated Moby-Dick to Hawthorne.
    (http://writersalmanac.publicradio.org/index.php?date=2007/08/05)

1850        Aug 18, Honore de Balzac (b.1799), French novelist, died at age 51.
    (WUD, 1994, p.115)(MC, 8/18/02)

1850        Aug 22, Nikolaus Lenau (48), writer, died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1850        Sep 2, Eugene Field, author, poet and journalist, was born. His work included "Little Boy Blue."
    (HN, 9/2/00)(MC, 9/2/01)

1850        Nov 13, Robert Lewis Stevenson (d.1894), novelist, was born in Scotland. His books included: "Treasure Island" and "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." In 1996 R.C. Terry edited and published “Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections."
    (Smith., 8/95, p.54)(SFC, 9/1/96, Par. p.12)(HN, 11/13/98)

1851        Jun 5, Harriet Beecher Stow published the first installment of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in The National Era.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1851        Nov 14, Herman Melville’s novel "Moby Dick" was published in the US. The 1st publication was in London on October 18.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(www.mobylives.com/Happy_Birthday_Moby.html)

1852        Feb 21, Nikolai Gogol (b.1809), Russian novelist and playwright, died (OS) [see Mar 4].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)
1852        Mar 4, Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (b.1809), died (NS) [see Feb 21].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)

1852        Mar 20, Harriet Beecher Stowe's (1811-1896) "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was first published in book form after being serialized. It was based on the theme that slavery is incompatible with Christianity. In 2011 David S. Reynolds authored “Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(AP, 3/20/08)(SSFC, 7/3/11, p.G4)

1852        Apr 23, Edwin Markham, US poet and 1st winner of Amer Acad of Poets Award in 1937, ("Man with a Hoe"), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1852        Apr 29, The first edition of Peter Roget's Thesaurus was published.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1852-1853    Charles Dickens (1812-1870) authored his novel Bleak House in 20 monthly installments. It castigated the insufferable delays of the legal process in Britain. In the novel he describes a fictional court case, Jarndyce v Jarndyce, which concerns the fate of a large inheritance. It has dragged on for many generations prior to the action of the novel, so that, by the time it is resolved late in the narrative, legal costs have devoured nearly the entire estate. The case is thus a byword for an interminable legal proceeding.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarndyce_and_Jarndyce)(WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1853        Charles Dickens (1812-1870) authored his novel “Bleak House," which castigated the insufferable delays of the legal process in Britain.
    (WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1854        Aug 9, Henry David Thoreau published "Walden," in which he described his experiences while living near Walden Pond on Cape Cod in Massachusetts.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)(AP, 8/9/97)

1854        Oct 16, Oscar Wilde (born as Fingal O'Flahertie Wills, d.1900), dramatist, poet, novelist and critic, was born in Dublin. His work included "The Picture of Dorian Gray."  "Anybody can make history. Only a great man can write it." [see 1856-1900]
    (HN, 10/16/98)(AP, 2/16/99)

1855        Jan 25, Dorothy Wordsworth (b.1771), English prose writer and the sister of poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), died. In 2009 Frances Wilson authored “The Ballad of Dorothy Wordsworth."
    (WSJ, 2/19/09, p.A17)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/dwordsw.htm)

1855        Mar 31, Charlotte Bronte (b.1816), English author (Jane Eyre), died. In 1994 Lyndall Gordon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Passionate Life." In 2015 Clare Harmon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Life."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Bront%C3%AB)(Econ, 10/31/15, p.78)

1855        Hinton Rowan Helper of North Carolina published “The Land of Gold: Reality vs. Fiction," in which he critically commented on California and San Francisco based on his three plus years in the state. “Suffice it to say that we know of no country in which there is so much corruption, villainy, outlawry, intemperance, licentiousness, and every variety of crime, folly and meanness." The book was republished in 1948 under the title “Dreadful California."
    (SFC, 6/20/15, p.C1)

1856        Feb 17, Heinrich Heine (b.1797), German journalist and poet, died in Paris. His prose work included a series of travel memoirs that began in 1826 with “The Harz Journey."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Heine)

1856        May 15, Lyman Frank Baum (d.1919) was born in Chittenango, NY. He had been a failed storekeeper, a reporter and, when his first children's book was published in 1897, a traveling china salesman. Two years later, Baum teamed with poster artist William Wallace Denslow to produce “Father Goose, His Book," the best-selling children's book of the year. “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" in 1900 was the second collaboration for Baum and Denslow. This color woodcut, "You ought to be ashamed of yourself!" is one of 24 full-page color plates that illustrated the first edition of the beloved children's classic [see 1891].
    (HNPD, 5/14/99)(AP, 5/15/07)

1856        Jun 19, Elbert Hubbard (d.1915), US, editor, publisher, author (Message to Garcia), was born. "The love we give away is the only love we keep." "If you want work well done, select a busy man -- the other kind has not time." "To escape criticism -- do nothing, say nothing, be nothing."
    (AP, 7/22/97)(AP, 9/29/97)(AP, 12/12/98)(MC, 6/19/02)

1856        Jul 26, George Bernard Shaw (d.1950), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social reformer (Pygmalion-Nobel 1925), was born. "The worst sin toward our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of inhumanity."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(AP, 3/15/00)(MC, 7/26/02)

1856        Oct 1, The first installment of Gustav Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary (Emma Bovary) appeared in the Revue de Paris after the publisher refused to print a passage in which the character Emma has a tryst in the back seat of a carriage. It was later considered as the first novel of a liberated woman in modern literature. In 1998 Dacia Maraini published "Searching for Emma." A TV version for Masterpiece Theater was shown in 2000.
    (HN, 10/1/00)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Par p.18)(WSJ, 2/4/00, p.W6)

1857        Feb 7, A French court acquitted author Gustave Flaubert of obscenity for his serialized novel "Madame Bovary."
    (AP, 2/7/08)

1857        Jun 2, Karl Gjellerup, poet, novelist (Nobel 1917), was born in Denmark.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1857        Dec 3, Joseph Conrad (d.1924), novelist, was born in Berdychiv, Poland, as Teodor Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski. He is best known for “Heart of Darkness." His work “The Secret Agent" had a profound effect on Unabomber Theodore J. Kaszynski in the late 20th cent. Conrad also wrote the short story “The Informer."
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.A3)(HN, 12/3/98)(AP, 12/3/07)

1857        Thomas Brewer wrote "North American Oology," a work on bird eggs.
    (AH, 6/02, p.40)
1857        Charles Dickens (1812-1870), English novelist, completed his serial novel “Little Dorrit."
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Dorrit)
1857        Hinton Rowan Helper of North Carolina published “The Impending Crisis of the South," a criticism of slavery and slaveholders.
    (SFC, 6/20/15, p.C2)
1857        Thomas Hughes authored "Tom Brown’s School Days." Brigadier-General Sir Harry Paget Flashman is a fictional character originally created by the author Thomas Hughes in his semi-autobiographical work Tom Brown's Schooldays. In this book, set at Rugby School, Flashman is the notorious bully, who persecutes its eponymous hero Tom Brown.
    (WSJ, 7/111/00, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Paget_Flashman)
1857        Fitz Hugh Ludlow authored "The Hasheesh Eater."
    (SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.4)
1857        Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868), Austrian writer, authored his novel “Indian Summer." He noted the issue of bureaucracy long before it was covered by sociologists.
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)
1857        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British novelist, authored his novel “Barchester Towers," which explored the mixed motives of various characters. The book established his fame.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)

1858        Nov 20, Selma Lagerdorf (d.1940), Swedish novelist, was born. Her work included “The Story of Gosta Berling."
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1859        Mar 8, Kenneth Grahame, Scottish author who created the children’s classic "The Wind in the Willows," was born.
    (HN, 3/8/99)

1859        Mar 26, A.E. Houseman (d.1936), critic, classics scholar and poet (A Shropshire Lad), was born. A 1997 fictionalized portrait of Alfred Edward Housman, "The Invention of Love: Memory Play," was written by Tom Stoppard. He is best known for his work "A Shropshire Lad."
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, p.T9)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.B1)(HN, 3/26/01)

1859        Apr 4, Knut Hamsun (d.1952), Norwegian writer, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1920. His work included "From the Cultural Life in Modern America" (1889), "Hunger," "The Growth of the Soil," "Victoria," and "An Overgrown Path." A film portrait of his life was produced in 1997.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, DB p.47-49)

1859        Apr 14, Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" was published.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1859        Apr 16, Alexis de Tocqueville (b.1805), French writer, died in Cannes. His collected writings filled 17 volumes and included "Democracy in America" (1835) and "The Old Regime and the French Revolution" (1856). In 2001 a new English translation by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop was published. In 2001 Sheldon S. Wolin authored "Tocqueville Between Two Worlds." In 2006 Hugh Brogan authored “Alexis de Tocqueville: Prophet of Democracy in the Age of Revolution – A Biography."
    (WSJ, 9/26/01, p.A18)(www.tocqueville.org/chap1.htm)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.85)

1859        May 22, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (d.1930), author of the Sherlock Holmes series, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He wrote 4 novels featuring Sherlock Holmes. "Mediocrity knows nothing higher than itself, but talent instantly recognizes genius." In 1999 Daniel Stashower published the biography: "Teller of Tales."
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 5/22/98)(WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)

1859        Aug 28, Leigh Hunt, English poet and essayist, died.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1859        Nov 28, Washington Irving (b. Apr 3,1783) American essayist, author, historian, biographer, attorney/lawyer, died. He was buried in the Hudson Valley Old Dutch Church cemetery in Tarrytown. He was born in New York City and wrote the "Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle." In 2007 Andrew Burstein authored “The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving."
    (USAT, 11/12/99, p.2D)(WSJ, 2/27/07, p.D5)

1860        May 9, James Matthew Barrie (d.1937), novelist (Margaret Ogilvy, Peter Pan), was born in Kirriemuir, Scotland.
    (www.angus.gov.uk)

1860            Jun 9, The first dime novel: "Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter," written by Ann Sophia Stephens (1813-1886), was published by Beadle and Adams in NYC.
    (AP, 6/9/02)(www.niulib.niu.edu/badndp/dn01.html)

1860        Jul 14, Owen Wister (d.1938), novelist, was born in Germantown, Pa.  His 1902 novel "The Virginian" inspired 5 films.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(SFC, 1/9/02, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.18)

1861        Jun 29, Elizabeth Barrett Browning (55), writer, died.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1861        Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897) authored “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl" under the pseudonym Linda Brent. Jacobs grew up in North Carolina and later escaped to NY. In 2004 Jean Fagan Yellin (73) authored “Harriet Jacobs: A Life."
    (SFC, 6/23/04, p.E1)
1861        Sam Beeton and his wife Isabella Mayson (1840-1868) published “Beeton’s Book of Household Management." Mayson was a columnist for the Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine." Beeton had made his fortune publishing the British edition of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin." In 2005 Kathryn Hughes authored “The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs. Beeton."
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.93)
1861        Rebecca Harding Davis authored “Life in the Iron Mills."
    (SFC, 1/10/08, p.E1)
1861        The book "Great Expectations" by Charles Dickens was published.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.43)
1861        Imre Madach (1823-1864), Hungarian writer, authored “The Tragedy of Man," a “Paradise Lost" for the industrial age.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imre_Mad%C3%A1ch)
1861        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British novelist, authored his novel “Orley Farm," which told the story of an unjust will.
    (WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1862        May 1, Marcel Prevost, French publisher, writer (Les demis-vierges), was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1862        May 6, Henry David Thoreau (44), American writer, died of tuberculosis. In 1999 his unfinished manuscript "Wild Fruits," a catalog of his observations on local plants and fruits, was published.
    (WP, 1952, p.42)(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A3)(HN, 5/6/01)

1862        May 15, Arthur Schnitzler (d.1931), playwright and novelist (La Ronde), was born in Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schnitzler)

1862        Jun 30, Gustave Flaubert completed "Salammbo."
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1862        Jul 4, Charles Dodgson, an Oxford mathematician whose penname of Lewis Carroll would make him world famous, told little Alice Liddell on a boat trip the fairy tale he had dreamed up for her called "Alice's Adventures Underground." He later wrote it out for her and it became the classic children's tale, "Alice in Wonderland."
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1862        Aug 29, P.M.B. Maurice Maeterlinck, Belgium, poet (Blue Bird, Nobel 1911), was born.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1862        Sep 11, O. Henry was born. This was the pen name of William Sydney Porter, short story writer, who wrote “The Gift of the Magi," and “The Last Leaf." The name was taken from a French chemist, Ossian Henry, that he noticed while working at a pharmacy.
    (HN, 9/11/98)(SFEC, 9/3/00, Z1 p.2)

1862        Oct 4, Edward Stratemeyer, author, was born. He created the Hardy Boys, Rover Boys, Nancy Drew and the Bobbsey Twins. The first series of books written/produced by Stratemeyer was The Rover Boys, written under the pseudonym of Arthur M. Winfield. There were 30 volumes, written between 1899 and 1926. The Bobbsey Twins series (Laura Lee Hope) was next, and is the oldest "surviving" series, extending to 72 volumes, written between 1904 and 1979. Tom Swift, attributed to Victor Appleton, began in 1910 and there were 40 volumes before the series ended in 1941. (There was also a Tom Swift, Jr. series, by Victor Appleton II.) The Hardy Boys (Franklin W. Dixon, 85 volumes from 1927 to 1985) and Nancy Drew (Carolyn Keene, 78 volumes from 1930 to 1985) are the other best-known Stratemeyer books.
    (HN, 10/4/00)(http://pw2.netcom.com/~drmike99/aboutbobbsey.html)

1862        Victor Hugo published "Les Miserables." The novel covers events in France from 1815 to 1833. In 2004 Mario Vargas Llosa authored his book-length Spanish essay: “The Temptation of the Impossible: Victor Hugo and ‘Les Miserables.’ The English translation came out in 2007.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A17)(SFC, 6/30/07, p.E2)

1863        Feb 3, Samuel Clemens became Mark Twain for 1st time. In Nevada the Territorial Enterprise in Comstock printed some humorous letters from a reader named “Josh." The editor hired the man, who was Samuel Clemens, for $25 a week. Clemens accepted and changed his pen name to Mark Twain. Sam had dropped the penname "Josh" and first signed himself "Mark Twain" in a letter written on January 31, 1863. The Territorial Enterprise published the letter in its Tuesday, February 3, 1863 issue (http://www.twainquotes.com/18630203t.html).
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)

1863        Jul 10, Clement Clarke Moore (83), (alleged author of "'Twas the Night Before Xmas"), died in NYC.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1863        Jules Verne (1828-1905) authored his novel “Five Weeks in a Balloon." This was his first published book.
    (WSJ, 9/18/07, p.D8)

1864        May 19, Nathaniel Hawthorne (b.1804), US writer (Scarlet Letter), died in Plymouth, New Hampshire. Friend and former US Pres. Franklin Pierce was at his bedside. In 2003 Brenda Wineapple authored "Hawthorne: A Life."
    (MC, 5/19/02)(http://www.gradesaver.com/)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.M1)

1864        Henry David Thoreau authored “The Maine Woods" (1864), based on 3 previous visits to Maine in 1846, 1853 and 1857.
    (SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G8)(http://thoreau.eserver.org/mewoods.html)
1864        Scottish author W.R. chambers published “Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography, & History, Curiosities of Literature and Oddities of Human Life and Character."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chambers_Book_of_Days)

1865        Jul 4, 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" was published. English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for writing the children’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Born in 1832, also a skilled portrait photographer, Dodgson pioneered in the art of photographing children.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(HNQ, 6/12/98)(Maggio, 98)

1865        Sep 23, Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), baroness and writer, was born in Tarnaors, Hungary. Her family moved to London in 1880. Her books included "The Scarlet Pimpernel" (1905).
    (HN, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroness_Orczy)

1865        The Dante Club formed in Boston to help Henry Wadsworth Longfellow complete the 1st top-notch English translation of Dante’s "Inferno."
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M6)

1866        Jul 28, Beatrix Potter (d.1943), English author of children's stories (The Tale of Peter Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1866        Aug 12, Jacinto Benavente y Martinez, Spanish dramatist (Nobel 1922), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1866        Sep 8, Siegfried Sassoon, British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World War I, was born. His work included “Counterattack."
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1866        Sep 21, H.G. Wells (d.1946), English novelist and historian was born as Herbert George Wells in Bromley, Kent, England. His work included the novel "Marriage," "The Time Machine" (1895), "The Invisible Man" (1897) and "The War of the Worlds" (1898).
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._G._Wells)

1866        Louisa May Alcott wrote her novel "A Long Fatal Love Chase." It was then deemed too sensational for publication.
    (SFC, 4/30/96, p. B-3)

1866        Dostoevsky wrote his "Crime and Punishment."
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)

1866        Mark Twain, dispatched to Hawaii for the Sacramento Union, wrote some 25 letters for the paper at $20 per letter.
    (SSFC, 4/18/10, DB p.46)(www.twainquotes.com/sduindex.html)

1867        Feb 7, Laura Ingalls Wilder, author, was born. She wrote "Little House in the Big Woods" which was basis for television's "Little House on the Prairie."
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1867        Apr 10, A.E. (George William Russell), Irish poet and mystic, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/01)

1867        May 27, Arnold Bennett (d.1931), English novelist, playwright and critic, was born. His books included “Riceyman Steps" (1923) in which he probes the unsettling and symbolic depths of a marriage that becomes too close.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Bennett)

1867        Aug 12, Edith Hamilton, US writer (Mythology), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1867        Aug 14, John Galsworthy (d.1933), English novelist and dramatist (Forsyth Saga, Nobel 1932), was born in England. He was reported to have thrown a brick through a glass window in order to be arrested so that he could have time to write. His play "Justice" was the result of this experience.
    (WUD, 1994, p.581)(SFC, 12/5/98, p.E4)(MC, 8/14/02)

1867        Oct, Karl Marx (1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, published Volume 1 of “Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie" (Capital: Critique of Political Economy). The first English edition was published in 1887. It is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production. Volumes II and III remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life and were published posthumously by Engels.
    {Britain, Writer, Germany, Economics, Books}
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx)

1867        Hinton Rowan Helper of North Carolina published “Nojoque," one of the most virulent racist tracts ever written in America.
    (SFC, 6/20/15, p.C2)
1867        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) authored “Phineas Finn," the 2nd of his 6 Palliser novels, which chronicled political life in Victorian England.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P14)
1867        Mark Twain was commissioned to report on the voyage of the steamship Quaker City, which sailed for the Middle East. In 1869 he authored “The Innocents Abroad," an account of his observations.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1868        Mar 16(OS), Maxim Gorkei (Aleksvey Maksimovich Pyeshkov [aka Gorky], d.1936], Russian dramatist, was born. "A good man can be stupid and still be good. But a bad man must have brains." [see Mar 28]
    (WUD, 1994 p.611)(HN, 3/16/98)(AP, 2/23/01)

1868        Mar 28(NS), Maxim Gorki, Russian writer, was born. [see Mar 16]
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1868        Apr 26, Robert Herrick, US writer (Common lot), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1868        May 6, Gaston Leroux, French novelist (The Phantom of the Opera), was born.
    (HN, 5/6/01)

1868        Aug 23, Edgar Lee Masters (d.1950), poet, novelist, was born in Garnett, Kansas.
    (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/3088)

1868        Louisa May Alcott (d.1888) authored "Little Women," while living in Concord, Mass. In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo.
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E2)

1868        Mark Twain authored “Innocents Abroad" in San Francisco after returning from a trip to Europe.
    (SSFC, 4/18/10, DB p.46)

1868        John DeForest defined the Great American Novel in an essay for the Nation as “painting the American soul withing the framework of a novel."
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.72)

1869        Jul 29, Booth Tarkington (d.1946), US dramatist and novelist (17, Magnificent Ambersons), was born. "Mystics always hope that science will some day overtake them."
    (AP, 1/31/00)(MC, 7/29/02)

1869        Nov 22, Andre Gide (d.1951), French novelist and critic (Lafcadio's Adventures- Nobel 1947), was born. "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt those who find it." “The color of truth is gray."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9_Gide)(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1870        Jan 9, Alexander Herzen (b.1812), Russian author, died in France. In 1961 US Prof. Martin Malia (1924-2004) authored “Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism (1812-1855).
    (www.bookrags.com/biography/aleksandr-ivanovich-herzen/)(SFC, 11/24/04, p.B6)

1870        Mar 5, Frank Norris, novelist (McTeague, The Octopus), was born.
    (HN, 3/5/01)

1870        Jun 9, Charles Dickens (58), writer, died in Gad’s Hill, England. His work included the "Pictures from Italy" and “Oliver Twist." In 2009 Michael Slater authored “Charles Dickens." In 2011 Claire Tomalin authored “Charles Dickens: A Life."
    (www.lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~matsuoka/CD-Chro.html)(AP, 6/9/07)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.92)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.F5)

1870        Jul 27, Hilaire Belloc, French writer (Cautionary Tales), was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1871        Mar 26, Serafín Alvarez Quintéro, Spanish dramatist, playwright (El Flechazo), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1871        Mar 27, Heinrich Mann, Germany, novelist, essayist (Blue Angel); brother of Thomas Mann, was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1871        Jul 10, Marcel Proust (d.1922), French novelist was born. His masterpiece was "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned into a comic book series. In 1999 Edmund White published the biography "Marcel Proust" for the Penguin Lives series. "We are healed of a suffering only by experiencing it to the full."
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.14)(AP, 8/2/99)(HN, 7/10/01)

1871        Aug 3, Vernon Louis Parrington, critic, educator, author (Pulitzer 1928), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1871        Aug 27, Theodore Dreiser (d.1945), American novelist (Sister Carrie, American Tragedy), was born. "Our civilization is still in a middle stage, no longer wholly guided by instinct, not yet wholly guided by reason."
    (AP, 1/4/00)(HN, 8/27/00)

1871-1872    George Eliot (1819-1880), English writer born as Mary Ann Evans, published her novel "Middlemarch" in 8 parts.
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gelliot.htm)

1872        Aug 24, Max Beerbohm (d.1956), critic, caricaturist, writer, wit (Saturday Review), was born in England. His work included  "Nobody ever died of laughter."
    (AP, 4/9/97)(MC, 8/24/02)

1872        Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897), French novelist, authored “Tartarin of Tarascon," the comic story of a big-hearted braggart.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.W7)

1872        Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881), Russian author, completed his novel “The Possessed," also known as “Besy" or “The Devils." In it he foresaw political terrorism on the eve of its birth among revolutionary groups.
    (WSJ, 1/28/06, p.P12)

1872        English author Marie Louise de la Ramee published “A Dog of Flanders" under her pseudonym  "Ouida." It is about a Flemish boy named Nello and his dog Patrasche. Film versions were produced in 1914, 1924, 1935, 1959, 1975, 1992, 1995 and 1999.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Dog_of_Flanders)(SFC, 6/11/10, p.C7)

1872        Mark Twain’s "Roughing It" was published. It chronicles the night he and 2 friends spent in a blizzard only 15 steps from the Desert Wells Trading Station in Nevada.
    (SFEM, 9/15/96, p.24)(AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/2wvbxd)

1873        Mar 10, Jakob Wassermann (d.1934), novelist (My Life as German & Jew), was born in Germany. "In every person, even in such as appear most reckless, there is an inherent desire to attain balance."
    (AP, 3/25/97)(MC, 3/10/02)

1873        Apr 1,  Mehmed Kemals play "Vatan" premiered in Constantinople.
    (OTD)

1873        Apr 22, Ellen Glassgow, American novelist, was born.
    (HN, 4/22/01)

1873        Apr 25, Howard R. Garis, children's writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)
1873        Apr 25, Walther de la Mare, poet and novelist (Memoir of a Midget, Come Hither), was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1873        Apr 28, A. Manzoni (88), writer, died. Giuseppi Verdi dedicated his "Requiem" to his memory.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1873        American writer Charles Stoddard (1843-1909) began a long tour as special correspondent of the San Francisco Chronicle. The “South Sea Idyls," a collection of his travel tales, were published based on his 1864 travels to the South Sea Islands.
    (SFC, 2/27/14, p.D5)
1873        Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner authored “The Gilded Age," a novel set in the scandalous Grant administration.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P10)

1874        Jan, 25, The birthday of Somerset Maugham (d.1965), English author and playwright.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.807)

1874        Feb 3, Gertrude Stein (d.1946), poet and novelist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. Her older brother, Michael, managed the family business, which included San Francisco's Market Street railway line. Her parents were Daniel and Milly. The family returned to America from Europe in 1878, and settled in Oakland, California, where Gertrude attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. Her relationship with her brother, Leo (1872-1947), abruptly ended in 1914. Her work included "Three Lives," "G.M.P." and "Tender Buttons." Stein coined the term "Lost Generation" in reference to the disillusioned intellectuals and aesthetes of the post-World War I years. The 40-year relationship between Gertrude and Leo is told by Brenda Wineapple in "Sister Brother, Gertrude and Leo Stein." "Everybody gets so much information all day long that they lose their common sense." "It is awfully important to know what is and what is not your business."
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_Stein)(AP, 12/27/97)(AP, 9/3/98)

1874        Mar 26, Robert Frost, poet (d.1963), was born in San Francisco. Robert Lee Frost, American poet. In a biography of Frost by Jeffrey Myers: "Robert Frost: A Biography," the author claims that Frost moved his birthday up a year to make himself legitimate. A 3-volume biography by Lawrence Thompson was completed in 1976. Myers reveals that Frost’s lover, Kay Morrison, was also involved with Lawrence Thompson, but that that would not be disclosed in the Thompson biography. "Before I built a wall I'd ask to know What I was walling in or walling out." [see Mar 26, 1875]
    (WUD, 1994, p.571)(HN, 3/25/98)(AP, 3/26/97)(AP, 11/9/98)

1874        May 29, G.K. Chesterton (d.1936), English poet-essayist, was born. "Every man is dangerous who only cares for one thing."
    (AP, 8/4/99)(HN, 5/29/01)

1874        Jul 12, Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure, "Gloria Scott."
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1874        Parts of the Kashf al-Gumma were published in an English translation by E.C. Ross while he was British Political Resident at Muscat, based on an Omani manuscript copy. The anonymous Ibadi chronicle in 40 chapters includes coverage of the semi-legendary migration of the Arab tribes from South Arabia into Oman, and their expulsion of the Sasanians whom they found living there, followed by an account of Omani history which, with some gaps, runs up to March, 1728.
    (www.uaeinteract.com/history/e_walk/con_3/con3_53.asp)

1875        Mar 26, Poet Robert Frost was born in San Francisco. [see Mar 26, 1874]
    (AP, 3/26/97)

1875        Apr 1, Edgar Wallace, novelist, playwright, journalist (Terror), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1875        Aug 4, Hans Christian Andersen (b.1805), Danish fairy tale writer, died. Over his life he wrote 156 fairy tales as well as numerous novels and travel books. His biography was later written by Elias Bredsdorff (d.2002 at 90).
    (SFC, 8/23/02, p.A27)(ON, 7/06, p.8)

1875        Aug 26, John Buchan (d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make Happiness."
    (HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)

1875        Sep 1, Edgar Rice Burroughs, novelist, was born. He created Tarzan, the Ape Man.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1875        Anthony Trollope authored “The Way We Live Now," a scathing satirical novel published in London. It was regarded by many of Trollope's contemporaries as his finest work. The story includes the description of a great railroad stock swindle by Augustus Melmotte, a foreign-born financier with a mysterious past.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Way_We_Live_Now)

1876        Jan 12, Jack London (d.1916), American writer and adventurer, was born in SF at 3rd and Brannon. The original home burned down in the 1906 fire. He is best known for his dog novels "The Call of the Wild" and “White Fang."
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.768)(HN, 1/12/99)(SFC, 1/10/03, p.E6)

1876        Apr 22, O.E. Rolvaag, novelist (Giants in the Earth), was born.
    (HN, 4/22/01)

1876        Jun 8, French author George Sand (b.1804 as Lucile Aurore Dupin Dudevant) died in Nohant, France. In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." French author. In 1993 Francis Steegmuller and Barbara Bray published their translation of correspondence between Flaubert and Sand. In 2000 Belinda Jack authored "George Sand: A Woman’s Life Writ Large." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than believe that He was indifferent."
    (AP, 6/8/00)(AP, 10/17/98)(SFEC, 8/27/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1876        Aug 12, Mary Roberts Rinehart, mystery writer (Miss Pinkerton), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1876        Sep 13, Sherwood Anderson (d.1941), author, poet and publisher (Winesburg), was born in Winesburg, Ohio. "Sometimes I think we Americans are the loneliest people in the world. To be sure, we hunger for the power of affection, the self-acceptance that gives life. It is the oldest and strongest hunger in the world. But hungering is not enough."
    (AP, 9/28/00)(MC, 9/13/01)

1876        George Eliot (1819-1880), Englishwoman writer, authored “Daniel Deronda," the story of man who discovers his Jewish origins.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)

1876        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) authored “The Prime Minister," the 5th of a sextet of novels known as “The Pallisers." It offered sharp insights on power, sex, love and money.
    (WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8 )

1876        Emile Zola wrote "L’Assommoir" and gave voice to Parisian slum-dwellers. In the novel he imitated their vulgar slang.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)

1877        Mar 25, Alphonse de Chateaubriand, French writer (Instantanes aux Pays-Bas), was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1877        Apr 30, Alice B. Toklas (d.1967), expatriate American, was born. She was associated with Gertrude Stein, who wrote "The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" (1933).
    (HN, 4/30/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_B._Toklas)

1877        Jul 2, Herman Hesse (d.1962), German philosopher poet and author, was born in Switzerland. His work included "Steppenwolf" and he won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1946.
    (HN, 7/2/99)(WUD, 1994, p.666)(SC, 7/2/02)

1878        Apr 1, Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion, Tabula Rasa), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1878        Jul 29, Don Marquis (d.1937), American dramatist, journalist, novelist and poet, was born. "The trouble with the public is that there is too much of it."
    (AP, 7/31/99)(HN, 7/29/01)

1879        Edmond de Goncourt published his French novel "Les Freres Zemganno."
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.75)

1879        Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), the future author of "The Amateur Emigrant" and other works, authored “Travels with a Donkey." It covered 12 days spent trekking in the Cevennes Mountains in France with the donkey, Celestine. He embarked this year on a 6,000-mile journey from his native Scotland to see his ailing-and married-lover in California. Stevenson, the author of "Treasure Island," must have realized the recklessness of this venture. There was no guarantee that the object of his affection-Frances (Fanny) Vandegrift Osbourne, would abandon her comfortable life and run off with the then-little-known author. Yet he seemed compelled to make the appeal, telling a friend that "No man is of any use until he has dared everything." The pair married on May 19, 1880.
    (HNQ, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1880        Mar 30, Sean O'Casey (d. 1964), Irish playwright, was born. "It is my rule never to lose me temper till it would be detrimental to keep it."
    (AP, 3/17/00)(HN, 3/30/01)

1880        May 8, Gustave Flaubert (b.1821), French novelist, died. He revealed in painful detail the small foibles of a bourgeois life and believed in perfection of form and the absolute value of art. His work included "Madam Bovary," "Salammbo" and "A Simple Heart." "Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times." In 2006 Frederick Brown authored “Flaubert : A Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(AP, 6/19/99)(HN, 12/12/99)(WSJ, 4/15/06, p.P8)

1880        Sep 12, H.L. Mencken (Henry Louis Mencken, d.1956), American author, social satirist, was born in Baltimore, Md. He worked for the "Baltimore Sun" and later edited the "Smart Set" magazine with George Jean Nathan. He wrote a philological work entitled "The American Language." Nietzschean iconoclast H.L. Mencken referred to "Boobus Americanus" and was cynical about American democracy. Mencken won fame as a journalist with the Baltimore Morning Herald and Baltimore Sun, editor of The American Mercury magazine and as a literary critic. Mencken's criticism was often directed at the American middle class and members of what he called...the "boobeoisie (BOOB-WA-ZEE)." Very popular in the post-WWI period, Mencken’s literary criticism was instrumental in bringing writers such as D.H. Lawrence, Ford Madox Ford and Sherwood Anderson to the fore.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HNQ, 6/20/98)(HN, 9/12/98)(www.todayinliterature.com)

1880        Nov 25, Leonard Sidney Woolf (d.1969), English publisher, writer, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Woolf)

1880        Henry Adams authored his novel “Democracy."
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.G1)
1880        Henry James, American writer, authored his novel “Washington Square," in which he depicts the insular world of his NYC childhood.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W8)

1881        Mar 23, Roger Martin du Guard, French novelist (Les Thibault-Nobel 1937), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1881        Apr 19, Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, British PM (1868, 1874-1880), novelist, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.415)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Disraeli)

1881        Jul 22, Margery Williams Bianco, author (The Velveteen Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)

1881        Nov 28, Stefan Zweig (d.1942), poet, essayist, dramatist (Beware of Pity), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Zweig)

1882        Mar 24, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (b.1807), US poet (Song of Hiawatha), died. He is the sole American honored with a bust in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey. In 2000 J.D. McClatchy edited "Longfellow: Poems and Other Writings."
    (WSJ, 10/31/00, p.A24)(MC, 3/24/02)

1882        Apr 27, Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet, philosopher, author, essayist, died. He was one of the original members of the Transcendental Club with Thoreau and Orestes Brownson.
    (HNQ, 6/14/98)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W11)(MC, 4/27/02)

1882        May 20, Sigrid Undset, Norwegian novelist (Kristin Lavransdatter), was born.
    (HN, 5/20/01)

1882        Jul 1, Susan Glaspell (d.1948), novelist and playwright, author of "Alison’s House," was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.600)(HN, 7/1/98)

1882        Oct 19, Vincas Kreve (d.1954), Lithuanian writer and poet, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincas_Kr%C4%97v%C4%97-Mickevi%C4%8Dius)

1882        Friedrich Nietzsche authored “Die Fröhliche Wissenschaft" (The Gay Science), in which he pronounced the death of God.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/nietzsch.htm)

1883        Apr 24, Jaroslav Hasek, Czech writer (Brave soldier Schweik), was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1883        Jul 3, Franz Kafka (d.1924), Czech novelist, author of "The Metamorphosis," was born in Prague. "The Castle" and "The Trial," were both published after his death. He died of tuberculosis.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)(HN, 7/3/98)

1883        Sep 3, Ivan Turgenev (b.1818), Russian  novelist and playwright, died in France. His best play was “A Month in the Country." In 1977 V.S. Pritchett authored the biography “The Gentle Barbarian: The Life and Work of Turgenev." In 2005 Robert Dessaiz authored “Twilight of Love: Travels With Turgenev," an exploration of Turgenev’s work.
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-14)(www.nndb.com/people/697/000055532/)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.F2)

1883        Arthur Conan Doyle published his short story "The Captain of the Pole-Star."
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)
1883        Mary Hallock Foote (b1847), American author and illustrator, published her first novel: “Led-Horse Claim: A Romance of a Mining Camp," written while living in Leadville, Colo.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Hallock_Foote)
1883        Frederick Spencer Oliver in Yreka, Ca., authored "Dweller on Two Planets," an occult classic that told the story of the Lemurians, an ancient race who abandoned their Atlantis-like continent, when it sank beneath the Pacific Ocean, and formed a mystical brotherhood inside Mount Shasta.
    (SSFC, 10/12/02, p.C5)
1883        Robert Lewis Stevenson authored “Silverado Squatters." It covered 2 months of his journey to Mount St. Helena, Ca., with his wife Fanny Van de Grift Osbourne.
    (SSFC, 11/15/09, p.M4)

1884        Jun 19, Juan Bautista Alberdi (b.1810), Argentine politician, writer, died in Paris. His writings inspired Argentina’s 1853 constitution.
    (www.taringa.net/posts/21963/Juan-B.-Alberdi---El-Gran-Pensador.html)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.35)

1884        Aug 12, Frank Swinnerton, novelist (Summer Storm, Sanctuary), was born in England.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1884        Aug 16, Hugo Gernsback (d.1967), sci-fi writer, publisher (1960 Hugo), was born in Luxembourg.
    (www.nndb.com/people/381/000045246/)

1884        Aug 26, Earl Biggers, author ("Charlie Chan" detective series), was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1884        Henry James (1843-1916) wrote his novella “The Author of Beltraffio."
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1884        Mark Twain published his classic “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn."
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)

1885        Feb 7, Sinclair Lewis (d.1951), American novelist of satire and realism, was born in Sauk Centre, Minnesota. His books include "Arrowsmith" and "Elmer Gantry." "There are two insults which no human will endure: the assertion that he hasn’t a sense of humor, and the doubly impertinent assertion that he has never known trouble." "Winter is not a season, it's an occupation."
    (AP, 6/26/98)(AP, 12/22/99)(HNQ, 5/18/98)(HN, 2/7/99)

1885        Mar 6, Ring Lardner (d.1933), American humorist and writer, was born. His books included  You Know Me Al (1916). "The family you come from isn't as important as the family you're going to have."
    (AP, 5/14/99)(HN, 3/6/01)(WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)

1885        Mar 31, Madame Blavatsky was hoisted in an invalid chair onto a steamer in the Madras harbor of India and departed for London. In England she wrote "The Secret Doctrine" and had as guests to her salon William Butler Yeats, Annie Besant and the young Mohandas K. Gandhi.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.127)

1885        Apr 17, Karen Blixen-Finecke (Isak Dinesen, d.1962), Danish writer (Out of Africa), was born. "God made the world round so we would never be able to see too far down the road."
    (AP, 9/15/00)(HN, 4/17/01)(MC, 4/17/02)

1885        May 22, Victor-Marie Hugo (b.1802), French novelist (Les Miserables) and poet, died. In 1998 Graham Robb published the biography: "Victor Hugo." Hugo also did a number of drawings, later appreciated by Andre Breton and Max Ernst, and in 1914 Henri Focillon published the first critical study of them. In 1998 Pierre Georgel and Marie-Laure Prevost published "Shadows of a Hand: The Drawings of Victor Hugo."
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(HN, 2/26/98)(SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.4)(MC, 5/22/02)

1885        Jun 26, Andre Maurois (d.1967), French writer (Balzac), was born as Émile Herzog. "Growing old is no more than a bad habit which a busy man has no time to form."
    (AP, 7/6/00)(MC, 6/26/02)   

1885        Aug 31, Duboise Heyward, novelist, poet and dramatist best know for "Porgy" which was the basis for the opera "Porgy and Bess," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1885        Sep 11, D.H. Laurence (David Herbert Lawrence d.1930), English novelist, author of “Lady Chatterley's Lover" and “Sons and Lovers," was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.812)(HN, 9/11/98)

1885        Thomas Hardy, English writer, built his own home, Max Gate, outside Dorchester on the Wareham Road. It was here that he wrote "Tess of the D’Ubbervilles" and "Jude the Obscure."
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p.T-4)

1885        William Dean Howells authored his novel “The Rise of Silas Lapham," about a self-made industrialist, who slips from the high rung of success just as he attempts to enter the exclusive precincts of Boston’s elite.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)

1885        Helen Hunt Jackson (b.1830), author and social reformer, died. Her books included "Ramona" (1984). In 2003 Kate Phillips authored Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life."
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.5)(SFC, 4/19/03, p.D4)

1885        Emile Zola (1840-1902) authored his novel “Germinal," a fictional account of a French mining strike. It was the 13th novel in Zola's 20-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germinal_%28novel%29)(WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1886        May 15, Poet Emily Dickinson (b.1830) died in Amherst, Mass., where she had lived in seclusion for the previous 24 years. In 2001 Alfred Habegger authored her biography: "My Wars Are laid Away in Books."
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/01)(WSJ, 11/2/01, p.W11)

1886        Sep 13, Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1886        Thomas Hardy, English writer, authored "The Mayor of Casterbridge."
    (SFC, 8/16/03, p.D1)

1886        Robert Louis Stevenson wrote "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and "Kidnapped." His work also included "Silverado Squatters" based on his experiences in Calistoga, Ca. Stevenson used Mount St. Helena and the Palisades for story scenes in  "Treasure Island."
    (Article on Calistoga by Cybil McCabe, 7/95)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W1)

1886        Jules Verne (1828-1905) authored his novel “The Clipper of the Clouds."
    (ON, 3/06, p.3)

1886        Emile Zola wrote "The Masterpiece," the story of an artist in pursuit of his vision. Zola described the horror felt by much of the general public when presented with the work of the new Impressionists.
    (WSJ, 4/29/06, p.P10)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.85)

1887        Apr 14, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Reigate Squires."
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1887        Aug 15, Edna Ferber (d.1968), American novelist, short-story writer and playwright (American Beauty, Cimarron), was born. The "Ice Palace" is a 1950s Ferber novel inspired by the Northward Building in Fairbanks, Alaska. "There are only two kinds of people in the world that really count. One kind’s wheat and the other kind’s emeralds."
     (WUD, 1994, p.523)(AP, 3/14/98)(MC, 8/15/02)

1887        Dec 1, Sherlock Holmes 1st appeared in print: "Study in Scarlet." Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first story about the detective he named Sherlock Holmes was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual. It wasn’t until a London magazine called the Strand  began publishing Doyle’s shorter Holmes adventures in 1891 that the detective became a phenomenon. Today hundreds of books, articles and movies have been devoted to the great detective and his biographer, Dr. John Watson, at 221b Baker Street, London.
    (HNQ, 4/7/01)(ON, 3/06, p.11)

1887        H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), English author and poet, wrote his novel "She."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._Rider_Haggard)

1888        Mar 5, Friedrich Schnack, German journalist, writer (Rosewood), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1888        Mar 6, Louisa May Alcott (b.1832) died in Boston just hours after the burial of her father. Her novels included "Little Women" (1868). In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo. In 2010 Susan Cheever authored “Louisa May Alcott: A Personal Biography."
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/5/10, p.F3)

1888        Mar 20, Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure, "A Scandal in Bohemia."
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1888        Apr 7, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Yellow Face."
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1888        Apr 15, Matthew Arnold (65), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1888        Apr 30, John Crowe Ransom, poet and critic, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1888        Jul 17, S.Y. Agnon, Israeli writer (The Day Before Yesterday), was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1888        Jul 23, Raymond Chandler (d.1959), writer of detective stories, creator of the character Philip Marlow, was born in Chicago.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(SSFC, 12/21/14, p.N3)

1889        Mar 19, Sarah Gertrude Millina, South African writer (The Dark River, God's Stepchildren), was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1889        Jul 5, Jean Cocteau (d.1963), French artist, writer and actor, was born. "History is a combination of reality of History becomes a lie. The unreality of the fable becomes the truth."
    (AP, 11/16/00)(HN, 7/5/01)

1889        Jul 17, Erle Stanley Gardner, writer of detective stories and creator of Perry Mason, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1889        Oscar Wilde wrote his novella “The Portrait of Mr. W.H."
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1890        May 5, Christopher Morley (d.1957), author-journalist (Kitty Foyle), was born. "Religion is an attempt, a noble attempt, to suggest in human terms more-than-human realities." "My theology, briefly, is that the universe was dictated but not signed." "Truth is not a diet but a condiment."
    (HN, 5/5/01)(AP, 11/1697)(AP, 11/25/98)(AP, 1/19/99)

1890        Aug 20, H.P. Lovecraft (d.1937), author of horror tales, was born in Providence, RI.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

1890        Sep 10, Franz Werfel, author (40 Days of Musa Dagh), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1890        Daisy Ashford (9) wrote a novel for her ailing mother titled “The Young Visiters." Discovered 29 years later, it was turned into a real book and became a British classic.
    (SFC, 11/1/04, p.E1)
1890        L. Frank Baum (1856-1919) campaigned for an American Indian genocide. In an article for the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer of South Dakota He wrote: “Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; it’s better that they should die than live the miserable wretches that they are." In 1919 Baum authored “The Wonderful World of Oz."
    (SFC, 2/7/15, p.A7)
1890        Joseph Conrad published "Lord Jim."
    (WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W1)
1890        Arthur Conan Doyle’s 2nd Sherlock Holmes novel, “The Sign of Four," was published.
    (ON, 3/06, p.11)
1890        William James authored his 2-volume work: “The Principles of Psychology."
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)
1890        Leo Tolstoy wrote his novel "The Kreutzer Sonata."
    (WUD, 1994, p.795)

1891        Apr 24, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Final Problem."
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1891        May 4, Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional detective, "died" at Reichenbach Falls.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1891        May 15, Mikhail Bulgakov (d.1940), Russian novelist (Notes of a Dead Man, Heart of a Dog), was born.
    (HN, 5/15/01)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.86)

1891        May 23, Par Lagerkvist, Swedish writer (The Dwarf, Barabbas), was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)

1891        Sep 28, Herman Melville (b.1819), writer (Billy Budd, Moby Dick), died at 72. In 1921 Raymond Weaver authored a pioneering study of Melville. In 2002 Hershel Parker authored "Herman Melville: A Biography, Volume 2." In 2005 Andrew Delbanco authored “Melville: His World and Work."
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M5)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F6)(WSJ, 10/6/05, p.D8)

1891        Dec 26, Henry Miller (d.1980), American writer, was born. His work included "Tropic of Cancer" and "Tropic of Capricorn". "Until we lose ourselves there is no hope of finding ourselves." "Like ships, men founder time and again."
    (AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 5/2/98)(HN, 12/26/98)

1891        Arthur Conan Doyle’s historical novel, “The White Company," was published. It was about the wartime adventures of a medieval band of English archers.
    (ON, 3/06, p.11)
1891        Emile Zola (1840-1902), French novelist, authored “L’Argent" (Money), the story of a scheming financier. It was first published a newspaper serial.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)

1892        Jan 3, J.R.R. Tolkien, author of the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa. "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those that wander are lost."
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(AP, 1/5/99)(AP, 1/3/00)

1892        Mar 9, David Garnett, novelist, editor (Lady into Fox), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1892        Mar 9, Joseph Weinheber, Austrian poet, writer (Adel und Untergang), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1892        Mar 9, Vita Sackville-West (d.1962), English poet and writer, was born. "Summer makes a silence after spring."
    (AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 3/9/01)

1892        Mar 13, Janet Flanner, writer ("Letter from Paris"), was born.
    (HN, 3/13/01)

1892        Mar 26, Poet Walt Whitman died in Camden, N.J. In 1997 Gary Schmidgall published the biography: "Walt Whitman: A Gay Life." It focused on the poet’s homosexuality. In 1999 a critical biography: Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself" by Jerome Loving was published along with "A Whitman Chronology" by Joann P. Krieg.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/99, p.E4)(SFEC, 4/4/99, Par p.15)

1892        Mar 27, Thorne Smith, author (Topper, Rain in the Doorway, Stray Lamb), was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1892        Apr 12, George C. Blickensderfer patented a portable typewriter.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1892        Apr 25, Maud Hart Lovelace, children's author, was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1892        May 7, Archibald MacLeish, American poet and statesman, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1892        May 29, Alfonsina Storni, Argentine poet (La inquietud del rosal), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1892         Jul 1, James M. Cain (d.1977), fiction writer, was born in Annapolis, Maryland. His work included "The Postman Always Rings Twice" (1934) and "Mildred Pierce." As a member of the "hard-boiled" school of crime fiction of the 1930s and 1940s he is often associated with the equally popular writers Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(iUniv. 7/1/00)

1892        Anatole France wrote his novella “Le Procurateur de Judee.“
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1893        Mar 18, Wilfred Owen (d.1918), World War I English poet, was born. He was killed one week before Armistice Day of WW I. His fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon published Owen’s single slim volume of poetry.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)(HN, 3/18/01)

1893        Jul 7, Guy de Maupassant (42), writer, died.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1893        Sep 4, Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English author, first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former governess. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became “The Tale of Jeremy Fisher." The “Tale of Peter Rabbit" was published in 1901.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(AP, 9/4/04)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)

1893        Dec, Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story, “The Adventures of the Final Problem," appeared in The Strand Magazine. In it Holmes and his archenemy, Prof. Moriarty, plunged to their death at the Reichenbach Falls.
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)

1894        Apr 5, Start of Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of Empty House."
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1894         May 15, Katherine Anne Porter (d.1980), American author, was born. She is best remembered for her book "Ship of Fools." "Love must be learned, and learned again and again; there is no end to it. Hate needs no instruction, but wants only to be provoked." "I do not understand the world, but I watch its progress."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1120)(AP, 1/25/98)(AP, 3/4/99)(HN, 5/15/99)

1894        May 25, Dirk Vansina, Flemish playwright (Verschaeve Gives Evidence), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1894        May 27, (Samuel) Dashiell Hammett (d.1961), detective writer was born in Maryland. His work include "The Maltese Falcon," "The Continental Op," and "The Dain Curse."
    (WUD, 1994, p.641)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)(HNPD, 9/24/98)(HN, 5/27/01)

1894        Jul 9, Dorothy Thompson, journalist, writer and radio commentator, was born.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1894        Jul 26, Aldous L. Huxley (d.1963), author (Brave New World), was born in Surrey, England. "Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted." "Parodies and caricatures are the most penetrating of criticisms."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1894        Sep 13, J.B. Priestley (d.1984), British novelist and playwright, was born. "The weakness of American civilization, and perhaps the chief reason why it creates so much discontent, is that it is so curiously abstract. It is a bloodless extrapolation of a satisfying life. ... You dine off the advertiser's 'sizzling' and not the meat of the steak."
    (AP, 9/13/98)(HN, 9/13/00)

1894        Dec 3, Robert Louis Stevenson (b.1850), Scottish-American writer, died in Samoa. He was the author of such works as "Treasure Island," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," "The Master of Ballantrae," "The Silverado Squatters, "Kidnapped" and "Travels with a Donkey." In 2005 Clair Harman authored “Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography."
    (Smith., 8/95, p.51-58)(AP, 12/3/97)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.79)

1895        Mar 5, Nikolai Leskov (b.1831), Russian writer, died. His major works included Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk (1865), which was later made into an opera by Shostakovich. In 2013 new translations of 17 of his stories were published by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.F4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Leskov)

1895        Mar 9, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (Masochism), died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1895        Mar 31, Vardis A. Fisher, US author (Darkness & Deep), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1895        Apr 5, Start of Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of 3 Students."
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1895        Apr 5, Playwright Oscar Wilde lost his criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry, who had accused the writer of homosexual practices.
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1895        Apr 13, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Solitary Cyclist."
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1895        May 8, Edmund Wilson, American critic and essayist, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1895        May 25, Playwright Oscar Wilde was convicted of a morals charge in London; he was sentenced to 2 years hard labor.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(SC, 5/25/02)

1895        Jul 24, Robert Graves (d.1985), British poet and novelist (Goodbye to All That, I Claudius), was born. "There's no money in poetry, but then there's no poetry in money either."
    (AP, 4/8/99)(HN, 7/24/02)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.71)

1895        Aug 20, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Norwood Builder."
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1895        Theodore Fontane (1819-1898), German novelist and poet, authored Effi Briest, the last of the great 19th-century novels of adultery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effi_Briest)

1896        Apr 4, Tristan Tzara, [Samuel Rosenfeld] French poet (Approximate Man), was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1896        Jul 1, Harriet Beecher Stowe (85), US author (Uncle Tom's Cabin), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1896        Jul 16, William Hamilton Gibson, illustrator, author, novelist, died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1896        Jul 19, A.J. Cronin, Scottish novelist (The Citadel, The Keys of the Kingdom), was born.
    (HN, 7/19/01)

1896        Aug 8, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (d.1953), author of "The Yearling," was born.
    (HN, 8/8/00)

1896        Aug 21, Roark Bradford, writer, humorist (Ol' Man Adan an' His Chillun), was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1896        Aug 28, Liam O’Flaherty, Irish novelist, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1896        Sep 24, American author F. Scott Fitzgerald (d.1940) was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. He wrote about the "Jazz Age" between World War I and World War II. He published his first novel in 1920, "This Side of Paradise," and gained instant acclaim and celebrity, marrying Zelda Sayre shortly afterward. In 1924, Fitzgerald wrote what has become his best-known novel, "The Great Gatsby." Although it was not especially popular at the time, as more readers began to appreciate the novel for its perspective of how materialism drives people, it became an American classic. As years passed, Fitzgerald battled alcoholism and his wife sought treatment for her mental illness. He died in Hollywood at age 45 in 1940. "If you're strong enough, there are no precedents."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AP, 9/24/97)(HNPD, 9/24/98)(HN, 9/24/98)(AP, 8/16/99)

1896        Oct 3, William Morris (b.1834), English artist and writer, died. “Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful of believe to be beautiful." In 1995 Fiona MacCarthy authored the biography: “William Morris."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.50)(WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1896        American writer William Sydney Porter, aka O. Henry (1862-1910), authored his short story “Cabbages and Kings," in which he coined the term “banana republic." Porter wrote the story while in Trujillo, Honduras, where he had fled to avoid embezzlement charges in Houston.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O._Henry)d
1896        Arthur Conan Doyle published 2 historical novels, “The Exploits of the Brigadier Gerard" and “Rodney Stone."
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)

1897        Mar 24, Wilhelm Reich (d.1957), Austrian-US psychoanalyst (character analysis), was born. In 1999 Farrar, Straus & Giroux published: "American Odyssey: Letters and Journals 1940-1947."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1209)(MC, 3/24/02)

1897        Apr 17, Thornton Wilder (d.1975), novelist and playwright, was born. His work included "Our Town" and "The Bridge of San Luis Rey."
    (HN, 4/17/99)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1897        May 18, A public reading of Bram Stoker’s new novel, "Dracula, or, The Un-dead," was staged at the Royal Lyceum Theatre in London, an event that roughly coincided with the book’s publication.
    (WUD, 1994 p.432)(AP, 5/18/97)

1897        Jun 2, Responding to rumors that he was dying or perhaps even dead, humorist Mark Twain, 61, was quoted by the New York Journal in London as saying that "the report of my death was an exaggeration."
    (AP, 6/2/97)

1897        Sep 25, William Faulkner (d.1962), American author, was born in New Albany, Miss. His books were mostly set in Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. and include “The Sound and The Fury" (1929) and “Intruder in the Dust." "The poet's voice need not merely be the record of man; it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail."
    (AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)

1897        Alphonse Daudet (b.1840), French novelist, died. In 2002 Julian Barnes translated writings from his last 12 years, "In the Land of Pain," in which he conveyed his thoughts on pain from his tertiary-stage syphilis.
    (WUD, 1994 p.369)(WSJ, 1/24/03, p.W9)

1897-1955     Bernard De Voto, American author, journalist and critic: "History abhors determinism, but cannot tolerate chance." Determinism refers to the notion that a cause precedes every event.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M5)

1898        Jan 14, Author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson -- better known as "Alice in  Wonderland" creator Lewis Carroll -- died in Guildford, England. In 2008 Robin Wilson authored “Lewis Carroll in Numberland: His Fantastical Mathematical Logical Life."
    (AP, 1/14/98)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.93)

1898        Jan, Henry James (1843-1916), England-born US novelist, writer and critic, published his novella "The Turn of the Screw."
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/25/08, p.W8)

1898        Apr 28, William Soutar, Scottish poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)

1898        May 10, Ariel Durant, writer (Story of Civilization), was born in Proskurov, Russia.
    (www.willdurant.com/ariel.htm)

1898        May 18, Juan J. Domenchina, Spanish poet, interpreter (sombra desterrada), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1898        May 25, Gustav Regler, writer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1898        May 28, Edward Bellamy, US author (Looking Backward), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1898        May 31, Norman Vincent Peale (d1993), American religious leader, was born in Ohio. He later authored "The Power of Positive Thinking."
    (HN, 5/31/01)(MC, 5/31/02)

1898        Jul 8, Alec Waugh (d.1981), novelist (Island in the Sun); brother of Evelyn, was born in London. "If we knew where opinion ended and fact began, we should have discovered, I suppose, the absolute."
    (AP, 2/9/00)(MC, 7/8/02)

1898        Sep 20, Theodore Fontane (b.1819), German novelist and poet, died. He is regarded by many to be the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Fontane)

1898        Mark Twain authored the play "Is He Dead: A Comedy in Three Parts." It did not get published until 2003.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M2)

1898        H.G. Wells (1866-1946) published the classic "War of the Worlds." It was about an invasion of Earth by Martians.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1899        Apr 23, Edith Ngaio Marsh, Kiwi mystery writer (Black Beech & Honeydew), was born in NZ.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1899        Apr 23, Vladimir Nabokov (d.1977), writer, was born in Russia. His work included "Lolita," "Pnin," and "Pale Fire." He was an avid butterfly collector. "There is no science without fancy, and no art without facts."
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A20)(http://lib.ru/NABOKOW/nabokr.txt)

1899        Jun 7, Elizabeth Bowen (d.1973), Irish-British novelist and short story writer (The Death of the Heart), was born in Dublin. "One can live in the shadow of an idea without grasping it." "The charm, one might say the genius of memory, is that it is choosy, chancy and temperamental: it rejects the edifying cathedral and indelibly photographs the small boy outside, chewing a hunk of melon in the dust."
    (AP, 4/19/97)(AP, 8/5/97)(HN, 6/7/01)

1899        Jun 11, Yasonari Kawabata (d.1972), Japanese novelist (Thousand Cranes)(Nobel 1968), was born in Osaka.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1899        Jul 11, E. B. White (Elwyn Brooks White, d.1985), writer, author of "Charlotte's Web" and "The Elements of Style," was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)(PGA, 12/9/98)(MC, 7/11/02)

1899        Jul 18, Horatio Alger Jr. (67), American clergyman, author (Disagreeable Woman), died. His books, reissued in cheaper editions, became huge bestsellers. In 1928 Herbert Mayes authored a biography that was highly fabricated. In 1985 Gary Scharnhorst and Jack Bales authored "The Lost Life of Horatio Alger, Jr."
    (WSJ, 8/27/03, p.B1)(MC, 7/18/02)

1899        Jul 21, Ernest Hemingway (d.1961), American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Oak Park, Ill. "Never confuse motion with action."
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)(AP, 11/21/98)

1899        Aug 27, C.S. Forester (Cecil Scott Forester), novelist, was born in England. He authored the "Horatio Hornblower" series.
    (HN, 8/27/00)(MC, 8/27/02)

1899        Aug 31, Lynn Riggs, writer, was born. Her book "Green Grow the Lilacs" was adapted by Rodgers and Hammerstein to become "Oklahoma."
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1899        Dec 9, Jean de Brunhoff (d.1937), illustrator and author, creator of the Babar series of books, was born.
    (HN, 12/9/00)(SFC, 4/15/03, p.A16)

1899        Horatio Alger (67), writer, died. His books, reissued in cheaper editions, became huge bestsellers. In 1928 Herbert Mayes authored a biography that was highly fabricated. In 1985 Gary Scharnhorst and Jack Bales authored "The Lost Life of Horatio Alger, Jr."
    (WSJ, 8/27/03, p.B1)

1900        Mar 13, George Seferis, Greek poet, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/01)

1900        Apr 19, Richard Hughes, English novelist and playwright (A High Wind in Jamaica), was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1900        Apr 24, Elizabeth Goudge, English author, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/01)

1900        May 13, Jos Panhuysen, author (Pornographer), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1900        Jun 5, Stephen Crane (28), author (Red Badge of Courage), died.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1900        Jul 24, Zelda Sayre, writer (Save me the Waltz) was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)

1900        Jul 29, Owen Lattimore, writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)

1900        Aug 3, Ernie Pyle (d.1945), World War II correspondent who wrote about the common soldier, was born. "One of the paradoxes of war is that those in the rear want to get up into the fight, while those in the lines want to get out."
    (HN, 8/3/98)(AP, 4/18/99)

1900        Sep 7, Taylor Caldwell, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1900        Sep 9, James Hilton, British novelist who authored "Lost Horizon" and "Goodbye Mr. Chips," was born. In Lost Horizon he created the imaginary world of "Shangri-La."
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1900        Nov 30, Irish author Oscar Wilde (b.1856) died in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's wallpaper: "One of us had to go." In 2000 “the Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde," edited by Merlin Holland, Wilde’s grandson, was published
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(AP, 11/30/97)(HN, 11/30/00)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.C12)

1901        Apr 5, Chester Bowles, ambassador, writer (Conscience of a Liberal), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1901        Apr 11, Glenway Wescott, writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1901        Aug, Arthur Conan Doyle published the 1st installment of his book "Hound of the Baskervilles" in The Strand Magazine. It was later reported that he had stolen the idea for the novel from his friend Bertram Fletcher Robinson. A 1st edition copy with dust jacket sold at auction for $131,541 in 1998.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(ON, 3/06, p.12)

1902        Feb 1, Langston Hughes (d.1967), African-American poet. was born. (author: Way Down South)
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(HN, 2/1/99)

1902        Apr 23, Halldór Laxness, Nobel Prize-winning Icelandic novelist (The Fish Can Sing, Paradise Reclaimed), was born.
    (HN, 4/23/01)

1902        Apr 28, Johan Borgen, Norwegian novelist, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)

1902        May 5, Bret Harte, American writer (b.1836), died in England. In 2000 Axel Nissen authored "Bret Harte: Prince and Pauper."
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)(MC, 5/5/02)

1902        May 6, Harry Golden, Jewish humorist, writer (2 Cents Plain, Only in America), was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1902        May 6, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place."
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1902        May 10, Joachim Prinz, author, Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1902        Jul 1, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax."
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1902        Jul 17, Christina E. Stead, novelist and screenwriter who wrote "The Man Who Loved Women," was born.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1902        Jul 18, Jessamyn West, American author (The Friendly Persuasion), was born.
    (HN, 7/18/01)

1902        Jul 28, Kenneth Fearing, poet and novelist (The Big Clock), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1902        Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk (73), German author and poetess, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1902        J.M. Barrie featured Peter Pan as a minor character in his book “The Little White Bird."
    (USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)

1902        Arthur Conan Doyle was knighted by King Edward VII for his work in South Africa as a physician in a field hospital and his scholarly book about the Boer War.
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)

1902        Owen Wister (1860-1938) authored "The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains." In 1929 Paramount adopted it into a movie with Walter Huston and Gary Cooper. A TV series began in 1962.
    (AH, 10/02, p.18)

1903        Apr 15, Erich Arendt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1903        May 26, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of 3 Gables."
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1903        Jun 25, George Orwell (d.1950), English novelist, essayist and critic, was born in India as Eric Arthur Blair. He took his pen name in 1932. His books included "Animal Farm" (1945) and "1984" (1949), which attacked totalitarianism. "Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it."
    (HN, 6/25/99)(AP, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Orwell)

1903        Jul 14, Irving Stone, biographical novelist, was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1903        Aug 19, James Gould Cozzens (d.1978), US novelist, was born in Chicago. His novels included  "Farewell to Cuba" and "Guard of Honor" for which he won a 1949 Pulitzer.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1903        Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922), British author, wrote his spy novel “The Riddle of the Sands." The Irish nationalist was executed by the authorities of the nascent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Riddle_of_the_Sands)

1903        Henry James (1843-1916), England-born US novelist, writer and critic, authored his novel “the Ambassadors."
    (WSJ, 10/25/08, p.W8)

1903        Mary Roberts Rinehart, mystery writer, published 45 stories in her first year of writing.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)

1904        Feb 27, James T. Farrell (d.1979), author (Young Lonigan), was born. In 2004 Robert K. Landers authored "The Life and Times of James T. Farrell."
    (HN, 2/27/01)(SFC, 2/26/04, p.E1)

1904        Mar 26, Joseph Campbell, mythologist (Mythic Image), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1904        Apr 27, Cecil Day-Lewis, Irish poet, father of actor Daniel Day-Lewis, was born.
    (HN, 4/27/01)

1904        Jul 14, Isaac Singer (1991), Polish-born American author (Enemies-Nobel 1978), was born. "God is the sum of all possibilities." "When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself."
    (AP, 3/30/97)(AP, 6/4/99)(HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)

1904        Jul 15, Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (44), Russian writer (Uncle Vanya), died of tuberculosis. Chekhov wrote his play "The Cherry Orchard" in this year. In 1998 Donald Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." An assay of his plays was written by Maurice Vallency: "The Breaking string." Vladimir Nabokov examined his short stories in "Lectures on Russian Literature." In 1988 V.S. Pritchett wrote a biography. In 1998 Philip Callow published "Chekhov: The Hidden Ground," and Donald Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." In 1999 Peter Constantine translated and published "Undiscovered Chekhov: Thirty-Eight New Stories."
    (WUD, 1994, p.252)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.8)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.6)(MC, 7/15/02)

1904        Sep 26, Lafcadio Hearn (b.1850), Greece-born, Irish-American travel writer, died in Japan. He moved to Japan in 1890 and is especially well-known for his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as “Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things" (1904). In 2009 Christopher Benfey edited “Lafcadio Hearn: American Writings."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafcadio_Hearn)

1904        Oct 2, Graham Greene (d.1991), British author, was born. His work included "The Power and the Glory," "The Heart of the Matter" and "Ministry of Fear," which was made into a 1940s movie by Fritz Lang. "I didn't invent the world I write about- it's all true." In 2004 Norman Sherry concluded his 3-volume biography: “The Life of Graham Greene."
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.44)(AP, 4/3/00)(HN, 10/2/00)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.E1)

1904        Jack London (1876-1916) authored “Sea Wolf," a thrilling epic of a sea voyage and a complex novel of ideas.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.70)(www.online-literature.com/london/sea_wolf/)
1904        British writer Hector Hugh Munro, aka Saki (1870-1916), authored his short story “Reginald on Besetting Sins: The Woman Who Told the Truth."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.47)
1904        Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), journalist, published the 2-volume "History of the Standard Oil Company." It revealed the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to gain a monopoly and control oil prices and began as a series in McClure's Magazine in 1902. This led to a federal investigation and the 1911 order by the Supreme Court for the breakup of Standard Oil.
    (WSJ, 12/15/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(HNQ, 6/22/00)

1905        Jan 31, John O'Hara, novelist (Appointment at Samarra), was born in Pottsville, Penn.
    (SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M2)

1905        Feb 2, Ayn Rand (d.1982), writer and social philosopher (Atlas Shrugged, Fountainhead), was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, as Alisa Rosenbaum. Her work espoused the political-economic philosophy of Objectivism, capitalism and what she called "rational selfishness." She graduated from the University of Leningrad in 1924 and moved to the United States in 1926, becoming a citizen in 1931. In Objectivism, the individual alone and his acts of self-interest are seen as the positive driving force of society. Rand rejected ideologies of altruism and self-sacrifice. Her novels "Fountainhead" (1943) and "Atlas Shrugged" (1957) and a number of non-fiction works brought wide recognition to her and her theories. Rand founded the journal The Objectivist in 1962. She died in 1982. "Upper classes are a nation’s past; the middle class is its future." "So you think that money is the root of all evil. Have you ever asked what is the root of money?"
    (AP, 4/30/97)(AP, 5/13/98)(HNPD, 9/27/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayn_Rand)

1905        Mar 9, Rex Warner, English poet, writer (Wild Goose Chase), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1905        Mar 24, Jules Verne (b.1828), French sci-fi author (Around the World in 80 Days), died in Amiens.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/verne.htm)

1905        Apr 19, Tom Hopkinson, British writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1905        Apr 24, Robert Penn Warren, first U.S. poet laureate, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1905        May 24, Mikhail Sholokhov, Russian novelist (And Quiet Flows the Don), was born. He won a Nobel Prize in 1965.
    (HN, 5/24/01)(MC, 5/24/02)

1905        Jul 4, Lionel Trilling (d.1975), literary critic and educator, was born. His work included "The Liberal Imagination" and "Sincerity and Authenticity." He wrote the 1947 novel "Middle of the Journey."
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W15)(HN, 7/4/01)

1905        Jul 17, Edgar Snow, American author and journalist, was born in Kansas City, Missouri.
    (www.umkc.edu)

1905        Jul 25, Elias Canetti, Bulgarian-British novelist, essayist (Nobel 1981), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1905        Sep 4, Mary Renault (Mary Challans), author who wrote about her wartime experiences in “The Last of the Wine" and “The King Must Die," was born. She also wrote “Funeral Games."
    (HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)

1905        Sep 5, Arthur Koestler (d.1983), Hungarian novelist and essayist, was born. He wrote about communism in “Darkness at Noon" (1941) and “The Ghost in the Machine."
    (HN, 9/5/98)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8)

1905        Baroness Emmuska Orczy authored her novel “The Scarlet Pimpernal," set in the French Revolution.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.P10)
1905        Max Weber authored “The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism."
    (Econ, 11/16/13, p.73)
1905        H.G. Wells (1866-1946) authored his novel “Kipps," the story of an oppressed draper’s apprentice and his rise under the English class system.
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W8)
1905        Edith Wharton authored her 2nd novel "The House of Mirth," in which Lily Bart attempts to monetize her beauty and gambles on Wall Street.  
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.8)(WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W8)

1906        Jan 8, Upton Sinclair signed a contract with Doubleday Page, which published "The Jungle." The hero was a newlywed Lithuanian immigrant who found work in a Chicago meatpacking plant. The novel that exposed the intolerable working conditions in the Chicago slaughterhouses. Early chapters were published serially in Appeal to Reason, a Midwestern socialist newspaper.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(ON, 10/20/11, p.6)

1906        Mar 20, George B. Shaw's "Captain Brassbound's Conversion," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1906        Apr 6, John Betjeman, English Poet Laureate 1972-1984 (Mount Zion), was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1906        Apr 23, Maria Arnoldo, [Adrianus Broeders], photographer, writer, was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1906        May 29, Terence Hanbury White (T.H. White), novelist (The Sword in the Stone, England Have My Bones), was born in Bombay, India.
    (HN, 5/29/01)(SC, 5/29/02)

1906        Jul 17, American playwright Clifford Odets was born in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/18/06)

1906        Aug 26, Christopher Isherwood, English-US novelist and playwright, was born. He wrote "Goodbye to Berlin" (Berlin Stories), the inspiration for the play "I am a Camera" and the musical and film "Cabaret." [1904 also given as birth year]
    (WUD, 1994 p.755)(HN, 8/26/00)

1906        Jack London (1876-1916) authored his novella “Before Adam," in which he envisioned 3 distinct hominids living in the mid-Pleistocene.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.59)
1906        Felix Salten (1869-1945), Austrian writer, authored the novel “Josephine Mutzenbacher," the fictional autobiography of a Vienna prostitute, a notorious pornographic novel. In 1923 he authored “Bambi."
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1907        Mar 7, Rolf Jacobsen, Norwegian poet, was born.
    (HN, 3/7/01)

1907        May 9, Baldur von Schirach, German writer, Nazi Youth leader, convicted war criminal, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1907        May 12, J.K. Huysmans (59), writer, died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1907        May 13, Daphne du Maurier (d.1989), author (Rebecca), was born in England.
    (HN, 5/13/01)(WSJ, 8/2/08, p.W4)

1907        May 25, Rachel Carson, conservationist, writer (silent springs), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1907        Jun 22, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, author (Gift from the Sea), was born.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1907        Jul 7, Robert Heinlein (d.1988), science-fiction author, was born in Butler, Miss. "Goodness without wisdom always accomplishes evil."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.383)(AP, 5/25/99)(AP, 7/7/07)

1907        Nov 30, Jacques Barzun, French author, was born. Hi books included “The House of Intellect" (1959).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Barzun)

1907        Henri Bergson wrote "Creative Evolution." He saw evolution activated by a creative inner experience that he called the "elan vital," the power of life to overcome fixed and rigid forms.
    (WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1907        The first Hopalong Cassidy book was published. Clarence Mulford began his Cassidy stories in 1905. The first Cassidy movie with William Boyd was released in 1935. The series moved on to radio and TV.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 7/8/98, Z1 p.3)

1907        "The Secret Agent" by Joseph Conrad was published.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.A3)

1907        Alfred Russel Wallace wrote his book "Is Mars Habitable."
    (NH, 12/96, p.28)

1907        H.G. Wells (1866-1946) authored “The War in the Air." It was serialized and published in 1908. It is notable for its prophetic ideas, images, and concepts, such as the use of the airplane for the purpose of warfare and the coming of World War I.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_in_the_Air)

1907        Edith Wharton (1862-1937) authored her novella "Madame de Treymes."
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)(www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/6741/chronology.html)

1908        Mar 22, Louis L’Amour (d.1998), American author, was born in Jamestown, North Dakota. He wrote 116 western novels.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(USAT, 6/10/98, p.1D)(MC, 3/22/02)

1908        Apr 11, Leo Rosten, writer, humorist, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1908        May 25, Theodore Rothke, poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/25/01)

1908        May 28, Ian Fleming (d.1964), author of James Bond novels, was born in Mayfair, London. He also wrote the children’s book "Chitty Chitty Bang Bang" (1964).
    (HN, 5/28/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitty_Chitty_Bang_Bang)(AP, 5/28/08)

1908        Jul 3, Joel Chandler Harris (59), author and creator of Uncle Remus, died in Atlanta.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

1908        Jul 27, Joseph Mitchell (d.1996), writer for The New Yorker, was born. He pursued the "general of nuisance: flops, drunks, con-artists, panhandlers, gin-mill owners and their bellicose bartenders..." 
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A19)(HN, 7/27/01)

1908        Aug 5, Miriam Rothschild, English scientist and writer, was born.
    (HN, 8/5/00)

1908        Aug 18, Edgar Faure (d.1988), thriller writer, PM of France (1952, 52-56), was born.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1908        Aug 28, Roger Tory Peterson, author, was born. His work included the innovative bird book "A Field Guide to Birds."
    (HN, 8/28/00)

1908        Aug 31, William Saroyan (d.1981), American writer, was born outside Fresno, Ca., to Armenian parents. "He was a prolific and bombastic writer who never threw anything away." He was a native of Fresno, Ca. and his unpublished materials, held by the Saroyan Foundation, were turned over to Stanford Univ. in 1996. His work included "The Human Comedy."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(SFC, 5/23/96, p.A1)(WUD, 1994, p.1269)(HN, 8/31/00)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M1)

1908        Sep 4, Richard Wright (d.1960), novelist who wrote about the abuses of blacks in white society, best known for “Native Son" (1940), was born near Natchez, Miss.
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, DB p.61)(AP, 9/4/08)

1908        Oct 14,  The E.M. Forster novel "A Room With a View" was first published.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

1908        Arnold Bennet, English writer, published “the Old Wives’ Tale,“ later regarded as his finest novel.
    (WSJ, 8/22/08, p.W8)
1908        Elsa Bernstein (d.1949), Austrian-Jewish playwright (Ernst Rosmer), authored "Maria Arndt." The 1st English production was made in 2002.
    (WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)
1908        Kenneth Grahame (1859-1952) of Edinburgh, Scotland, wrote the classic British children’s book "Wind in the Willows." It was made into a movie in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)
1908        The novel "Anne of Green Gables" by L.M. Montgomery was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1909        Mar 8, Hinton Rowan Helper (b.1829) of North Carolina, writer and former US consul in Buenos Aires (1861-1866), blocked the door of his Washington, DC., rooming house, turned on the gas and asphyxiated himself.
    (SFC, 6/20/15, p.C2)

1909        Mar 10, Kathryn McLean (Forbes), author (Mama's Bank Account), was born.
    (HN, 3/10/01)

1909        Mar 28, Nelson Algren (d.1981, novelist (The Man with the Golden Arm, A Walk on the Wild Side), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Algren)

1909        Apr 10, Algernon Charles Swinburne (b.1837), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1909        Apr 13, Eudora Welty (d.2001), Southern writer, was born in Jackson, Miss. Her books included  “Delta Wedding" and “The Optimist's Daughter" (1972). In 1998 Ann Waldron published "Eudora Welty: A Writer’s Life."
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, BR p.4)(SFEC, 12/6/98, BR p.8)(HN, 4/13/01)

1909        May 5, Carlos Baker, biographer, was born.
    (HN, 5/5/01)

1909        May 18, George Meredith (81), English poet, writer (Diana of Crossways), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1909        May 29, Neil R[onald] Jones, US sci-fi author (Space War, Twin Worlds), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1909        Jul 28, Malcolm Lowry (d.1957), novelist (Under the Volcano), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1909         Aug 3, Walter Van Tilberg, Western novelist, was born. He wrote "The Ox-Bow Incident."
    (HN, 8/3/00)

1909        Nov 13, Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born dramatist, was born. His work included "The Bald Soprano" and "Rhinoceros." [see Nov 26, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (HN, 11/13/00)

1909        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco (d.1994), Romanian-born French dramatist, was born. [see Nov 13, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1909        Selma Lagerdorf (1858-1940), Swedish novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_Lagerl%C3%B6f)
1909        Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English writer, authored the children’s novel “The Tale of Ginger and Pickles." The book tells the story of shopkeepers Ginger, a tomcat, and Pickles, a terrier. Margaret Thatcher later regarded it as the only business book worth reading.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_Ginger_and_Pickles)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.65)

1909        Freud authored his speculative monograph on Leonardo da Vinci and invented psychobiography.
    (SFC, 8/30/03, p.D6)

1910        Mar 29, Helen Wells, author of the Cherry Ames series, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/01)

1910        Apr 8, Harriet Doerr (d.2002) was born as Harriet Huntington, grand-daughter of railroad tycoon Henry Edwards Huntington, in Pasadena. In 1984 she won the American Book Award for 1st fiction for "Stone for Ibarra."
    (SFC, 11/28/02, p.A30)

1910        Apr 21, Author Mark Twain (b.1835), born as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, died in Redding, Conn. His work included "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court," "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," and "More Tramps Abroad." His short story "The War Prayer" was published after his death. In 1912 Albert Bigelow Paine authored "Mark Twain: A Biography." In 1959 Charles Neider authored "The Autobiography of Mark Twain." In 1966 Justin Kaplan authored "Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography." In 1997 Andrew Hoffman authored "Inventing Mark Twain, The Lives of Samuel Langhorn Clemens. In 2005 Ron Powers authored “Mark Twain: A Life." In 2007 Peter Krass authored “Ignorance, Confidence, and Filthy Rich Friends: The Business Adventures of Mark Twain." In 2010 Jerome Loving authored “Mark Twain: The Adventures of Samuel L. Clemens." In 2010 Volume I of Twain’s dictated autobiography was published. In 2013 Volume II was published.
    (http://courant.ctnow.com/probjects/twain/timeline.htm)(SFC, 7/13/01, p.D5)(SSFC, 9/30/01, p.D6)(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.M2)(WSJ, 3/13/07, p.D5)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.93)(SSFC, 11/7/10, p.F1)(SSFC, 10/13/12, p.F3)

1910        Aug 26, William James (b.1842), American psychologist and philosopher, died. His work included “the Principles of Psychology" (1890) and “The Varieties of Religious Experience" (1902). William James was the older brother of novelist Henry James. In 2006 Robert D. Richardson authored the biography: “William James."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_James)

1910        Nov 7, Leo Tolstoy (b.1828), Russian earl and writer (War & Peace), died at the rural Astapovo train station [OS, NS=Nov 20]. In 1967 Henri Troyat’s “Tolstoy" became available in English. In 2007 Leah Bendavid-Val authored “Song Without Words: The Photographs and Diaries of Countess Sophia Tolstoy." In 2011 Rosamund Bartlett authored “Tolstoy: A Russian Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Tolstoy)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W10)(SSFC, 12/4/11, p.F4)

1910        E.M. Forster (1879-1970) wrote "Howard’s End," his next to last novel and good description of the English class system.
    (SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.M._Forster)

1910        Herman Lons, German writer, authored his novel “The Warwolf: a peasant chronicle." It was set in the time of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), during which some 10 million people died including 4 million Germans. In 2006 it was made available in English.
    (WSJ, 6/16/06, p.P8)

1911        Mar 13, LaFayette Ron Hubbard (L. Ron Hubbard, d.1986), sci-fi writer, scientologist founder of Scientology (Dyanetics), was born.
    (SFC, 2/12/01, p.A13)(MC, 3/13/02)

1911        Mar 26, Tennessee Williams (d.1983), American dramatist, was born in Columbus, Miss. His plays included "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" and "A Streetcar Name Desire."
    (HN, 3/26/01)(AP, 3/26/02)(http://tinyurl.com/s8zm5)

1911        May 15, Max Frisch (d.1991), Swiss architect and writer, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Frisch)

1911        Jul 21, Marshall McLuhan (d.1980), English professor and communication theorist, author of "The Medium is the Message," was born. He wrote the book:  "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.357)(HN, 7/21/98)

1911        Sep 19, William Golding (d.1993), novelist best known for Lord of the Flies, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1983.
    (HN, 9/19/98)(MC, 9/19/01)

1911        Dec 11, Naguib Mahfouz (d.2006), Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian novelist, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)(SFC, 8/31/06, p.A13)

1911        Sybille Bedford, novelist, was born in Charlottenburg, Germany. In 2005 she published her memoir “Quicksands."
    (WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1911        J.M. Barrie adopted Peter Pan into the novel “Peter and Wendy." [see Dec 27, 1904]
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)(USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)

1911        G.K. Chesterton authored his historical novel “The Ballad of the White Horse" set in England in 878 as King Alfred faced the invading Danes.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.P10)

1911        Aldo Palazzeschi authored his avant-garde Italian novel “Man of Smoke." In 1992 Professors Ruggiero Stefanini (d.2005) and Nicolas Perella translated it to English.
    (SFC, 5/19/05, p.B7)

1912        Apr 20, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager, writer (Dracula), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1912        May 7, Columbia University approved plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize in several categories. The award was established by Joseph Pulitzer.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1912        May 14, Johan August Strindberg (b.1849), Swedish novelist, dramatist and essayist, died. In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(MC, 5/14/02)

1912        May 16, Studs Terkel American author, was born. He wrote The 'Good War.' "Take it easy, but take it."
    (AP, 5/16/98)(HN, 5/16/99)

1912        May 27, John Cheever (d1982), Pulitzer Prize winning writer was born. His work included "The Wapshot Chronicle" and "The World of Apples."
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 5/27/01)

1912        May 28, Patrick White, Australian writer (The Tree of Man, The Eye of the Storm), was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1912        May 29, John Hanlo, Dutch poet (Go to the Mosque), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1912        Jun 29, John Toland, US political writer (Adolf Hitler, Rising Sun, Pulitzer 1971), was born.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1912        Jul 3, Elizabeth Taylor, novelist and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/3/01)

1912        Aug 10, Leonard Woolf (1880-1969), English man of letters, married writer Virginia Duckworth (b.1882). Virginia Woolf committed suicide in 1941.
    (WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P13)(www.online-literature.com/virginia_woolf/)

1912        Aug 27, Edgar Rice Burroughs’s "Tarzan of the Apes" first appeared in a magazine. Burroughs (d. 1950 at 74) wrote "Tarzan of the Apes" for The All-Story Magazine and received $700.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)(HN, 8/27/00)

1912        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco, dramatist (Rhinoceros), was born in Slatina, Romania. [see Nov 13 and Nov 26, 1909]
    (WUD, 1994 p.750)(MC, 11/26/01)

1912        Mary Antin (1881-1949), Russian-born immigrant (1894), authored “The Promised Land." The book was highly successful and was used in Civic courses in US schools until 1949.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAantin.htm)
1912        Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) authored “The Financier," the 1st book of his “Trilogy of Desire," an Iliad of American capitalism.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P10)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.56)
1912        Zane Grey (1872-1939) authored his novel “Riders of the Purple Sage."
    (SFC, 7/25/09, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zane_Grey)
1912        The novella “Hadji Murad" by Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) was published. Murad (d.1852) was an important Chechen leader during the resistance of the Caucasian peoples in 1711-1864 against the Russian Empire's seizure of the region.
    (http://tinyurl.com/js9od)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadji_Murad)

1913        May 3, William Inge, American playwright (Picnic, Bus Stop), was born.
    (HN, 5/3/01)

1913        Jun 2, Barbara Pym (Mary Crampton), English novelist (Less Than Angels, Quartet in Autumn), was born.
    (HN, 6/2/01)

1913        Jul 15, Hammond Innes, English novelist, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)

1913        Nov 7, Albert Camus (d.1960), French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist best known for his book "The Stranger" (1942) was born on an Algerian farm.
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 11/7/98)

1913        D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), English writer, published his novel "Sons and Lovers."
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D._H._Lawrence)

1913        Henri Fournier (1886-1914) authored “Le Grand Meaulnes" under the pen name Alain-Fournier. It became one of France’s most popular novels.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.134)

1913-1927    Marcel Proust (1871-1922), French novelist wrote his 7-volume "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned into a comic book series.
    (WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P18)

1914        Mar 25, Frederic Mistral, French poet (Nobel-1904), died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1914        Mar 26, The birthday of (Thomas Lanier) Tennessee Williams (1914-1983), American dramatist. His play "The Glass Menagerie" was inspired by a pre-frontal lobotomy performed on his sister to cure a case of schizophrenia. The operation failed and his sister, Rose (1909-1996), was institutionalized. He left a $10 million estate to support her and directed that anything left go to support aspiring writers at the Univ. of the South of Sewanee. [see Mar 11 & 26, 1911]
    (AHD, p.1466)(WUD, 1994, p.1634)

1914        Mar 27, Budd Schulberg, journalist, novelist and screenwriter (What Makes Sammy Run, On the Waterfront), was born in NYC.
    (HN, 3/27/01)(MC, 3/27/02)

1914        Mar 31, Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and Nobel Prize-winning writer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1914        Apr 4, Marguerite Duras, French author (The Lover), was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)

1914        Apr 25, Ross Lockridge, Jr., novelist (Raintree Country), was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1914        Jul 15, Gavin Maxwell, Scottish writer and naturalist (Ring of Bright Water), was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)

1914        Oct 1, Daniel Joseph Boorstin, author (Empire of Czar), was born in Atlanta, Georgia. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1974.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_J._Boorstin)

1914        Ambrose Bierce (b.1842), American writer, died. His books included “The Devil's Dictionary" (1911) and “An Occurrence Owl Creek Bridge." He vanished in Mexico after a letter sent from Chihuahua on Dec 26, 1913.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrose_Bierce)
1914        Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) authored “The Titan," a sequel to his 1912 novel “the Financier."
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.56)

1915        May 27, Herman Wouk, author, was born. His work included "Winds of War" and "The Caine Mutiny."
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1915        Jun 5, Alfred Kazin (d.1998), critic and editor (A Walker in the City), was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.M2)

1915         Jul 1, Jean Stafford, American writer (The Mountain Lion), was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1915        Jul 10, Saul Bellow, Nobel (1976) and Pulitzer Prize-winning American author and writer of Jewish moral and social alarm (Herzog, Humboldt's Gift), was born in Montreal. "A man is only as good as what he loves." In 2000 James Atlas authored "Bellow: A Biography."
    (AP, 9/30/98)(HN, 7/10/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, BR p.1)(MC, 7/10/02)

1915        Aug 12, The autobiographical novel "Of Human Bondage," by William Somerset Maugham (d.1965), was first published.
    (AP, 8/12/97)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)

1915        Aug 19, Ring Lardner Jr., author and screenwriter (A Star Is Born), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1915        Aug 24, Alice H.B. Sheldon, science fiction writer, was born. He also worked as an artist, CIA photo-intelligence operative, lecturer at American University and major in the U.S. Army Air Force.
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1915        Ford Madox Ford authored "The Good Soldier."
    (WSJ, 12/3/05, p.P14)
1915        The short story “The Metamorphosis" by Franz Kafka (1883-1924), a civil servant working in Prague, was first published in a small German magazine.
    (Econ, 7/27/13, p.67)

1915-1965    Robert Ruark, American author: "A man can build a staunch reputation for honesty by admitting he was in error, especially when he gets caught at it."
    (AP, 5/13/99)

1915-1977    Bill Vaughan, American journalist: "America is a land where a citizen will cross the ocean to fight for democracy -- and won't cross the street to vote in a national election."
    (AP, 6/6/99)

1915-1986     Theodore H. White, American political writer: "To go against the dominant thinking of your friends, of most of the people you see every day, is perhaps the most difficult act of heroism you can have."
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1915-1996    Robert Adams, aka Robert Martin Krapp, writer, translator, editor and teacher. His work included "Ikon: John Milton and the Modern Critics" (1955), "Stendhal: Notes on a Novelist" (1959), "Surface and Symbol: the Consistency of James Joyce’s ‘Ulysses’" (1962), "Proteus, His Lies, His Truth: Discussions of Literary Translation" (1973), and "The Roman Stamp: Frame and Facade in Some Forms of Neo-Classicism" (1974). He was also a founding editor of the "Norton Anthology of English Literature," and an editor of the Hudson Review.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.C10)

1915-1998    Margaret Walker Alexander, black author, was born in Birmingham. She died Nov 30, 1998 at age 83. Her work included the 1942 poem "For My People," and the 1966 novel "Jubilee."
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)

1916        Feb 28, Henry James (b.1843), US-British writer (Bostonians), died in London. His books included “The American“ (1877) and “The Golden Bowl" (1904). In 2004 Colm Toibin authored “The Master," a novel that explores James’ private life. In 2007 Peter Brooks authored “Henry James Goes to Paris."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_James)(SFC, 6/19/04, p.E1)(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P11)

1916        Mar 10, James Herriot, Scottish writer and country veterinarian (All Creatures Great and Small), was born.
    (HN, 3/10/01)

1916        Mar 19, Irving Wallace, author (People's Almanac, The Man), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1916        Apr 12, Beverly Cleary, American writer, was born. Her children’s books included the Ramona Quimby series which stemmed from “Henry Huggins" (1950).
    (SFC, 5/6/06, p.E1)

1916        Apr 26, Morris L. West, novelist (Shoes of the Fisherman), was born in Australia.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1916        May 13, Sholem Aleichem (Shalom Aleichem), Yiddish writer (Fiddler on the Roof), died in NY. He was born as Solomon Rabinowitz (1859) in Russia.
    (www.britannica.com)

1916        May 28, Walker Percy, writer (The Moviegoer, Love in the Ruins), was born in Birmingham, Ala.
    (HN, 5/28/01)(MC, 5/28/02)

1916        Jul 14, Natalia Ginzberg, Italian novelist (The Dry Heat, Family Sayings), was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1916        Jul 24, John D. MacDonald, author was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)

1916        Aug 28, C. Wright Mills (d.1962), sociologist, writer (The Power Elite), was born in Waco, Texas.
    (Google)

1916         Sep 13, Roald Dahl (d.1990), son of Norwegian immigrants, was born in Llandaff, Wales. He is best known for his children’s books such as "James and the Giant Peach."
    (www.bbc.co.uk/arts/books/author/dahl)

1916        Nov 22, Jack London, American writer, died in Glen Ellen, Ca., of a kidney disease, gastrointestinal uremic poisoning. An overdose of morphine was also suspected. He had written 50 books. London produced 200 short stories, 400 nonfiction articles and 20 novels. A 1998 biography by Alex Kershaw was titled: "Jack London: A Life." In 2010 James L. Haley authored “wolf: The Lives of jack London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_London)(SFC, 11/20/96, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/25/98, BR p.3)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.69)

1916        Ring Lardner (1885-1933), American humorist and writer, authored “You Know Me Al." It traced the 1st season of a rookie hurler for the Chicago White Sox."
    (AP, 5/14/99)(HN, 3/6/01)(WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)

1917        Apr 28, Robert Anderson, writer (Tea & Sympathy, Never Sang for My Father), was born in NY.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1917        Jul 15, Robert Conquest, English author (Back to Life), was born.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1917        Sep 11, Jessica Mitford (d.1996), writer who championed civil rights, best known for her book “The American Way of Death," was born.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1917        Sep 27, Louis Auchincloss (d.2010), novelist, was born in Lawrence, NY. His work included “Portrait in Brownstone, The Embezzler," and "Watchfires.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Auchincloss)

1917        Dec 16, Arthur C. Clark, English science fiction writer, was born. "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." He is best remembered for his book "The Sentinel," the source of Kubrick’s film "2001: A Space Odyssey."
    (AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_C._Clarke)

1917        W.B. Yeats (52) married Bertha Georgie Hyde-Lees (d.1968), his young spirit-medium (25). She became the oracular voice of his philosophy and poetry. In 2002 Ann Saddlemeyer authored "Becoming George: The Life of Mrs. W.B. Yeats."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)

1918        Mar 9, Frank Morrison Spillane (d.2006), mystery writer [Mickey Spillane], was born in Brooklyn. His Mike Hammer crime novels later sold over 200 million copies. His books included “Kiss Me Deadly" and “The Erection Set."
    (HN, 3/9/01)(SFC, 6/21/01, p.D5)(SFC, 7/18/06, p.B5)

1918        Mar 15, Richard Ellmann, US literary scholar, writer (Oscar Wilde), was born.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1918        May 27, Henry Adams (b.1838), US historian, journalist and novelist, died. His books included “The Education of Henry Adams" (1907) and "Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres" (1918).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Brooks_Adams)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)

1918        Jul 8, Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Nobel Prize winning writer, was wounded in Italy while working as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. He was later awarded the Italian Silver Medal of Military Valor. Hemingway enlisted in a Red Cross ambulance unit in 1917 during World War I.  He was commissioned a second lieutenant and served on the Italian front. After WWI he reported from the battlefields of the Spanish Civil War for American newspapers. His book "Farewell to Arms" was based on his experiences in WWI.
    (HNQ, 7/28/99)(HN, 7/8/01)

1918        Jul 29, Edwin Greene O'Connor, author (The Last Hurrah), was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)
1918        Jul 29, Mary Lee Settle, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)

1918        Aug 3, James MacGregor Burns, political writer (The Lion & the Fox), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1918        Aug 18, Elsa Morante, Italian writer and author of “History: A Novel," was born.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1918        Dec 11, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (d.2008), Russian writer, was born. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize and is famous for “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" (1962) and "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973). Daniel J. Mahoney later authored "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From Ideology."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandr_Solzhenitsyn)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A20)

1918        Willa Cather (d.1947) authored her novel "My Antonia."
    (SFC, 3/29/04, p.E1)

1919        Jan 1, J.D. Salinger, American novelist, was born in NYC. In 1951 Jerome David Salinger published "The Catcher in the Rye," which became a bible for American teenagers.
    (SFC, 1/29/10, p.A1)

1919        Mar 1, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, US beat poet (Coney Island of the Mind), was born. [see Mar 24]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1919        Mar 14, Max Shulman, novelist (Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Tender Trap), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1919        Mar 24, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 'beat' poet, was born. [see Mar 1]
    (HN, 3/24/01)

1919        May 6, Frank Lyman Baum (62), American author, died in Los Angeles. In 1897 he wrote and published “Mother Goose in Prose," a collection of Mother Goose rhymes written as prose stories, and illustrated by Maxfield Parrish. Baum and  illustrator W. W. Denslow published “The Wonderful World of Oz" in 1900.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Frank_Baum)

1919        May 28, May Swenson, poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1919        Jul 15, Iris Murdoch (d.1999), philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote 28 novels and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a collection of writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tried to "recover the moral dimension of art."
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_Murdoch)(SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)

1919        Jul 31, Primo Levi, Italian writer and scientist (Survival in Auschwitz), was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1919        Sherwood Anderson published his linked short story collection "Winesburg, Ohio.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, BR p.1)

1919        Albert Beveridge wrote a biography of former chief justice John Marshall.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)

1919        Hermann Hesse published his first real literary success, "Demian," The novel about a young, troubled adolescent’s conflict to achieve self-awareness, was symbolized by the duality between his dream character Demian and his real-life counterpart, Sinclair.
    (iUniv. 7/2/00)

1919        Somerset Maugham (d.1965), author “The Moon and Sixpence," a novel whose main character is based on Paul Gauguin.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.75)

1919        John Reed and Bertram Wolfe (d.1977 at 81) wrote a manifesto that resulted in the formation of the American Communist Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/00, p.C2)

1919        George Bernard Shaw wrote his play "Heartbreak House."
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)

1919        W.B. Yeats wrote his poem "The Second Coming."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)

1919        P.G. Wodehouse wrote his novel "Damsel in Distress." It was dramatized in 1928 and scored for film by George and Ira Gershwin in 1937.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

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