BC Timeline (E) 3300BC - 1300BC

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3.3k BC    The beginning date of the Mayan calendar.
3.3k BC    Around this time the inhabitants of Sumer in present day Iraq adopted the practice of storing tokens in sealed clay jars. The tokens represented the counts of foodstuffs, livestock , and land. The stored tokens provided a more permanent record but required that jars be broken in order to examine the record. Then someone hit on the idea of making marks in the soft clay covers of the jars to represent the tokens inside. Archeological evidence shows that the marked jars led almost immediately to a system of marks on clay tablets.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.42)
3.3k BC    Archaic cylinder seals [of Sumeria] of this time were later collected by financier Pierpont Morgan.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)
3.3k BC     In 1991 German hikers Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse, dated to about this time. He was later named Oetzi (Frozen Fritz). He was found on Sep 19, 1991, in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint arrow was also found in his back. In 2007 forensic researchers said he died either from hitting his head on a rock when he passed out or because his attacker hit him in the head.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T4)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)(AP, 8/29/07)

3.3k BC - 3.2k BC  In 1998 clay tablets were reported from this date from the tomb of an Egyptian king named Scorpion. The tablets had writing that recorded linen and oil deliveries as a tithe to the king. The tomb was in a cemetery at Gebel Tjauti in Suhag province, some 250 miles south of Cairo. Egyptologists John Coleman Darnell and wife Deborah discovered the tableau in 1995.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C5)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A4)

3.3k BC - 1k BC    The earliest known civilizations occupied the Aegean world. The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations rose and fell over this period.
    (eawc, p.1)

3,28k BC    An excavation at the Shuanghuaishu site in Gongyi on the outskirts of Zhengzhou in mid-May 2020 revealed the site of a huge settlement that archaeologists estimate dates back to about this time.

3.25k BC    King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt. Evidence of wine was found in his tomb and scientists believed it was produced in Jordan and transported by donkey and boat to Egypt.
    (AM, 5/01, p.54)(SFC, 10/27/05, p.A2)

3.2k BC    Semitic people come to the area around Byblos, Lebanon. It was then called Gebal and the people Giblites, who with flat axes cut timber from the mountains.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)
c3.2k BC    A white limestone vase was made depicting Sumerians offering gifts to the goddess Innin along with scenes of daily life in Uruk. It survived for thousands of years and came to be called the Sacred Vase of Warka.
    (SFC, 6/13/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/18/03, p.D6)
3.2k BC    Archeological evidence indicates that the Sumerians used wheeled transportation.
    (eawc, p.1)
3.2k BC    The Sumerians developed pictographic writing about this time.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)
3.2k BC    The National Museum of the American Indian in New York City has Valdivian female figurines from Ecuador that date back to 3200BC.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p.T-3)

3.2k BC - 2.5k BC    Henges, enormous ditches enclosing circular constructs dating to this period, were enigmatic features of Neolithic and Bronze age Britain. In 2008 researchers dating cremated bones concluded that Stonehenge was initially established as a “domain of ancestors," and that burials were a major component in all its stages.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/30/08, p.A6)

3.2k BC - 2.2k BC    The Orkney Island village of Skara Brae was inhabited during this period. A huge storm in 1850 revealed its ruins. Inhabitants were settled farmers who ate sheep, cattle, grain and fish.
    (www.orkneyjar.com/history/skarabrae/)(SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

3.2k BC - 2k BC The Cycladic culture, a network of small, sometimes fortified farming and fishing settlements that traded with mainland Greece, Crete and Asia Minor, flourished during this period. It is best known for the elegant figurines: mostly naked, elongated figures with arms folded under their chests. It was eclipsed by Crete and Mycenaean Greece.
    (AP, 12/31/06)

3.2k BC - 1.6k BC    The Indus Valley civilization grew up along the banks of the Indus River in what later became Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Dara showed the development of multi-level houses and city-wide plumbing. A natural disaster that altered the course of the Indus River appears to have brought about the collapse of this civilization. The Harappan (Indus) civilization slowly disintegrated by about 1000 BC. It extended over more than 386,000 square miles (1 million square km) across the plains of the Indus River from the Arabian Sea to the Ganges. In 2012 researchers said Harappans faced climate change and apparently fled along an escape route to the east toward the Ganges basin, where monsoon rains remained reliable.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu)(Reuters, 3/15/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa)

3.102k BC    Feb 18, The epoch (starting point or first day of the zeroth year) of the current era of Hindu calendar (both solar and lunisolar) is February 18, 3102 BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar or January 23, 3102 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. According to the Purāṇas this was the moment when Śrī Kṛṣṇa returned to his eternal abode. Both the solar and lunisolar calendars started on this date. After that, each year is labeled by the number of years elapsed since the epoch.

3.1k BC    Menes, the legendary first pharaoh of Egypt, ruled upper Egypt from Nekhen before he conquered lower Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis.
    (NG, May 1985, p.586)
c3.1k BC     The upper and lower kingdoms were united to form the 1st Dynasty of Egypt. The fertile Nile Valley and prevailing environmental conditions led to the formation of villages along the river—Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. These villages grew into 'kingdoms' centered around Naqadah (later Hierakonopolis) in the south and Behdet (later Buto) in the delta. According to tradition, the upper and lower kingdoms were united into one centralized government by King Menes around 3100BC. However, modern scholars are unsure whether King Menes was actually several kings, including Narmer and Aha. Menes' reign lasted a substantial 62 years before being killed by a hippopotamus (again according to tradition).  The 1st dynasty lasted until about 2890BC.
    (HNQ, 11/2/00)
c3.1k BC    In the protodynastic period of Egypt "Scorpion" ruled  and was followed by Narmer. In 2002 Jan Assmann authored "The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs.
    (R4,1998)(SSFC, 4/28/02, p.M4)
3.1k BC    Cuneiform writing emerged in Mesopotamia. The wedge-shaped characters were used to record the first epics in world history, including "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta," and the first stories about "Gilgamesh."
    (eawc, p.1)
3.1k BC    Writing was related to Sumerian language.
3.1k BC    The first known incarnation of Stonehenge, the ancient stone monument in the south of England, is thought to have been built by native Neolithic peoples around this time. Archaeological interpretation of the site is primarily based on a series of modern excavations carried out since 1919. The studies have concluded that there were three different building periods representing markedly different materials and methods. Stonehenge I was primarily an earthen structure built by native Neolithic peoples using deer antlers as picks. Two entry stones were also placed to the northeast of the circle, one of which (the "Slaughter Stone") survives in the latest monument.
    (HNQ, 3/3/01)

3.1k BC - 2.77k BC    The Archaic Period of Egypt. Narmer united Egypt and hieroglyphic writing developed.
    (eawc, p.1)

3.1k BC - 2.7k BC    In Egypt the limestone "Stele of the Serpent King" has a bas-relief of a falcon in profile above a nearly abstract curving stroke of a snake. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

3.063k BC     In 2010 Swiss archaeologists in Zurich said they have unearthed a 5,000-year-old door that may be one of the oldest ever found in Europe. Using tree rings to determine its age, they believed the door could have been made in the year 3,063 BC, around the time that construction on Britain's world famous Stonehenge monument began.
    (AP, 10/20/10)

c3.05k BC - 2.89k BC    In Egypt Hor-Aha ruled and was followed by Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qa'a. These rulers comprised the 1st dynasty.

3.022k BC    In Peru the pyramids of Aspero on the Pacific coast dated to about this time.
    (AM, 7/05, p.20)

c3k BC     Evidence of human habitation in the Yosemite Valley of California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
3k BC        In California radiocarbon tests indicated human habitation at the SF bay side foot of San Bruno Mountain back to this time.
    (SFEC,12/29/97, p.A13)
c3k BC        "Bison Hunter" villages around Middle Lake in Modoc Ct., Ca., were carbon-dated to this time.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T9)
3k BC        Excavations for the SF Civic Center BART Station in 1969 unearthed a female skeleton that dated back to about this time.
    (SFC, 8/3/13, p.C3)
3k BC    The everglades of Florida formed about this time during a period of sea level rise. By 2019 the area which had once comprised an area twice the size of New Jersey was reduced to about half following a century of development.
    (SFC, 12/4/19, p.A7)
3k BC        An earthen mound at what later was known as Watson Brake, La. in the US was dated to this time.
    (SFC, 9/19/97, p.A3)
c3k BC        Maize and other crops were introduced in the lowlands of what is now northern Belize.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)
3k BC        The use of coca in Bolivian culture can be traced back to at least this time. It is commonly called hoja sagrada, or sacred loaf.
    (SFC, 6/29/00, p.A12)
3k BC        In Britain timber temples were constructed about this time prior to stone circles. Remains of one was found in 1997 at Stanton Drew in Somerset that measured 443 feet on the outer diameter.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A17)
3k BC        In 2009 archeologists identified a site named "Bluehenge," dating to about this time, about a mile (2km) away from Stonehenge. It was named after the color of the 27 Welsh stones that were laid to make up a path. The stones were gone but the path of holes remained.
    (AP, 10/3/09)
3k BC        In 2013 British researchers proposed a new theory for the origins of Stonehenge. They said it may have started as a giant burial ground for elite families around this time.
    (AP, 3/9/13)
3k BC        In 2013 Chinese archaeologists said they have discovered some of the world's oldest known primitive writing, dating back to about this time, in eastern China. Some of the markings etched on broken axes resembled a modern Chinese character.
    (AP, 7/10/13)
3k BC        Chur, the capital of the Swiss canton of Graubunden, dates back to this time.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.76)
3k BC        The fishing village of Daixi at the eastern end of the Qutang Gorge in China is the site of a Neolithic culture from this time.
    (NH, 7/96, p.58)
3k BC        Ships transported timber from Byblos to Egypt.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)
3k BC        Thoth developed the Egyptian calendar about this time whose year begins with the autumn equinox. The year was divided into 12 months of 30 days with 5 or 6 days added at the end but not counted as a part of any month.
3k BC        The Egyptians used reed brushes on papyrus to write hieroglyphics.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)(K.I.-365D.p.31)
3k BC        Ayurveda, a holistic Indian science, had its beginnings about this time. It later taught that the balancing of the mind, spirit and body is the secret of health, vitality, longevity and beauty.
    (SFC, 4/25/00, p.C6)
3k BC        Hatha Yoga, a combination of mind and body exercises, began in India about this time.
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.D16)
3k BC        The earliest 6-sided dice date to about this time from a site in northern Iraq.
    (WSJ, 10/27/06, p.W5)
c3k BC    In the area of present Lithuania at the end of the 3rd millennium a new wave of nomadic cattle-raisers moved in from the south and south-west and brought with them a corded pottery culture.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)
3k BC        In Macedonia the town of Ohrid was established about this time on Lake Ohrid, the 2nd deepest lake in the world.
    (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A8)
3k BC        A Neolithic temple at Mnajdra, Malta, dates to about this time.
    (AM, 7/01, p.15)
3k BC        Banking developed in Mesopotamia about this time.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)
3k BC    Small village communities developed in the Potohar Plateau area (later part of north-eastern Pakistan), which led to the early roots of civilization. Some of the earliest Stone Age artifacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 500,000 to 100,000 years. The crude stone recovered from the terraces of the Soan carry the account of human grind and endeavors in this part of the world from the inter-glacial period.
c3k BC        The goddess as a cultural figure began losing power about this time as the process of reading and writing developed. In 1998 Dr. Leonard Shlain published "The Alphabet Versus the Goddess: The Conflict Between Word and Image."
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.B1)
c3k BC        On the Orkney mainland the 12 Stones of Stennes were built about this time.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)
c3k BC        Gold and silver began to be refined via cupellation, a process that produces 300 parts lead for every part silver.
    (NH, 7/96, p.50)
c3k BC        Bituminous surface deposits were exploited in the Near East as early as this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.56)
3k BC        It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1000 CE.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.127)
c3k BC        Scientists say that the weather changed about this time and that the first El Nino Pacific Ocean temperature flip occurred. Analysis of Peruvian coastal middens of this period indicated a diet change from tropical mollusks to cold water mollusks. The idea was first proposed in 1983 and evidence was added from Japan and Greenland. Skeptics claim that the change was due to mollusks harvested from now vanished warm water lagoons.
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.E2)
3k BC        Urartu existed in eastern Anatolia starting about his time until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes.
c3k BC        The Osceola mudflow from Mt. Rainier, Wa., struck. It was estimated to have been 60 times as massive as the 1985 mudflow in Columbia that killed 23,000 people.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.A16)

3k BC - 2.8k BC    The Burckle Crater, an undersea crater, formed during this period by a very large scale comet or meteorite impact event. It is located to the east of Madagascar and west of Western Australia in the southern Indian ocean and is estimated to be about 30 km (18 mi) in diameter. In 2006 the Holocene Impact Working Group believed that it was created when a comet impacted in the ocean, and that enormous megatsunamis created the dune formations which later allowed the crater to be pin-pointed. As not only the Bible, but other ancient writings from various cultures make reference to a 'great flood', it is hypothesized that these legends are associated with this event.

3k BC - 2.5k BC    On Malta the Tarxien phase is marked by the collapse of the temple culture.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.44)

3k BC - 2k BC    During this period the genetic profile of European skeletons changed radically, suggesting that some mysterious event led to a huge turnover in the population that made up Europe.
    (Live Science, 4/23/13)
3k BC - 2k BC Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time. True urban centers rose in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai. Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar) had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization. Ancient Afghanistan was a crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.
3k BC - 2k BC    Early Minoan civilization, centering around Crete, named after the legendary Cretan king. Early, middle, and late are periods divided by Sir Arthur Evans. Pottery was decorated with incised or pricked patterns filled in with white powdered gypsum to make a pattern on a black background up to this time. Early Minoan I began to make colored decoration. Ornament was restricted to simple geometrical patterns. The pottery was made without a wheel. In this period short, triangular daggers in copper are found. In Early Minoan II Pottery designs are more free and graceful, simple curves appear. The potter's wheel was introduced. Rude and primitive idols in marble, alabaster, and steatite are found, but the use of flint and obsidian was not wholly abandoned. Early Minoan III begins to show seals with a kind of hieroglyphic signs upon them, apparently imitated from Egyptian seals.
3k BC - 2k BC    In Scotland the Clava cairns, a mile from Culloden, are 3 sizable stone burial chambers encircled by stone monoliths.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T4)
3k BC - 2k BC    Ebla, Syria, was a commercial capital of this era. In 1975 tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets were found that supported Ebla's role.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A26)

3k BC - 1.7k BC    In China’s Late Neolithic, Longshan period, a walled settlement existed at what was later called the Puchengdian Ruins of Henan province.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.12)

3k BC - 1.5k BC    The city of Harappa flourished as part of the Indus Valley civilization in Pakistan.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.A)

3k BC - 1.2k C    The Bronze Age.
    (MT, 3/96, p.5)

2.98k BC    Egypt’s tomb of King Den, dated to about this time, was later found to show evidence of mummification.
    (AM, 9/01, p.13)

2.89k BC - 2.686k BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 2nd Dynasty. Hotepsekhemwy ruled and was followed by Raneb, Nynetjer, Weneg, Seth-Peribsen and Khasekhemwy.

c2.85k BC    In China Emperor Fushi decreed that people would be identified with a formal family name as well as a familiar first name.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)

2.8k BC    The Bronze Age began.
    (WH, 1994, p.12)
2.8k BC    The Bell Beaker culture emerged from the Iberian Peninsula about this time. It is named for its distinctive bell-shaped ceramics and its rich grave goods. The culture also played a role in the expansion of Celtic languages along the coast.
    (Live Science, 4/23/13)
2.8k BC    In 2015 scientists reported DNA evidence of the plague dating to about this time. It was however a different strain than the one that caused later pandemics.
    (SFC, 10/23/15, p.A6)
c2.8k BC    In Britain Stonehenge Phase I saw the construction of the henge's bank and ditch. A pair of upright stones formed a ceremonial entrance with a larger stone opposite. 56 small pits encircled the whole area.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)
2.8k BC    In Cyprus the town of Palaepaphos, 11 miles inland from modern Paphos, was founded about this time. It later became the site of a temple of Aphrodite, the ancient goddess of beauty who, according to mythology, was born in the sea off Paphos.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2.772k BC    In Egypt the 365 day calendar was introduced.
    (eawc, p.1)

2.75k BC    Gilgamesh, a Sumerian King, ruled the city of Uruk (Babylonia) about this time, which had grown to a population of over 50,000. Gilgamesh was the subject of many epics, including the Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Nether World" and the Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh." In 1844 Westerners discovered an epic poem based on Gilgamesh on stone fragments in Mosul, Iraq. In 1853 clay tablets inscribed with the tale were found in Nineveh, the former capital of Assyria. 5 Sumerian versions were later acknowledged. George Smith completed his translation of the Epic in 1874. In 2004 Stephen Mitchell published “Gilgamesh: A New English Translation." Derek Hines authored “Gilgamesh."
    (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.E4)(ON, 11/07, p.4,6)(Arch, 5/05, p.16)
c2.75k BC    Queen Paubi lived in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A24)
c2.75k BC    In the Orkney Islands a chambered tomb, Maes Howe, near the Stones of Stennes was constructed. It also exhibits a collection of stone carved Viking runes. The tomb was vandalized and rebuilt in 9th century Norse times.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.24)

2.737k BC    Chinese emperor Shen Neng (Shennong) prescribed marijuana tea to treat gout, rheumatism, malaria and poor memory.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shennong)

2.7k BC    The Chinese developed India ink, mixing soot from pine smoke and lamp oil with gelatin of donkey skin and musk.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
2.7k BC    Chinese texts from this time describe plants to treat fevers.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)
2.7k BC    Domesticated maize in Mexico goes back to this time.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

2.7k BC - 2.2k BC    In southern Russia a group of Novotitarovskaya steppe nomads roamed the Caucasus.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.12)
2.7k BC - 700 BC    The Harappan civilization flourished in the Indus and Ganges valleys.
    (Reuters, 3/15/06)

2.698k BC     The beginning of the Chinese calendar. Feb 19,1996 begins the Year of the Rat and the year 4694.
    (enRoute, 2/96, p.24)(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.7)

2.686k BC - 2.181k BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2.686k BC - 2.668k BC    Sanakhte, the older brother of Djoser, founded Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2.686k BC - 2.181k BC    Chairs in the early dynasties of Egypt stood on what looked like animals' legs. Low reliefs of Egypt’s Old Kingdom, now in the French Louvre, enumerate an ideal meal to be taken to a tomb.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.E-4)(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2.668k BC - 2.649k BC    Djoser (Dzoser, Zoser) was the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty. The first step pyramid was designed for Dzoser by Imhotep.

2.65k BC - 2.18k BC    Egyptian wall paintings included information on beer production. In 2004 Japan’s Kirin Brewery produced a beer dubbed “The Old Kingdom Beer."
    (WSJ, 10/14/04, p.A1)

2.649k BC - 2.643k BC    Sekhemkhet was the 3rd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2.643k BC - 2.637k BC    Khaba was the 4th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2.637k BC - 2.613k BC    Huni was the 5th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2.627k BC    Parts of Caral, a city in the Supe Valley of Peru, was built about this time. The 170-acre site, 14 miles from the coast, was discovered in 1905 but not dated till 2001. The city had pyramids up to 70 feet tall and its population was believed to have reached about 3,000.
    (SFC, 4/27/01, p.A3)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)(AM, 7/05, p.19,25)

2.62k BC - 2.5k BC    A polychrome stele of Egyptian Princess Nefertiabet depicts her dining in a one-shoulder leopard-skin gown. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
2.62k BC - 2.5k BC    An Egyptian painted limestone statue of a "Seated Scribe" dates to this period. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2.613k BC - 2.589k BC     Snefru (Snofru), son of Huni, was the 1st king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty. Snefru’s scribes left a description of 40 ships bearing timber arriving to Egypt from Byblos. On Mar 9,1925, the Egyptian Ministry of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb of King Sneferu.
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)(HN, 3/9/98)

2.601k BC    In Egypt Nik’ure, the son of a pharaoh, died and left what was later recognized as the oldest Last Will and Testament. "Being of sound mind and body…" He left his wealth to his wife, 3 children and to another woman.
    (SFEC, 8/6/00, Z1 p.2)

2.6k BC    The Bent Pyramid was built during the Old Kingdom of the Pharaoh of Sneferu about this time. It is unique in that it has two internal structures. It represents a transitional form of pyramid construction between the Djoser Step Pyramid (2667-2648 B.C.) and the Meidum Pyramid (also about 2600 B.C.).
    (AP, 7/14/19)
c2.6k BC    Tombs of the priest Kai were built about this time in Egypt. In 1999 they were found in a cemetery west of Cheop's pyramid.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.A18)

2.6k BC - 2.5k BC    British archeologists reported in 2007 that houses found at Durrington Walls near Stonehenge, the world's largest known henge (an enclosure with a bank on the outside and a ditch inside), were radiocarbon dated to this time.
    (AFP, 1/30/07)

2.6k BC - 1.9k BC    The Indus Valley Civilization flourished with Harappa as one of its great cities. Undeciphered Indus Valley script on inscribed seals and molded tablets have been found there.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

2.589k BC - 2.566k BC    Khufu (Cheops), son of Snefru and Queen Hetepheres, ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. Khufu built the Great Pyramid. It rose about 100 feet. Two more were built for his 2 wives, Henutsen and Meryetes. Laborers reportedly went on strike to get a daily ration of garlic.
    (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 1/3/98, p.A8)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2.55k BC    In 2006 a scientist proposed that beginning about this time Egyptians started to use cast concrete in their pyramids. His evidence was taken from samples of the Khufu pyramid. The proposal was controversial in that concrete was later used to restore pyramids.
    (SFC, 12/1/06, p.A12)

2.55k BC - 2.4k BC    The "Standard of Ur," a tapered box with rows of people depicting a battle and its aftermath, was made about this time.
    (WSJ, 5/22/03, p.D8)

2.566k BC - 2.558k BC    Djedefre (Radjedef) succeeded his father Khufu and ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (2528BC-2520BC).
    (R4,1998)(Arch, 7/02, p.9)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2.558k BC - 2.532k BC    Khafre ruled as the 4th king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. His pyramid is the 2nd largest on Egypt’s Giza Plateau. The Sphinx was built under his rule. In 1996 a 4,500 year-old perfectly intact alabaster statue of Pharaoh Khaefre was part of a 1996 show on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.  In 2002 Christine Zivie-Coche authored "Sphinx: History of a Monument."
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(WSJ, 1/10/03, p.W7)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2.532k BC - 2.504k BC    Menkaure ruled, son of Khafre, as the 5th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.

2.504k BC - 2.5k BC    Shepseskaf, son of Menkaure, ruled as the 6th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.

c2.5k BC    African settlers came to the Canary Islands about this time and brought with them a whistling language later known as "silbo Gomero."
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.D5)
2.5k BC    Shards of pottery dating to about this time were later excavated in Wiltshire, England, close to Stonehenge, followed patterns originating in Orkney, a Scottish archipelago.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.94)
2.5k BC    At Stonehenge a ditch and bank area was created on the grassy chalkland about this time.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)
2.5k BC     In 2015 British archaeologists said they had found the buried remains of a mysterious prehistoric monument close to the famous Stonehenge heritage site dating back to about this time. The discovery was made at Durrington Walls -- a so-called "superhenge" located less than three km (1.8 miles) from Stonehenge.
    (AFP, 9/7/15)
2.5k BC    Cycladic figurines on the islet of Keros were deliberately smashed around this time. In 2006 new research led scientists to believe that Keros was a hugely important religious site where the smashed artwork was ceremoniously deposited. The sea-faring Cycladic culture consisted of a network of small, sometimes fortified, farming and fishing settlements that traded with mainland Greece, Crete and Asia Minor. It became renowned for its elegant flat-faced marble figurines.
    (SFC, 1/10/06, p.D7)(AP, 12/31/06)
2.5k BC    A 330-foot-tall Egyptian pyramid was erected about this time and came to be known as the ‘Bent’ pyramid, located outside the village of Dahshur. In 2009 travelers were given access to its inner chambers.
    (SFC, 3/17/09, p.A2)
2.5k BC    A flute made of vulture bone from this time is on exhibit at the Paris Museum of Music.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T7)
2.5k BC    Wooden sandals represent the oldest shoes on exhibit in Toronto at the Bata Shoe Museum, and are from an Egyptian tomb estimated to be 4,500 years old.
    (SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-10)
c2.5k BC    The tomb of an Egyptian child from about this time was found to contain toys that included miniature pins and balls and a wicket, the first evidence of bowling.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
c2.5k BC    Aryan followers of King Yama crossed the Aoxus River from Central Asia into Tajikistan and created a new calendar with the new year (Now Roz, Now-Ruz) marked by spring. This was later celebrated by people in Iran and Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A22)
2.5 BC    A study in 2015 said a wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe about this time left their trace in the DNA — and possibly the languages — of modern Europeans. They found that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders who lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.
    (AP, 3/3/15)
2.5k BC    The first signs of human habitation at Trier (Germany) date to this time.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
c2.5k BC    In India excavations in 2000 revealed a walled city  of the middle 3rd millennium at the Dholavira site in Gujarat state.
    (AM, 11/00, p.22)
2.5k BC    The Jiroft culture (later Assyria, Persia, southeastern Iran) flourished about this time.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.51)
2.5k BC    On Malta by about his time the megalithic temples were no longer in use.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.47)
2.5k BC    In 2006 researchers reported a 4,500-year-old burial in Mexico that showed front teeth ground down so they could be mounted with animal teeth. It was the oldest example of dental work in the Americas.
    (SFC, 6/14/06, p.A2)
2.5k BC    Mariners believed to be from Indonesia and Malaysia set up shop among the islands of Palau about this time.
    (SSFC, 3/1/15, p.L4)
2.5k BC    The making of glass began about this time in Mesopotamia.
    (Econ, 8/22/15, p.64)
2.5k BC    Tel Es-Sakan (hill of ash) was the largest Canaanite city between Palestine and Egypt about this time. By 2017 Gaza's Hamas rulers systematically destroyed the work since seizing power a decade ago, allowing the flattening of this hill on the southern tip of Gaza City to make way for construction projects, and later military bases.
    (AP, 10/6/17)
    (AP, 10/6/17)
2.5k BC    The Nuraghic Civilization thrived in Sardinia.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T4)
2.5k BC    Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)
2.5k BC    By this time the Sahara desert looked much as it does today.
    (ATC, p.109)
2.5k BC    A queen named Shubad died about this time in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia. She was buried with a staggering amount of personal property later uncovered by English archeologist Charles Leonard Wooley.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

2.5k BC - 2k BC    The Magan-period of Oman. Numerous slag heaps and third millennium remains from mining and smelting have been found at the oasis village of Maysar in central-eastern Oman. Magan supplied copper ingots to the seafaring merchants of southern Mesopotamia.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)(Arch, 9/00, p.48)
2.5k BC - 2k BC    Scotland’s Ring of Brogar in Orkney’s West Mainland dates to about this time. In 2005 36 of the original 60 stones remained standing. The original stones stood in a perfect circle 340 feet in diameter.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)

2.5k BC - 1.5k BC    Cities flourished in the Indus Valley.
    (WH, 1994, p.12)
2.5k BC - 1.5k BC    Mohenjo-Daro in southern Pakistan was an early urban center. As many as 40,000 people lived there
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.74)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)

2.5k BC - 1.3k BC    In the Dhofar region of Oman, a fortress was built at Shisur next to a permanent spring and used up to 1500CE.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.52)

2.5k BC - 800 BC    The Saqqaq people, the earliest known culture in southern Greenland, thrived over this period. In 2010 scientists sequenced the DNA from four frozen hairs of a Greenlander who lived among the Saqqaq around 2,000BC. He appeared to have originated in Siberia and was unrelated to modern Greenlanders.
    (Reuters, 2/10/10)

2.498k BC - 2.491k BC    Userkaf, grandson of Djedefre, ruled as the 1st king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He built a pyramid complex at Saqqara.

2.494k BC    Pharaoh Khafre, builder of the second largest of the Giza Pyramids, died around this time.
    (AP, 10/18/10)

2.491k BC - 2.477k BC    Sahure ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He built a pyramid complex at Abusir. He established an Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with Palestine.

2.477k BC - 2.467k BC    Neferirkare, brother of Sahure, ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.

2.467k BC - 2.46k BC    Shepseskare ruled in Egypt, according to the Turin King-list, for 7 years. Some seal impressions dated to his reign have been found at Abusir.

2.46k BC - 2.453k BC    Neferefre ruled as the 5th king of Egypt’s 5th Dynasty.

2.45k BC    The Troy treasure discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1873 was dated to a Bronze Age Troy of about this time.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)

2.453k BC - 2.422k BC    Niusserre (Nyuserre) ruled as the 6th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.

2.422k BC - 2.414k BC    Menkauhor ruled as the 7th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty.

2.414k BC - 2.375k BC    Djedkare ruled at the end of the 6th dynasty.

c2.4k BC    A site at Chien-kou near Handan of China's Longshan culture shows strong evidence of warfare between communities.
    (NH, Jul, p.30)
2.4k BC    The earliest reference to circumcision dates back to around 2400 B.C. A bas-relief in the ancient burial ground of Saqqara depicts a series of medical scenes, including a flint-knife circumcision and a surgeon explaining, "The ointment is to make it acceptable," likely referring to some form of topical anaseptic.
    (LiveScience.com, 8/28/12)
c2.4k BC    In Egypt the bas-reliefs lining the Mastaba of Akhethetep depict the rural life of a prosperous landowner. The chapel is in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
2.4k BC    Dagan, a name that appears in early Mesopotamia, and that enters into the composition of proper names in Babylonia about this time. Dagan was later a name for head of the Philistine pantheon.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.99, p.104)
2.4k BC    The Mesopotamian city of Nagar (in northeastern Syria) became the powerful state of Nagar about this time.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.11)

2.4k BC - 2.2k BC    Archeologists in 2008 said evidence from Stonehenge dating to this period indicated that the site was used as a place of pilgrimage for the sick.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.A26)

2.4k BC - 1.5k BC    Late Danish Neolithic: In the Ertebolle Culture amber pendants were shaped as animals. This includes the Dagger Period of Northern Europe.
    (PacDis, Winter/’97, p.8)(http://tinyurl.com/9usqn)

2.375k BC - 2.345k BC    Unas ruled at the end of Egypt’s 6th dynasty.

2.355k BC - 2.195k BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 6th Dynasty.
    (AM, 7/05, p.14)

c2.35k BC    Akhethetep, a high ranking official, lived about this time. His mastaba tomb is located in Saqqara, Egypt.
    (AM, 11/04, p.72)

2.348k BC    Jul 17, "My Bible also revealed that Noah came ashore on Mt. Ararat on the 17th day of the seventh month, 2348BC." In 1999 William Ryan and Walter Pitman authored "Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries about the Event That Changed History." They demonstrate how the rising Mediterranean broke through a natural dam in the Bosporus Strait and flooded a freshwater lake that expanded into the Black Sea. [see 5,600BC, and Nov 25, 2348BC]
    (NG, Nov. 1985, edit., p.559)(NH, 12/98, p.13)
2.348k BC    Nov 25, Biblical scholars have long asserted this to be the day of the Great Deluge, or Flood. [see Jul 17, 2348]
    (HN, 11/25/98)

2.345k BC - 2.333k BC    Teti ruled Egypt as the 1st king of the 6th dynasty. In 2008 archeologists discovered a pyramid in Saqqara dating to about this time. It was said to belong to Queen Sesheshet, the mother of King Teti.
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(AP, 11/11/08)

2.345k BC - 2.181k BC    In Egypt the "Striding Figure of Meryrahashtef," a 22.5 inch nude statue of a minor 6th dynasty official, was made.
    (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A14)(Arch, 9/02, p.61)

2.334k BC - 2.279k BC    Sargon I (2371BC-2315BC) founded and ruled the city-state of Akkad, after he left the city of Kish where he was an important official. He was the first ruler to maintain a standing army. His empire lasted less than 200 years.

2.333k BC    Userkare ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt between Teti and Pepi. He is believed to be a proponent of the group that killed Teti.
2.333k BC    Go-Chosun (Kojoson) refers to the Korean Empire founded by Tangun in 2333 BC that succeeded the first kingdoms of Hwan Gook (7,197 BC) and Bae Dal (3,898 BC) (also known as Gu Ri). The people of Go-Chosun were referred to by the Chinese as "the eastern bowmen." Chosun means "The Land of the Morning Calm."
    (www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Chosun)(Econ, 3/31/07, SR p.8)

2.323k BC-2.291k BC        King Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, the first king of the Sixth Dynasty, ruled Egypt during this period.

2.291k BC    Userkare ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt between Teti and Pepi. He is believed to be a proponent of the group that killed Teti.

2.295k BC    Pepi I, son of Teti began ruling about this time as the 3rd king of the 6th dynasty. A pyramid of Queen Ankh-sn-Pepi, wife of Pepi I, was discovered in 2000. The "Pair Statue of Queen Ankh-Nes-Meryre II and her son Pepi II Seated" was part of an Egyptian show on view at the NY Met in 1999.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepi_I_Meryre)    (WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)(SFC, 4/3/00, p.A10)

2.32k BC    Sargon conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and instituted a central government.
    (eawc, p.2)

c2.3k BC    Phoenicians, a seafaring people, began living along the Levantine coast.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A14)
2.3k BC    Sumerian cuneiform texts mention the land of Magan (possibly Oman) as a source of copper and diorite for the states of Mesopotamia.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)
2.3k BC    A culture traceable to Siberian ancestors made its way eastward across Alaska and through the Arctic to Ellesmere Island's Bache Peninsula. From there Greenland lies just 25 miles across open water in summer or solid sea ice in winter.
    (NG, 6/1988, 762)
2.3k BC    The Hmong people lived on the central plains of China. The gradually moved to the mountains of Indochina and Burma and then to Laos and Thailand.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)
2.3k BC    A civilization later called the Bactria Margiana Archeology Complex existed about this time in what later became Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Evidence of writing was found at the Annau ruins in 2000.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A12)
2.3k BC    Cultural exchange began between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia.
    (eawc, p.2)

2.291k BC - 2.254k BC    Naram-Sin ruled Akkad. He defeated a rebel coalition in Sumer and re-established Akkadian power. He re-conquered Syria, Lebanon, and the Taurus mountains, destroying Aleppo and Mari in the process.  During his reign the Gutians sacked the city of Agade and eventually destroyed all of Sumer (southern Iraq). During his reign Naram-Sin campaigned against the region of Magan (Oman).

2.278k BC - 2.184k BC    Pepi II ruled in Egypt as the last king of the 6th dynasty and the last significant king of the Old Kingdom.

2.254k BC - 2.23k BC    Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled Akkad. He fought to preserve the realm but it disintegrated under rebellion and invasion.

2.217k BC    In 2013 scientists reported DNA evidence that people from India arrived in Australia about this time and mixed with the local aboriginals.
    (Econ, 1/19/12, p.77)

2.2k BC    In what is now Bahrain settlements and temples of the city state of Dilmun, known as the city of the gods in ancient Sumerian literature, were found by Danish archaeologists in the 1950s. A culture contemporary with the city state of Dilmun (now Bahrain) was found in 1959 on the island of Umm-an-Nar off of Abu Dhabi.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)
2.2k BC    In Greece Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland.
    (eawc, p.2)
2.2k BC    In the Peruvian Andes a native culture built a 33-foot pyramid about this time with an observatory marking the summer and winter solstices. In 2006 archeologists working at the Buena Vista site believed that fisherman from the coast had moved to the site to grow cotton for making fishing nets.
    (SFC, 5/15/06, p.A2)
2.2k BC    A statue of the Sumerian king Entemena of Lagash was made about this time. The head was later lost and in 2003 the remaining body was looted after the fall of Baghdad. In 2006 it was returned to Iraq’s National Museum.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.A3)

2.183k BC    Merenre II followed Pepi II as ruler of Egypt. He ruled for just over a year and was murdered. Nitocris, his sister-wife, took rule.

2.183k BC - 2.18k BC    Nitocris (Nitiqret), the wife-sister-wife of Merenre, rule Egypt.

2.181k BC - 2.161k BC      Egypt’s 7th and 8th dynasties ruled during this period. Wadjkare ruled in Egypt’s 7th dynasty and was followed by Qakare. Eusebius has a 7th Dynasty that consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 75 days and an Eighth Dynasty that consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 100 years.

2.181k BC - 2.04k BC    Egypt’s First Intermediate Period. It began with the collapse of the Old Kingdom due to crop failure and low revenues due to pyramid building projects. This seemed to coincide with a period of cooling and drying.
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(eawc, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.114)

2.16k BC - 2.14k BC    Egypt’s 9th and 10th Dynasties ruled over this period from the capital at Herakleopolis. Pharaohs included Meryibre, Merykare, Kaneferre, and Nebkaure.

2.145k BC    Idin-Dagan, a king of Babylonia. and his son Isme-Dagan.

2.137k BC    Oct 22, This is the date of the earliest recorded eclipse according to the Shu King, the book of historical documents of ancient China. Two royal astronomers, Hsi and Ho, failed in their duties to predict the eclipse due to too much rice wine and were executed.
    (SCTS, p.27)

2.134k BC - 2.117k BC    Intef I (Antef I) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2.134k BC - 1.991k BC    Period of Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2.13k BC    By this time Sumer regained its independence from Akkadian rule but did not revert to independent city-states. Sumer was ruled from Ur.
    (eawc, p.2)

2.117k BC - 2.069k BC    Intef II (Antef II) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2.113k BC    Ur's golden century began when King Ur-Nammu expanded the Sumerian empire and made his capital the wealthiest city in Mesopotamia. Ur-Namma was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur. He made sure Magan (Oman) boats could freely come and go from Ur’s harbor.
    (AP, 4/15/03)(Arch, 9/00, p.46)

2.1k BC    Chinese Emperor Yu arranged the first Chinese headcount about this time.
    (Econ, 4/18/20, p.66)
2.1k BC    Byblos ( Pre-Phoenician city) was burned to the ground probably by the Amorites.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)
2.1k BC    The Sumerian King List was written. It recorded all the kings and dynasties ruling Sumer from the earliest times. Eridu was named as the earliest settlement and archeological evidence seems to confirm the claim.
    (eawc, p.2)
2.1k BC    Gudeo served as governor of Lagash (Iraq).
    (Arch, 9/00, p.46)
c2.1k BC    Stonehenge Phase II incorporated 60 "bluestones" from the Preseli Mountains in southwest Wales, about 135 miles away. 90 bluestones were set up in a horseshoe shape within a circle of another 60. Some 500 years after Stonehenge I fell into disuse, builders created a radically different Stonehenge with dozens of stone pillars weighing up to 4 tons.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)(HNQ, 3/3/01)
2.1k BC    Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A26)

c2.1k BC - 1.9k BC    In Stonehenge Phase III the builders encircled the bluestones with sarsen stones, a sandstone (probably from a quarry in Avebury, 20 miles away). These were topped by caps and the bluestones were re-arranged and dug into the ground. The axis of the circle was also re-calculated so that one way Stonehenge points to the summer solstice at sunrise and lined up the other way it points to the winter solstice at sunset.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SD)

2.1k BC - 1.6k BC    The protohistoric Xia period. The Ba people controlled salt production on the Yangtze River. They then slowly migrated upstream and in 316BCE were subjugated by the Qin. Fuling was a burial site for the kings of Ba. Fengdu was the first capital of Ba. The 1996 Tujia minority claim descent from the Ba.
    (NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20).
2.1k BC - 2k BC    Some 15,000 tiny Golden rings, estimated at 4,100 to 4,200 years old, were found in 2005 near Dabene, Bulgaria. They were attributed to proto-Thracians, ancestors of the Thracians, who lived in the area until they were assimilated by invading Slavs in the 8th century.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)

2.07k BC    In China the Xia period began according to results from government funded studies in 2000 CE. This was about the middle of the prehistoric Longshan culture.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2.069k BC - 2.06k BC    Intef III (Antef III) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty for 8 years.

2.068k BC    Shulgi, king of Ur, accepted gold from the king of Magan (Oman).
    (Arch, 9/00, p.47)

2.06k BC - 2.01k BC    Mentuhotep II (Nebhetepre), son of Theban Inteff III, ruled for about 39-51 years in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2.058k BC    Dungi was the king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

2.005k BC    Bur-Sin ruled as the king of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

2.04k BC - 1.782k BC    In Egypt the period of the Middle Kingdom began with its capital at Thebes. It lasted to 1782BC. About this time "The Plea of the Eloquent Peasant" was written calling for a benevolent ruler.
    (eawc, p.2)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2.013k BC    Sumerians built the Ziggurat at Ur (later Iraq) to draw closer attention to the god of the moon.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, Par p.5)

2.01k BC - 1.998k BC    Mentuhotep II, son of Mentuhotep I, ruled in the 11th Dynasty of Egypt for about 12 years.

2k BC        The first agricultural tribes appeared on the Bactrian Plain (Afghanistan).
    (NG, 3/90, p.62)
2k BC        Bronze-age mounds from this time in Turkman SSR indicate that Central Asians built cities around oases and developed a flourishing civilization with monumental architecture, sophisticated gold and silver craft, and irrigation agriculture.
    (NG, 3/90)
c2k BC        At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, England, a Bronze Age stone circle was constructed.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.21)
c2k BC         Silbury Hill, located on the prehistoric site of Avebury (named after nearby Avebury, England), is the largest prehistoric mound in Europe. The artificial hill, which rises up 130 feet, was constructed over three separate phases beginning at least 4,000 years ago. Although the shape of the mound is similar to smaller earthen constructions used for burials, its purpose remains a mystery.
    (HNQ, 6/8/01)
2k BC        The initial phase of what scientists call Stonehenge III was begun about 100 years after Stonehenge II with the lentil structure familiar to modern visitors. The builders continued improvements on Stonehenge III up until about 1550BC, well before historical records of the Druids or the Romans. Both Stonehenge and a neighboring circular monument were added to UNESCO's World Heritage List--a listing of cultural and natural sites--in 1986.
    (HNQ, 3/3/01)
2k BC        For as many as 4,000 years, the salty sand of the Taklimakan Desert in China held well-preserved mummies wearing colorful robes, boots, stockings and hats. The people were Caucasian not Asian. The bodies have been exhumed from the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang province since the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)
2k BC        Balathal, outside the city of Udaipur in northeast India, was a Chalcolithic village. The people used copper tools and weapons. Terra-cotta figurines of bulls have been found at the site. It was abandoned and reoccupied c340BC.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)
2k BC        Legends from Mecca indicate that the prophet Abraham built the Kaaba about this time. The Kaaba is a shrine meaning cube in Arabic, that enclosed the idols of their gods. Religious rituals were performed around the Kaaba which had a black stone embedded into a corner, said to be a gift to Abraham from the angel Gabriel for his belief in one god. By CE 500 more than 360 idols were housed within the Kaaba.
    (ATC, p.57)
2k BC        About this time the Egyptians domesticated the cat in order to catch snakes. Advances in astronomy enabled the Egyptians to predict the annual flooding of the Nile.
    (eawc, p.2)
c2k BC        An Egyptian painting on an interior tomb wall depicted 6 men scrubbing, wringing and folding a cloth.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)
2k BC        It was later believed that emeralds were first mined in Egypt about this time.
    (WSJ, 2/7/07, p.A12)
2k BC        In Egypt a Red Sea port was active around this time at Wadi el-Jarf, nearly 110 miles south of Suez. An exploration team found its remnants in 2013.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)
2k BC        By this time Baltic amber reached the Mediterranean and was found in ancient Mycenaean shaft graves.
    (PacDis, Winter/'97, p.10)
2k BC        The Timucuan Indians lived on Cumberland Island, Georgia, back to this time.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.43)
2k BC        The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for "land of pretty horses."
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)
c2k BC        In India Tantra, a quasireligious doctrine, dates back to this time. Its first texts were in Sanskrit and the original adherents practiced ritual copulation.
    (WSJ, 12/7/98, p.A1)
2k BC        The Ikom monoliths in Nigeria, phallic-shaped pieces of volcanic rock largely ignored for centuries, were said to date back to about this time. In 2007 they were added to the World Monuments Fund's (WMF) list of sites in danger and are on the "tentative" list for possible inclusion in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list.
    (AFP, 12/26/07)
2k BC        In 2007 a temple dating to about this time was unearthed on the northern coast of Peru, making it one of the oldest finds in the Americas. The mural filled temple, called Ventarron, sits in the Lambayeque valley, near the ancient Sipan complex unearthed in the 1980s.
    (AP, 11/11/07)
2k BC        In Peru the pyramid at El Paraiso was built about this time. In 2013 two real estate development companies destroyed the 20-foot tall pyramid, a few miles north of Lima.
    (SFC, 7/4/13, p.A2)
2k BC        In 2008 researchers reported that the earliest known gold jewelry made in the Americas had been discovered in southern Peru. The gold necklace, made nearly 4,000 years ago, was found in a burial site near Lake Titicaca.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
c2k BC        The Sumerian goddess Inanna was a fertility figure.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.7)
c2k BC        A palace was built at Qatanah, 12 miles south of Damascus, Syria, that was discovered in 1999.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A6)

2k BC - 1.79k BC    The wooden statue of chancellor Nakhti and carved face of governor Hapidjefai date to Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. They are now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2k BC - 1.6k BC    In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops and lack of surplus goods, the Sumerians were conquered by the Amorites, situated in Babylon. The center of civility shifted north. The Amorites preserved much of the Sumerian culture but introduced their own Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into the region.
    (eawc, p.2)
2k BC - 1.6k BC    The Middle Minoan period. Middle Minoan I finds polychrome decoration in pottery with elaborate geometrical patterns; we also discover interesting attempts to picture natural forms, such as goats and beetles. There then follows some great catastrophe. Middle Minoan II includes the period of the great palace of Phaestos and the first palace of Knossos. This period also includes the magnificent polychrome pottery called Kamares ware. Another catastrophe occurs. The second great palace of Knossos was built and begins the Middle Minoan III. It was distinguished by an intense realism in art, speaking clearly of a rapid deterioration in taste. Pictographic writing was clearly developed, with a hieratic or cursive script derived from it, adapted for writing with pen and ink.
2k BC - 1.6k BC    In Oman a transitional culture known as early Wadi Suq.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

2k BC - 1.5k BC The events of the Indian Ramayana epic, written around 500BC, supposedly took place about this time period.
    (AM, 7/04, p.50)

2k BC - 1.55k BC    The Babylonians built an empire.
    (WH, 1994, p.12)

2k BC - 1.5k BC    In Greece the Minoan civilization, named after the Cretan ruler Minos, reached its height with central power in Knossos on the isle of Crete. The culture was apparently more female-oriented and peaceful than others of the time.
    (eawc, p.2)
2k BC-1.5k BC    Swiss Archeologist Charles Bonnet discovered round and oval shaped structures in northern Sudan dating to this period not far from the famed archaeological site of Kerma.
    (AFP, 2/10/17)

2k BC - 1k BC    Early preclassic period of the Maya.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)
2k BC - 1k BC    In Italy Indo-Europeans slowly began to inhabit the north by way of the Alps. They brought the horse, the wheeled cart, and artistic knowledge of bronze work to the Italian peninsula. The Greeks and the Etruscans occupied different regions of the peninsula during the 8th century.
    (eawc, p.2)

2k BC - 500 BC    Aryan tribes lived in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan). The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time. Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time. Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV.

1.997k BC - 1.991k BC    Mentuhotep III, the last king of the 11th Dynasty of Egypt. He was the son of Imi, a secondary wife of either Mentuhotep II or III. His name is missing from most king’s lists.

1.995k BC    In 2005 Chinese archeologists reported their find of a 4,000 year-old container in northwestern China of noodles made from millet.
    (SFC, 10/13/05, p.A2)

1.991k BC - 1.962k BC    Amenemhet I (Amenemhat I) founded Egypt’s 12th Dynasty of Egypt and ruled for some 30 years. In 2007 Prof. Jahi Issa and Salim Faraji authored “The Origin of the Word Amen: Ancient Knowledge the Bible Has Never Told," in which they argued that the word Amen is derived from a pre-dynastic Egyptian culture found in the Sudan with roots in the ancient name for pharaoh, Amen, spelled in some cases as Amun. 
    (http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/11_13/12.html)(SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A2)

1.991k BC - 1.783k BC    Egypt, time of the Twelfth Dynasty, the peak of the Middle Kingdom when the Pharaohs won back some of the power which the monarchs of the Old kingdom had enjoyed. It ended with the Middle Kingdom in 1786BC. During the period power was somewhat distributed through the social classes. Religion shifted from a wealth-based system to one based on proper conduct.
    (eawc, p.3)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/11_13/12.html)

1.98k BC - 1.971k BC    Sesostris I (Senusret I) became co-regent with Amenenhet I.

1.971k BC - 1.929k BC    Sesostris I (Senusret I) ruled during Egypt’s 12th dynasty.

1.929k BC - 1.926k BC    Amenemhet II ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt as co-regent with his father Sesostris I.

1.926k BC - 1.892k BC    Amenemhet II held sole rule during Egypt’s 12th Dynasty.

1.92kBC    In 2016 a team of researchers led by Wu Qianlong, a former Peking University seismologist, established that an earthquake triggered a huge landslide, damming the Yellow River. After 6-9 months the dam broke and tore through the gorge at 500 times the Yellow River's average discharge submerging the North China Plain that is considered the cradle of Chinese civilization. Historical texts from about 1,000 B.C. first mentioned a legendary Xia ruler, Yu, who had devised a system of dredges to control a great flood that spanned generations.
    (AP, 8/5/16)

1.9k BC    King Melchizedek ruled Salem before it became Jerusalem. He charged everybody in his domain a flat 10% tax.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, Z1 p.5)
c1.9k BC    The "Epic of Gilgamesh" was redacted from Sumerian sources written in the Babylonian semetic. The legend was written about 1,600BC.
    (eawc, p.3)(SFC, 11/18/99, p.C6)

1.9k BC - 1.5k BC    During this period a Semitic group of nomads migrated from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They were led by a caravan trader, the Patriarch Abraham, who became the father of the nation of Israel. Ishmael was a son of Abraham had by Hagar. Isaac was a son of Abraham by Sarah. Hebrews trace their lineage through Isaac, Arabs through Ishmael.
    (eawc, p.3)(NW, 11/02, p.55)

c1.898k BC - 1.866k BC    In Egypt the Sphinx of Tanis was made. It was later moved to Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1.897k BC - 1.878k BC    Sesostris II (Senusret II), son of Amenenhet II, ruled as co-regent in Egypt’s 12th Dynasty.

c1.89k BC    Sinuhe, a professional soldier of high rank in Egypt, serving in the army of Amenemhat II was faced with a change in political power and left Egypt. He fled to Byblos, where he was befriended by a local ruler named Ammienshi, who governed the land of Retenu. He later returned to Egypt, now ruled by Senusret.

1.878k BC - 1.841k BC    Senusret III (Sesostris III) ruled as Egypt’s 5th king in the 12th Dynasty. He built a funerary complex to link himself with Osiris, lord of Abydos. Khakaure was Senwosret’s throne name.

1.842k BC - 1.797k BC    Amenemhet III ruled as Egypt’s 6th in the 12th Dynasty.

1.8k BC    King Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria passed the area of Palmyra on his way to the Mediterranean at the beginning of the 18th century BC. By this time Palmyra was the easternmost point of the kingdom of Qatna.
1.8k BC    By this time the Old Babylonians employed advanced mathematical operations such as multiplication, division and square roots. Their duodecimal system, based on 12 and 6 to measure time, is still used today.
    (eawc, p.3)
c1.8k BC    In Egypt walls of limestone were marked with alphabetic inscriptions in the Wadi el-Hol (Gulch of Terror). In 1993 the graffiti markings were discovered by Egyptologist John Coleman Darnell and his wife Deborah and later traced to Semitic people, possibly mercenary soldier scribes or Canaanite workers, living in the area.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)(SFC, 11/23/99, p.B10)
1.8k BC    About this time Abraham buried his wife, Sarah, in a cave in Hebron. The area later became known to the Jews as the Tomb of the Patriarchs and to Muslims as the Ibrahimi Mosque.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1.8k BC    In 2016 the Israel Antiquities Authority unveiled a "unique" 3,800-year-old figurine showing a seated person, apparently deep in thought. It was discovered recently in excavations at Yehud, east of Tel Aviv.
    (AFP, 11/23/16)

1.8k BC - 1.4k BC    The Second Semitic period. Macalister has five historic divisions to cover his excavation of Gezar (Vol. ii, pp. 128-241). This period in pottery shows Egyptian and Cypriotic influence, and here for the first time painted ornament becomes prominent. The figures are outlines in broad brush strokes, and the spaces are filled in afterwards, wholly or partly, with strokes in another color. The subjects are animals, birds, fishes, and geometrical patterns generally, and there can be little doubt that they are crude local imitations of models of Late Minoan ware, directly imported into the country.

1.798k BC - 1.786k BC    Amenemhet IV ruled in the 12th Dynasty.

1.792k BC - 175k BC    Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established a code of laws during this period that became known as the Code of Hammurabi. They were inscribed on a basalt column, later found at Susa, Iran. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(SFEC, 10/20/96, Z1 p.2)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.91)

1.790k BC     Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV sent a major expedition to Punt during the 8th year of his reign. In 2010 scientists used mummies of baboons to identify the region of Punt as either the lowland area of eastern Sudan or  the area where Ethiopia and Eritrea confront each other.
    (SFC, 5/8/10, p.A8)

1.785k BC - 1782k BC    Queen Sobeknefru (Nefrusobek) ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.

1.782k BC - 1.779k BC    Wegaf ruled at the beginning of Egypt’s 13th Dynasty.

1.782k BC - 1.65k BC    Egypt’s XIII Dynasty was marked by a period of decay, loss of unity, and many short-lived rival Pharaohs. This lasted through the Sixteenth Dynasty. Over 70 kings are listed in this dynasty and their dates are not well known.

1.782k BC - 157k BC    Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period. Also dated from 1640-1540.

1.80k BC    Vesuvius erupted about this time and entombed settlements 15km northwest of the volcano. The Avellino event left evidence at the Nola site that people were able to flee the eruption.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.73)

1.766k BC    In China the Shang Dynasty, the 2nd dynasty of the country according to tradition, began. It flourished on the banks of the Yellow River from about 1400BC-1027BC. The period is known for its use of bronze containers, oracle bones and human sacrifice, which ended shortly after the collapse of the dynasty.
    (eawc, p.3)

1.763k BC    Hammurabi, the Amorite King, conquered all of Sumer. He wrote a "Code of Laws" that contained 282 rules including the principles of "an eye for an eye" and "let the buyer beware." It was one of the first codes of law in world history, predated only by the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.
    (eawc, p.3)

c1.76k BC    Hor ruled in the early part of Egypt’s 13th Dynasty.

1.750k BC    Hammurabi established a code of laws. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(SFEC, 10/20/96, zone 1 p.2)
1.75k BC    Hammurabi died but his empire lasted another 150 years when the Kassites, a non-Semitic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
    (eawc, p.3)
c1.75k BC    The 1st evidence for the lapidary engraving wheel appeared about this time.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.18)

1.75k BC - 1.54k BC    The Hyksos from Syria and Palestine occupied Egypt and introduced the horse and chariot. Taking advantage of the unsettled state of Egypt, Asiatic invaders from Palestine entered Egypt and set themselves up as kings, even adopting Pharaonic titles and customs. The Jewish historian Josephus claims to quote the words of an Egyptian chronicler, Manetho, in describing this period of foreign rule. The Hyksos, whoever they were, had a 'blitz-weapon' - the horse drawn chariot which they had copied from the horse-rearing Mitanni of northern Mesopotamia. And the Mitanni in turn got the horse from Persia, together with the art of riding it. In 2005 Arthur Cotterrell authored “Chariot," a history of the chariot.
    (eawc, p.3)(WSJ, 6/17/05, p.W6)(L.C.-W.P.p.55-56)

c1.747k BC    Khendjer, a Hyksos king, ruled in northern Egypt.

c1.745k BC    Sobekhotep II ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

1.741k BC - 1.73k BC    Neferhotep I ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

1.73k BC - 1.72k BC    Sobekhotep IV ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

c1.72k BC    The Hyksos in northern Egypt dominated the Delta and founded their capital Avaris (Tanis).

1.704k BC - 1.69k BC    Ay ruled in Egypt’s 13th Dynasty. He was succeeded by Neferhotep II and Nehesy in the 14th Dynasty.

1.7k BC    Canaanites, before the Hebrew conquest, built a massive wall about this time when Jerusalem was a small, fortified enclave. Archeologists first discovered the 26-foot-high wall in 1909 and later believed it to have been part of a protected passage built from a hilltop fortress to a nearby spring that was the city's only water source and vulnerable to marauders.
    (AP, 9/3/09)
1.7k BC    A Canaanite palace stored wine in large ceramic jars. In 2013 archeologists exploring the site in northern Israel, known as Tel Kabri, announced the discovery of a storage room holding the broken remains of the jars.
    (SFC, 11/23/13, p.A5)
1.7k BC    Nubia is known as the Kingdom of Kush in the Bible. By this time the Nubians had established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
1.7k BC    Knossos was first destroyed by an earthquake. Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)
1.7k BC    A Larsa king ruled Ur about this time.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

1.7k BC - 1.25k BC    Troy VI, the bronze age settlement of the site of the Trojan War. The inhabitants probably spoke Luvian, an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)

1.7k BC - 1.1k BC     This is the Shang Dynasty period of China. [see 1766BC]
    (Arch, 9/00, p.34)

1.696k BC - 1.686k BC    Neferhotep, the 22nd king of the 13th Dynasty, ruled Egypt. He was the son of a temple priest in Abydos. In 2005 archeologists unearthed a statue of him. His name means "beautiful and good."
    (AP, 6/5/05)

1.69k BC    A kernel of corn was found in 1997 in the McKuen Cave in Eastern Arizona that dated to this time.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

1.674k BC    Sheshi, a Hyksos ruler, conquered Memphis (Egypt). Shesi ruled at the beginning of the 15th Dynasty and was succeeded by Yakubher, Khyan, Apepi I, Apepi II, Anather in the 16th Dynasty, Yakobaam, Sobekemsaf II in the 17th Dynasty, and Intef VII. The Hyksos invaded Egypt in horse-drawn chariots.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/history12-17.htm)

1.664k BC - 1.559k BC Egypt was ruled for a century by the Hyksos, a warrior people from Asia, possibly Semitic in origin, whose summer capital was in the northern Delta area. In 2010 an Austrian archaeological team used radar imaging to determine the extent of the ruins of the one time capital of Egypt's foreign occupiers underneath the green farm fields and modern town of Tel al-Dabaa.
    (AP, 6/20/10)

1.663k BC - 1.555k BC    The period of Egypt’s 15th Dynasty.  In Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties ruled simultaneously.
c1.65k BC    Egypt’s 14th Dynasty kings ruled mostly from the Western Nile Delta. Their dates are not well known and they may have been contemporary with the 13th Dynasty.

1.64k BC - 1.54k BC    Egypt’s 2nd Intermediate Period.

c1.633k BC    Tao I ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty. In Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties ruled simultaneously.

1.628k BC    The palace at Knossos, Crete, is depicted in the opening of the 1996 book: "Europe: A History" by Norman Davies.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1.627k BC    The volcano Thera, or Santorini in the Aegean Sea, erupted about this time. Akrotiri, a Minoan city on the south part of Thera, was later excavated. About 3-6 feet (1-2 m) of ash fell on the city which had a population of about 30,000. The explosion of Thera about this time released energy equal to 200,000 H-bombs. In 1939 Spyridon Marinatos authored “The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_eruption)(NH, 5/96, p.3)

1.6k BC - 1.25k BC    An earthen mound on the southern Mexico-Guatemala border dated to this period and was considered part of a chiefdom center of the Mokaya people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.43)

c1.6k BC    The Nebra disk, a 12-inch bronze and gold disk from this time, was evidence of ancient German astronomy. It recorded images of the sun, moon and 32 stars.
    (AM, 3/04, p.42)
c1.6k BC    Chocolate originated in northern Honduras.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, BR p.8)
c1.6k BC    The Middle Helladic - Late Helladic I. This archeological period describes the settlement patterns of Greece at about this time.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.6)
1.6k BC    The Phaestos Disc (Phaistos) of terra-cotta found in the excavation of the Cretan palace of Phaestos dating to the Middle Minoan III. It is a roughly circular tablet, 15.8-16.5 cm. in diameter. On each face is a spiral band of four coils, indicated by a roughly drawn meandering line; and an inscription, in some form of picture-writing, has been impressed on this band, one by one, from dies, probably resembling those used by bookbinders... On one face of the disc there are 119 signs; on the other face there are 123. they are divided in what appear to be word-groups... by lines cutting across the spiral bands at right angles. These word-groups contain from two to seven characters each. There are forty-five different characters employed.
1.6k BC    In Egypt a revolution against Hyksos rule began in the south and spread throughout the country.
    (eawc, p.3)
1.6k BC    The Kassites, a non-Semitic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
    (eawc, p.3)
1.6k BC    Mounded royal tombs containing artifacts from about this time were found in the ruins of the city of Kerma from ancient Nubia.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
1.6k BC    A gate in a curved wall in Shekhem city was built by skilled engineers around this time. The king of Shekhem, Labaya, is mentioned in the cuneiform tablets of the Pharaonic archive found at Tel al-Amarna in Egypt, which are dated to the 14th century BC. The king had rebelled against Egyptian domination, and soldiers were dispatched north to subdue him, but failed. Romans later abandoned the original site and built a new city to the west, calling it Flavius Neapolis. The Greek name Neapolis, or "new city," later became enshrined in Arabic as Nablus. A German team began excavating at the site in 1913.
    (AP, 7/22/11)
1.6k BC    Farmers began to settle the above 3,000 meters on the Tibetan plateau about this time and gradually moved up to 4,700 meters with barley as the dominant crop.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

1.6k BC - 1.5k BC    Art pieces attributed to the Xia Dynasty of China are on exhibit at the Shanghai Museum. These include an ax blade, a three legged food vessel, and 3 wine vessels.
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1.6k BC - 1.5k BC    In India the Aryans invaded the Indus Valley region. In 1999 researchers reported that gene patterns confirmed that Caucasoid invaders entered India between 1000 and 2000BC.
    (eawc, p.3)(SFC, 5/26/99, p.C2)

1.6k BC - 1.4k BC    Late Minoan period. Late Minoan I pottery is distinguished from the earlier period by the convention that its designs as a rule are painted dark on a light background. The palace of Phaestos was rebuilt. Fine frescoes and admirably sculptured vases in steatite are found. In Late Minoan II the naturalistic figures become conventionalized, and a degeneration in the arts sets in which continues into Late Minoan III. At the end of Late Minoan II an invasion from the mainland occurs apparently resulting in the destruction of the Knossos.
1.6k BC - 1.4k BC    In 2010 Russian researchers said traces of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization have been discovered in the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains thanks to aerial photographs taken 40 years ago. The civilization dated from the 16th to the 14th centuries BC, high in the mountains south of Kislovodsk. The decorations and forms of bronze items found in the area indicated that the civilization is linked to the Kuban civilization, which was discovered at the end of the 19th century at the foot of Mount Kazbek.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)

1.6k BC - 1.3k BC    Messenia, the home of King Nestor, mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is the site of a well excavated palace that dates to this period.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.6)
1.6k BC - 1.3k BC    In Oman a transitional culture known as late Wadi Suq.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1.6k -1.25k BC    An earthen mound in southern Mexican-Guatemala border dated to this period and was considered part of a chiefdom center of the Mokaya people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.43)

1.6k BC - 1.2k BC    The Mycenaean civilization on the Greek peninsula emerged. It was named after the leading Greek city of this period.
    (eawc, p.2)

1.6k BC - 1k BC    In India the Early Vedic period of Indian civilization unfolded.
    (eawc, p.3)

1.6k BC - 1.046k BC    Chinese inscribed bronzes and oracle bones of the Shang dynasty date from about this time.

1.595k BC    The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. The Kassites maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own.
    (eawc, p.4)

1.575k BC - 1.532k BC Ipepi (Apophis) ruled as a Hyksos 17th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1.574k BC    Tao II ruled in the 17th Dynasty of Egypt.

1.573k BC - 1.57k BC    Kamose ruled as a Hyksos 17th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1.57k BC - 1.546k BC    Ahmose, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty.  His sister-wife was Queen Ahmosep-Nefertary. During his reign he defeated the Hyksos led by Apophis. Ahmose engaged the Hyksos at their city of Avaris, and the city of Sharuhen for three years.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.64)(AM, 7/01, p.52)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1.57k BC - 107k BC    Egypt’s New Kingdom Period. Thebes (which encompassed the site known today as Luxor) was the chief city of Egypt. Pharaohs began to abandon royal pyramids in favor of hidden tombs in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. A bust of the Royal scribe Meniou was made in limestone during Egypt’s New Kingdom. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (AM, 7/01, p.58)(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)
1.57k BC - 107k BC    Egyptian wall paintings included information on beer production. In 2004 Japan’s Kirin Brewery produced a beer dubbed “The New Kingdom Beer."
    (WSJ, 10/14/04, p.A1)

1.551k BC - 1.524k BC    Amenhotep I (Ahmenophis), son of Amasis I (Ahmose), ruled at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.  Inscriptions indicate that he engaged the Nubians in the land of Kush. Some of the southern foes were evidently cave-dwellers (troglodytes), since the inscription goes on to say that 'His majesty captured the Nubian Troglodyte in the midst of his army.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17)(L.C.-W.P.p.66)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

c1.55k BC    During the beginning in Egypt’s 18th Dynasty the Opet Festival celebrated the Theban triad of the sun and creator Amun, his consort Mut, and their son Khonsu.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.36)
1.55k BC    A wealthy young teenager, later dubbed "The Boy with the Amber Necklace," was buried near Britain's mysterious Stonehenge monument at about this time. Scientists in 2010 determined that he came from the Mediterranean hundreds of miles away, proof of the site's importance as a travel destination in prehistoric times.
    (AP, 9/29/10)
1.55k BC    In India writing disappeared for a time with the destruction of the Indus Valley civilization.
    (eawc, p.4)

1.55k BC-1.29k BC    The period of Egypt's 18th dynasty. Rocks quarried at Gebel el-Silsila were transported to a nearby port for the construction of temples at Karnak and Kom Ombo. Archeologists in 2019 reported finding the old port. During Egypt's 18th Dynasty private people began building small pointy pyramids above their tombs.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth_Dynasty_of_Egypt)(Arch, 9/02, p.56)(SFC, 3/27/19, p.A2)

1.55k BC - 1.2k BC    The Late Bronze Age.
    (MT, 3/96, p.2)

1.532k BC - 1.522k BC    Khamudi (Aseth) ruled as a Hyksos 15th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1.24k BC - 1.518k BC    Tuthmosis I (Thutmose I) ruled at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.

1.518k BC - 1.504k BC    In Egypt Tuthmosis II ruled in the 18th Dynasty. Hatshepsut was married to her sickly half-brother when she was about 12.
    (ON, 10/99, p.7)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1.504k BC - 1.45k BC     Tuthmosis III, a son of one of the lesser wives of Tuthmosis I, ruled in the 18th Dynasty. In the 15th cent.  BC Thutmose III led his army from Egypt to Megiddo and outflanked the chariots of the Canaanite forces that had revolted against him. [see 1479-1426]
    (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1.5k BC     The Basketmaker culture of the Ancient Pueblo People began about this time and continued until about AD 500 with the beginning of the Pueblo I Era. In 2014 archeologists discovered an ancient village built during the Basketmaker period with 50-70 pit houses organized in rings on about 66 acres Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
    (SFC, 10/11/14, p.A8)
1.5k BC    Before this time in India the sap of the palmyra palm was used to make a fermented drink later called a "toddy" by the English.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.5)
1.5k BC    Domesticated dogs companied people to Timor, New Guinea and Australia by about this time. The dogs reverted to a feral existence and in Australia became dingoes.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.14)
1.5k BC    The Shang dynasty began in China.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)
c1.5k BC    Stonehenge, a circle of large stones in southern England, was constructed to observe the seasons.
    (NG, March 1990, p.110)
c1.5k BC    Linguistic evidence shows that the Canaanites (now more commonly known as the Phoenicians) were non-Jewish Semites whose language was almost identical with Hebrew.
    (MT, Spg. '97, p.12)
1.5k BC    The Egyptian “Book of the Dead" dates to about this time.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.24)
c1.5k BC    Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and established a calendar with Egyptian features but based on a seven day week. The later 8-day Sukkot festival commemorates the fall harvest and the wandering of the Hebrews in the Sinai desert after the Exodus. In 1998 Jonathan Kirsch authored "Moses: A Life." Miriam was the sister of Moses and led the celebration following the crossing of the Red Sea. [see 1280BC]
    (K.I.-365D, p.58)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 4/7/00, p.W17)
c1.5k BC    Egyptian tombs show paintings of apparently Cretan messengers and merchants, called by the name Keftiu, bearing Cretan goods: and in addition we find the actual tangible goods themselves, deposited with the Egyptian dead.
c1.5k BC    A boy named Djehuti-Irdis (13) died in Thebes. In 2000 a biopsy confirmed that he died of pneumonia.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A13)
1.5k BC    By this time the kingdom of Kush was established south of Egypt. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids.
    (eawc, p.4)
1.5k BC    In Guam the pre-latte period dates to about this time when the first wave of migration is believed to have taken place. Between 2006 and 2008, excavations at the Naton Beach site turned up more than 400 burials from the pre-latte and latte periods of prehistoric Guam.
    (AP, 9/13/15)
1.5k BC    In 2009 Spain's scientific research agency (CSIC) announced that a tomb decorated with 3,500-year-old paintings was discovered in Luxor by Jose Manuel Galan, a Spanish Egyptologist. The person was in the service of the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut, the most powerful female pharaoh and who ruled for 21 years from 1479 to 1458 BC.
    (AFP, 3/17/09)
c1.5k BC    In 1978 Greek grave robbers at Aidonia dug into ancient tombs believed to be a 3,500BC-year-old palatial cemetery of the Mycenaeneans. The looters plundered 18 graves but left one undisturbed. Objects from the single pit provided archeologists evidence to match the objects of an attempted 1993 sale.
    (SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)
1.5k BC    Chersonesos on the edge of Sevastopol was the Greek world's most northern colony.
    (SFC,12/19/97, p.F6)
1.5k BC    The Laws of Manu, a Hindu sacred text, dated to about this time. It sanctified the caste system of India.
    (www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/manu-full.html)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.15)
c1.5k BC    In 2002 in southern Italy a settlement was found dating to this time on the River Sarno 6 miles northeast of Pompeii. It was abandoned after being destroyed by a flood in the 6th century BC. It was uncovered by archeologists in 2000.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)(Arch, 7/02, p.15)
1.5k BC    A court to play ulama was built about this time in Chiapas, Mexico. Olmecs used latex balls for the game. The Olmecs processed rubber using latex from rubber trees mixed with juice from the morning glory vine. The rubber was used to make a bouncy ball for their ball games.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.A9)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1.5k BC - 1.4k BC    The Canaanite "Poem of Aqhat," a work of seasonal writing, dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

1.5k BC - 1.2k BC    The Late Bronze Age. The Amorites in the time of Moses came from northeast Syria. The languages of northeast Syria and Palestine appear to have been 1/3 Semitic, 1/3 Indo-European and 1/3 Hurrian.
    (MT, Spg. '97, p.11)
c1.5k BC - 1.2k BC    The Persian prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) founded the religion known as Zoroastrianism. The principal beliefs included the existence of a supreme deity called Ahura Mazda and a cosmic struggle between the spirit of good, Spenta Mainyu, and the spirit of evil, Angra Mainyu. Later adherents to Zoroastrianism are represented by the Parsees of India and the Gabars of Iran.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.35)(www.livius.org/za-zn/zarathustra/zarathustra.htm)

1.5k BC - 1.1k BC Evidence found in 1998 revealed terraced farming for corn back to this time in northeast Mexico on a hilltop overlooking the Rio Casa Grandes.
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A11)

1.5k BC - 1k BC    Nubia was colonized by Egypt.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

1.5k BC - 400 BC    This period of Greek history was covered by Charles Freeman in his 1999 book "The Greek Achievement."
    (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A20)

1.5k BC - 300 BC    The Lapita archaeological culture of the Western Pacific. It represents an Austronesian-speaking Neolithic population that colonized Oceania.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.22)

1.479k BC    Thotmosis II died. He was succeeded by Queen Hatshepsut and his step-son Thotmosis III. Queen Hatshepsut, the only woman to have reigned as a pharaoh, ruled Egypt as 18th Dynasty regent for Thutmose III.  Her name translates as "The Foremost of Noble Ladies." In 1996 Joyce Tyldesley authored "Hatshepsut, The Female Pharaoh."
    (AFP, 4/21/06)(ON, 10/99, p.8)(AP, 6/5/05)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1.479k BC - 1.425k BC    Thotmosis III ruled as pharaoh of Egypt. His initial reign was under the guidance of his mother, Queen Hatsheppsut.
    (AFP, 4/21/06)

1.471k BC     Tuthmosis III of Egypt built rafts on the Lebanese coast, put them on wagons, and transported them to the Euphrates in order to cross the river and defeat the King of Mitanni. This was his eighth campaign in the thirty-third year of his reign. This was well over 250 miles. He died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign. An inscription at Napata in Nubia tells us about this.

c1.47k BC    The 97-foot obelisk at Karnak, Egypt, was erected as part of a sun dial and cast its shadow on a temple of the sun god Amun Ra.
    (AM, 3/04, p.42)

1.461k BC    Egyptians erected a 68.5 foot obelisk in Heliopolis. The Romans moved it to Alexandria in 14BC. An earthquake soon after 1300 left it lying prone on the coast.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1.458k BC    In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, mother of Tuthmosis III, died. Tuthmosis III, in his early thirties, declared war on the Prince of the Syrian city of Kadesh, who had organized a confederacy in Palestine and Syria. Tuthmosis defeated the Syrians following an 8 month siege of Megiddo. In 2007 Egyptian archaeologists said the mummy of an obese woman, who likely suffered from diabetes and liver cancer, has been identified as that of Queen Hatshepsut, Egypt's most powerful female pharaoh. Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt in the 15th century B.C., was known for dressing like a man and wearing a false beard. But when her rule ended, all traces of her mysteriously disappeared, including her mummy. Discovered in 1903 in the Valley of the Kings, the mummy was left on site until 2007, when it was brought to the Cairo Museum for testing.
    (ON, 3/01, p.11)(AFP, 4/21/06)(AP, 6/27/07)

1.45k BC - 1.3k BC    The Hittite culture reached its highpoint and dominated the territory North and East of Babylon including Turkey and northern Palestine. By this time the Hittites have constructed a mythology with a state pantheon.
    (eawc, p.4)

1.427k BC – 1.401k BC    Amenhotep II (Amenophis II), son of Tuthmose III, ruled in the 18th Dynasty. In the same Giza stele which describes his prowess with a 33-foot oar, there is an account of his skill as a archer. There is no doubt that he did conquer the Asiatic powers of Djahi, Retenu, Mitanni, and 'God's Land'.

1.401k BC – 1.391k BC    Tuthmosis IV, son of Amenhotep II, ruled in Egypt’s 18th Dynasty with his son as co-regent.

1.4k BC    Around Greece after the destruction of Knossos the Mycenaean civilization replaced the Minoan. Bronze weapons, war scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls and the burial of male warriors with their weapons indicates that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse drawn chariot emerged about this time. The Mycenaeans dominated the Aegean world for about 200 years.
    (eawc, p.4)
1.4k BC    Michael Ventris (d.1956) and John Chadwick (d.1998 at 78) in 1956 published "Documents in Mycenaean Greek." This was a translation of Greek writings known as Linear B discovered by Sir Arthur Evans at the Minoan palace of Cnossos [Knossos] in 1900 and dated to 1400BC.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B6)
c1.4k BC    The Temple of Hatshepsut was built in Luxor.
    (SFC,11/20/97, p.B2)
1.4k BC    The tomb of Kha Mirit from this time was later put on display in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)
1.4k BC    Sumerian writing remained pictographic until about this time.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)
c1.4k BC    A major earthquake occurred in the Middle East.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A9)
1.4k BC    This was the Kassite period of the Mesopotamian city of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

1.4k BC – 1.3k BC    In 2010 Israeli archaeologists said a newly discovered clay fragment from the 14th century BC is the oldest example of writing ever found in antiquity-rich Jerusalem. Dig director Eilat Mazar of Hebrew University said the 2-centimeter-long fragment bears an ancient form of writing known as Akkadian wedge script.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

1.4k BC - 1.2k BC    The spread of the debased Cretan culture over Southern Asia Minor, Cyprus, and North Syria must have been due to the movements of peoples, one incident in which was the sack of Knossos (and the collapse of the island of Thera): and this is true, whether those who carried the Cretan art were refugees from Crete, or were the conquerors of Crete seeking yet further lands to spoil.
1.4k BC-1.2k BC    In 2018 it was reported that Romanian and German archaeologists have discovered a prehistoric fortress dating back as far as 3,400 years in western Romania. They had recently completed a dig uncovering 55 hectares (135 acres) of the 80-hectare (198-acre) site, built between 1,400 BC and 1,200 BC, located near the town of Santana.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

1.4k BC - 1k BC    The Third Semitic period, historic period of pottery which includes the time of the Philistine supremacy. The designs had in fact become 'hieratic', and the fine broad lines in several colors had given place to thin-line monochrome patterns... this change can be most easily accounted for by the assumption that the art passed from one race to another. And the sudden disappearance of fine-line technique coincides so completely with the subjugation of the Philistines, that we can hardly hesitate to painted ware displaying the peculiar Third Semitic characters 'Philistine'.

1.4k BC - 400BC    The Olmecs, who called themselves Xi, were the earliest known civilization of Mesoamerica. They influenced the subsequent civilizations of the Maya and Aztec. They inhabited the Gulf Coast region of what is now Mexico and Central America. Their capital was San Lorenzo, near the present day city of Veracruz.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(SFC, 8/2/05, p.A2)

1.391k BC    Amenhotep III (Amenophis III), son of Tuthmose IV, began ruling Egypt about this time and continued to about 1351. His reign marked the culmination of the 18th Dynasty. In 2010 a red-granite top half of his statue was discovered at the site of his funerary temple in the southern city of Luxor.
    (AFP, 10/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenhotep_III)

1.384k BC    In China P'an Keng founded the city of Anyang. A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time.
    (eawc, p.4)

1.35k BC - 1336k BC    Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) ruled during the 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt. He became concerned about abuses in the Osiris cult. He posited a new monotheistic religion dedicated to the worship of the sun. His wife was Nefertiti, daughter-in-law of Amenophis III and Queen Tiye. He moved the capital from Thebes to El-Amarna. After his death the capital was moved back to Thebes, and his successor, a young boy named Smenkhkare reigned for three years. The city of Amarna later vanished.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17)(WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A33)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1.35k BC    The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war. Hittite warriors caught the disease from Egyptian prisoners. The king and heir were fatally infected and the empire fell apart.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

1.345k BC    Tutankhamen (King Tut), Egypt’s boy king, was born. His wet nurse was named Maia.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(USAT, 1/20/04, p.6D)
1.345k BC    The Ebers Papyrus indicated the medical use of willow bark. It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)

c1.340k BC    A bust of Nefertiti was made that later ended up in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T5)

1.336k BC - 1.334k BC    The period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare.

1.334k BC - 1.325k BC    Tutankhamen (10), son of Akhenaten, was Pharaoh of Egypt. Aye, became regent while Tut was growing up and effectively ruled the country.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

c1.33k BC    The capital of Amarna was abandoned. In 2004 it was reported that black plague bacteria was found in the remains of fossilized fleas from Amarna.
    (AM, 7/04, p.12)
1.33k BC    A memorial to the servant who suckled Tutankhamen was reported found by French archeologists in 1997 at the Saqqara necropolis 13 miles south of Cairo. Hieroglyphics and a relief that showed a woman with breast and nipple exposed pay tribute to Maya, "who fed the body of a god."
    (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1.323k BC    Tutankhamen died about this time at age 19. It was later suspected that the young prince was killed on his way to Egypt under the orders of Ay or Horemhab. Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922. In 2005 a CT scan indicated that Tut was not murdered by a blow to the head, nor was his chest crushed in an accident. His death remained a mystery. In 2005 a researcher reported evidence that analysis of wine jugs found in his tomb indicated that the wine was red. In 2007 his face was made public for the first time. In 2010 scientists reported that a study of his mummy revealed that King Tutankhamun suffered from a cleft palate and club foot, likely forcing him to walk with a cane, and died from complications from a broken leg exacerbated by malaria.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(SFC, 10/27/05, p.A2)(AP, 11/4/07)(AP, 2/16/10)

1.323k BC - 1.321k BC    King Ay succeeded Tutankhamun. In 1931 a ring was found by Percy Newberry in a Cairo antiquities shop that bore an inscription indicating that Aye and Ankhesenaten were married.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/18_20/18.html)

1.321k BC    Aye died after three years on Egypt’s throne and the walls of his tomb showed another woman, Tiy, as his wife.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1.321k BC - 1.295k BC    A soldier named Horemhab succeeded King Ay. Some regard him as the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty while others think he was the founder of the 19th. Horemhab is thought to have prevented the dynastic marriage of Ankhesnamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, to prince Zananza, son of the Hittite king, Suppilliliumas. Documents discovered at the Hittite capital of Boghaz-Koy in Turkey prove beyond doubt that the young queen was writing to Suppililiumas imploring him to send her one of his sons so that she might make him King of Egypt.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18e.html)(L.C.-W.P.p.107-110)(NG, May 1985, p.598)

1.315k BC - 1.201k BC     In 2010 the intricately decorated tomb and coffin of Ken-Amun, the overseer of the royal records during the 19th Dynasty (1315-1201 B.C.), was found near Ismailia, 75 miles (120 kilometers) east of Cairo.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

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