Return to home1902 Jan 1, In
Pasadena the 1st Rose Bowl football game was held and the Univ. of
Michigan beat Stanford 49 to 0. The next Rose Bowl game was held 11
(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902 cJan 2, It was reported
that the steamer Walla Walla had collided with the French bark Max
of Havre off Cape Mendocino, Ca. The Walla Walla sank immediately
with 141 passengers and crew as the Max limped away.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)
1902 Jan 4, The French offered
to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the U.S.
1902 Jan 7, Imperial Court of
China returned to Peking. The Empress Dowager resumed her reign.
1902 Jan 8, Georgy M. Malenkov,
Stalin's successor as head of CPSU, PM (1953-55), was born.
1902 Jan 9, Rudolph Bing, opera
manager (NY Metropolitan Opera), was born.
1902 Jan 11, Maurice Durufle,
French organist, composer, was born.
1902 Jan 17, Gideon Scheepers,
South Africa Boer leader, was executed.
1902 Jan 18, The Isthmus Canal
Commission in Washington shifted its support to Panama as the canal
1902 Jan 28, The Carnegie
Institute was established in Washington, D.C.
1902 Jan 31, In the US it was
tax freedom day, the day by which citizens met their financial
obligations to the government. By 1999 it had shifted to May 10.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.7)
1902 Jan 31, A French soccer
team played in England for the first time: Paris lost, 4-0, to
(HC, 2003, p.64)
1902 Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud)
made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.
(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)
1902 Feb 1, Langston Hughes,
African-American poet, was born in Joplin, Mo. His books included
“Way Down South."
(HN, 2/1/99)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.F3)
1902 Feb 1, U.S. Secretary of
State John Hay protested Russian privileges in China as a violation
of the "open door policy."
1902 Feb 1, China's empress
Tzu-hsi forbade binding woman's feet.
1902 Feb 4, Charles Lindbergh
(d.1974), the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic (1927), was
born in Detroit and grew up in Minnesota.
1902 Feb 9, Doctor Doyen of
Paris, performed a successful operation on Siamese twins from the
Barnum and Bailey Circus.
1902 Feb 10, Walter Brattain,
physicist, was born. He became one of the inventors of the
1902 Feb 11, Police beat up
universal suffrage demonstrators in Brussels.
1902 Feb 13, Georges Simenon,
novelist, was born in Belgium.
(HN, 2/13/01)(MC, 2/13/02)
1902 Feb 18, The opera
"Hunchback of Notre Dame" premiered in Monte Carlo.
1902 Feb 19, Kay Boyle, short
story writer ("The White Horses of Vienna"), was born.
1902 Feb 19, Smallpox
vaccination became obligatory in France.
1902 Feb 20, Ansel Adams,
American photographer, was born in San Francisco. He was an American
landscape photographer, especially of western wilderness and
mountain panoramas. In 1996 Mary Street Alinder released her
biography "Ansel Adams." Jonathon Spaulding released his "Ansel
Adams and the American Landscape."
(SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.4)(HN, 2/20/99)
1902 Feb 21, Dr. Harvey
Cushing, US brain surgeon, performed his 1st brain operation.
1902 Feb 22, A fistfight broke
out in the US Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman, a white supremacist,
suffered a bloody nose for accusing his fellow South Carolina
Senator John McLaurin of bias on the Philippine tariff issue.
(HN, 2/22/98)(Econ, 6/30/12, p.35)
1902 Feb 27, John Steinbeck
(d.1968), American novelist, was born in Salinas, Ca. He authored
"The Grapes of Wrath," "Of Mice and Men" and "The Log from the Sea
of Cortez." "A man, after he has brushed off the dust and chips of
his life, will have left only the hard, clean question: Was it good
or was it evil? Have I done well—or ill?"
(AP, 6/27/97) (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.67)(HN,
2/27/99)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)
1902 Feb 27, Harry 'Breaker'
Morant (1864-1902) and Peter Handcock were executed for the murder
of 12 prisoners of war in the dying days of the Boer war. George
Witton had his death sentence commuted because it contained serious
errors. Morant, who volunteered to fight with the British in South
Africa, was born in England but became well known in Australia as a
poet and a horsebreaker. In 1980 the film ‘Breaker’ Morant was
produced in Australia. In 2010 Australia sent Britain a petition
calling for posthumous pardons for Morant and Handcock. The petition
argued the accused were denied the right to communicate with the
Australian government or relatives after their arrest and during
their trials and were refused an opportunity to prepare their cases.
1902 Feb, Dr. Walter Reed
published his results on yellow fever. He concluded that: "The
spread of yellow fever can be most effectually controlled by
measures directed to the destruction of mosquitoes and the
protection of the sick against the bites of these insects."
(ON, 10/01, p.8)
1902 Mar 3, Isaac D. France van
de Putte (79), Dutch premier (1866), died.
1902 Mar 4, The American
Automobile Association was founded in Chicago.
(AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)
1902 Mar 8, Louise Beavers,
film actress, was born.
1902 Mar 8, The 1st performance
of Jean Sibelius' 2nd Symphony.
1902 Mar 9, Edward Durell
Stone, US, architect (US Embassy, New Delhi), was born.
1902 Mar 9, Will Greer, actor
(Grandpa Walton-The Waltons), was born in Frankfort, Ind.
1902 Mar 9, Alma Schindler
(d.1964), daughter of landscape painter Emil Schindler, married
composer Gustav Mahler (d.1911) in Vienna. He immortalized her in
the first movement of his Symphony No. 6, and he dedicated Symphony
No. 8 to her. After his death Alma became involved with Oskar
Kokoschka, who painted her many times, most notably in "The Tempest"
(1914; "Die Windsbraut"). In August 1915 she married the architect
Walter Gropius. During her lifetime Alma Mahler became friends with
numerous celebrated artists, including the painter Gustav Klimt (who
made several portraits of her), composer Arnold Schoenberg, the
writer Gerhart Hauptmann, and the singer Enrico Caruso. The composer
Alban Berg dedicated his opera Wozzeck (1921) to her. In 1929 she
married writer Franz Werfel.
1902 Mar 10, The Boers scored
their last victory over the British, capturing British General
Methuen and 200 men.
1902 Mar 17, Bobby Jones was
born. He was the first American golfer to win the U.S. and British
championships in the same year in 1930.
1902 cMar 19, Japan formed an
alliance with England.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1902 Mar 20, France and Russia
acknowledged the Anglo-Japanese alliance, but asserted their right
to protect their interests in China and Korea.
1902 Mar 22, Great Britain and
Persia agreed to link Europe and India by telegraph.
1902 Apr 23, Halldór Laxness,
Nobel Prize-winning Icelandic novelist (The Fish Can Sing, Paradise
Reclaimed), was born.
1902 Mar 23, Kálmán Tisza (71),
premier of Hungary (1875-90), died.
1902 Mar 24, Thomas E. Dewey, a
governor of New York (1943-1955) and two-time Republican
presidential nominee, was born in Owosso, Mich.
(HN, 3/24/01)(AP, 3/24/02)
1902 Mar 25, Irving W. Colburn
patented a sheet glass drawing machine.
1902 Mar 26, British magnate
Cecil Rhodes (b.1853), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96),
died. In his last will and testament, he provided for the
establishment of the Rhodes Scholarship, the world's first
international study program. The first scholars were selected in
1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes died he
was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De
Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through
southern Africa. In 2008 Philip Ziegler authored “Legacy: Cecil
Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships."
4/4/97)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A25)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)(Econ, 5/10/08,
1902 Mar 29, William Walton,
composer (Troilus and Cressida, Wise Virgins), was born in England.
1902 Mar 30, Roberta Brooke
Russell (d.2007) was born in Portsmouth, NH. In 1953 she married
millionaire Vincent Astor (d.1959) and became a major philanthropist
following his death.
(SFC, 8/14/07, p.B5)
1902 Mar, Henry Ford (38) left
the Detroit Automobile Company and soon found backers for the new
Ford Motor Co., which incorporated in 1903.
(ON, 3/03, p.1)
1902 Apr 2, Thomas L. Talley
set up the first moving picture theater as part of a carnival in Los
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)(MC, 4/2/02)
1902 Apr 5, Maurice Ravel's
"Pavane pour une infante defunte," premiered in Paris.
1902 Apr 7, The Texas Fuel Co.
was founded. It soon changed its name to the Texas Co. and
eventually became Texaco.
(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)
1902 Apr 8, Josef Krips,
conductor (London Symph 1954-63), was born in Vienna, Austria.
1902 Apr 10, South African
Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
1902 Apr 11, Wade Hampton
(1818), Confederate Civil War general and post-war governor of South
Carolina (1877-1879), died. In 2008 Rod Andrew Jr. authored Wade
Hampton: Confederate Warrior, Conservative Statesman."
1902 Apr 13, Philippe de
Rothschild, manager (Bordeaux Vineyard), was born in Paris.
1902 Apr 14, Menachem A.
Schneerson, rebee (head of Lubavitcher Jews), was born.
1902 Apr 14, James Cash Penney
(J.C. Penney) opened his first Golden Rule Store for clothes, shoes
and dry goods in Kemmerer, Wyoming. It grew to a chain and was
renamed J.C. Penney in 1913. By 1929 there were 1,395 stores in the
1902 Apr 18, Denmark became the
1st country to adopt fingerprinting to identify criminals.
1902 Apr 20, Radium was
isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne through
the electrolysis of a pure radium chloride solution. Pierre and
Marie Curie had discovered the element in 1898.
1902 Apr 28, Johan Borgen,
Norwegian novelist, was born.
1902 Apr 28, A revolution broke
out in the Dominican Republic.
1902 Apr 30, Debussy's opera
"Pelleas et Melisande" premiered in Paris.
1902 May 1, John Glover (85),
English chemist (production sulfuric acid), died.
1902 May 2, "A Trip To The
Moon," the 1st science fiction, was film released. The French film
"Le Voyage Dans La Lune" (Voyage to the Moon) was a 14-minute silent
film directed by Georges Melies. It displayed early efforts in trick
photography to show a group of scientists traveling to the moon
after being shot from a giant cannon.
(WSJ, 3/19/98, p.R4)(MC, 5/2/02)
1902 May 3, Walter Slezak,
actor (Bedtime for Bonzo, Inspector General), was born in Vienna.
1902 May 5, Bret Harte,
American writer (b.1836), died in England. In 2000 Axel Nissen
authored "Bret Harte: Prince and Pauper."
(WUD, 1994, p.648)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)(MC,
1902 May 6, Harry Golden,
Jewish humorist, writer (2 Cents Plain, Only in America), was born.
1902 May 6, Max Ophuls
(d.1957), film director (La Ronde, Lola Montes), was born in the
Rhine Valley of Jewish parents. He made films in Germany, France,
Netherlands and the US.
(SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)(HN, 5/6/01)
1902 May 6, Start of Sherlock
Holmes "Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place."
1902 May 6, British SS Camorta
sank off Rangoon and 739 died.
1902 May 6, There was a Zulu
assault at Holkrantz, South-Africa.
1902 May 8, Mt. Pelee volcano,
on the French Island of Martinique in the east W. Indies, blew its
top and wiped out the town of St. Pierre. A pyroclastic flow
killed 29-40 thousand people. In 1972 Jacques Petitjean Roget
published a detailed report on the event. In 2002 Alwyn Scarth
authored "La Catastrophe."
(SFC, 8/13/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(NH,
1902 May 10, Joachim Prinz,
author, Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), was born.
1902 May 10, David O. Selznick,
film producer (Gone with the Wind, Rebecca), was born in Pittsburgh,
(HN, 5/10/02)(MC, 5/10/02)
1902 May 12, Heinrich Kirchner,
German sculptor, was born.
1902 May 12, Over 125,000
miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the
mines closed all summer. An additional 18,000 bituminous workers
struck in sympathy. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt
intervened. [see Oct 3]
(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03, p.44)
1902 May 15, Richard Daley,
mayor of Chicago through the 1960s and early 1970's, was born.
1902 May 18, Meredith Willson
(Wilson), composer and lyricist (The Music Man), was born in Mason
(HN, 5/18/01)(SSFC, 3/14/04, p.D12)
1902 May 20, The United States
ended its three-year military presence in Cuba as the Republic of
Cuba was established under its first elected president, Tomas
Estrada Palma. Theodore Roosevelt had criticized the government’s
sluggish withdrawal of disease-stricken US troops from Cuba.
(HN, 5/20/98)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/20/02)
1902 May 21, Marcel Breuer,
Hungarian-born architect, was born.
1902 May 25, Helvi Lemmikke
Leiviska, composer, was born.
1902 May 29, Dutch State Mine
1902 May 31, The Boer War ended
between the Boers of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty
of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the
Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal
forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The
combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition
launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener
burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many
as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic
concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
(V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 9/25/99,
1902 May, The government of
China approved the Land Regulations of Gulangyu Island (Kulangu)
allowing it to become the only international settlement on Chinese
soil apart from the more celebrated International Settlement at
1902 May, In Nicaragua the
Momotombo volcano erupted.
(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1902 Jun 2, 2nd statewide
initiative and referendum law was adopted in Oregon.
1902 Jun 6, Jimmie Lunceford,
bandleader, was born.
1902 Jun 9, The 1st Automat
restaurant opened at 818 Chestnut Street, Phila.
1902 Jun 15, Erik H. Erickson,
Danish-born psychologist who wrote "Childhood and Society," was
1902 Jun 16, Barbara
McClintock, geneticist (Nobel 1983), was born.
(HN, 6/16/01)(MC, 6/16/02)
1902 Jun 16, George Gaylord
Simpson, paleontologist, was born.
1902 Jun 19, The US Senate
voted in favor of Panama as the canal site. US support for a $40
million purchase was based on Congressional acceptance for a canal
in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to
serve as a canal zone.
(HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 1/00, p.1)
1902 Jun 19, Guy Lombardo
(d.11/5/1977) Canadian bandleader was born in London, Ontario. He
played the sweetest music this side of heaven with his Royal
Canadians and sold over 100 million records.
1902 Jun 19, John E E Dalberg,
baron van Acton (69), English historian, died.
1902 Jun 23, Germany,
Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year
1902 Jun 26, William P. Lear,
American engineer and industrialist, was born.
1902 Jun 28, John Dillinger, US
bank robber (public enemy #1), was born.
1902 Jun 28, Richard Rodgers
(d.1979), American composer, was born.
(HN, 6/28/01)(SFC, 4/22/02, p.D1)
1902 Jun 28, Congress passed
the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the isthmus
of Panama. The US purchased a concession to build Panama canal from
French for $40 million.
(HN, 6/28/98)(MC, 6/28/02)
1902 Jul 1, William Wyler
(d.1981), film director (The Best Years of Our Lives, Ben Hur), was
(HN, 7/1/01)(SFC, 7/8/02, p.D2)
1902 Jul 1, Start of Sherlock
Holmes "Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax."
1902 Jul 2, John J. McGraw
became manager of NY Giants and stayed for 30 years.
1902 Jul 4, Meyer Lansky
(d.1983), mobster (Started numbers), was born.
1902 Jul 4, Pres. Roosevelt
officially ended the Philippine-American War. Estimates for the
civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton
Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive
account of the conflict.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)(WSJ, 11/19/97,
p.A6)(PC, 1992, p.642)
1902 Jul 17, Christina E.
Stead, novelist and screenwriter who wrote "The Man Who Loved
Women," was born.
Jul 17, Willis Carrier invented modern day air conditioning at the
Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company in Brooklyn,
NY. Carrier’s invention was used primarily to cool machines, not
people. In 1928 the U.S. House of Representatives was air
conditioned, followed shortly by the Senate, White House and Supreme
(PR Carrier Corp., 7/17/02)
1902 Jul 18, Charles W.J.
Mengelberg, Dutch composer, conductor, was born.
1902 Jul 18, Jessamyn West,
American author (The Friendly Persuasion), was born.
1902 Jul 28, Kenneth Fearing,
poet and novelist (The Big Clock), was born.
1902 Jul 30, Anti-Jewish
rioters attacked the funeral procession of Rabbi Joseph in NYC.
1902 Aug 3, Ray Block,
orchestra leader (Ed Sullivan, Jackie Gleason), was born in France.
1902 Aug 3, Habib Bourguiba,
1st president of Tunisia, was born.
1902 Aug 3, Judson Laire,
actor, singer (Papa-Mama), was born in NYC.
1902 Aug 8, Jean Y.Y. Tissot,
French painter, illustrator, died.
1902 Aug 9, Edward VII was
crowned king of England following the death of his mother, Queen
(SFEM, 1/26/97, p.40)(AP, 8/9/98)
1902 Aug 13, Felix Wankel,
inventory of the rotary engine which bears his name, was born in
(HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)
1902 Aug 19, Ogden Nash
(d.1971), American author and humorist, was born in Rye, NY. Vanity,
vanity, all is vanity/ That's any fun at all for humanity. "Winter
comes but once a year, And when it comes it brings the doctor good
(WUD, 1994 p.951)(AP, 10/24/97)(AP, 12/21/98)(HN,
1902 Aug 22, Leni Riefenstahl,
[Helene Bertha Amalie], actress, Hitler's favorite cinematographer
(Triumph of the Will, Tiefland), was born in Germany.
1902 Aug 22, President Theodore
Roosevelt became the first U.S. chief executive to ride in an
automobile in Hartford, Conn.
(AP, 8/22/97)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902 Aug 22, The Cadillac
Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. when Henry Ford left. Ford
formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903.
1902 Aug 23, Fanny Farmer,
among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health,
opened her School of Cookery in Boston.
1902 Aug 23, Gold was
discovered in Goldfield, Nv., near Tonopah. By 1907 Goldfield grew
to 20,000 residents.
(SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)
1902 Aug 24, Fernand Braudel
(d.1985), French historian, was born. He was one of the most
important historiographers of the 20th century: "History may be
divided into three movements: what moves rapidly, what moves slowly
and what appears not to move at all."
(AP, 9/5/97)(DT internet 11/28/97)
1902 Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk
(73), German author and poetess, died.
1902 Aug, In Japan Mount
Izu-Torishima erupted and left 125 people dead.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)
1902 Fall, Emily Wolcott
(b.1866), writer, began her first term at the Univ. of Michigan in
the LSA program. That fall Michigan beat Ohio State 83-0.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.12)
1902 Sep 1, The
Austro-Hungarian army was called into the city of Agram to restore
the peace as Serbs and Croats clashed.
1902 Sep 3, US Secret Service
agent William Craig was killed when a speeding trolley car rammed
into the open-air horse carriage carrying Pres. Theodore Roosevelt
in Pittsfield, Mass.
1902 Sep 3, Start of Sherlock
Holmes "Adventure of Illustrious Client."
1902 Sep 12, The Yacolt Fire
burned 238,000 acres in Oregon and Washington and killed 38 people.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1902 Sep 17, U.S. troops were
sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as
Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
1902 Sep 17, US protested
anti-Semitism in Romania.
1902 Sep 21, Allen Lake was
born. He founded Penguin Books in 1935.
1902 Sep 22, John Houseman,
director, producer and actor, was born in Bucharest, Romania.
(HN, 9/22/00)(MC, 9/22/01)
1902 Sep 22, A long-simmering
feud between the Brooks and McFarland clans erupted into a bloody
gunfight in the railroad town of Spokogee, Indian Territory, which
is now Dustin, Oklahoma. Spokogee had sprung up in the path of the
coming Fort Smith & Western Railroad. The Creek name meant "the
exalted," or "near to God." The area around Spokogee was home to two
feuding families, the Brookses and McFarlands. Willis B. Brooks, 48,
was a well-known inhabitant of the Dogwood Settlement and one of the
toughest men to be found in Indian Territory. He was a gunfighter
from Alabama, by way of Texas. Jim McFarland, his chief adversary,
had the reputation of being an outlaw and a killer. While the ribbon
of steel inched its way toward Spokogee, the long-simmering feud
between the warring families heated up and then erupted into a
classic Western gunfight, settled with gun smoke, blood and lead.
1902 Sep 23, John Wesley Powell
(b.1834), US explorer and geologist, died. He led expeditions down
the Green and Colorado rivers (1869 & 1871), through the Grand
Canyon even though he had lost the lower part of his right arm in
the Battle of Shiloh during the Civil War. Powell, a geographer and
ethnologist, held a number of positions after resigning from the
army in 1865, many for government agencies such as director of the
U.S. Geographical Survey. [see 1891] In 2001 Donald Worster authored
"A River Running West: the Life and Times of John Wesley Powell."
(SSFC, 4/1/01, BR
p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wesley_Powell)(ON, 5/02, p.5)
1902 Sep 26, Umberto "Albert"
Anastasia, US gangster (fond of being shaved), was born.
1902 Sep 28, Ed Sullivan,
television host, was born. He was also a newspaper columnist and
radio host. "The Ed Sullivan Show" first aired in 1948. His
show had many debut acts including Lewis and Martin, Elvis, the
Beatles and the Rolling Stones. [see Sep 28, 1901]
1902 Sep 28, Emile Zola
(b.1840), novelist (Nana, Germinal, J'accuse), died of carbon
monoxide poisoning in his Paris apartment at age 62. In 1895 he
began taking photographs and took some 7,000 pictures before his
(SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.70)
1902 Sep 29, Broadway
impresario David Belasco reopened the Republic Theatre under his own
1902 Sep 29, William McGonagall
(b~1825), poet, died in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was mocked by
literary critics and had food thrown at him during public readings.
He died penniless and was buried in an unmarked grave. Critics later
awarded him the "world's worst" label because of the crashing lack
of subtlety in terms of rhyme, imagery, vocabulary or repetition.
His most famous poem is about the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879, in
which 75 people died. In 2008 35 broadsheets of his original poems
were auctioned for $13,200.
1902 Oct 3,
President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field
operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then
in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and
industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic
heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields
demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour
workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages
and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take
unprecedented action. The meeting failed to resolve differences. A
presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and
a shorter work week. [see May 12] The miners returned to work on Oct
(LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03,
1902 Oct 5, Ray Croc was born.
He founded the McDonald’s hamburger franchise in 1955.
1902 Oct 25, Henry Steele
Commager (d.1998), American historian was born in Pittsburg, Pa. He
wrote the fifty-five volume "Rise of the American Nation."
1902 Oct 25, Santa Maria,
Guatemala, was hit by an earthquake and about 6,000 died.
1902 Oct 26, Beryl Markham,
aviator and writer, was born.
1902 Oct 31, Carlos Drummond de
Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer, was
1902 Nov 1, Nordahl Brun Greig,
Norwegian writer, was born. He was a wartime hero during WWII.
1902 Nov 1, Eugen Jochum,
German conductor (Hamburg Orch), was born in Babenhausen, Bavaria.
1902 Nov 5, Strom Thurmond,
(Sen-R-SC, 1955-2003), was born.
1902 Nov 16, A cartoon appeared
in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after
President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for
him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
1902 Nov 17, Lee Strasberg,
acting coach and actor (And Justice for All), was born in Austria.
1902 Nov 17, Eugene Paul
Wigner, Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, was born. He won
the Nobel Prize in 1963.
(HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)
1902 Nov 18, Brooklyn toymaker
Morris Michton named the teddy bear after Teddy Roosevelt.
1902 Nov 22, Emanuel Feuermann,
cellist (Chicago Symphony Orchestra), was born in Kolomea, Galicia.
1902 Nov 22, A fire caused
considerable damage to the unfinished Williamsburg bridge in New
1902 Nov 22, Friedrich A.
Krupp, cannon manufacturer, committed suicide.
1902 Nov 23, Dr. Walter Reed
(51) died from a ruptured appendix in Washington DC. His experiments
in Cuba had helped prove that yellow fever was transmitted by a
mosquitoes. In 1982 William Bean, MD, authored "Walter Reed."
(ON, 10/01, p.8)
1902 Nov 24, The first Congress
of Professional Photographers convened in Paris.
1902 Nov 25, Franz Lehar's
opera "Wiener Fraueen," premiered in Vienna.
1902 Dec 4, Charles Dow
(b.1851), co-founder of the Wall Street Journal and inventor of the
Dow Industrial averages, died in Brooklyn, NY.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p.
1902 Dec 8, Oliver Wendell
Holmes Jr. became Associate Justice on Supreme Court.
1902 Dec 9, Margaret Hamilton,
character actress, was born in Cleveland, Oh. She became best known
as the Wicked Witch in the Wizard of Oz (1939).
1902 Dec 11, Matthias Hohner
(b.1833), German clockmaker and harmonica manufacturer, died. He
began making harmonicas in 1857. Exports to America began in 1862.
1902 Dec 13, The Committee of
Imperial Defense held its first meeting in London.
1902 Dec 20, Max Lerner
(d.1992), American columnist (NY Post) and public commentator, was
born. His work included "America as a Civilization."
(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.6)(MC, 12/20/01)
1902 Dec 22, Jacques-Philippe
Leclerc, French WW II hero (liberator of Paris), was born.
1902 Dec 28, Mortimer J. Adler,
American philosopher, educator and writer, was born. He helped
design the "Great Books" program, which popularized the great ideas
of Western civilization in 54 volumes.
1902 Charles Lindbergh, US
aviator, was born. In 1998 A. Scott Berg published the biography
(WUD, 1994, p.832)(WSJ, 9/25/98, p.W6)
1902 John Steinbeck, US author,
was born. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1962. His work
included "The Log from the Sea of Cortez." A biography of Steinbeck,
"John Steinbeck" by Catherine Reef, was published in 1996. A CD-ROM
version on "Of Mice and Men" was released in 1995. In 1996 a CD-ROM
was released titled "The Pearl" & "The Red Pony" by Penguin
Electronic; "The Grapes of Wrath" was also planned for release.
(WUD, 1994, p.1392)(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T8)
1902 Raoul Dufy, fauve artist,
painted "Nude on a Pink Sofa."
(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)
1902 Paul Gauguin created his
painting "Primitive Tales."
(WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)
1902 Artist Hamilton King
painted a series of bathing beauties, flag girls, girls in period
gowns and sketches used as cigarette premiums for Turkish Trophies,
a brand produced by the American Tobacco Co. He painted another set
(SFC, 2/12/97, z1 p.6)
1902 Gustav Klimt painted
"Portrait of Emilie Flöge."
(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)
1902 Monet made his painting
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)
1902 Picasso painted "La
Soupe," a picture of a mother offering a bowl of soup to her
daughter. He also painted "Two Women at a Bar."
(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)
1902 Naum Gabo created his
sculpture "Constructed Head No. 2." It was later acquired by Raymond
D. Nasher of Dallas, Texas.
(WSJ, 11/4/03, p.A1)
c1902 Aristide Maillol,
sculptor, began his work "Night." It was completed around 1909.
(SFC, 10/26/96, p.B6)
1902 J.M. Barrie featured Peter
Pan as a minor character in his book “The Little White Bird."
(USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)
1902 Anton Chekhov published
his collected works.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)
1902 Joseph Conrad, born in
Poland as Josef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, published his novella
"The Heart of Darkness." It later inspired the film "Apocalypse
(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
published his book "Hound of the Baskervilles." A 1st edition copy
with dust jacket sold at auction for $131,541 in 1998.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)
1902 S.W. Erdnase published
"The Expert at the Card Table." The book revealed secrets behind
card tricks and cheating techniques. The real identity of the author
was a mystery.
(WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A1)
1902 Henry James published "The
Wings of the Dove."
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)
1902 William James published
"The Varieties of Religious Experience," based on his 1901 Gifford
Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. In 1999 it was
rated the 2nd best work of non-fiction in the English language by
the Modern Library.
(WSJ, 11/11/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)
1902 Rudyard Kipling published
"Just So Stories."
(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)
1902 V.I. Lenin’s What Is To Be
Done? was published and espoused the need for a disciplined,
centrally-directed revolutionary party. This work, along with
several articles preceding it, comprised Lenin’s most distinctive
contributions to Communist theory. His three key theoretical
elements were: that the workers have no revolutionary consciousness
and that their spontaneous actions will not lead to revolution; that
consciousness must be brought to workers by intellectual leaders;
and the revolutionary party must consist of full-time, disciplined,
centrally-directed professionals capable of acting as one man.
1902 Samuel Armstrong Nelson
published his book: "The ABC of Stock Speculation."
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-38)
1902 Euclides da Cunha of
Brazil wrote "Os Sertoes," (The Arid Region), translated into
English as "Rebellion in the Backlands," on the 1893-1897 events at
Canudos led by Antonio Conselheiro.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1902 "Garden Cities of
Tomorrow" was published. John Papworth and Ebeneezer Howard were
already on record as British theorists for planning new towns.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.91)
1902 Owen Wister (1860-1938)
authored "The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains." In 1929
Paramount adopted it into a movie with Walter Huston and Gary
Cooper. A TV series began in 1962.
(AH, 10/02, p.18)
1902 The novel "The Four
Feathers" by A.E.W. Mason, was published. It was set mainly in
England and Ireland over the years 1882-1888 during England’s war in
the Sudan and went on to inspire 7 films.
1902 "The Lower Depths," a play
by Maxim Gorky premiered in Moscow.
(WSJ, 3/4/97, p.B1)
1902 In New Hampshire the Mount
Washington Resort was built. This was the site of the 1944 Bretton
Woods Conference that created the Intl’ Monetary Fund. In 2009 Omni
Resorts took over management of the historical landmark.
(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.N5)
1902 In NYC the 21-story
Flatiron Building (Fuller Bldg.) was built on a pie-slice of land at
23rd & 5th Ave. by architect Daniel Burnham with a French Beaux
(HT, 5/97, p.24)
1902 Barnum’s Animal Crackers
were 1st produced. In 2002 Nabisco planned a 100 year b-day.
(SSFC, 12/2/01, Par p.17)
1902 In Alaska Felix Pedro, an
Italian miner, discovered gold northeast of Chenoa City. Miners
surged in from the Fortymile and Klondike goldfields.
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T7)
1902 The Society of American
Magicians was formed at Martinka & Co. Magic supply House in
NYC. The shop later became Flosso-Hornmann Magic.
(SFC, 10/2/03, p.A19)
1902 In Wyoming James Cash
Penney opened his first Golden Rule Store for clothes, shoes and dry
goods in Kemmerer. It grew to a chain and was renamed J.C. Penney in
1913. By 1929 there were 1,395 stores in the chain.
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)
1902 Ben Willis developed
clothing for his Arctic explorations and founded Willis & Geiger
(NH, 9/96, p.17)
1902 The first Audubon Society
sanctuary was established at Cuthbert Lake, Florida, to protect
egrets and herons from plume hunters.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.12)
1902 Charles Palmer Davis
founded the Weekly Reader to help educate students on current
(SSFC, 7/7/02, Par p.8)
1902 In Baltimore Babe Ruth
entered St. Mary’s Industrial School for Boys at age 7. He was
already smoking and drinking but was guided to adulthood by Brother
(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)
1902 Goodwill Industries was
founded to help the needy find and keep jobs.
(SSFC, 6/23/02, Par p.12)
1902 Ideals of the Woodcraft
Indians was founded by Ernest Seton.
1902 Alfred Stieglitz founded
(Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1902 Ronald Ross (1857-1932),
an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria.
His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A
Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003
Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the
Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
(WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ,
1902 Emil Fischer won the Nobel
Prize in Chemistry. He is considered as the founder of the science
of carbohydrate chemistry.
(SFC, 10/24/03, p.E4)
1902 Pieter Zeeman (b.1865),
Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect), won the Nobel Prize.
1902 President Theodore
Roosevelt said he would intervene in a coal strike: "I knew that
this action would form an evil precedent, and that it was one which
I should take most reluctantly." The strike settled without
1902 The Secret Service
assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President.
Two operatives were assigned full time to the White House Detail.
1902 Oliver Wendell Holmes, a
Harvard Law Professor, was appointed to the US Supreme Court. He
served to 1932.
(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902 The US Newlands Act
established the Bureau of Reclamation and began to enact some of the
ideas of John Wesley Powell concerning control of water resources in
17 western states. Results included the Newlands Irrigation Project
in Nevada’s Fallon area that diverted water from the Carson and
Truckee Rivers to new farmland.
(HFA, ‘96, p.128)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SFC,
1902 Kosher beef prices in
America jumped from 12 to 18 cents a pound and caused riots in
Jewish enclaves in the northeast.
(Econ, 12/12/15, p.79)
1902 Sedona, Arizona, was
founded. It was named after Sedona Schnebly, the daughter of one of
the 1st settlers, wealthy landowner T. Carl Schnebly and his wife.
(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C6)
1902 Walter and Ella Scott
arrived in Barstow, Ca., using funds from Julian Gerard, a Manhattan
banker and mining promoter. Scott had faked a gold mine in Death
Valley. In 1904 Scott faked a theft and managed to get more funds
from Albert Mussey Johnson, treasurer of the national Life Insurance
Company in Chicago. Scott admitted his fraud in 1912.
(ON, 3/04, p.7)
1902 The San Francisco
Chronicle Blue Ribbon Cook Book was compiled by Annie R. Gregory
with assistance from 1000 homekeepers.
(SFC, 4/4/01, WB p.4)
1902 In SF the Dutch Windmill
was built to pump water to a reservoir on Strawberry Hill in Golden
Gate Park at a cost of $25,000. Quarry Lake (Lily Pond) was designed
for Goldengate Park. It was restored in 1981.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.5)(SFC, 7/29/97,
p.A7)(SFC, 8/13/01, p.A18)(SFC, 6/26/02, p.A18)
1902 In SF A MUNI substation
was built at Turk and Fillmore.
(SFC, 3/16/09, p.B2)
1902 In SF the 12-story
building at One Kearny was built in a French Renaissance style. It
was designed by William Curlett. In 1964 an addition, designed by
Charles Moore, included new circulation systems and bathrooms. In
2009 a 10-story addition was completed on its other side.
(SFC, 11/10/09, p.E1)
1902 The SF Conservatory of
Flowers received its imperial philodendron from Brazil.
(SFC, 9/16/03, p.A20)
1902 SF banned the sale of
(SFC, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1902 In San Francisco the Odd
Fellows Cemetery in the Lone mountain area closed down. In the 1930s
some remains from there were exhumed and reburied at Greenlawn
Memorial Park in Colma.
(SSFC, 5/14/17, p.C2)
1902 Former SF Mayor James
Phelan filed a federal claim "for the water from the Tuolemne River,
to be gathered by damming the mouth of the Hetch Hetchy Valley."
(ON, 7/03, p1)
1902 In the US Oregon became
the first of 23 states to allow voters to place issues on the ballot
in the form of initiatives.
(WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A14)
1902 Artus and Anne Van Briggle
founded the Van Briggle Pottery in Colorado Springs, Colo. Their
Persian Rose glaze was produced from 1946-1968.
(SFC, 9/7/05, p.G9)
1902 In Hawaii Walter
Dillingham, son of Benjamin, took over the Oahu Railway and Land Co,
and launched the Hawaiian Dredging and Construction Co. It later
became the Dillingham Corp.
(SFC, 10/28/98, p.A19)
1902 Charles and Louisa Gay
purchased a portion of the Gibson-Hayselden estate on Lanai, Ha.,
and within a few years became owners of most of the island. The Gays
transitioned the ranches to cattle and mortgaged the property to
William G. Irwin and Co. When Gay ran into financial trouble Irwin
and partners foreclosed, took over the island and formed the Lanai
(SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)
1902 George Draper Dayton
started a dry goods store in Minneapolis that grew to become the
Dayton Hudson chain. It was renamed Target in 1999. Kenneth Macke
(1938-2008) led Dayton Hudson from 1983 to 1994.
(SFC, 7/2/08, p.B7)
1902 The Franklin Automobile
Company, an American manufacturer of automobiles, began
manufacturing cars in Syracuse, New York. The company closed down in
1902 The Crooksville China Co.
of Crooksville, Ohio, began operations and continued to 1959. Their
products included the Stinthal China brand name.
(SFC, 8/20/08, p.G4)
1902 The Owen China Co. of
Minerva, Ohio, was founded by Edward J. Owen. It was forced to close
during the Depression in 1932.
(SFC, 1/21/09, p.G4)
1902 National syndication of
comic strips in newspapers originated when Hearst started selling
the right to reproduce his strips in other newspapers.
(http://tinyurl.com/3bqo2r)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)
1902 Train service between New
York and Chicago began. In 1995 Amtrak’s "Broadway Limited" service
made its final run.
(AP, 9/9/00)(MC, 9/9/01)
1902 Henry Leland reorganized
Henry Ford Co. and renamed it Cadillac Motor Co.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Sky, 9/97, p.97)
1902 The New Jersey Ralston
Health Club run by Webster Edgerley merged with Purina Mills, a food
manufacturer run by Will Danforth, to form the Ralston-Purina Co.
Ralston Breakfast Food had been manufactured by Purina and its
success led to the merger.
(Arch, 5/04, p.32)
1902 In Buffalo, NY, the U.S.
Hame Co. was formed as the result of a consolidation of two 19th
century hame and saddlery manufacturers, the United Hame Co. of
Buffalo, NY, and the Consolidated Hame Co. of Andover, New
Hampshire. In 1917 it changed its name to USHCO and started making
chassis for Ford and Chevrolet trucks.
(www.coachbuilt.com/bui/u/us_body/us_body.htm)(SFC, 8/15/07, p.G7)
1902 Automobile disk brakes
(WSJ, 12/6/00, p.A20)
1902 The first motorized buses
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1902 Charles R. Debevoise
invented the brassiere, but the market rejected it. No early bra did
well until elastic came out in 1913. [see May 30, 1889]
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)
1902 In Pittsburg, Texas, Rev.
Burrell Cannon (d.1922), itinerant Baptist minister and inventor,
built his Ezekial Airship and reportedly flew it for a short
distance at a 12 foot altitude. The craft was destroyed on a rail
car while enroute to the St. Louis World Fair.
(WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)
1902 Caleb Bradham launched the
Pepsi-Cola Co. from the backroom of his pharmacy in New Bern, N.C.
He was awarded the Pepsi-Cola trademark in 1903. [see Jun 16, 1903]
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)
1902 Parker Brothers brought
table tennis to the US from Europe.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)
1902 Swift and Armour
corporations came to Fort Worth, Texas, to build slaughter houses
and meat packing plants.
(HT, 4/97, p.48)
1902 James Heddon, bee-keeper
and inventor, attached hook and line to wooden plugs in the shape of
minnows, frogs and mice. His lures became prime collector items.
(Hem, 8/95, p.96-97)
1902 The novelty Plato Clock
was patented by Eugene Fitch of NYC. It resembled a lantern based on
the story that Plato used a lantern-shaped clock while "looking for
an honest man."
(SFC, 9/21/98, Z1 p.8)
1902 The Wright Brothers built
a glider based on their new aerodynamics tables. Efficiency was
almost doubled and they made over 1,000 flights at Kill Devil Hills
near Kitty Hawk, NC.
(NPub, 2002, p.6)
1902 The Soufriere volcano
erupted on St. Vincent and 1,680 people were killed.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)
1902 Albert Bierstadt (b.1830),
German-born American landscape painter, died. Grandiose images were
(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A18)
1902 Charles Lewis Tiffany
(1812-1902), founder of the Tiffany & Co. jewelry business,
died. His son, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), made his name as
an American painter, stained-glass artist, and glass manufacturer.
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p.1344)(HN, 2/18/98)(WSJ,
1902 Emile Zola (b.1840),
French novelist, died by asphyxiation in his Paris apartment. In
1895 he began taking photographs and took some 7,000 pictures before
(SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)
1902 In Australia various
governments met at Corowa on the Murray River, to try to secure
their water supply.
(Econ, 2/23/08, p.60)
1902 Ernst Wahliss purchased
hundreds of original molds of the defunct Imperial and Royal
porcelain Manufactory in Vienna for use in his factory in
Turn-Teplitz, Bohemia. From 1903- 1918 he and his sons produced
porcelain with a “crown" mark and the word Turn above a shield with
the initials EW and the word Vienna.
(SFC, 8/3/05, p.G9)
1902 Arthur Balfour became the
Prime Minister of Great Britain.
(Smith., 5/95, p.122)
1902 The British enacted a law
that froze the number of Irish pubs at the existing level to help
(WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A1)
1902 Britain passed a law
against outdoor cremation.
1902 In England the Greenwich
Foot Tunnel, a passageway under the Thames that to the Royal Naval
College, was constructed.
(SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T9)
1902 Arthur Keen created Guest,
Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., after acquiring Dowlais Iron in Wales
and Nettlefolds. The company became the worlds largest producer of
nails, nuts and bolts.
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A8)
1902 John Furnivall
(1878-1960), British Fabian socialist, arrived in Burma as an
administrator. He left the colony in 1931 but returned in 1948 to
advise its first post-independence governments.
1902 In Egypt the low dam in
Aswan was completed. This led to frequent flooding of the ancient
temple of Philae. In the 1960s the temple was moved to higher ground
some 500 meters downriver.
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.47)
1902 Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935), French
chef, authored “Le Guide Culinaire," a collection of some 5,000
1902 In Italy the Campanile in
the Piazza San Marco in Venice collapsed.
(HT, 5/97, p.24)
1902 The African
Standard was inaugurated at the completion of the East African
Railway from the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa to Lake Victoria. It
was launched by A.M. Jeevanjee, a Karachi-born trader. Jeevanjee
sold the paper in 1905 to two British businessmen, who changed the
name to the East African Standard and in 1910 moved its headquarters
to Nairobi. A few months before independence in 1963, the
British-based Lonrho Group bought the newspaper. In 1977, it became
a tabloid and the name was changed to the Standard. In 1995 Lonrho
sold its controlling interest to the Standard Newspapers Group
Limited, a company in which prominent Kenyan politicians are
believed to have considerable interests. The name was changed back
to the East African Standard.
1902 In Malta the 6,000
year-old Hypogeum, a complex of rock-cut chamber tombs, was
(SFEC, 9/17/00, p.T3)
1902 A massacre by Mexican
federal troops, "the Battle of the Sierra Mazatan," killed about 150
Yaqui men, women and children. US anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka came
upon some of the bodies while they were still decaying, hacked off
the heads with a machete and boiled them to remove the flesh for his
study of Mexico's "races." He sent the resulting collection to the
New York museum. In 2009 Yaqui Indians buried their lost warriors
after a two-year effort to rescue the remains from New York's
American Museum of Natural History.
1902 New Zealand adopted a new
(Econ, 11/1/14, p.40)
1902 The S.S. Ventnor sank off
the northern New Zealand coast, bearing the exhumed bodies of 499
Chinese miners, some in wooden coffins and others in sealed zinc
caskets. The captain and 12 crew members died, while other crew
members made it ashore in lifeboats. Divers found the wreck in 2012.
1902 In Peru US-owned Cerro de
Pasco Corp. started to buy up mines in Cerro de Pasco and brought
industrial mining, creating a boomtown. A half century later in
1956, the company turned to strip mining and started gouging the
pit, which has since swallowed more than half the original urban
center. State-run Centromin continued the pit expansion after a 1973
expropriation of the US company; Volcan since 1999.
1902 Senegalese religious
leader Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba, Islamic mystic and poet, returned to
Touba and launched one of Senegal's main Muslim brotherhoods, the
Mourides. The brotherhood went onto an informal, yet highly
effective, global trading system based entirely on trust.
(AP, 4/22/03)(Econ, 9/13/08, p.92)
1902 Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son
of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia
1902 The Sudan Bookshop opened
in Khartoum. Three British businessmen ran it in the early years
before it passed into Sudanese ownership in the late 1960s, when
Abdel Rahman took over as manager.
1902 Thailand annexed 3
southern provinces, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, that had been part
of a Malay Muslim sultanate called the Kingdom of Pattani.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A7)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.40)
1902-1904 Charles Ives composed his "Ragtime
(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A1)
1902-1932 Doulton pottery in Burslem produced
Doulton Burslem wares. They used a lion and crown as an insignia.
They made bone china from 1928-1957. China was stamped with a number
indicating year of manufacture with "1" representing the year 1928.
(SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1902-1975 Frank Day, Native American Maidu
painter. He depicted the customs of his tribe and his work included
"Starwoman" (1975). He made some 200 paintings with tape-recorded
interpretations and stories.
(SFEM, 4/20/97, p.6)
1902-1977 Trevor Bardette (b.Nov 19, d.Nov 28 at
75), Actor, Wyatt Earp’s Old Man Clanton.
1902-1978 Harold Lasswell, American sociologist,
declares that the communication theorist must always answer the
question "Who says what to whom with what effect?"
1902-1984 Jessamyn West, American author: "I seem
to be the only person in the world who doesn’t mind being pitied. If
you love me, pity me."
1902-1989 Sidney Hook, American philosopher and
author. "Tolerance always has limits—it cannot tolerate what is
itself actively intolerant."
1902-1994 Louis Nizer, American lawyer: "A man who
works with his hands is a laborer; a man who works with his hands
and his brain is a craftsman; but a man who works with his hands and
his brain and his heart is an artist."
1903 Jan 2, President Theodore
Roosevelt closed a post office in Indianola, Mississippi for
refusing to hire a black postmistress.
1903 Jan 2, The first
electronic message was sent across the 2,610 mile Pacific Cable from
Honolulu to SF.
(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)
1903 Jan 3, The Bulgarian
government renounced the treaty of commerce tying it to
1903 Jan 4, Topsy the elephant
was poisoned electrocuted in Luna Park, Coney Island, NYC. The
10-foot elephant had killed 3 keepers over the last 2 years. Edison
used the opportunity to demonstrate the lethal potential of
alternating current, promoted by rival George Westinghouse.
(Econ, 7/26/03, p.33)(Internet)
1903 Jan 6, George Pardee
(1857-1941), former mayor of Oakland (1893-1895), was inaugurated as
governor of California. Pardee served a single term to 1907.
1903 Jan 6, Maurice Abravanel,
conductor and composer, was born in Saloniki, Greece.
1903 Jan 7, Alan Napier, actor
(Alfred-Batman), was born in Birmingham, England.
1903 Jan 10, Argentina banned
the importation of American beef, because of sanitation problems.
1903 Jan 11, Alan Patton, South
African novelist who wrote "Cry, the Beloved Country," was born.
1903 Jan 18, Berthold
Goldschmidt, German-British (opera) composer (Beatrice Cenci), was
1903 Jan 19, Guglielmo Marconi
broadcast the first transatlantic radio message from his station
(Marconi Beach) on Cape Cod. It was beamed to King Edward of England
from President Theodore Roosevelt. [see 1901]
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)
1903 Jan 19, L'Auto announced
the first Tour de France. It was organized by Henri Desgrange
(1865-1940). The new bicycle race began with 60 cyclists competing
in a 2,500 kilometer, 19-day race.
p.R34)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.73)
1903 Jan 21, International
Theater (Majestic, Park) opened at 5 Columbus Circle in NYC.
1903 Jan 21, Harry Houdini
escaped from police station Halvemaansteeg in Amsterdam.
1903 Jan 24, U.S. Secretary of
State John Hay and British Ambassador Herbert created a joint
commission to establish the Alaskan border.
1903 Jan 30, Here is a live
operatic performance recording of the opening scene excerpt from Act
2 of Leoncavallo's "I Pagliacci". It was recorded Live by Lionel
Mapleson at Metropolitan Opera House, New York, on a two minute Wax
1903 Jan, The American League
and the National League representatives met in Cincinnati and
produced the rough outlines of a deal in which each would maintain
independence, but coordinate schedules.
(ON, 6/09, p.12)
1903 Feb 3, Edward F. Adams,
editorial writer for the SF Chronicle, founded the SF Commonwealth
Club as an open forum for the discussion of disputed questions.
(SFC, 2/1/03, p.E4)(SSFC, 5/13/12, p.A14)
1903 Feb 11, Anton Bruckner's
9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
1903 Feb 11, Congress passed
the Expedition Act, giving antitrust cases priority in the courts.
1903 Feb 14, US Congress
created the Department of Commerce and Labor to help stabilize the
economy. It was divided into separate departments of Commerce and
Labor in 1913.
(HN, 2/14/98)(AP, 2/14/05)
1903 Feb 15, The 1st Teddy Bear
was introduced in America by Morris & Rose Michtom.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1903 Feb 16, Edgar Bergen,
radio ventriloquist and comedian, was born in Chicago.
(HN, 2/16/01)(MC, 2/16/02)
1903 Feb 16, At Pokegama,
Minnesota, temperatures fell to a record state low of 59 degrees
(SFC, 2/16/09, p.D10)
1903 Feb 19, The
Austria-Hungary government decreed a mandatory two year military
1903 Feb 20, Pope Leo XIII
celebrated 25 years as the Pope.
1903 Feb 21, Anais Nin
(d.1977), novelist (Winter of Artifice, House of Incense), was born
in Paris: "People do not live in the present always, at one with it.
They live at all kinds of and manners of distance from it, as
difficult to measure as the course of planets. Fears and traumas
make their journeys slanted, peripheral, uneven, evasive."
(AP, 9/7/97)(MC, 2/21/02)
1903 Feb 21, The cornerstone
laid for US army war college in Washington, DC.
1903 Feb 22, The US side of
Niagara Falls ran short of water due to drought.
1903 Feb 22, Hugo Wolf
(b.1860), Austrian composer of Slovene origin, died. He is
particularly noted for his German art songs, or Lieder.
1903 Feb 24, The United States
signed an agreement acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo Bay in
Cuba. Pres. Roosevelt leased the site for 2,000 gold coins a year,
about $4,080 in 2002.
(AP, 2/24/98)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)
1903 Feb 26, Richard Gatling
(b.1818), American inventor, died. The Gatling gun, an early type of
machine gun, was named after him. In 2008 Julia Keller authored “Mr.
Gatling’s Terrible Marvel."
1903 Mar 1, Leon Bismarck "Bix"
Beiderbecke, jazz cornetist (In a Mist), was born in Iowa. [see Mar
1903 Mar 2, The Martha
Washington Hotel opened for business in New York City. The hotel
featured 416 rooms and was the first hotel exclusively for women.
(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)
1903 Mar 3, president Theodore
Roosevelt signed into law the Immigration Act of 1903, one day after
its passage in Congress.
1903 Mar 3, North Carolina
became the 1st state requiring registration of nurses.
1903 Mar 10, Leon Bismarck
"Bix" Beiderbecke, jazz cornetist and composer, was born. [see Mar
1903 Mar 10, Harry Gammeter of
Cleveland patented a multigraph duplicating machine.
1903 Mar 12, The Czar of Russia
issued a decree providing for nominal freedom of religion throughout
1903 Mar 14, The Senate
ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty which guaranteed the U.S. the right
to build a canal at Panama. The treaty promised Colombia $10 million
plus $250,000 annually for a zone 6 miles wide.
(HN, 3/14/98)(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1903 Mar 14, The 1st national
bird reservation was established in Sebastian, Florida.
1903 Mar 15, The British
completed the conquest of Nigeria, 500,000 square miles are now
controlled by the United Kingdom.
1903 Mar 19, The U.S. Senate
ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and
1903 Mar 20, Henri Matisse
exhibited at the Salon des Independants.
1903 Mar 22, Niagara Falls ran
out of water because of a drought. [see Feb 22]
1903 Mar 23, The Wright
brothers obtained an airplane patent.
1903 Mar 24, Adolf Butenandt,
biochemist (Nobel 1939), was born.
(HN, 3/24/01)(MC, 3/24/02)
1903 Mar 26, American Hotel
opened in Amsterdam.
1903 Mar 28, Rudolf Serkin,
pianist (Marlboro School of Music), was born in Eger, Bohemia.
1903 Mar 29, A regular news
service began between New York and London on Marconi's wireless.
1903 Mar 31, New Zealand
aviator Richard Pearse flew a self-made, bamboo-framed, mono-winged
airplane in Waitohi.
(NW, 3/17/03, p.20)
1903 Mar, Orville and Wilbur
Wright first attempted to file a patent on their Flying Machine.
This patent application, describing only the basic aerodynamics and
control surfaces of the aircraft, not the engine, was turned down by
the U.S. Patent Office for lack of clarity. [see 1906]
1903 Apr 6, French Army
Nationalists were revealed for forging documents to guarantee a
conviction for Alfred Dreyfus, an officer accused of giving plans
for France's defense to Germany.
1903 Apr 9, Gregory Pincus,
inventor of the birth control pill, was born.
1903 Apr 10, Clare Boothe
Luce (d.1987) was born. She was an author, diplomat, member of
Congress and served as the U.S. ambassador to the Vatican. She
allegedly said: "No good deed goes unpunished."
(HN, 4/10/98)(AP, 6/2/99)
1903 Apr 14, Dr. Harry Plotz in
NYC discovered a vaccine against typhoid.
1903 Apr 15, Erich Arendt,
writer, was born.
1903 Apr 15, John Williams,
actor (Niles-Family Affair, Dial M for Murder), was born in England.
1903 Apr 17, Gregor
Piatigorsky, cellist, was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia.
1903 Apr 19, Eliot Ness,
Treasury agent, was born. He fought for prohibition in Chicago, Ill.
1903 May 2, Benjamin Spock,
pediatrician, author and activist, was born. His book, "Common Sense
of Baby and Child Care" sold 30 million copies.
1903 May 3, Bing Crosby
(d.1977), singer and actor, was born in Tacoma, Wa. as Harry Lillis.
The family soon moved to Spokane where he grew up. He sang "White
Christmas" and starred in Holiday Inn
(HN, 5/3/99)(SSFC, 1/21/01, BR p.10)
1903 May 5, James Beard
(d.1985), US culinary expert, author (Delights & Prejudices),
was born in Portland, Ore.
1903 May 8, Joseph Desire
Fernandel, comedian (Grand Chef), was born in Marseilles, France.
1903 May 8, Paul Gauguin
(b.1848), French born painter, died at his home on the Marquesas
Islands. He was buried at Atuona on Hiva Oa Island.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C9)
1903 May 12, Lennox R.F.
Berkeley, British composer (Castaway), was born.
1903 May 14, The Dewey Memorial
in Union Square, San Francisco, was dedicated by Pres. Theodore
Roosevelt. Robert Aitken sculpted the 12-foot statue of Victory that
stood atop an 83-foot column. Alma de Bretteville, later Alma
Spreckels, had posed as the model. Sugar magnate Adolph Spreckels
was so taken with the model that he married her.
p.D1)(SFC, 1/9/16, p.C4)
1903 May 15, President Theodore
Roosevelt and naturalist John Muir began a 3-day camping trip in
Yosemite National Park.
1903 May 17, James "Cool Papa"
Bell, baseball player, was born.
1903 May 19, Dr. Horatio Nelson
Jackson bet $50 that he could cross the US from San Francisco in his
$2,500 Winton touring car. He and his mechanic reached NYC July 26.
(SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)
1903 May 23, Dr. Horatio Nelson
Jackson set off to cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500
Winton touring car with his mechanic Sewell Croker. They reached NYC
(SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/18/03, p.A23)(ON,
1903 May 24, Arthur Vineberg,
Canadian heart surgeon, was born.
1903 May 26, Estes Kefauver,
senator from Tennessee, was born. He wanted the Democratic
nomination for president against John Kennedy.
1903 May 26, Start of Sherlock
Holmes "Adventure of 3 Gables."
1903 May 29, Bob Hope (d.2003),
US comedian, was born as Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England.
(SFC, 5/28/97, p.D5)(AP, 5/29/05)
1903 May 30, Countee Cullen,
American poet, was born.
1903 May 31, It was reported
that the Coast Limited train out of SF plunged down a 50-foot
embankment near Santa Barbara and injured over 40 people with an
untold number killed.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)
1903 May, In Britain the House
of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed
with humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement,
was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)
1903 Jun 2, Robert Morris Page,
physicist, inventor of pulse radar, was born.
1903 Jun 6, Composer Aram
Khachaturian was born in Tiflis, Russia.
1903 Jun 7, Professor Curie
revealed the discovery of Polonium. [see 1898]
1903 Jun 11, The San Francisco
Board of Supervisors enacted Section 538 of the Police Code
forbidding youngsters under 21 from congregating in groups between 8
p.m. and daylight the following morning. On Nov 13, 1962, Municipal
Judge Leland Lazarus ruled Section 538 unconstitutional.
(SSFC, 11/11/12, DB p.46)
1903 Jun 11, King Alexander and
Queen Draga of Belgrade were assassinated by 28 members of the
Serbian army. The remains of their corpses were thrown out of a
palace window. Peter Karageorgevic was later elected to replace him.
(AP, 6/11/03)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.90)
1903 Jun 13, Harold "Red"
Grange, football's Galloping Ghost, was born. He became an
All-American football running back for the University of Illinois
and went on to a professional career in Chicago and New York.
1903 Jun 15, Barney Oldfield
(1878-1946), race car driver, drove a Ford 999 at a record mile per
(Ind, 10/6/01, 5A)
1903 Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was
1903 Jun 16, Pepsi Cola company
formed. [see 1902]
1903 Jun 16, Roald Amundsen
(31) departed Christiana (later Oslo), Norway, aboard Gjøa with a
crew of 6 to search for the Northwest Passage. They reached
California in the fall of 1905.
(NG, 6/1988, p.765)(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)
1903 Jun 17, Joseph-Marie
Cassant (b.1878), a French monk, died. He frequently meditated about
Jesus on the cross. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
1903 Jun 18, 1st
transcontinental auto trip began in SF and arrived in NY 3-months
later. [see Jul 26]
1903 Jun 19, Henry Louis Gehrig
(d.6/22/1941) was born in New York City. He became first baseman for
the New York Yankees and started 2,130 games consecutively: HALL OF
FAMER; MVP '36; 7x World Series; .341 avg., 493 HRs; 2,721 hits,
1,990 RBIs. He died of a muscle wasting disease amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis, now known by his name.
1903 Jun 19, The young school
teacher, Benito Mussolini, was placed under investigation by police
in Bern, Switzerland.
1903 Jun 21, Al[bert]
Hirschfield, cartoonist (NINA, NY Times), was born in St Louis, Mo.
1903 Jun 22, John Dillinger,
one of America’s "Most Wanted" gangsters, was born in Indianapolis,
1903 Jun 22, George White, a
black resident of Delaware, was lynched.
1903 Jun 25, George Orwell
(d.1950), English novelist, essayist and critic, was born in India
as Eric Arthur Blair. He took his pen name in 1932. His books
included "Animal Farm" (1945) and "1984" (1949), which attacked
totalitarianism. "Each generation imagines itself to be more
intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one
that comes after it."
1903 Jun 25, Marie Curie
announced her discovery of radium. [see Apr 20, 1902]
1903 Jun 29, The British
government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo.
Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided
information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the
right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for
their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage
the wives of workers to force men to work.
(HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)
1903 Jul 1, Amy Johnson,
English aviator, was born.
1903 Jul 1, The 1st Tour de
France bicycle race began.
1903 Jul 2, Lord Alex
Douglas-Home, British PM (1963-64), was born.
1903 Jul 2, Olav V, King of
Norway (1957), was born in England.
1903 Jul 3, The first cable
across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam
and Manila. Teddy Roosevelt placed the atoll of Midway Island under
Navy supervision. The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T)
set cable across the Pacific via Midway Island and the first around
the world message was sent. The message took 9 minutes to circle the
globe. [see Jul 4]
(SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)(HN, 7/3/98)
1903 Jul 4, Pacific Cable (SF,
Hawaii, Guam, Philippines) opened. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt opened
the first Pacific communications cable by sending a message around
the world. Roosevelt sent a message around the world, and the
message came back to him in 12 minutes. [see Jul 3]
(Maggio, 98)(HNQ, 7/6/01)
1903 Jul 17, James Abbott
McNeil Whistler (b.1834), American-born expatriate painter famous
for painting his mother (1872), died.
(www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=652)(ON, 4/03, p.9)
1903 Jul 20, Pope Leo XIII
died. He served 25 years, four months and 17 days.
1903 Jul 21, Dr. Horatio Nelson
Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker
escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to
NYC from San Francisco in a $2,500 Winton touring car.
(ON, 9/04, p.10)
1903 Jul 23, The Ford Motor
Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
1903 Jul 25, In San Francisco
Layman’s Folly, the German-style castle built on Telegraph Hill in
1883 by entrepreneur Frederick Layman, was destroyed by fire.
11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.C2)
1903 Jul 26, Dr. Horatio Nelson
Jackson of Vermont and his mechanic Sewell Croker arrived in NYC
completing the first cross-country automobile trip in 63 days after
leaving SF. On July 26, 2003 Peter Kesling and Charlie Wake
completed a rerun of the original trip.
(WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/7/03, p.B1)(SSFC,
7/27/03, p.A2)(ON, 9/04, p.12)
1903 Aug 2, The Macedonian
region rose against Ottoman rule.
1903 Aug 4, Cardinal Giuseppe
Sarto of Venice was elected Pope Pius X.
1903 Aug 7, Louis Leakey,
anthropologist, archeologist and paleontologist, was born in Kenya.
He believed that Africa was the cradle of mankind.
1903 Aug 14, John Ringling
North, circus director (Ringling Bros), was born in Baraboo, Wisc.
1903 Aug 19, James Gould
Cozzens (d.1978), US novelist, was born in Chicago. His novels
included "Farewell to Cuba" and "Guard of Honor" for which he
won a 1949 Pulitzer.
1903 Aug 23, William Primrose,
violist (Method for Violin & Viola), was born in Glasgow,
1903 Aug 28, Bruno Bettelheim
(d.1990), Austrian-US psychologist, psychoanalyst and educator, was
born. His book included "Love is not Enough" and "Uses of
1903 Aug 31, Arthur Godfrey,
radio and television personality, was born.
1903 Aug 31, Bernard Lovell,
radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank, was born in England.
1903 Sep 8, Between 30,000 and
50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir
by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
1903 Sep 13, Claudette Colbert
(d.1996), actress, was born in France as Lily Claudette
Chauchoin. She won an Oscar for "It Happened One Night."
1903 Sep 17, Turks destroyed
the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
1903 Sep 20, It was reported
that a deputy US marshal committed suicide and that 3 SF deputy
sheriffs were arrested over bribes paid by the Chinese to sidestep
the anti-Chinese Exclusion Act and gain entry into the US.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)
1903 Sep 21, The 1st cowboy
film, "Kit Carson," premiered in US.
1903 Sep 22, Italo Marchioni
applied for a patent for pastry cornets to hold ice cream and was
granted the patent on Dec 13, 1903. Ice cream cones were popularized
in the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.
(HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(MC,
9/22/01)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)
1903 Sep 25, Mark Rothko
(d.1970), [Marcus Rothkovich] US émigré painter (Green on Blue), was
born in Dvinsk, Russia, later Daugavpils, Latvia. His family moved
to Portland, Ore. in 1913. His work included "Subway" (1936/1939),
"Street Scene" (1936/1938), "Untitled" (1942), "Untitled"
(1942/1943), "Phalanx of the Mind" (1945), "The Source" (1946),
"Sacrificial Moment" (1946), "Number 18" (1948), and "Untitled"
1903 Sep 29, Greer Garson
(d.1996), Hollywood actress, was born in County Down, Northern
Ireland. [see 1903-1996] She won a best actress Oscar for her role
in Mrs. Miniver (1942), and also starred in Madame Curie (1943),
Pride and Prejudice (1940).
(SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-5)
1903 Oct 1, The Pittsburgh
Pirates defeated the home team Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox), 7-3, in
the first World Series game. Boston, however, went on to win the
series, five games to three.
1903 Oct 4, Ernst
Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi (SS/SD) and successor to Reinhard
Heydrich, was born. He was hanged in 1946.
1903 Oct 10, Philippe
Bunau-Varilla met with Pres. Roosevelt in Washington and told him
that a group in Panama was planning a rebellion. He asked that the
US prevent any Colombian troops from landing to break the rebellion,
but received no specific answer.
(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1903 Oct 10, Emmeline Pankhurst
(1858-1928), British suffragist, and her daughter Christabel (23)
founder the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
1903 Oct 13, Victor Herbert's
"Babes in Toyland," premiered in NYC.
1903 Oct 13, Boston defeated
Pittsburgh in baseball’s first World Series. In 2003 Roger I. Abrams
authored "The First World Series and the Baseball Fanatics of 1903;"
Louis P. Masur authored "Autumn Glory: Baseball's First World
Series;" and Bob Ryan authored "When Boston Won the World Series."
(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A8)(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 3/28/03,
p.W9)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M6)
1903 Oct 17, Nathanael West,
novelist and screenwriter, was born. His work included "Miss Lonely
Hearts" and "The Day of the Locust."
1903 Oct 18, Ambrose
Thibodeaux, Cajun accordionist, was born.
1903 Oct 19, Vittorio Giannini,
composer, was born.
1903 Oct 20, The Joint
Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United
States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, ruled in favor of
the United States. The deciding vote was Britain’s, which embittered
Canada. The United States gained ports on the panhandle coast of
(AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)
1903 Oct 22, George Beadle,
American biologist, was born.
1903 Oct 28, Evelyn Waugh
(d.1966), English novelist, was born in London. Waugh served in WWII
as a SAS Commando. He wrote "Decline and Fall" and "Brideshead
Revisited." "News is what a chap who doesn't care much about
anything wants to read. And it's only news until he's read it. After
that it's dead."
(AP, 3/29/99)(HN, 10/28/99)(MC, 10/28/01)
1903 Nov 2, The Daily Mirror of
London began operating as the first tabloid newspaper.
1903 Nov 3, Walker Evans,
photographer, was born.
1903 Nov 3, There was a
Revolution in Panama composed of Panamanian fired departments and
some 500 Colombian mercenary troops purchased for some $100,000 by
Philippe Bunau-Varilla’s Panama Canal Company. The US created Panama
so that a canal could be built and maintained
(HFA, '96, p.42)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A8)(AP,
11/3/97)(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1903 Nov 4, After a one-day
coup, in which an American warship offshore prevented Columbia from
quelling the revolt and the only casualty was a Chinese shopkeeper
and a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant President
Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days later. The
Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive foreign
policy, was completed in 10 years.
(HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)
1903 Nov 6, In Hong Kong the
South China Morning Post, founded by Tse Tsan-tai and Alfred
Cunningham, published its first issue.
1903 Nov 6, Panama declared its
independence from Colombia.
(ON, 1/00, p.3)
1903 Nov 7, Konrad Lorenz,
pioneering zoologist, was born.
1903 Nov 7, President Theodore
Roosevelt recognized the new Panama republic.
(HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)
1903 Nov 9, Gregory Pincus,
inventor (birth control pill), was born.
1903 Nov 12, The Lebaudy
brothers of France set an air-travel distance record of 34 miles in
1903 Nov 13, Camille Pissarro
(b.1830), French impressionist born in St. Thomas, Dutch West
Indies, died in Paris.
1903 Nov 15, Eugen d'Albert's
opera "Tiefland," premiered in Prague.
1903 Nov 16, V. Herbert's and
H. Smith's musical "Babette," premiered in NYC.
1903 Nov 17, Vladimir Lenin’s
efforts to impose his own radical views on the Russian Social
Democratic Labor Party split the Party into two factions, the
Bolsheviks, who supported Lenin, and the Mensheviks. The followers
of the Marxist revolutionary line espoused by V.I. Lenin called
themselves the majority, or Bolsheviks, and referred to their rivals
as the minority, or Mensheviks. The Mensheviks took a less radical
position, seeking cooperation with middle-class parties. The two
factions grew into separate parties, with Bolshevism becoming the
strategy that led to the overthrow of Russian czarism and the
establishment of soviet power in the revolutions of 1917. The
Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Russian Communist Party in 1918
and the word Bolshevik was finally dropped from the official title
of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956.
(HN, 11/17/98)(HNQ, 3/17/00)
1903 Nov 18, The
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed, granting the United States a
strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama and the right to build
and fortify the Panama Canal. Building an interoceanic canal was not
a new idea at the turn of the 20th century, but U.S. acquisition of
California in 1848 and territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean
after the Spanish-American War made the canal crucial to American
foreign policy. In January 1903, the Hay-Herran Treaty with
Colombia--Panama was a part of Colombia--would have given the United
States the land and the right to build a canal across Panama, but
Colombia refused to ratify the treaty. Subsequently, Panamanian
rebels--encouraged by American agents--rose against Colombia on
November 3, 1903. After a one-day coup, in which an American warship
offshore prevented Colombia from quelling the revolt and the only
casualty was a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant
President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days
later. The Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive
foreign policy, was completed in 10 years.
(HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)
1903 Nov 19, Carrie Nation
attempted to address Senate.
1903 Nov 20, In Cheyenne,
Wyoming, 42-year-old hired gunman and stock detective Tom Horn was
hanged for the 1901 murder of Willie Nickell (14). Horn had made a
controversial confession to U.S. Deputy Marshal Joseph S. LeFors
that was pivotal in the conviction.
1903 Nov 23, Singer Enrico
Caruso made his American debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in
New York, appearing as the Duke of Mantua in "Rigoletto."
1903 Nov 24, Clyde Coleman of
NYC patented an automobile electric starter.
1903 Nov 25, In San Francisco
Alexander Garnett shot and killed Major J.W. McClung at the Palace
Hotel apartment of Mrs. Lillian Hitchcock Coit. Coit soon left the
city and spent the next 6 years in Paris. Garnett was convicted and
sentenced to 15 years at San Quentin, but only began serving time in
1909 following an appeal and restoration of records due to the 1906
(SSFC, 9/13/09, DB p.46)
1903 Nov 29, Inquiry into U.S.
Postal Service demonstrated the government had lost millions in
1903 Dec 1, "The Great Train
Robbery," the 1st Western film, was released. Edwin S. Porter, a
cameraman for Thomas Edison’s production company, revived flagging
interest in motion pictures with the 12-minute movie that introduced
three great American traditions—editing, the chase scene and the
Western. Prior to Porter’s landmark movie, moving pictures were
non-narrative, with one long shot recording an actual event. The
Great Train Robbery, with a series of 14 scenes of bandits robbing a
railway station and ultimately paying the price for their misdeeds,
developed multiple plot lines simultaneously by cutting and splicing
film. Moviegoers screamed when the scene of an outlaw shooting
directly into the camera was shown.
1903 Dec 2, The play “Kuolema"
(Death), a drama by Finnish writer Arvid Järnefelt, was first
performed. It included incidental music by Jean Sibelius. The
opening number, Valse Triste (Sad Waltz), was later adapted into a
separate concert piece.
1903 Dec 4, Alfred Leslie Rowse
(d. 10/3/97), Shakespeare scholar and authority on Tudor England,
was born in St. Austell, England. He authored 90 volumes of history,
poetry and biography. His best seller was "A Cornish Childhood." He
asserted that the "Dark Lady" in Shakespeare’s sonnets was the
Italian poet Emilis Bassano Lanier.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D10)(MC, 12/4/01)
1903 Dec 8, Zoltan Szekely,
composer, was born.
1903 Dec 8, Samuel P. Langley’s
man-carrying Great Aerodrome collapsed right after takeoff from a
houseboat on the Potomac River.
1903 Dec 8, Herbert Spencer
(b.1820), English philosopher, died. He was later considered to be
the father of Social Darwinism. He is best known for coining the
phrase "survival of the fittest," which he did in “Principles of
1903 Dec 9, The Norwegian
parliament voted unanimously for female suffrage.
1903 Dec 10, Mary Norton,
English children's author, was born. Her work included "Bedknobs and
1903 Dec 13, Italo Marconi
received a patent for the ice cream cone in NJ. [see Sep 22, 1903]
(MC, 12/13/01)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)
1903 Dec 14, William Ennis
became the 1st cop to die in electric chair.
1903 Dec 15, The British
Parliament placed a 15-year ban on whale fishing in Norway.
1903 Dec 17, Erskine Caldwell,
U.S. novelist, was born.
1903 Dec 17, The Wright
brothers' Flyer I flew for 12 seconds in the first airplane flight
at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The plane used an aluminum engine
designed by their Dayton mechanic Charlie Taylor. The brothers were
the sons of a Dayton, Ohio, bishop (Church of the United Brethren).
Orville Wright made the first powered, controlled and sustained
flight. Orville, lying prone at the 605-pound plane's controls, flew
a distance of 120 feet in 12 seconds. Wilbur ran beside Flyer's wing
tip until it was airborne to keep the wing from dragging in the
sand. Four sustained flights were made on this day. The 4th flight
lasted fifty-nine seconds. The day’s events received little press
attention, since the reticent Wright brothers feared their ideas
would be stolen by rival aviators. It was not until 1908, after
making many refinements to their flying machine, that the Wrights
embarked on a series of public demonstrations that finally earned
them worldwide acclaim. A one-hour PBS documentary covered their
life as part of "The American Experience." In 2015 David McCullough
authored “the Wright Brothers."
(WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(AP, 12/17/97)(HNPD,
12/17/98)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(SFEC, 9/26/99,
p.B8)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.78)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.59)
1903 Dec 19, The Williamsburg
suspension bridge opened between Brooklyn and Manhattan.
1903 Dec 19, Heinrich Lienhard
(b.1822), Swiss immigrant to the United States, died in Illinois.
His reminiscences for the years 1822 to 1850 are an important
historical source re California Trail and Sutter's Fort in
California from 1846 to 1850.
1903 Dec 28, John Von Neuman,
Hungarian-born mathematician, was born. He gave to the mathematics
community the new axiomatic foundation for set theory and high-speed
1903 Dec 30, The Iraquois
Theater Fire of Chicago killed 602 people. Matinee patrons for "Mr
Bluebeard" panicked despite efforts by comedian Eddie Foy (47) to
calm the crowd. In 2003 Anthony P. Hatch authored "Tinder Box," an
account of the fire.
(HFA, '96, p.70)(AP, 12/30/97)(PCh, 1992,
p.652)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W9)
1903 Zora Neale Hurston
(d.1960), black author, was born.
(SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)
1903 The Burlington Magazine, a
journal of art history, was founded in Britain. In 2003 Michael Levy
edited "The Burlington Magazine: A Centenary Anthology," with
articles by a roster of legendary art historians.
(WSJ, 5/29/03, p.D8)
1903 George Gustav Heye, NY
banker, began collecting American Indian cultural material.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.19)
1903 The Salon d’Automne in
France featured the post-Impressionist, Fauves, and the avant-garde
artists of the late 19th century. [see 1905]
(Calg. Glen., 1996)
1903 The Shanameh by Firdawsi
as commissioned by Shah Tahmasp in the 1520s was transferred to the
Baron de Rothschild. In 1959 it was transferred to A.A. Houghton of
the Corning Glass family.
(WSJ, p. A-18, 10-13-94)
1903 Picasso painted the
"Seated Woman," a gouache from his Blue Period. He also painted "La
(WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)
1903 Picasso painted "Angel
Fernandez de Soto," a portrait of a sneering, dissolute youth, a bar
pal of the artist in Barcelona, Spain. The painting was to go on
auction and expected to fetch as much as $10 mil. The painting sold
for 29.2 mil on 5/8/95.
(WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-1)(WSJ, 5/9/95, p.B-6)
1903 Alfred Stieglitz published
the first edition of "Camera Work," which included the quote:
Followers manage to make of the footpaths of great men a wide road."
(WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A16)
1903 Mary Austin published her
account of the high desert: "The Land of Little Rain."
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)
1903 Robert Erskine Childers
(1870-1922), British author, wrote his spy novel “The Riddle of the
Sands." The Irish nationalist was executed by the authorities of the
nascent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War.
1903 W.E.B. Du Bois published
"The Souls of Black Folk," in which he asked “How does it feel to be
(WSJ, 4/29/03, A16)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)
1903 Sven Hedn published
"Central Asia and Tibet."
(NH, 5/96, p.68)
1903 Henry James (1843-1916),
England-born US novelist, writer and critic, authored his novel “the
(WSJ, 10/25/08, p.W8)
1903 Helen Keller published her
book "The Story of My Life." It was later named one of the 100 most
important books of the 20th century by the NY Public Library.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)
1903 Mary Roberts Rinehart,
mystery writer, published 45 stories in her first year of writing.
(SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)
1903 Frederick R. Swift
authored "Florida Fancy."
(AM, 7/00, p.56)
1903 W.C. Handy met a guitar
player at a railroad station in Tutwiler, Mississippi, who pressed a
knife a the strings of his guitar and sang "Goin where the Southern
cross’ the Dog."
(NH, 9/96, p.53)
1903 In NYC the Manhattan
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)
1903 The New Amsterdam Theater
on 42nd St. in New York City, home of the legendary Ziegfeld
Follies, was constructed by Herts and Tallant. It was renovated in
1997 for $34 million by the Walt Disney Co.
(WSJ, 4/3/97, p.A16)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)
1903 The Gardner Museum was
built at the edge of the muddy Fens. Isabella Stewart Gardner
(d.1924) decreed that no changes be made to her museum.
(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)
1903 The New York Stock
Exchange (NYSE) opened its first building at 10 Broad St.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)
1903 Du Pont established the
Experimental Station for research in Wilmington.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1903 Former outlaws Cole
Younger and Frank James teamed up to tour Tennessee in their own
Wild West Show.
(SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)
1903 In Detroit the Gem Theater
was constructed. In 1997 the 2,750 ton building was moved 5 blocks
through downtown to make room for a new ballpark. It set a new
record as the heaviest building moved.
1903 The Scripps Institute of
Oceanography was founded in the boathouse of the Hotel Del Coronado
in San Diego, Ca.
1903 The Greenlawn cemetery,
also called Old Fellows Cemetery, was established in Lawndale
1903 Hollywood High School was
built. In 1991 principal Jeanne Hon conceived of a school museum for
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)
1903 In San Francisco the
Merchants Exchange Building at 465 California St. was designed by
Willis Polk and the D.H. Burnham architectiual firm.
(SFC, 4/7/97, p.E3)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.C2)
1903 In SF the Mercantile
Building at Third and Mission was completed.
(SFC, 8/1/08, p.A12)
1903 Some Noe Valley homes of
San Francisco were built astride the former Precita Creek. The
stream ran along the foot of Bernal Heights. Precita means
“condemned to hell" in Spanish.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)
1903 In San Francisco
construction began on the new Mary’s Help Hospital on Guerrero St.
but was 1906 earthquake pushed back the opening to 1912.
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1903 Dr. Rupert Blue reported
that the bubonic plague epidemic had been confined to the 24 blocks
of San Francisco’s Chinatown and that the district was now
plague-free and plague-proof. Blue had replaced Joseph Kinyoun as
the federal official charged with fighting the epidemic.
(ON, 1/00, p.6)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1903 The hot fudge sundae was
(SFC, 3/7/98, p.E3)
1903 J.L. Kraft started a
cheese business. In 2005 Kraft was the largest food company in the
US and spent some $90 million annually on advertising directly to
(WSJ, 10/31/05, p.A1)
1903 Flinders Petrie was
awarded the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal for Archeological Achievement
from the Univ. of Pennsylvania for his work in Egypt.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.19)
1903 Svante Arrhenius
(1859-1927), Swedish scientist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
1903 Bjornstjerne Martinus
Bjornson won the Nobel Prize in literature.
(SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1903 Randal Cremer (b.1838),
British trade unionist, pacifist, won the Nobel Prize.
1903 Pierre and Marie Curie won
the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of radioactivity.
(SSFC, 11/28/04, p.4)
1903 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt
set aside the 5 acres of Pelican Island off the east coast of
Florida to protect pelicans and other birds from hunters. This began
the wildlife refuge system that grew to 537 national wildlife
refuges in 2001.
(SFC, 2/8/01, p.A2)
1903 There was a stock market
panic this year as Pres. Teddy Roosevelt began to establish himself
as the first great "trust buster."
1903 A skeptical English-born
journalist suggested that American baseball is a form of rounders, a
British children’s game.
(Econ, 8/10/13, p.29)
1903 The first Key System
trains, established by Francis Marion Smith, began running from
downtown Berkeley, Ca., to the Oakland pier.
(SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1903 The SF Bay Area Realty
Estate Syndicate, created by Francis Marion Smith and partner Frank
C. Havens, built the Idora Park amusement center near 56th Street
and Telegraph Ave. in Oakland, Ca. It was torn down in 1929.
(SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1903 Hawaii’s popularly elected
territorial legislature first petitioned to become a state and
repeated the request at least 17 times. [see 1919]
1903 M. H. Kuhn founded The
M.H. Kuhn Company in Rochester, NY, in 1903. In 1906 it became the
Haloid Company (later Xerox) with George C. Seager as President.
1903 The first Crayolas were
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown and black. [2nd
source says 1902]
(SFEC, 10/4/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)
1903 King C. Gillette replaced
the cut-throat razor with his safety razor blade.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.111)
1903 Henry Ford incorporated
the Ford Motor Co. and sold the first Model A.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1903 F. Stuart Foote founded
the Imperial Furniture Co. in Grand Rapids, Mich. The company was
sold in 1954.
(SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)
1903 William Harley and the 3
Davidson brothers: Arthur (20), Walter and William (21), started out
in a Milwaukee basement to produce their first motorized bike. In
1999 Brock Yates published "Outlaw Machine: Harley-Davidson and the
Search for the American Soul."
(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W6)(NW, 7/22/02, p.60)
1903 Buick Motors was
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1903 The Red Spot Paint &
Varnish Co. was established in Evansville, Ind.
(WSJ, 12/20/96, p.A1)
1903 The Buffalo Pottery
Company opened in Buffalo. It was established by the Larkin Co., a
soap manufacturer, to make premiums for its customers.
(SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)
1903 The Hearst Corp. launched
its first magazine, Motor.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1903 The Postal car was
equipped with a heater.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1903 The 1st trolley with an
electric 3rd rail was installed in Scranton, Pa.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.B8)
1903 Walter Sutton, American
cytologist, suggested that the Mendelian elements of heredity lay on
(NH, 6/01, p.32)
1903 Major silver and gold
deposits were found at Goldfield, Nevada.
(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)
1903 John Muir influenced the
conservation policy of President Theodore Roosevelt during a 1903
camping trip to Yosemite. Naturalist and forest conservation
advocate, Muir was largely responsible for the establishment of
national parks such as Sequoia and Yosemite. After graduating from
the University of Wisconsin, Scottish immigrant Muir worked on
mechanical inventions, but when an industrial accident blinded him
in one eye, he abandoned that career and devoted himself to nature.
As early as 1876, Muir encouraged the federal government to
establish a forest conservation program. The Sequoia and Yosemite
parks were created in 1890 and two eloquent articles by Muir swayed
public opinion in favor of federally protected national forests.
1903 Andrew Carnegie donated
$1.5 million for the construction of 2 dozen libraries in
(Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)
1903 The Adirondack Fire in NY
state burned some 637,000 acres.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1903 Frederick Law Olmsted, the
architect of Central Park in NYC, died at the McLean Asylum in
Waverly, Mass. In 1999 Witold Rybczynski authored the biography: "A
Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America In the
Nineteenth Century." Olmsted’s hand appears in such places as:
Brooklyn's Prospect Park, Boston's Back Bay Fens, Louisville's park
system, Detroit's Belle Isle, Montreal's Mount Royal, Buffalo's
parks, Chicago's Riverside, Oakland's Mountain View, Washington's
Capitol grounds, and the Stanford Univ. campus.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W5)(WSJ, 5/26/99, p.A20)
1903 Taxonomists renamed
Brontosaurus, the genus name of a sauropod dinosaur, as Apatosaurus
after it was discovered that two different names referred to the
(Econ, 5/1/10, p.81)
1903 Herbert Spencer (b.1820),
English philosopher, died. His work included "Social Statics" in
which he coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" and described
social inequality as a natural outgrowth of competition.
(WSJ, 2/1/00, p.B1)(WUD, 1994, p.1368)
1903 In Belarus Jews made
history by being the first to resist a pogrom, defending 26
synagogues and prayer houses.
1903 In Belgium Congo Samuel
Verner, an American missionary and explorer, purchased Ota Benga, a
young pigmy enslaved by another tribe. He was under contract to the
St. Louis Fair to bring several Pygmies to America for a living
display of the stages of evolution. After the fair Benga ended up at
the Bronx Zoological Park where he was displayed with monkeys. In
1910 Benga moved to a Baptist seminary in Lynchburg, Va. In 1916
Benga committed suicide.
(WSJ, 2/6/06, p.B1)
1903 In England the National
Art Collections Fund, the leading independent art charity, was
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.4)
1903 The Commonwealth
Naturalization Act excluded all non-Europeans from the right to
apply for naturalization, or from bringing spouses and children into
the country. Britain passed legislation restriction immigration.
1903 In southwest England
a 10,000-year-old skeleton was found in the underground caves at
Cheddar Gorge. In 2018 scientists from Britain's Natural History
Museum and University College London said DNA from the skeleton,
named "Cheddar Man," suggests the oldest-known Briton had dark skin
and blue eyes.
(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/7/18)
1903 London gin distiller
George Gilbey began selling aristocrats do-it-yourself gadgets to
carbonate tap water.
(SFC, 7/9/11, p.D2)
1903 China’s Tsingtao Brewery
was set up by German brewers.
(Econ, 5/31/14, SR p.14)
1903 In France Count Hallez
d’Arros founded his Society of Heraldic Faience of Pierrefonds. The
society’s pottery used a “P" and “H" mark and became well-known for
its crystalline glazes.
(SFC, 10/19/05, p.G2)
1903 The Gresham Palace Hotel
was completed in Budapest, Hungary.
(Sm, 3/06, p.81)
1903 In India 110 the five-star
Taj Mahal Palace and Tower was built in Bombay (later Mumbai).
1903 English Col. Francis
Younghusband (1863-1942) marched off from Darjeeling, India, with
1,000 British and Indian soldiers, 7,000 mules and 4,000 yaks to
1903 Prince Albert I of Monaco
initiated the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), an
effort to chart the Earth’s seabed. By 2017 only a fifth of the task
1903 Rasputin, the Russian monk
and confidant of the Romanovs, came to St. Petersburg as an ascetic
holy man and claimed to be inspired by visions of the Virgin Mary.
(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)
1903 The Kishinev pogrom in
Odessa, Russia set Vladimir Jabotinsky afire with the Jewish cause
and placed him on a Zionist path. His biography: "Lone Wolf" by
Shmuel Katz was published in Hebrew in 1993 and in English in 1996.
(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.A-20)
1903 In Russia Nicholas
Kornilowisch discovered microscopic structure in insect muscle
tissue in amber.
(PacDis, Winter/’97, p.12)
1903 The Prinkipo orphanage on
Turkey's island of Buyukada became home for about 5,800 minority
Greek children and continued operating until 1964 when it was forced
to shut down. It was built in 1899 for the Compagnie Internationale
des Wagons-Lits, the company which also ran the famed Orient
Express, but Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II withheld his permission
for it to operate as a hotel and casino. The wife of a Greek banker
later purchased it and donated it to the Istanbul-based Ecumenical
Patriarchate of Constantinople, which then ran it as an orphanage.
The building later became the subject of a drawn-out legal battle
between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Turkish government,
which confiscated it in 1997. It was returned to the Patriarchate
following a European Court of Human Rights ruling in 2010.
1903-1906 The United Shoe Manufacturing Plant was
built. It was pioneering reinforced concrete structure in Beverly,
Mass., devised by the engineer Ernest L. Ransome. He patented a way
to embed twisted square iron rods in concrete.
(WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)
1903-1907 William Randolph Hearst served two terms
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1903-1909 In SF infantry barracks were built on
Ruger St. in the Presidio to provide quarters for troops being
shipped to cover the US expansion into the Pacific.
(G, Spring/98, p.5)
1903-1966 Michael O’Donovan (aka Frank O’Connor),
Irish writer, was born in Cork. His work included "The Big Fellow:
Michael Collins & The Irish Revolution."
(SFEM, 5/24/98, p.11)
1903-1968 Tallulah Bankhead, American actress:
"The only thing I regret about my past is the length of it. If I had
to live my life again, I’d make the same mistakes, only sooner."
1903-1972 Joseph Cornell, a homebody artist. He
made elaborate shadow boxes often using astronomical themes. Three
of his works are owned by the Whitney Museum of American Art. His
work included "Soap Bubble Set" (1936), and "Garbo: The Crystal
Mask" (c1939-40). In 1997 Deborah Soloman wrote "Utopia Parkway: The
Life and Work of Joseph Cornell."
(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-13)(SFEC, 4/27/97, BR p.9)
1903-1974 Cyril Connolly, British critic: "We fear
something before we hate it. A child who fears noises becomes a man
who hates noise."
1903-1975 Walker Evans, American photographer,
became famous for his pictures of the Great Depression.
(WSJ, 3/31/00, p.W16)
1903-1981 Harry Lewis Golden, American author,
editor and publisher: "The imperceptible process of age has a point
which, once passed, cannot be retraced. I knew I had passed that
point and was getting old the day I noticed that all the cops looked
1903-1986 Candido Jacuzzi was an Italian immigrant
who manufactured hydraulic pumps. He adopted a pump to create a
hydro massage for his son who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis.
This started the hot tub business.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)
1903-1988 Alan Paton, South African author: "The
tragedy is not that things are broken. The tragedy is that they are
not mended again."
1903-1990 Malcolm Muggeridge, British author and
commentator: "It is only believers in the Fall of Man who can really
appreciate how funny men are."
1904 Jan 2, U.S. Marines were
sent to Santo Domingo to aid the government against rebel forces.
1904 Jan 2, James Longstreet
(b.1821), Confederate general, died in Georgia.
1904 Jan 4, The US Supreme
Court, in Gonzalez v. Williams, ruled that Puerto Ricans were not
aliens and could enter the US freely; however, the court stopped
short of declaring them US citizens.
1904 Jan 4, Mary Ellen Pleasant
(89), abolitionist and SF businesswoman, died after years of
work on the Underground Railroad and in civil rights. She was buried
in Napa, Ca. Her monument reads “Mother of Civil Rights in
California." She had built a mansion at 1661 Octavia, where Gov.
elect Newton Booth boarded. In 1902 Pleasant authored her
p.A15,18)(SFC, 6/10/04, p.B4)
1904 Jan 5, American Marines
arrived in Seoul, Korea to guard U.S. legation there.
1904 Jan 6, A Japanese railway
in Korea refused to transport Russian troops.
1904 Jan 7, The Marconi
International Marine Communication Company, Limited, of London
announced that the telegraphed letters “C-Q-D" would serve as a
maritime distress call. It was later replaced by “S-O-S".
1904 Jan 8, Pope Pius X banned
low cut dresses in the presence of churchmen.
1904 Jan 9, George Balanchine,
dancer, choreographer, ballet producer, was born. [see Jan 22]
1904 Jan 10, Ray Bolger, actor,
dancer (Scarecrow-Wizard of Oz), was born in Dorchester, Mass.
1904 Jan 11, British troops
massacred 1,000 dervishes in Somaliland.
1904 Jan 12, Anxious Germans
opened fire on Ovaherero at Okahandja. The Herero people of
Southwest Africa (Namibia) had risen in rebellion against German
colonial rule. The deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe “peacekeeping
regiment" quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the
Herero and Nama peoples. In 1981 Jon M. Bridgeman authored “The
Revolt of the Hereros."
1904 Jan 18, Henri-Georges
Adam, French etcher, painter, sculptor (Grand Nude), was born.
1904 Jan 18, Cary Grant
(d.1986), U.S. actor, was born in England. He was famous for his
roles in "Gunga Din," "Bringing Up Baby," "The Philadelphia Story"
and "North by Northwest."
(HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)
1904 Jan 19, James Winston
Watts, surgical developer (Frontal Lobotomy), was born.
1904 Jan 19, A team of oil
drillers led by George Reynolds and funded by English millionaire
William Knox D’Arcy, struck oil at Chiah Surkh, Persia, but by March
the volume dwindled to an unprofitable trickle.
(ON, 8/08, p.2)
1904 Jan 22, George Balanchine,
composer, choreographer, was born. [see Jan 9]
1904 Jan 25, J.M. Synge's
"Riders to the Sea," premiered in Dublin. [see Feb 25]
1904 Jan 25, Two-hundred (179)
coal miners were entombed in an explosion in Cheswick, Pennsylvania.
(HN, 1/25/99)(MC, 1/25/02)
1904 Jan 27, Willie Vanderbilt
(1878-1944) reached 92.3 mph in his new German motorcar at the
Daytona Beach Road Course at Ormond Beach, Florida, establishing a
new land speed record. He was the 2nd child and first son of William
Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith.
1904 Jan 29, The 1st athletic
letters were given to the Univ. of Chicago football team.
1904 Feb 1, S.J. (Sidney)
Perelman, author, humorist (Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, One
Touch of Venus, Strictly from Hunger, Westward Ha!) was born in
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(MC, 2/1/02)
1904 Feb 1, Enrico Caruso
recorded his first sides for Victor Records. He did ten songs in the
session for $4,000.
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1904 Feb 3, Colombian troops
clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama.
1904 Feb 4, MacKinlay Kantor,
novelist (Andersonville), was born in Webster City, Iowa.
1904 Feb 4, Russia offered
Korea to Japan and defended its right to occupy Manchuria.
1904 Feb 5, The American
occupation of Cuba ended.
1904 Feb 6, Japan's foreign
minister severed all ties with Russia, citing delaying tactics in
negotiations over Manchuria.
1904 Feb 7, A fire in Baltimore
raged for about 30 hours and destroyed more than 1,500 buildings
over 80 blocks. The fired caused an estimated $80 million in
(AP, 2/7/97)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)(MC, 2/7/02)
1904 Feb 8, The Russo-Japanese
War began. In a surprise attack at Port Arthur, Korea, the Japanese
disabled seven Russian warships. During the war, Russia suffered a
series of stunning defeats to Japan; the fighting ended with an
agreement mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt, who went on to
win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
(HN, 2/7/97)(AP, 2/8/04)
1904 Feb 9, Japanese troops
landed near Seoul, Korea, after disabling two Russian cruisers.
1904 Feb 10, Russia and Japan
declared war on each other.
1904 Feb 11, President Theodore
Roosevelt proclaimed strict neutrality for the U.S. in the
1904 Feb 14, The "Missouri Kid"
was captured in Kansas.
1904 Feb 15, Mark Hanna
(b.1837), American businessman and Republican politician, died in
Washington, DC. He served as a United States Senator from Ohio. A
friend and political ally of President William McKinley, Hanna used
his wealth and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's
presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.
1904 Feb 16, George Keenan,
U.S. diplomat, was born in Milwaukee. He became a historian and
proposed the policy of "containment" for dealing with the Soviet
1904 Feb 17, The original
two-act version of Giacomo Puccini's opera "Madame Butterfly" was
poorly received during its world premiere at La Scala, Milan.
1904 Feb 19, Winston Churchill
spoke at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester and said: “Large views
always triumph over small ideas."
(http://tinyurl.com/jpb2gsu)(Econ, 4/9/15, p.58)
1904 Feb 20, Alexei Kosygin,
Soviet Premier, was born.
1904 Feb 23, William Shirer,
was born. He was a CBS broadcaster and wrote "The Rise and Fall of
the Third Reich."
1904 Feb 23, US acquired
control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
1904 Feb 23, Japan guaranteed
Korean sovereignty in exchange for military assistance.
1904 Feb 25, J.M. Synge's play
"Riders to the Sea" opened in Dublin. [see Jan 25]
1904 Feb 27, James T. Farrell
(d.1979), author (Young Lonigan), was born. In 2004 Robert K.
Landers authored "The Life and Times of James T. Farrell."
(HN, 2/27/01)(SFC, 2/26/04, p.E1)
1904 Feb 28, Vincent d'Indy's
2nd Symphony in B premiered.
1904 Feb 29, Jimmy Dorsey
(d.1957), orchestra leader, was born in Shenandoah, Pa.
(HN, 2/29/00)(AP, 2/29/04)
1904 Mar 1, Glenn Miller
(d.1944), big band leader of the 1930s and 1940s, was born in
1904 Mar 2, Henry Dreyfuss,
industrial designer of everything from telephones to the interior of
the Boeing 707, was born.
1904 Mar 2, Theodor Seuss
Geisel [Dr. Seuss] was born in Springfield, Mass. He was the
Pulitzer Prize-winning author of "The Cat in the Hat," "Green Eggs
and Ham," "The Grinch Who Stole Christmas" and other children's
(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(HN, 3/2/99)(SSFC, 5/26/02,
1904 Mar 2, "Official Playing
Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" was adopted.
1904 Mar 2, Gabriele
d'Annunzio's "La figlia di Iorio" premiered in Milan.
1904 Mar 4, George Gamow,
nuclear physicist, cosmologist, writer (1, 2, 3...'infinity'), was
1904 Mar 4, Ding Ling, Chinese
writer and women's rights activist, was born.
1904 Mar 4, Russian troops
began to retreat toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese
advanced in Korea.
1904 Mar 7, Reinhard Heydrich,
German SS Leader and Architect of the "final solution," was born.
1904 Mar 7, The Japanese bombed
the Russian town of Vladivostok.
1904 Mar 8, The Bundestag in
Germany lifted the ban on the Jesuit order of priests.
1904 Mar 15, Three hundred
Russians were killed as the Japanese shelled Port Arthur in Korea.
1904 Mar 19, John J. Sirica,
U.S. Federal Judge, ruled on Watergate issues, was born.
1904 Mar 20, B.F. Skinner,
American psychologist, was born.
1904 Mar 22, The first color
photograph was published in the London Daily Illustrated Mirror.
1904 Mar 24, Vice Adm. Tojo
sank seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthened their blockade
of Port Arthur.
1904 Mar 26, Joseph Campbell,
folklorist and writer, was born.
1904 Apr 3, Iron Eyes Cody,
actor (Black Gold, Ernest Goes to Camp), was born in Tulsa, OK.
1904 Apr 8, Britain and France
signed a series of agreements dubbed the entente cordial. It marked
the end of almost a century of intermittent conflict between the two
nations and their predecessor states. The Entente cordiale, along
with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance,
later became part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and
1904 Apr 13, In Pensacola, Fl.,
an explosion on the US battleship Missouri killed 29 men and injured
5 men, of whom 2 died later.
(SFC, 4/15/06, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/6hkedu)
1904 Apr 14, Sir John Gielgud,
actor, was born.
1904 Apr 14, George Bernard
Shaw's "Candide," premiered in London.
1904 Apr 15, Arshile Gorky
(d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in
Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came
to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian
writer Maxim Gorky.
1904 Apr 16, Lily Pons, soprano
diva, was born in Draguignan, France.
1904 Apr 19, Much of Toronto
was destroyed by fire.
1904 Apr 22, J. Robert
Oppenheimer, head of the Manhattan (Atomic-bomb) Project, was born.
1904 Apr 23, The American
Academy of Arts and Letters was founded.
1904 Apr 24, Willem de Kooning
(d.1997), abstract impressionist artist, was born in Rotterdam.
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(HN, 4/24/01)
1904 Apr 24, Friedrich Siemens
(77), German industrialist, died.
1904 Apr 26, William "Count"
Basie, jazz pianist (Policy Man, Blazing Saddles), was born. [see
1904 Apr 27, Cecil Day-Lewis,
Irish poet, father of actor Daniel Day-Lewis, was born.
1904 Apr 30, At 1:06 p.m.
President Theodore Roosevelt officially opened the St. Louis World’s
Fair commemorating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase.
Although the Fair was originally scheduled to open in 1903, the
opening was delayed for a year while the elaborate fairgrounds were
completed. Visitors were awed by 142 miles of exhibits shown in
palatial buildings like Festival Hall the centerpiece of the fair
boasting an auditorium seating 3,500 and the largest pipe organ in
the world. Other wonders seen at the St. Louis World’s Fair were the
Liberty Bell, ice cream cones. Food vendors, Arnold Fornachou (ice
cream) and Ernest Hamwi (sweet, rolled wafers), collaborated for the
ice cream cones. In 1903 Italo Marconi received a patent for pastry
cornets to hold ice cream. Charles Menches sold ice cream at the
fair and an anonymous Syrian sold the zalabia pastry in the next
(HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(SFC, 6/24/00,
1904 Apr 30, The St. Louis
World’s Fair popularized the all-American hamburger. The fair lasted
7 months and inspired the phrase "Meet Me in St. Louis." Cass
Gilbert designed the art museum in Foret park, the only building
left over from the fair. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition the
temperatures in St. Louis soared and hot-tea vendor Richard
Blechynden began pouring his tea over ice thus the invention of
iced-tea. The fair popularized sausage in a bun, the hot dog with
prepared mustard and the ice cream cone.
(SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Par
p.19)(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 10/5/03,
1904 Although invented in Waco,
Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national exposure at
the St. Louis World's Fair.
1904 May 1, Antonin Dvorak
(b.1841), Czech composer (Slavonic Dances, New World Symphony), died
at age 62. He spent 1892-1895 in the US as an honored guest. In 2002
Michael B. Beckerman authored "New Worlds of Dvorak: Searching in
America for the Composer’s Inner Life."
(MC, 5/1/02)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M5)
1904 May 4, The United States
took over construction of the Panama Canal.
1904 May 5, Denton True Young
(Cy Young) of the Boston Red Sox pitched the American League's first
perfect game as the Boston Red Sox defeated the Philadelphia
(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)(AP, 5/5/04)
1904 May 8, U.S. Marines landed
in Tangier to protect the Belgian legation.
1904 May 8, Eadweard J.
Muybridge (b.1830 as Edward Muggeridge), English photographer, died
in England. He had spent much of his life in the USA and is known
for his pioneering work on animal locomotion which used multiple
cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for
projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated
1904 May 10, Henry Morton
Stanley (b.1841 as John Rowlands), Welsh-born British explorer, died
in London. In 2007 Tim Jeal authored “Stanley: The Impossible Life
of Africa’s Greatest Explorer."
1904 May 11, Andrew Carnegie
donated $1.5M to build a peace palace.
1904 May 11, Salvador Dali
(d.1989), surrealist painter, was born in Figueres, Spain.
(HN, 5/11/98)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00,
1904 May 14, The first Olympic
games to be held in the United States opened in St. Louis. Some
1,500 athletes competed from 13 countries. The US won 80 of 100 gold
medals. At the Olympics the game of golf was played for the last
time due to lack of general appeal. The 3rd modern Olympics were
held at the St. Louis World’s Fair. A separate competition was held
for “uncivilized tribes" in what was billed as “Anthropology Days."
(SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(AP, 5/14/97)(WSJ,
7/23/96, p.A6)(PCh, 1992, p.658)(WSJ, 8/11/04, p.B1)
1904 May 17, Maurice Ravel's
"Sheherezad," premiered in Paris.
1904 May 18, Jacob K. Javits,
US Senator-R-NY, was born.
1904 May 18, Brigand Raizuli
kidnapped American Ion H. Perdicaris in Morocco.
1904 May 21, Fats Waller
(d.1943), [Thomas Wright], jazz singer, composer (Ain't
Misbehavin'), was born in NYC.
1904 May 25, Kurt George Hugo
Thomas, composer, was born.
1904 May 29, Robert Knox,
bacteriologist, was born.
1904 Jun 2, Johnny Weissmuller,
American gold-winning Olympic swimmer (1924), was born. He portrayed
Tarzan in the movies.
(HN, 6/2/99)(SC, 6/2/02)
1904 Jun 3, Charles R. Drew
(d.1950), American black surgeon, was born. He invented blood plasma
banks. He helped develop methods to preserve blood plasma and
protested the US Army’s policy of segregating donated blood by race.
While working on his doctorate at Columbia University, Drew
researched ways to use and preserve blood plasma for use in
transfusion. He quickly became a leading authority on "blood banks"
and oversaw programs in the U.S. and Britain in the early years of
World War II. He left this enterprise when the armed forces insisted
on storing the blood plasma of blacks and whites separately. Taking
jobs at Howard University and Freedman's Hospital in Washington, DC,
he worked as an educator until his untimely death in a car accident
(SFC,11/12/97, p.A3)(HN, 6/3/00)(HNQ, 2/7/01)
1904 Jun 4, Alvah Bessie,
screenwriter and novelist, was born.
1904 Jun 6, The National
Tuberculosis Association was organized in Atlantic City, NJ.
1904 Jun 8, U.S. Marines landed
in Tangiers, Morocco, to protect U.S. citizens.
1904 Jun 11, German General
Lothar von Trotha arrived in SW Africa (later Namibia) to take over
from the colonial Governor, Theodor Leutwein, the direction of a
campaign to quell a native uprising.
1904 Jun 15, A fire erupted
aboard the steamboat General Slocum, owned by the Knickerbocker
Steamboat Co., in New York City’s East River and some 1,021 people
died. The ship carried a congregation of a German church on its
annual picnic. Capt. William van Schaick (1837-1927) was convicted
of manslaughter and sentenced to 10 years in Sing Sing. He was
pardoned by Pres. Taft in 1911.
(AP, 6/15/97)(www.newyorkhistory.info)(ON, 2/06,
1904 Jun 16, Bloomsday. The
1922 novel “Ulysses" by James Joyce was set on this day. It charts
the wanderings of Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus among Dublin
streets and beaches, museums and galleries, pubs and brothels
through the ebb and tide of their memories and emotions. The "same
day that the penniless and Myopic Jimmy Joyce (22) first walked out
with the redheaded chambermaid Nora Barnacle," (20) who became his
Molly Bloom. In 1988 Brenda Maddox authored "Nora: The Real Life of
(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C6)(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(AP,
1904 Jun 17, Ralph Bellamy,
actor (Air Mail, Dive Bomber, Trading Places, Sunrise at Campobello,
Winds of War, War and Remembrance), was born in Chicago.
1904 Jun 26, Peter Lorre,
actor, was born. He starred in Casablanca and "M."
1904 Jun 27, The 2nd Fastnet
Lighthouse was completed off of southwest Ireland.
1904 Jun 28, Blind-deaf student
Helen Keller graduated with honors from Radcliffe College. [See Sep
1904 Jun 29, In Indonesia Mount
Lewotobi on Flores Island erupted.
(SFC, 7/10/99, p.A9)
1904 Jun 30, The San Francisco
Chronicle reported that a property on Calhoun St. belonging to a
Mrs. Burdett had been destroyed by blasting by quarrymen George and
Harry Gray. Their blasting had erased a stretch of Calhoun St. and
left a sheer precipice 125 feet high.
(SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)
1904 Jul 5, Ernst Mayr,
biologist, was born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1931. Mayr
helped define the concept of species as a group of interbreeding
populations. He helped found the modern evolutionary synthesis with
Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley and George Gaylord Simpson,
that brought together a genetic understanding of how species adopt
to their environment.
(NH, 5/97, p.8)(SFC, 7/5/04, p.A6)
1904 Jul 12, Pablo Neruda
(d.1973), Chilean poet and political activist (Residence on
Earth-Nobel 1971), was born as Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto in
(HN, 7/12/01)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)
1904 Jul 14, Isaac Singer
(1991), Polish-born American author (Enemies-Nobel 1978), was born.
"God is the sum of all possibilities." "When you betray somebody
else, you also betray yourself."
(AP, 3/30/97)(AP, 6/4/99)(HN, 7/14/01)(MC,
1904 Jul 15, Dorothy Fields,
songwriter, was born.
1904 Jul 15, Anton Pavlovich
Chekhov (44), Russian writer (Uncle Vanya), died of tuberculosis.
Chekhov wrote his play "The Cherry Orchard" in this year. In 1998
Donald Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." An assay of his
plays was written by Maurice Vallency: "The Breaking string."
Vladimir Nabokov examined his short stories in "Lectures on Russian
Literature." In 1988 V.S. Pritchett wrote a biography. In 1998
Philip Callow published "Chekhov: The Hidden Ground," and Donald
Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." In 1999 Peter
Constantine translated and published "Undiscovered Chekhov:
Thirty-Eight New Stories."
(WUD, 1994, p.252)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)(WSJ,
3/9/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.8)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.6)(MC,
1904 Jul 18, Hiram Washington
Hayden (b.1820), American inventor, died in Massachusetts. In 1851
he had patented a design for brass kettles.
(SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)(http://tinyurl.com/5trd82)
1904 Jul 21, After 13 years,
the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway was completed. [see Jul 31]
1904 Jul 23, By some accounts,
the ice cream cone was invented by Charles E. Menches during the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. [see Sep 22, 1903]
1904 Jul 31, The Trans-Siberian
railroad connecting the Ural mountains with Russia’s Pacific coast,
was completed. [see Jul 21]
1904 Aug 6, The Japanese army
in Korea surrounded a Russian army retreating to Manchuria.
1904 Aug 7, Ralph Bunche
(d.1971), US diplomat and the first African-American Nobel Prize
winner (1950), was born. "There are no warlike peoples- just warlike
(HN, 8/7/98)(AP, 12/7/99)(MC, 8/7/02)
1904 Aug 9, Friedrich Ratzel
(59), German social-geographer (Lebensraum), died.
1904 Aug 10, Angelo G.
Roncalli, later Pope John XXIII, became a priest.
1904 Aug 10, Dutch newspaper
Volk fired gay journalist Jacob de Cock.
1904 Aug 11, German General
Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South
1904 Aug 12, Aleksei N.
Romanov, son of tsar Nicolas II, was born.
1904 Aug 14, The cattle-herding
Hereros, a tribe of Southwest Africa (later Namibia), became the
first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had
sent General Lothar von Trotha to put down a Herero uprising along
with the groups of rebellious Khoikhoi. Trotha drove the Hereros
into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order"
(Schrecklichkeit) authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to
surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of
the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some
9,000 escaped to neighboring countries. In 2004 a senior German
government official apologized for the genocide during a ceremony in
Namibia marking the 100th anniversary of the uprising. In 2005 a
German minister acknowledged violence by German colonial powers and
admitted that following uprisings, the surviving Herero, Nama and
Damara were interned in camps and put to forced labor of such
brutality that many did not survive.
4/14/99)(AP, 8/14/04)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E5)
1904 Aug 16, NYC began building
the Grand Central Station.
1904 Aug 18, [Francis] Max
Factor (d.1996), cosmetics manufacturer (Max Factor), was born. His
father, Max Factor (d.1938), was born in Lodz, Russia, in 1877 and
came to the US with his family in 1902.
1904 Aug 20, Dublin’s Abbey
Theatre was founded, an outgrowth of the Irish Literary Theatre
founded in 1899 by William Butler Yeats and Lady Gregory.
1904 Aug 21, William "Count"
Basie, American band leader and composer, was born. [see Apr 26]
1904 Aug 22, Deng Xiaoping
(d.1997), Chinese leader from 1977 to 1987, was born in Sichuan
province. He held nominal leadership position until his death.
(HN, 8/22/00)(AP, 8/22/04)
1904 Aug 24, In the field
battle at Liaoyang, China, some 200,000 Japanese faced 150,000
Russians. The Japanese defeated the Russians in October.
(MC, 8/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.654)
1904 Aug 26, Christopher
Isherwood, English novelist and playwright, was born. He wrote
"Goodbye to Berlin" (Berlin Stories), the inspiration for the play
"I am a Camera" and the musical and film "Cabaret." [1906 also given
as birth year]
(WUD, 1994 p.755)(HN, 8/26/00)
1904 Aug 29, Werner
Forssman, German urologist, was born. He was the first to
catheterize his own heart and won a Nobel prize in 1956.
1904 Sep 1, Helen Keller with
the faithful help of teacher Annie Mansfield Sullivan, graduated cum
laude from Radcliffe College at age 24. This accomplishment was
particularly remarkable because Keller had lost both sight and
hearing at age 2 after contracting scarlet fever. Sullivan, who
broke through Helen’s childhood isolation to teach her Braille and
sign language, accompanied Helen to every class at Radcliffe,
spelling lectures and books into her hand. After graduation, Keller
embarked on a career of writing on behalf of woman suffrage,
socialism and the rights of the handicapped. Helen Keller died on
June 1, 1968, 32 years after the death of her beloved teacher, Annie
(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)(HNPD, 9/3/98)
1904 Sep 2, Set Svanholm, tenor
(Met Opera and London Convent Garden), was born in Vesteras, Sweden.
1904 Sep 4, Dali Lama signed a
treaty allowing British commerce in Tibet.
1904 Sep 9, Mounted police were
1st used in NYC.
1904 Sep 11, The battleship
Connecticut, launched in New York, introduced a new era in naval
1904 Sep 15, Wilbur Wright made
his 1st controlled half-circle while in flight with Flyer II. On Sep
20 he flew a full circle for the first time.
1904 Sep 18, In East London
Jewish anarchists on Brick Lane pelted Ultra-Orthodox worshippers
with bacon sandwiches on Yom Kippur.
(http://tinyurl.com/3x7moee)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.17)
1904 Sep 19, Bergen Baldwin
Evans (d.1978), American educator and author who wrote the
"Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage," was born in Ohio.
"Freedom of speech and freedom of action are meaningless without
freedom to think. And there is no freedom of thought without doubt."
(AP, 8/11/98)(HN, 9/19/98)(MC, 9/19/01)
1904 Sep 19, Gen. Nogi's
assault on Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.
1904 Sep 20, Orville and Wilbur
Wright flew a circle in their Flyer II.
1904 Sep 21, Exiled Nez Perce
leader Chief Joseph died in Washington state reportedly of a "broken
heart." In 1984 “Chief Joseph’s Own Story" was published.
(HN, 9/21/98)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)
1904 Sep 24, Sixty-two died and
120 were injured in head-on train collision in Tennessee.
1904 Sep 25, A New York City
police officer ordered a female passenger in an automobile on Fifth
Avenue to stop smoking a cigarette. A male companion was arrested
and later fined two dollars for "abusing" the officer.
1904 Sep 26, GB Shaw's "How He
Lied to Her Husband," premiered in NYC.
1904 Sep 26, Lafcadio Hearn
(b.1850), Greece-born, Irish-American travel writer, died in Japan.
He moved to Japan in 1890 and is especially well-known for his
collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as “Kwaidan:
Stories and Studies of Strange Things" (1904). In 2009 Christopher
Benfey edited “Lafcadio Hearn: American Writings."
1904 Sep 28, A woman was placed
under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York’s Fifth Avenue.
1904 Oct 1, Vladimir Horowitz,
Russian-born American virtuoso pianist, was born in Kiev, Ukraine.
(HN, 10/1/98)(MC, 10/1/01)
1904 Oct, 1, Forty orphans
(aged 2-6), shipped west in the company of nuns by a New York
Foundling Hospital, arrived at the Arizona copper mining towns of
Clifton and Morenci. Anglo townspeople opposed their adoption by
Mexican American citizens, terrorized the adopting families and took
some of the children for themselves. In 1999 Linda Gordon authored
"The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction;" Linda Peavy and Ursula Smith
authored "Frontier Children," which described the "orphan train"
plan to transport poor city-bred children to a healthier life out
(SFEC, 1/9/00, Par p.6)
1904 Oct 2, Graham Greene
(d.1991), British author, was born. His work included "The Power and
the Glory," "The Heart of the Matter" and "Ministry of Fear," which
was made into a 1940s movie by Fritz Lang. "I didn't invent the
world I write about- it's all true." In 2004 Norman sherry concluded
his 3-volume biography: “The Life of Graham Greene."
(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.44)(AP, 4/3/00)(HN,
10/2/00)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.E1)
1904 Oct 2, General Lothar von
Trotha: “I, the great General of the German soldiers, send this
letter to the Herero people (SW Africa-Namibia). The Herero are no
longer German subjects... The Herero nation must...leave the
country. If they do not leave, I will force them out with the Groot
Rohr (cannon). Every Herero, armed or unarmed...will be shot dead
within the German borders. I will no longer accept women and
children, but will force them back to their people or shoot at
1904 Oct 4, 1st day of NYC
subway, 350,000 people rode the 9.1 mile tracks. [see Oct 24, 27]
1904 Oct 4, Frederic Auguste
Bertholdi, French sculptor (Statue of Liberty), died.
1904 Oct 7, Isabella Bird
Bishop (b.1831), English explorer, writer, and natural historian,
died in Edinburgh. Her books included the 2-volume work “Korea and
Her Neighbors" (1898).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_Bird)(Econ, 10/26/13, SR
1904 Oct 8, James Joyce and
Nora Barnacle left together for Switzerland for a job in a Berlitz
school that never materialized. They continued on to Pola and then
to Trieste where he wrote most of "The Dubliners."
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)
1904 Oct 13, Sigmund Freud's
"The Interpretation of Dreams" was published.
1904 Oct 16, The Russian Baltic
fleet under Rear-Admiral Zinovi Rozhestvensky departed to lift the
Japanese blockade at Port Arthur, Manchuria.
(ON, 5/04, p.6)
1904 Oct 17, Amadeo Peter
Giannini (d.1949) founded the Bank of Italy, the predecessor to the
Bank of America, on the Montgomery block in SF.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.5)
1904 Oct 18, A.J. Liebling
(d.1963), American journalist and author, was born. "People
everywhere confuse/ What they read in newspapers with news."
(AP, 4/12/97)(HN, 10/18/00)
1904 Oct 18, Mahler's 5th
symphony premiered in Cologne.
1904 Oct 20, Bolivia and Chile
signed a treaty ending the War of the Pacific. The treaty recognized
Chile's possession of Bolivia's nitrate-rich coastal province of
Antofagasta, but provided for construction of a railway to link La
Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast.
(HN, 10/20/98)(Econ, 12/6/03, p.34)
1904 Oct 21, Panamanians
clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
1904 Oct 22, The Russian Baltic
fleet mistakenly fired on British fishing ships near Dogger Bank
killing 2 fishermen. The fleet was in fear of Japanese torpedo
(ON, 5/04, p.7)
1904 Oct 24, Moss Hart
(d.1961), American playwright, director and librettist, was born in
(WUD, 1994, p.648)(AP, 8/18/98)(HN, 10/24/00)
1904 Oct 24, The 1st NY subway
opened. [see Oct 4, 27]
1904 Oct 27, The first rapid
transit subway, the IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit), was
inaugurated in New York City. It ran from the Brooklyn Bridge uptown
to Broadway at 145th Street with a fare of one nickel. [see Oct 4,
(AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 10/27/98)
1904 Oct 28, In NYC the City
Hall station subway station opened. The station closed in 1945 when
subway cars moved their doors to the center, because this created a
dangerous gap between the exit point on the train and the platform.
1904 Oct 28, The St. Louis,
Missouri, police tried a new investigation method—fingerprints.
1904 Nov 1, George Bernard
Shaw's "John Bull's Other Island," premiered in London.
1904 Nov 4, Harvard Stadium
became the 1st stadium built specifically for football.
1904 Nov 8, Theodore Roosevelt
(R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections.
Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.
(HN, 11/6/98)(AP, 11/8/04)
1904 Nov 9, 1st airplane flight
to last more than 5 minutes.
1904 Nov 11, Alger Hiss, State
Department official who hid papers in a pumpkin, was born.
1904 Nov 11, The Harcourt
Building in Boston, which housed the new photography studio of Fred
Holland Day, burns down. He lost decades of work and a priceless
collection of other people’s work.
(Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1904 Nov 15, King C. Gillette
patented his Gillette razor blade.
1904 Nov 17, Isamu Noguchi,
sculptor (1963 Fine Arts Medal), was born.
1904 Nov 17, George Cohan's
musical "Little Johnny Jones," premiered in NYC.
1904 Nov 21, Coleman Hawkins,
jazz saxophonist, was born.
1904 Nov 21, Motorized
omnibuses replaced horse-drawn cars in Paris.
1904 Nov 23, Russo-German talks
broke down because of Russia's insistence to consult France.
1904 Nov 27, A German colonial
army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa (later
1904 Nov 28, Nancy Mitford,
English author (Love in a Cold Climate), was born. The eldest of 7
Mitford children was born to Lord and Lady Redesdale. In 2001 Mary
S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family."
Jessica Mitford, author of "The American Way of Death" (1963) died
(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(MC, 11/28/01)
1907 Nov 28, Alberto Moravia,
Italian novelist, novelist, was born. His work included "The
Conformist" and "Conjugal Love."
1904 Nov 28, The pivotal
capture by the Japanese of 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur
occurred during the bloodiest battle of the Russo-Japanese War of
1904-05. The battle of November 28-December 5, 1904, resulted in
Japanese forces taking the strategic 203 Meter Hill, allowing them
to bombard and sink the Russian fleet in the harbor at Port
Arthur. Russia surrendered the city of Port Arthur to Japan on
January 1, 1905.
1904 Dec 1, The Louisiana
Purchase Exposition in St. Louis closed after seven months and some
20 million visitors.
1904 Dec 5, Japanese destroyed
Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Korea.
1904 Dec 6, Theodore Roosevelt
confirmed the Monroe-doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary).
1904 Dec 9, Von Schlieffen
order von Trotha to pardon all Ovaherero, after tens of thousands
had perished in the desert, except those who were "directly
guilty and the leaders."
1904 Dec 10, Charles M. Schwab
incorporated a revamped Bethlehem Steel. As president of US Steel he
had acquired the Pennsylvania steel maker in 1901. Schwab resigned
his position at US Steel to run Bethlehem Steel. In 2008 Kenneth
Warren authored “Bethlehem Steel: Builder and Arsenal of America."
(WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)
1904 Dec 16, Japanese warships
quit Port Arthur in order to cut off the Russian Baltic fleet’s
1904 Dec 18, George Stevens,
American director (Alice Adams, Penny Serenade), was born.
1904 Dec 24, Herbert D Riley,
US vice-admiral (WW II, Guadalcanal, Okinawa), was born.
1904 Dec 24, German SW Africa
abolished the slavery of young children.
1904 Dec 27, Duke of York
Theatre opened in London with the 1st performance “Peter Pan: The
Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up," a dream-play written by J.M. Barrie.
1904 Dec 28, Farmers in Georgia
burned two million bales of cotton to prop up falling prices.
1904 Dec 28, The 1st daily
wireless weather forecasts were published in London.
1904 Dec 30, Dmitri B.
Kabalevsky, composer, was born in St Petersburg, Russia.
1904 Dec 31, Nathan Milstein,
concert violinist, was born in Odessa, Russia.
1904 Alexandrina Maria da Costa
of Portugal (d.1955) was born. She became a lay Salesian cooperator
and according to the Vatican lived the last 13 years of her life
eating only the bread and wine of Communion. She was beatified in
1904 Paul Cezanne, French
painter, declared that he wanted "to do Poussin over from nature,"
by which he meant that he hoped to transport Poussin’s ancient gods
and lucid geometries into a breezy impressionist outdoors. Cezanne
began his painting "Nature Morte: Rideau a Fleur et Fruits," (Still
Life with Flowered Curtain and Fruit). In 1997 it sold for $50
million to Ronald Lauder, chairman of Estee Lauder Int’l. Cezanne
completed his oil on canvas "Fillette a la Poupee."
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/31/97, p.B1)(SFC,
1904 Matisse painted his
pointillist "Luxe, Calme et Volupte."
(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)
1904 Claude Monet painted
"Water Lilies." The work was acquired by art-dealer Paul Rosenberg
and then stolen by the Nazis and put into the collection of Foreign
Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. After the war it reverted to the
French government. In 1998 the Rosenberg family again laid claim.
(SFC, 12/1/98, p.A2)
1904 Picasso painted the
"Christ of Montmartre" in watercolor and the "Portrait of James
Sabarte" during his Blue Period. He also did "The Couple."
(WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6)(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)(SFC,
1904 John Singer Sargent
painted "An Artist in His Studio," which showed his friend Ambroglio
(WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)
1904 Jack London worked as a
war correspondent in the Russo-Japanese War. London was among the
contingent of reporters representing the Hearst newspapers. He was
on his first news assignment and had no experience as a reporter,
but the 28-year-old writer had already received world acclaim for
his novel "The Call of the Wild" and other stories about the 1897
Klondike gold rush.
1904 George Bernard Shaw wrote
his play "John Bull’s Other Island," a study of the Irish problem.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1904 Arthur Brown authored “New
Forces in Old China: An Unwelcome But Inevitable Awakening."
(Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.3)
1904 G.K. Chesterton authored
his novel "The Napoleon of Notting Hill."
(NW, 8/20/01, p.56)
1904 Joseph Conrad wrote his
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.C1)
1904 Black cowboy, Deadwood
Dick, wrote his autobiography.
(Hem., 5/97, p.18)
1904 Ernst Haeckel published
"Kunstformen," one hundred lithographic plates that included
depictions of single-celled organisms, plants and animals.
(NH, 12/98, p.58)
1904 Hermann Hesse (26)
published his first novel, "Peter Camenzind." in 1904 when he was
26. The story of an unsuccessful and dissipated writer was
1904 Jack London (1876-1916)
authored “Sea Wolf," a thrilling epic of a sea voyage and a complex
novel of ideas.
1904 Clarence E. Mulford
created Hopalong Cassidy, a cowboy-hero who appeared in a series of
popular stories and novels. In print, the character appears as a
rude, rough-talking "galoot". Beginning in 1935, the character,
played by William Boyd, was transformed into the clean-cut hero of a
series of 66 immensely popular films, only a few of which were based
on Mulford's works.
1904 Lincoln Steffens
(1866-1936), writer, political philosopher and lecturer, muckraking
author published "The Shame of the Cities." He was hailed as an
"American Socrates" because he raised rather than answered questions
and jolted his audiences into awareness. He was a leader of the form
of journalism that won the sobriquet "muckraking" from Theodore
Roosevelt. Steffens sought to reveal the shortcomings of the popular
dogmas that equated economic success with moral worth and national
progress with individual self-interest.
1904 Ida Tarbell (1857-1944),
journalist, published the 2-volume "History of the Standard Oil
Company." It revealed the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller
to gain a monopoly and control oil prices and began as a series in
McClure's Magazine in 1902. This led to a federal investigation and
the 1911 order by the Supreme Court for the breakup of Standard Oil.
(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(HNQ,
1904 Max Weber (1864-1920),
German sociologist and political economist, authored "The Protestant
Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." Weber wrote "the modern man is
in general, even with the best will, unable to give religious ideas
a significance for culture and national character which they
deserve." Weber visited the US in this year.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 8/19/96, p.A11)(WSJ,
1904 Edith Wharton wrote
"Italian Villas and Their Gardens."
(WSJ, 12/9/97, p.A20)
1904 Isadora Duncan performed
at the Bayreuth Festival at the invitation of Cosima Wagner. She
danced in the Act 1 orgy of Wagner's "Tannhauser."
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1904 Leos Janacek composed his
realist opera "Jenufa."
(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A20)
1904 Frank Lloyd Wright
designed the Larkin Building in Buffalo, NY. It was demolished in
1950. His Darwin Martin house was built in this year for an official
of the Larkin company.
(WSJ, 8/20/03, p.D12)
1904 In Chicago Orchestra Hall
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1904 Near Chicago the Ravinia
Festival was founded as a high-class amusement park designed to
increase ridership for a railroad company. It became a center for
summertime opera but folded during the depression in 1931. It
re-opened in 1936 as the summer home of the Chicago Symphony
(WSJ, 8/17/98, p.A12)
1904 In NYC the New York Times
moved into a new building at Longacre Square. Publisher Adolph Ochs
persuaded the mayor to rename the intersection Times Square.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)(ON, 6/07, p.12)
1904 The Jewish Museum of NYC
was founded and housed at the Jewish Theological Seminary on 122nd
St. and Broadway. In 1944 Frieda Schiff Warburg gave her
chateau-style mansion at 1109 Fifth to the museum, which re-opened
there in 1947.
(WSJ, 7/6/04, p.D5)
1904 The reference here depicts
a map of Detroit neighborhoods in 1904 by ethnicity.
1904 Silas Farmer,
historiographer of the City of Detroit, created an Industrial Map of
1904 The Irish Abbey Theater
opened. John Millington Synge had his plays performed there and in
the same year met with James Joyce in Paris.
(WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)
1904 The Victorian Gardens Inn
in Elk, California, started as a sheep ranch on Mallow Creek.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
1904 The Woodlawn Memorial Park
non-denominational cemetery was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
1904 Mary McLeod Bethune, a
black American, founded Bethune-Cookman College.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)
1904 The National Association
for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis was founded. It later
became the American Lung Association.
(WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A1)
1904 Alexander Graham Bell,
scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson,
founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States for
interment in the original Smithsonian building. Smithson was
an English scientist who bequeathed his entire estate to the United
States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of
knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson, who
had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him, was
born in 1765 and died in 1829.
1904 Arthur Eliot, a Boston
publisher, began distributing price quotes on unlisted US stocks. In
1913 he joined with a competitor to form the National Quotation
Bureau. Their quotes were distributed on pink sheets of paper and
came to be called the Pink Sheets.
(WSJ, 12/17/05, p.B6)
1904 Englishman Edmund Morel
journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American
Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley
Hall, president of Clark Univ.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)
1904 A tea merchant began to
send sales samples in little muslim sacks that customers put whole
into hot water and started the tea bag phenomena.
(SFC, 7/19/97, p.E4)
1904 Roger Babson (1875-1967),
investment advisor, founded his “Office of Roger W. Babson." Babson
was later famed for predicting “The Great Wall Street Crash" in 1929
and for prior positioning of his clients’ assets. On September 5,
1929, he gave a speech saying, "Sooner or later a crash is coming,
and it may be terrific." Later that day the stock market declined by
about 3%. This became known as the "Babson Break". The Wall Street
Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression soon followed.
1904 Sun Manufacturing moved
from Greenfield, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio, and manufactured coffee
mills there until about 1920.
(SFC, 2/7/07, p.G7)
1904 In San Francisco an
allegorical sculpture honoring Pres. McKinley showed a figure
holding a palm branch in one hand and a sword in the other was
erected in Golden Gate Park.
(SFC, 8/29/13, p.D1)
1904 In San Francisco the St.
Francis Hotel overlooking Union Square was built based on an
H-shaped design plan by Bliss and Faville. A third wing was soon
added and a 4th wing came in 1913. In 1972 a multi-story modern
tower, designed by William L. Pereira Assoc., was added.
1904 In San Francisco Pershing
Hall was built in the Army Presidio as quarters for single officers.
In 2012 it was converted Inn at the Presidio, a 22-room hotel
operated by Waterford Hotels and Inns of San Mateo.
(SFC, 1/6/12, p.D1)
1904 In San Francisco a 5-story
building was completed for the Folger Coffee Co. at 101 Howard St.
It survived the 1906 earthquake due to wooden piles driven 40 feet
into the bay fill below.
(SSFC, 12/27/09, p.C2)
1904 In San Francisco the
4-story, Mission Revival-style apartment building at 2300 Market
Street was built.
(SSFC, 6/26/11, p.C2)
1904 In San Francisco
construction began on the 8-story Grant Building, designed by Newton
Tharp, at 1095 Market St. on the corner of 7th. In 2014 New York
real estate developer Synapse Capital purchased the building and
planned to convert it into a 200-room micro-apartments hotel in
partnership with London’s Yotel.
(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A21)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.A11)
1904 Lumber baron R.A. Vance
built mansion at 2400 Fulton St. in San Francisco. In 1968 it was
purchased by the Jefferson Airplane rock group.
(SSFC, 1/30/11, DB p.42)
1904 A mansion for Archbishop
Patrick Riordan was built on Alamo Square at 1000 Fulton St. Over
the following years it served as a convent, orphanage, reform
school, rehab center , psychiatric hospitcal and bed-and-breakfast
(SFCM, 6/9/02, p.25)(SSFC, 4/29/18, p.D1)
1904 In San Francisco the
10-story Atlas Building was completed at 604 Mission St.
(SSFC, 11/13/11, p.C2)
1904 Julia Morgan (1872-1957)
became the first woman to receive a California architectural
license.In 2014 she became the first woman to receive the annual
Gold Medal awarded by the American Institute of Architects.
(SFC, 6/27/14, p.A1)
1904 The Riverside County
Courthouse was built. It was designed by Franklin Pierce Burnham and
inspired by the beaux arts movement.
(SFC, 4/13/02, p.A17)
1904 A power plant was built on
Eureka’s Humboldt Bay shore.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C10)
1904 In Marin the West Point
Inn on Mount Tamalpais was built as a stopover for passengers on the
old Bolinas stagecoach.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T4)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.F8)
1904 Pope Pius X gave papal
permission for Los Angeles to construct a Cathedral. The permit was
not made use of until 1997 with the planned construction of Our Lady
of the Angels.
(SFC, 2/18/96, p.A11)
1904 California’s Wells Fargo
merged with the Nevada Bank, owned by Isaias Hellman, making it one
of the West’s largest financial institutions.
(SSFC, 11/30/08, Books p.3)
1904 Radio PH of the De Forest
Wireless Telegraph Company began broadcasting from the Old Palace
Hotel in SF.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A14)
1904 In San Francisco the home
of Milton Schmitt at 1500 Sutter St. was converted to a hotel. The
Hotel Majestic survived the 1906 earthquake and as of 2018 was the
oldest operating hotel in the city.
(SSFC, 10/28/18, p.M3)
1904 In San Francisco Giuseppe
Coppa opened a restaurant on the ground floor of the Montgomery
Block, where the Transamerica Pyramid was later erected. His café
became a refuge for the city’s hipsters. In 1905 he turned the place
over to local artists who covered the walls with murals. Looters
destroyed the café following the 1906 earthquake.
(SFC, 11/12/16, p.C1)
1904 Former SF Mayor James
Phelan became head of the new Committee for the Improvement and
Adornment of San Francisco. He invited famed architect and city
planner Daniel Burnham to draw up a plan to transform the entire
city. Phelan’s plans were printed in 1906 but most of the 3,000
copies were lost in the April 18 earthquake.
(SFC, 10/28/17, p.C3)
1904 California’s Big Basin
State Park was opened to campers.
(Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)
1904 Samuel Sebastiani
purchased a winery in Sonoma, Ca.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.CA1)
1904 California’s population
was around 1.4 million. 14% of US homes had a bathtub, 8% had
telephones and the total number of US cars was around 8,000.
(SFC, 6/25/04, p.F8)
1904 Elizabeth J. Magie
(1866-1948), American game designer, patented the Landlord’s Game.
In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, where
she refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to
George Darrow who began selling it commercially as Monopoly in
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Magie)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)
1904 Israel Waldbaum began
selling butter and eggs in Brooklyn, New York. By the 1980s the
operation had grown to 140 supermarkets and was sold to A&P.
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)
1904 Ivan P. Pavlov (d.1936),
Russian physiologist, won the Nobel Prize.
1904 The Roosevelt Corollary
transformed the Monroe Doctrine from one of nonintervention by
European powers in Western Hemispheric affairs to one of
intervention by the U.S. Reflecting Roosevelt's "Big Stick"
philosophy, the president stated in 1904: "Chronic wrongdoing, or an
impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of
civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require
intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western hemisphere
the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force
the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such
wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police
1904 Alton B. Parker, aka "the
Sphinx" or "the Mummy" or "the enigma from New York," ran as a
Democrat against Theodore Roosevelt.
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)
1904 Silas Swallow was the US
presidential candidate for the Prohibition Party. The Anti-Saloon
League spearheaded 20th-century prohibitionism and invented modern
(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)
1904 American Tobacco merged
with its holding company, Continental Tobacco Co.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1904 The Maxwell-Briscoe Motor
Car Co. was formed. It would later become Chrysler Corp.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1904 Charles S. Rolls became
the selling agent for cars made by F. Henry Royce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1904 Cleveland Cap Screw
introduced the first two-piece engine valve production process based
a design by welder Charles Thompson.
(F, 10/7/96, p.66)
1904 Otto H.L. Wernicke joined
his Michigan furniture business with the Ohio Globe Files Co. to
form the Globe-Wernicke Co. Around 1905 Wernicke Furniture purchased
the Fred Macey Furniture Co. and began making stackable bookcases.
Globe-Wernicke sued Macey in 1906 for using its patents. After years
of litigation Globe lost.
(SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)
1904 Glenn Curtiss, a
motorcycle builder in Hammondsport, NY, began making
gasoline-burning aircraft engines for dirigibles that San Francisco
daredevil Thomas Scott Baldwin was building in California. Baldwin
flew a 54-foot dirigible equipped with a motorcycle engine and is
credited with for building the first successful American dirigible.
(ON, 12/11, p.10)(SFC, 10/11/14, p.C2)
1904 Uranium became recognized
as an energy source.
(WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)
1904 A fast-spreading fungus
was discovered that almost wiped out the American chestnut trees,
which could grow to a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 8 feet or
more. In 2006 a surviving stand was found near Warm Springs,
1904 Henri Poincare, French
mathematician, posited a problem in topology that in 2000 became one
of 7 “millennium prize problems." In 2003 a solution was proposed by
Dr. Grigori Perelman of Russia. In 2006 a 328-page book was
published that explained Perelman’s 22 page solution.
(WSJ, 7/21/06, p.A9)
1904 R.H. Curtis, British
astronomer, proved that the brighter component of Castor is a binary
star with a period of 9 days.
1904 The Berringer Crater was
discovered and understood to be a meteor impact crater dated back
25-50,000 years. The crater is ¾ of a mile wide and 640 feet deep
and is estimated to have resulted from a meteor of about 100 feet in
(TMP, KCTS, 1987)
1904 The Weerdinge Couple, 2
men, were found in a Holland bog and dated from 160BC – 220AD.
(AM, 7/97, p.66)
1904 After a mine disaster near
Pittsburgh killed 178 people, industrialist Andrew Carnegie
established a fund to honor rescuers known as the Carnegie Hero
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-8)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.B1)
1904 Luigi Palma di Cesnola,
American Consul to Cyprus (1865) and artifact collector, died. In
1971 Elizabeth McFadden authored her Cesnola biography: "The Glitter
and the Gold." In 2000 Anna G. Marangou authored "The Consul Luigi
Palma di Cesnola (1832-1904): Life and Deeds."
(AM, 7/00, p.60)
1904 Nez Perce Chief Joseph
died, reportedly of a broken heart.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)
1904 Agnes Wilson (b.1832),
painter, died. She arrived in SF with the gold Rush in 1850 and
taught painting to her son, Charles Theller Wilson (b.1855). Agnes
is California’s earliest know woman artist.
(SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)
1904 In Australia the first
regional art gallery in New South Wales was built at Broken Hill.
(Hem., 2/97, p.94)
1904 British writer Hector Hugh
Munro, aka Saki (1870-1916), authored his short story “Reginald on
Besetting Sins: The Woman Who Told the Truth."
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.47)
1904 The London Symphony
Orchestra was formed.
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.82)
1904 William and Gilbert Foyle
founded Foyle's bookstore. They began by selling their textbooks
after failing the entrance exam for the civil service.
(SFC, 6/11/99, p.D6)
1904 John William Strutt
(1842-1919), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist, won the Nobel
Prize in Physics for his investigations of the densities of the most
important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with
1904 In England the Grand Pier
opened at Weston-super-Mare on the northern Somerset coast and
stretched a quarter of a mile (400 meters) into the Bristol Channel.
The theatre pavilion on the Grand Pier was destroyed by fire in 1930
and rebuilt, opening three years later. In 2008 another fire
destroyed the pier.
1904 The Congo Reform
Association was born following the return of Roger Casement from the
Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)
1904 The British Rover Motor
Car Company was founded.
(SSFC, 11/22/09, p.H1)
1904 Christopher Dresser
(b.1834), English designer, died. In 1876 he became the 1st European
designer to visit Japan.
(WSJ, 4/6/04, p.D4)
1904 In Canada St. Joseph's
Oratory was founded in Montreal by Andre Bessette. He was canonized
by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.
1904 Canada’s Parliament,
angered by soaring imports of cut-price steel, imposed punitive
tariffs on US steel.
1904 Canada's North West
Mounted Police force was renamed the Royal North West Mounted Police
by King Edward VII. With the incorporation of the federal
organization called the Dominion Police in 1920, the name Royal
Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1904 Edmonton, Canada, a
fur-trading hub and a center for agriculture and cattle, became a
(SSFC, 10/4/15, p.M4)
1904 In Victoria, British
Columbia, Jennie Butchart began a garden of peas and roses. The
garden grew to 55 acres of flower beds and became world famous.
(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.D7)
1904 In Denmark a new law
forced the people to stick with the names they had, as opposed to
the previous system where people where named after their fathers
(WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A1)
1904 Denmark and Sweden issued
the first Christmas seals to raise money to fight tuberculosis.
(SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.10)
1904 Ernesto Schiaparelli,
Italian Egyptologist, discovered the tomb of Queen Nefertari, wife
of Ramses II, in the sands of Luxor’s Valley of the Queens. The
3,000 year old tomb is later restored and opened to the public on
(V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-20)
1904 In Germany the O&M
Hausser toy company was founded in Ludwigsberg. They used they
"Elastolin" trade name for small composition figures that included
soldiers of various countries.
(SFC, 1/13/99, Z1 p.6)
1904 In Guatemala the Postal
Code created the General Administration of Mail and Telegraphs
(GAMT). The system grew to become very inefficient and in the 1980s
private delivery businesses began to spring up.
(WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A15)
1904 Iceland won home rule.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)
1904 Irish poet William
Butler Yeats included the poem “Adam’s curse" in the volume “In the
Seven Woods." In the poem Yeats describes the difficulty of creating
something beautiful. The title alludes to the book of Genesis,
evoking the fall of man and the separation of work and pleasure.
1904 In Italy Prince Piero
Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal power plant in 1904, at
the Larderello dry steam field.
1904 In Japan Nippon Toki
Kaisha Ltd. began manufacturing Noritake porcelain.
(SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/9/05, p.G9)
1904 Panama adopted the US
dollar as its currency.
(WSJ, 1/18/98, p.A1)
1904 The eastern Samoan islands
became territories of the United States and later became known as
American Samoa. The western islands became known as Western Samoa
(later the Independent State of Samoa), passing from German control
to New Zealand in 1914. New Zealand administered Western Samoa under
the auspices of the League of Nations and then as a UN trusteeship
until independence in 1962. Western Samoa was the first Pacific
Island country to gain its independence.
1904 In South Africa Soweto (an
acronym for southwest townships) was established as a separate,
(SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T4)
1904 In Thailand the Siam
Society, a bastion of Thai culture, was founded.
(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)
1904-1905 Japan goes to war against Russia.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1904-1908 In South West Africa (later Namibia)
thousands of Herero and Nama were slaughtered, left to starve or
died at concentration camps during this period, after the tribes
rebelled against German rule.
1904-1911 Leonard Sidney Woolf (1880-1969) served
in the Ceylon Civil Service. He later authored “The Village in the
Jungle," a novel based on his time in Sri Lanka. In 2006 Victoria
Glendinning authored “Leonard Woolf: A Life."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Woolf)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.93)
1904-1911 In Kenya a deal between the British and
the Masai forced the pastoral people from their land in the western
(WSJ, 1/30/08, p.A18)
1904-1940 During this period the San Francisco
roadhouse at 1536 La Playa, known as the Breakers, the Crest, and,
finally, Mendell's, entertained guests who ate, drank, and danced
underneath a fantastic fabric of garish, glimmering sea life. In the
carriage house next door to the south, customers stabled their
horses and parked their bicycles, motorcycles, and automobiles.
1904-1967 J. Robert Oppenheimer, American
physicist: "In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no
humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have
known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose." "As long
as men are free to ask what they must, free to say what they think,
free to think what they will, freedom can never be lost, and science
can never regress."
(AP, 7/16/97)(AP, 1/26/98)
1904-1968 George Gamow, physicist and writer. He
popularized the idea of The Big Bang.
1904-1971 Margaret Bourke-White, American
photojournalist: "A burning purpose attracts others who are drawn
along with it and help fulfill it."
1904-1972 Betty Smith, American author: "I can
never give a 'yes' or a 'no.' I don't believe everything in life can
be settled by a monosyllable."
1904-1980 Cecil Beaton, English fashion
photographer and costume designer: "The truly fashionable are beyond
1904-1980 Louis Kronenberger, American author:
"The trouble with our age is all signposts and no destination."
1904-1984 Reverend Karl Rahner, Austrian
theologian: "The theological problem today is to find the art of
drawing religion out of a man, not pumping it into him."
1904-1990 Marya Mannes, American critic: "An
American who can make money, invoke God, and be no better than his
neighbor, has nothing to fear but truth itself."
1904-1993 William L. Shirer, American author and
journalist: "History must speak for itself. A historian is content
if he has been able to shed more light."