Return to home1965 Jan 1, In
SF gay celebrants held a Mardi-Gras themed costume ball at
California Hall on Polk Street as a benefit for the Council on
Religion and the Homosexual, co-founded in 1964 by Rev. Robert
Cromey and Rev. Ted McIlvenna. Police set up flood lights at the
entrance and harassed some 500 couples that entered. Mayor Shelley
soon called for a full accounting of the episode from Police Chief
(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E7)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.E1)(SFCM,
1965 Jan 2, The New York Jets
signed University of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for a reported
1965 Jan 2, Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr began a drive to register black voters.
1965 Jan 3, UC Berkeley
officials announced a new campus policy that allowed political
activity on campus.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1965 Jan 4, President Johnson
outlined the goals of his "Great Society" in his State of the Union
address. The "Great Society" was to be achieved through a vast
program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war
on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law
reform and greater support of education.
(AP, 1/4/98)(HNQ, 9/11/99)
1965 Jan 4, T.S. Eliot, English
poet, died in London at age 76. In 1995 Anthony Julius published
"T.S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism and Literary Form." Julius was the lawyer
who won a divorce settlement of $23 million for Princess Diana in
1996. "Little Gidding" is an Eliot work. In 2015 Robert Crawford
authored “Young Eliot: From St. Louis to The Waste Land."
(SFC, 7/17/96, p.E6)(NH, 8/96, p.57)(AP,
1/4/98)(Econ., 2/14/15, p.74)
1965 Jan 5, Charles Robert
Jenkins (b.1940) deserted his US Army post at the Korean DMZ hoping
to be arrested, turned over to Russia and returned to the US. His
plan failed and he ended up living in North Korea where he married
Hitomi Soga, a Japanese woman kidnapped by North Korea in the 1970s.
In 2004 Jenkins reunited with his wife in Indonesia and in September
turned himself in to US military authorities in Japan. [see Sep 1,
1965] In 2008 Jenkins with Jim Frederick authored “The Reluctant
Communist: My Desertion, Court-Martial, and Forty-Year Imprisonment
in North Korea."
p.A5)(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A1)(AP, 9/1/04)(WSJ,
1965 Jan 8, the Star of India
and other stolen gems were returned to the American Museum of
Natural History in New York.
1965 Jan 13, The SF Warriors
traded Wilt Chamberlain (1936-1999) to the Philadelphia 76ers for
three players and $150,000 cash. The 76ers assumed Wilt’s $65,000
(SSFC, 1/11/15, DB
1965 Jan 13, Two US planes were
shot down in Laos while on a combat mission.
1965 Jan 15, Sir Winston
Churchill suffered a severe stroke.
1965 Jan 16, "Outer Limits"
last aired on ABC-TV.
1965 Jan 16, Eighteen were
arrested in Mississippi for the murder of three civil rights
1965 Jan 20, Byrds recorded
"Mr. Tambourine Man."
1965 Jan 20, Generalissimo
Francisco Franco met with Jewish representatives to discuss
legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain.
1965 Jan 24, Winston Churchill,
former prime minister (1940-45, 51-55), died from a cerebral
thrombosis in London at age 90. "I am always ready to learn, but I
do not always like to be taught." Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson),
his personal physician, later authored "Churchill At War:
(AP, 1/24/98)(AP, 1/17/00)(HN, 1/24/01)(WSJ,
1965 Jan 27, Military leaders
ousted the civilian government of Tran Van Huong in Saigon, South
1965 Jan 30, The state funeral
of Winston Churchill took place.
1965 Jan, Petula Clark
(b.1932), English singer, actress, and composer, made a #1 US hit
with “Downtown," a song composed by Tony Hatch.
1965 Feb 1, In Selma, Alabama,
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 of his followers were
arrested on their civil rights march. They protested against voter
discrimination in Alabama.
(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(HN, 2/1/99)
1965 Feb 2, Joe Orton's farce,
"Loot," premiered in Brighton.
1965 Feb 6, A Viet Cong raid on
a base in Pleiku, South Vietnam, killed 7-8 US GIs.
(HN, 2/6/99)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)
1965 Feb 7, U.S. jets hit Don
Hoi guerrilla base in reprisal for the Viet Cong raids. Pres.
Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam following the deaths of
9 US soldiers near Pleiku.
(HN, 2/7/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)
1965 Feb 7, Cassius Clay became
a Muslim and adopted the name Muhammad Ali.
1965 Feb 8, Pres. Lyndon B.
Johnson called for the development and protection of a balanced
system of trails to help protect and enhance the quality of the
1965 Feb 8, Eastern DC-7B
crashed into the Atlantic off Jones Beach, NJ, and 84 people were
1965 Feb 8, South Vietnamese
bombed the North Vietnamese communications center at Vinh Linh.
1965 Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon
Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in
retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South
Vietnam. The American "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign
intensified. In 2006 Rick Newman and Don Shepperd authored “Bury Us
Upside Down: The Misty Pilots and the Secret Battle for the Ho Chi
Minh Trail," an account of the pilots who flew low scouting for
targets that threatened US bombers.
(HN, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 3/2/06, p.D8)
1965 Feb 13, James Mitchell
(23), amateur explorer, died inside Schroeder’s Pants Cave in
Dolgeville, NY. His remains were recovered in 2006.
(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A13)
1965 Feb 14, Malcolm X’s home
was firebombed. No injuries were reported.
1965 Feb 15, Raymond Kurzweil,
a diffident but self-possessed high school student, appeared as a
guest on a game show called I've Got a Secret. He was introduced by
the host, Steve Allen, and then played a short musical composition
on a piano that was composed by a computer that he had built. By
2011 Kurzweil believed that we're approaching a moment when
computers will become intelligent, and not just intelligent but more
intelligent than humans. He believed that this moment was not only
inevitable but imminent. According to his calculations, the end of
human civilization as we know it would take place about 2045.
1965 Feb 15, Canada replaced
the Union Jack flag with the Maple Leaf in ceremonies in Ottawa.
(CFA, '96, p.40)(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)(440
1965 Feb 15, John Lennon passed
his driving test.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1965 Feb 15, Nat King Cole
(b.1919), singer (Unforgettable, Mona Lisa), died in Santa Monica.
1965 Feb 16, Four persons were
held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and
the Washington Monument.
1965 Feb 18, Alabama police
were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward
the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker.
Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the
marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his
grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later. In 2007
trooper James Bonard Fowler was indicted for the shooting death of
Jackson. In 2010 Fowler (77) pleaded guilty to 2nd degree
manslaughter and was sentenced to 6 months in jail.
(SFC, 5/10/07, p.A3)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A17)
1965 Feb 18, Gambia gained
independence from Britain.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(www.vdiest.nl/gambia.htm)
1965 Feb 19, Fourteen Vietnam
War protesters were arrested for blocking U.N. doors in New York.
1965 Feb 20, The Ranger 8
spacecraft crashed on the moon after sending back 7,000 photos of
the lunar surface.
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)
1965 Feb 21, Former Black
Muslim leader El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, aka Malcolm X (born as
Malcolm Little, 39), was shot to death in front of 400 people in New
York by assassins identified as Black Muslims. He was murdered at
the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan. His wife, Betty Shabazz, was
pregnant with twins and sat in the audience along with his
4-year-old daughter Quibilah. Three men, Norman 3X Butler (Abdul
Aziz), Khalil Islam, and Thomas Hagan, connected to the Nation of
Islam were convicted for the assassination. Aziz was paroled in 1985
and in 1998 was appointed by Louis Farrakhan to head a Harlem
mosque. In 1992 James H. Cone authored a book about Malcolm X and
Martin Luther King. In 2011 Manning Marable authored “Malcolm X: A
Life of Reinvention."
(SFC, 6/24/97, p.A3)(AP, 2/21/98)(SFC, 3/26/98,
p.A3)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A7)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.94)
1965 Feb 23, Stan Laurel (74),
the "skinny" half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy team, died in Santa
1965 Feb 23, Mossad agents in
Uruguay assassinated Herbert Cukurs, a former deputy to the leader
of the Latvian Arajs Commando, an auxiliary police unit formed after
German forces captured Latvia. The unit had played a central role in
the near annihilation of Latvia's Jewish community.
1965 Feb 24, Beatles began
filming "Help" in Bahamas.
1965 Feb 26, Spoony Singh
Sundher (1922-2006), Indian-born entrepreneur, opened his Hollywood
Wax Museum on Hollywood Blvd. close to Grauman’s Chinese Theatre. He
charged $1.50 admittance.
1965 Feb 26, Norman Butler was
arrested for the murder of Malcolm X.
1965 Feb 26, West Germany
ceased military aid to Tanzania.
1965 Feb 26, Jimmie Lee
Jackson, civil rights activist, died of injuries.
1965 Mar 1, Gas explosion
killed 28 in apartment complex at La Salle, Quebec, Canada.
1965 Mar 2, The movie version
of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical “The Sound of Music," starring
Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, had its world premiere at New
York’s Rivoli Theater. The musical, about the Trapp Family, was a
hit on the Great White Way for 3-1/2 years and one of the most
popular motion pictures of all time. It remains a classic even
today. The movie brought instant stardom for Miss Andrews, who went
on to star in other singing roles in the theatre, on television, in
movies and as a popular recording artist.
1965 Mar 2, More than 150 U.S.
and South Vietnamese planes bombed two bases in North Vietnam in the
first of the "Rolling Thunder" raids.
1965 Mar 3, Temptations' "My
Girl" reached #1.
1965 Mar 3, US performed a
nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1965 Mar 3, USSR performed a
nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1965 Mar 4, David Attenborough
became the new controller of BBC2.
1965 Mar 6, "How to Succeed in
Business" closed at 46th St NYC after 1415 performances.
1965 Mar 6, The U.S. announced
that it would send 3,500 troops to Vietnam.
1965 Mar 7, A march by some 600
civil rights demonstrators was broken up in Selma, Ala., by state
troopers and posse under Sheriff Jim Clark (d.2007). The Black
community of Marion, Ala., marched to protest the earlier killing of
a demonstrator by a state trooper. John Lewis, later US
Representative, led the march and was hit in the head by a state
(AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 3/8/99, p.A9)(SFC, 11/27/99,
p.C3)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.99)
1965 Mar 7, In San Francisco a
mob of teenage boys and girls rampaged through the Mission district
following the film “T.A.M.I" featuring James Brown at the Crown
Theater at 2555 Mission Street.
(SSFC, 3/8/15, p.42)
1965 Mar 8, The United States
landed its 1st combat troops, about 3,500 Marines, in Danang, South
Vietnam. More than 4,000 Marines landed in South Vietnam. They
joined some 23,000 Americans who had been serving as military
advisors to South Vietnam for several years. Gen. Frederick Karch
(d.2009 at 92) landed with the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade on
Red Beach at Da Nang. Prior to their arrival all military personnel
in Vietnam were there as advisors.
(AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(SFC, 8/18/00, p.D2)(SFC,
1965 Mar 9, Pres. Johnson
signed the Appalachian Regional Development Act into law.
1965 Mar 10, Neil Simon's play
"The Odd Couple," starring Walter Matthau as Oscar Madison and Art
Carney as Felix Unger, opened on Broadway.
1965 Mar 11, "I Lost It at the
Movies," a collection of film criticism by Pauline Kael, was first
published by Little, Brown and Co.
1965 Mar 11, The American navy
began inspecting Vietnamese junks in hopes of ending arms smuggling
to South Vietnam.
1965 Mar 11, The Rev. James J.
Reeb (65), a white minister from Boston, died after whites beat him
during civil rights disturbances in Selma, Ala.
1965 Mar 12, The SF FBI sent
bureau headquarters a secret 33-page report on Mario Savio, leader
of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.18)
1965 Mar 12, Edward "Teddy"
Deegan was found dead in an alley in Chelsea, Mass. A week later an
FBI memo named 6 men, including Vincent J. Flemmi and Joseph "The
Animal" Barboza, as the killers. Barboza became a star witness and
provided false testimony to convict 4 innocent men. The New England
Mafia shotgunned Barboza in SF in 1976. Over the next 3 decades FBI
informants in Boston murdered over 20 people.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A5)(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A3)
1965 Mar 13, Corrado Gini
(b.1884), Italian statistician, died. He developed the Gini
coefficient, a measure of the income inequality in a society. Gini
was also a leading fascist theorist and ideologue who wrote “The
Scientific Basis of Fascism" in 1927.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrado_Gini)(Economist, 10/13/12, SR
1965 Mar 15, Addressing a joint
session of Congress, President Johnson called for new legislation to
guarantee every American's right to vote. His speech was written by
Richard Goodwin. In 2007 Garth E. Pauley authored “LBJ’s American
Promise: the 1965 Voting Rights Address."
(AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)(AH, 10/07,
1965 Mar 15, T.G.I. Friday's
1st restaurant opened in NYC.
1965 Mar 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser
was re-elected Egyptian President.
1965 Mar 18, The first
spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov (30) left
his Voskhod 2 capsule and remained outside the spacecraft for 20
minutes, secured by a tether.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.A26)(AP, 3/18/97)
1965 Mar 19, Indonesia
nationalized all foreign oil companies.
1965 Mar 19, In Romania State
Council Pres. Gheorghiu-Dej (b.1901) died. Gheorghe Apostol was
defeated in a contest for Communist Party leader by Ceausescu, who
ended up ruling Romania with an iron fist for 25 years.
1965 Mar 20, Lyndon B. Johnson
ordered 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights
1965 Mar 21, Martin Luther King
Jr. led more than 3,000 civil rights demonstrators on the 50-mile
march to Montgomery from Selma.
(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(AP, 3/21/97)
1965 Mar 21, The U.S. launched
Ranger 9, last in a series of lunar explorations.
1965 Mar 22, US confirmed its
troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong in South Vietnam.
1965 Mar 22, Columbia Records
released Bob Dylan’s album "Bringing It All Back Home."
(SFC, 9/26/05, C3)
1965 Mar 23, America's first
two-person space flight began as Gemini 3 blasted off from Cape
Kennedy with astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young aboard
for a nearly five-hour flight. Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich
on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
1965 Mar 23, Police in
Casablanca, Morocco, cracked down on students and workers
campaigning for social justice and about 100 were killed. In the
1970s the "March 23 movement" for social rights was named for this
(SFC, 4/13/01, p.A14)(SS, 3/23/02)
1965 Mar 24, The Univ. of
Michigan held the 1st "Teach-in" on the Vietnam war.
1965 Mar 24, US Ranger 9 struck
the Moon, 10 miles (16 km) NE of crater Alphonsus.
1965 Mar 24, Chivu Stoica
(1908-1975), former Romanian prime minister (1955-1961), became
President of the Council State of Romania.
1965 Mar 25, The opera "Lizzie
Borden" premiered in NYC. It was composed by Jack Beeson with a
libretto by Kenward Elmslie. The initial scenario was written by
Richard Plant (d.1997 at 87).
(SFC, 3/17/98, p.A20)
1965 Mar 25, Martin Luther King
Jr. led a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery Ala. to
protest the denial of voting rights to blacks. Civil Rights
pressures increased in the US and blacks and whites marched in Selma
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)(AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
1965 Mar 25, Viola Liuzzo
(b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and
killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala. The later
trial of Collie Leroy Jenkins, one of 3 men charged in the killing,
ended in a hung jury. Jenkins was also acquitted at a 2nd trial but
was later convicted along with Eugene Thomas of civil rights
violations in federal court and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
1965 Mar 25, West German
Bondsdag extended war crimes retribution.
1965 Mar 28, In San Francisco
the Rev. Martin Luther King said that his Southern Christian
Leadership Conference would soon call for a massive economic
withdrawal program against the State of Alabama.
(SSFC, 3/29/15, DB p.42)
1965 Mar, In this issue of
American Scientist Henry David Block showed how easy it was to build
a computer that learns using just dixie cups and cardboard. Block
called his computer G-1 (G is for Golem, the robot slave of Jewish
legend). He used the game of Nim to illustrate his subject.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.204)
1965 Apr 1, King Hussein bin
Talal of Jordanian appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin
Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne. This
required a change to the Jordan constitution to allow for fraternal
1965 Apr 1, Henry D.G. Crerar
(b.1888), Canadian general and the country's "leading field
commander" in World War II, died.
1965 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein
(89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead
authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth
Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Rubinstein)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)
1965 Apr 2, Rodney King, black
motorist brutally beaten by LA cops, was born in Sacramento, Calif.
1965 Apr 2, Rolf Hochhuth's
play "The Deputy," which blamed Pope Pius XII for war crimes, was
banned in Italy.
1965 Apr 5, In the 37th Academy
Awards "My Fair Lady," Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews won.
1965 Apr 5, Lava Lamp Day was
1965 Apr 5, The second
Indo-Pakistani conflict began when fighting broke out in the Rann of
Kachchh, a sparsely inhabited region along the West Pakistan-India
1965 Apr 6, President Lyndon B.
Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
1965 Apr 6,
The United States launched the Intelsat I, also known as the "Early
Bird" communications satellite.
1965 Apr 8, Erik A. Blomberg
(70), Swedish art historian, poet, author, died.
1965 Apr 9, The newly built
Houston Astrodome featured its first baseball game, an exhibition
between the Astros and the New York Yankees. Mickey Mantle hit the
1st indoor homerun, but the Astros won, 2-1 in 12 innings.
(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B8)(AP, 4/9/09)
1965 Apr 9, India and Pakistan
engaged in a border fight.
1965 Apr 10, Linda Darnell
(41), actress, died from burns received in a fire.
1965 Apr 11, The Elementary and
Secondary Education Act became US law. It was passed as a part of
the "War on Poverty" and has been the most far-reaching Federal
legislation affecting education ever passed by Congress.
1965 Apr 11, A series of
tornados left 256 people dead in the US Midwest.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)
1965 Apr 13, Beatles recorded
1965 Apr 13, Lawrence Wallace
Bradford Jr. (16) was appointed by New York Republican Jacob Javits
to be the first black page of the US Senate.
1965 Apr 14, Perry E. Smith and
Robert E. Hickok, US murderers, were hanged. Their 1959 murder of a
Kansas farm family was described by Truman Capote (1924-1984) in his
1965 book: “In Cold Blood"
1965 Apr 17, Students for a
Democratic Society (SDS) held its 1st anti-Vietnam war protest rally
in Washington DC. Daniel Ellsburg helped Patricia Marx tape the
event for public radio.
(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.M1)
1965 Apr 17, A stretch of the
Mississippi River near Minneapolis crested at a record high.
Flooding caused $100 million in damages and left 12 people dead.
(SFC, 4/17/09, p.D8)
1965 Apr 19, An article in
Electronics magazine by Gordon Moore, later Intel Chairman, noted
that chips seem to double in power every 18 months. Thus was born
Moore's Law. Moore later asserted that his claim was that the number
of components that can be packed on a computer chip doubles every 2
years. In 2005 Intel offered $10,000 for a pristine copy of the
(SFEC, 12/21/97, p.A2)(SFC, 10/11/00, p.A6)(SFC,
4/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 4/18/05, p.E1)
1965 Apr 19, At a cost of
$20,000, the outer Houston Astrodome ceiling was painted because of
sun's glare. This in turn caused the grass to die.
1965 Apr 21, New York World's
Fair reopened for a 2nd and final season.
1965 Apr 23, Ken Kesey, author
of "Sometimes a Great Notion," and 13 pals, that included Neal
Cassidy, were arrested in La Honda for growing Marijuana.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.A8)(SSFC, 6/18/17, DB p.54)
1965 Apr 24, Che Guevara, his
second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban
expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cuba’s head of the
national bank and minister of industry, left Cuba to foment
revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central
Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of
Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.
1965 Apr 27, RC Duncan patented
"Pampers," a disposable diaper.
1965 Apr 27, Edward R. Murrow
(b.1908), newscaster (Person to Person), died of cancer in Pawling,
N.Y. He had filed radio broadcast from London during the WW II
German air raids. In 1986 A.M. Sperber authored “Murrow: His Life
(AP, 4/27/05)(SFC, 2/10/06, p.E11)(WSJ, 12/1/07,
1965 Apr 28, Barbra Streisand
starred on "My Name is Barbra" special on CBS.
1965 Apr 28, U.S. Army and
Marines under US Pres. Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic
to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of
Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The
troops stayed until stay until Oct 1966.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)
1965 Apr 29, Seattle
experienced an earthquake. 7 people were killed and damage was
estimated at $12.5 million.
1965 Apr 29, Australian
government announced it would send troops to Vietnam.
1965 May 1, Spike Jones (53),
composer (Spike Jones Show), died.
1965 May 1, In Czechoslovakia
Allen Ginsberg was crowned King of May at the Prague May Day
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A10)
1965 May 1, USSR launched Luna
5; later lands on Moon.
1965 May 2, Intelsat 1, also
known as the Early Bird satellite, was used to transmit television
pictures across the Atlantic.
1965 May 4, Willie Mays hit his
512th HR and broke Mel Ott's 511 NL record.
1965 May 5, 1st large-scale US
Army ground units arrived in South Vietnam.
1965 May 9, The USSR resumed
Victory Day celebrations to commemorate its WW II victory over Nazi
(Econ., 5/2/15, p.43)
1965 May 10, Warren Buffett of
Omaha, Nebraska, took control of Berkshire-Hathaway, a New England
textile company that closed at $18 per share. Buffet later closed
down the company and called it his dumbest stock. The name was
retained and in 2006 shares of Berkshire-Hathaway passed $100,000
per share. By 2014 BH owned over 80 companies.
(WSJ, 10/24/06, p.C1)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.73)
1965 May 11, The US 10th
fighter Bomber F105D was shot down at Xien Khouong, Laos.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)
1965 May 11-12, In East
Pakistan a cyclone killed some 12,000.
1965 May 12, West Germany and
Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations.
1965 May 13, The Rolling Stones
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1965 May 13, Several Arab
nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic
relations with Israel.
1965 May 14, An acre at the
field at Runnymede, the site of the signing of the Magna Carta, was
dedicated by Queen Elizabeth as a memorial to the late John F.
Kennedy, US President.
1965 May 14, Frances Perkins
(83), the first US female cabinet secretary, died. She served as
FDR’s Minister of Labor (1933-45). In 2009 Kirstin Downey authored
“The Woman Behind the New Deal: The Life of Francis Perkins, FDR’s
Secretary of Labor and His Moral Conscience."
1965 May 16, Spaghetti-O's were
1965 May 18, President Lyndon
B. Johnson officially announced the Head Start program in the White
House Rose Garden. The program was soon launched with Dr. Julius
Richmond (1916-2008), former US surgeon general under pres. Carter,
as the first director.
1965 May 18, Gene Roddenberry
suggested 16 names including Kirk for Star Trek Captain.
1965 May 18, Eduard J.
Dijksterhuis (72), mathematician (Archimedes), died.
1965 May 18, Eli Cohen, who
arrived in Syria in 1962, was hanged in a public square in Damascus
for spying for Israel until his capture. As businessman Kamal Amin
Thabit he worked his way into the upper echelons of Syrian
government and society, feeding Israel with valuable political and
1965 May 22,
"Super-cali-fragil-istic-expi-ali-docious" hit #66.
1965 May 22, Heinrich Barth,
Swiss philosopher (Das Sein in der Zeit), died.
1965 May 23, David Smith
(b.1906), American sculptor, died in Albany NY. His farm in upstate
New York was named the Terminal Iron Works. His work included
"Circle and Box," "XI Books, III Apples," "Lunar Arc," "Becca" and
1965 May 24, Supreme Court
declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept
communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
1965 May 25, Mark Knight, rock
guitarist (Bang Tango-Dancin' on Coals), was born in California.
1965 May 25, Remco Prins, Dutch
rock guitarist/vocalist (Burma Shave-Stash), was born.
1965 May 25, Roef-Ragas, Dutch
actor (Missing Link, Red Rain, Juju, Mykosch), was born.
1965 May 25, Muhammad Ali KO’d
Sonny Liston in 1st round for heavyweight boxing title.
1965 May 25, Sonny Boy
Williamson [Aleck Miller], blues player, died.
1965 May 25, India and Pakistan
engaged in border fights.
1965 May 30, Vivian Malone
(later Vivian Malone Jones) became the first black graduate of the
University of Alabama with a degree in Business Management.
(NYT, 10/14/2005, p.C15)
1965 May 30, Viet Cong
offensive began against US base at Da Nang, South Vietnam.
1965 Jun 1, A. Penzias and R.
Wilson detected a 3 degree (Kelvin) microwave primordial background
1965 Jun 1, Near Fukuoka,
Japan, a coal mine explosion killed 236.
1965 Jun 1-1965 Jun 2, The 2nd
of 2 cyclones in less than a month killed 35,000 along the Ganges
River in East Pakistan.
1965 Jun 3, Astronaut Edward
White became the first American to "walk" in space, during the
flight of Gemini 4.
1965 Jun 7, Gemini 4 completed
1965 Jun 7, San Francisco Mayor
John F. Shelley said he could not afford the house at 115 Robin Hood
forest on Mount Davidson after costs rose from an initial $75,000 to
as much as $110,000 for alterations.
(SSFC, 6/7/15, DB p.50)
1965 Jun 7, Judy Holiday (42),
1965 Jun 8, President Lyndon B.
Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground
forces to combat.
1965 Jun 12, Big Bang theory of
creation of universe was supported by announcement of discovery of
new celestial bodied know as blue galaxies.
1965 Jun 14, A military
triumvirate took control in Saigon, South Vietnam.
1965 Jun 17, Twenty-seven
B-52’s hit Viet Cong outposts but lost two planes in South Vietnam.
1965 Jun 19, R.C., "I Can't
Help Myself" by Four Tops peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart.
1965 Jun 19, Air Marshall
Nguyen Cao Ky became South Vietnam’s youngest premier at age 34.
1965 Jun 19, Col. Houari
Boumedienne (1932-1978) overthrew Pres. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria's
first civilian president. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was Boumedienne's
1965 Jun 21, Bernard M. Baruch
(94), US presidential advisor, died.
1965 Jun 22, David O. Selznick,
producer, died at 63. His films included "Gone With the Wind." In
1992 David Thomson authored "Showman: The Life of David O.
Selznick." In 1972 his collected memos were edited by Rudy Behlmer
and published as “Memo From David O. Selznick."
(YarraNet, 6/22/00)(SFCM, 3/29/02, p.41)(WSJ,
1965 Jun 26, "Mr. Tambourine
Man" by The Byrds reached the number one spot on the pop music
(SFC, 9/26/06, p.D7)
1965 Jun 28, In California a
blazing engine tore from the Pan American Flight 843. The engine
plunged into San Bruno and a piece of the wing fell into South San
Francisco. The plane with 153 passengers landed safely at Travis
(SSFC, 6/28/15, DB p.50)
1965 Jul 3, Trigger (25),
the golden palomino horse of Roy Rogers, died. Trigger was mounted
by Bishoff's Taxidermy of California and were on display for years
at the Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Museum in Victorville, California.
The original Trigger is currently on display at The Roy Rogers -
Dale Evans Museum in Branson, Missouri. In 2010 Trigger, along with
his saddle, took top dollar at an auction of memorabilia.
1965 Jul 5, Porfirio Rubirosa
(b.1909), Dominican Republic playboy and husband to French actress
Odile Rodin, died in a car crash in Paris. His 5 wives included
Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton. In 2005 Shawn Levy authored “The
Last Playboy: The High Life of Porfirio Rubirosa."
(http://tinyurl.com/bfdj4)(SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M3)
1965 Jul 7, Moshe Sharett,
Israel’s 2nd prime minister (1954-1955), died.
(Economist, 9/22/12, p.93)(
1965 Jul 9, Adelaide Hiebel
(b.1879), American artist, died. Many of her paintings were used for
advertising and calendar prints.
1965 Jul 14, The American space
probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars and sent back 22 photographs of the
planet. These were the 1st images of Mars taken from a spacecraft.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A19)
1965 Jul 14, U.S. Ambassador
Adlai E. Stevenson Jr., the Democratic presidential nominee in 1952
and 1956, died in London at age 65. Jean Baker in 1996 published a
1996 biography of the Stevenson family.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A19,21)
1965 Jul 15, US scientists
displayed close-up photographs of the planet Mars taken by "Mariner
Four." It passed over Mars at an altitude of 6,000 feet.
1965 Jul 16, Mount Blanc Road
tunnel between France & Italy opened.
1965 Jul 18, US Adm. Jeremiah
Denton (1924-2014) was shot down over North Vietnam as he flew in on
the Thanh Hoa Bridge on the Ma River. He spent the next seven years
and seven months in prison camps. In 1976 he wrote a memoir with Ed
Brandt “When Hell Was in Session" of his ordeal. It was made into a
1979 TV movie.
(SFC, 3/29/14, p.C6)
1965 Jul 19, Syngman Rhee
(b.1875), the first president of the Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea (1948-60), died.
1965 Jul 24, The Mauna Kea
Beach Hotel on the Big Island of Hawaii opened.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)
1965 Jul 25, Bob Dylan played a
Fender Stratocaster at the Newport Folk Festival, RI. In 2015 Elijah
Wald authored “Dylan Goes Electric! Newport, Seeger, Dylan, and the
Night that Split the Sixties."
(SFC, 7/20/15, p.E2)
1965 Jul 26, Republic of
Maldives gained independence from Britain.
1965 Jul 27, Pres. Johnson
signed a bill requiring cigarette makers to print health warnings on
all cigarette packages about the effects of smoking.
1965 Jul 28, President Johnson
announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South
Vietnam to 175,000 "almost immediately."
(HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)
1965 Jul 29, Beatles movie
"Help" premiered and Queen Elizabeth attended.
1965 Jun 29, The Redo Dog
Saloon opened in Virginia City, Ca. A San Francisco band called the
Charlatans opened. Architect George Hunter and keyboardist Michael
Ferguson had created the group and the first psychedelic tock poster
for the occasion. By 2015 a mint copy of the poster was valued at
$18,250. A 1996 film by Mary Works was titled “Rockin’ at the Red
Dog: The Dawn of Psychedelic Rock."
(SFC, 6/26/15, p.C4)
1965 Jul 30, President Johnson
signed into law the Medicare bill, which went into effect the
following year. John W. Gardner (d.2002), a member of Johnson’s
cabinet, was responsible for starting Medicare. A statute required
coverage of items that were reasonable and necessary.
(AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/16/03,
1965 Jul 31, J. K. Rowling,
British writer, was born in Yate, Gloucestershire. She became famous
for her Harry Potter fantasy series. By 2012 she was the world’s
richest author with a net worth of some $910
1965 Jul, Bill Moyers replaced
George E. Reedy as press secretary to Pres. Johnson.
(SFC, 3/22/99, p.A22)
1965 Jul, British Great Train
Robber Ronnie Biggs (1929-2013) escaped prison and spent the next 35
years on lam between Paris, Australia, Panama and Brazil.
(Econ, 1/4/14, p.74)
1965 Aug 2, Newsman Morley
Safer filmed the destruction of the Vietnamese village of Cam Ne by
US Marines. Safer sent the 1st Vietnam report indicating we are
losing. Safer’s report was broadcast by CBS on August 5 and led
Pres. Johnson to call CBS demanding that Safer be fired. CBS
president Frank Stanton refused to fire Safer.
(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.A8)
1965 Aug 6, The Voting Rights
Act of 1965 was passed and signed by President Johnson. It outlawed
the literacy test for voting eligibility in the South. It was later
used to justify drawing some congressional districts that would make
the architects of South Africa's apartheid blush. In 1995 Roberts
and Stratton authored "The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege
(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)(HFA, '96, p.36)(AP,
1965 Aug 6, Indian troops
invaded Pakistan. Indo-Pakistani fighting spread to Kashmir and to
the Punjab, The 2nd Indo-Pakistani conflict started without a formal
declaration of war. Skirmishes with Indian forces started as early
as August 6 or 7.
1965 Aug 7, San Francisco
police arrested Ronnie Davis, founder of the SF Mime Troupe, in
Lafayette Park. He was charged with performing in a public park
without a permit. The troupe’s permit had been revoked for its
adoption of “Il Candelaio.," a 16th century play by Giordano Bruno.
Bill Graham, manager of the troupe, soon threw a benefit for the
troupe and hired an unknown band called the Jefferson Airplane. The
benefit raised $4000 and led Graham to leave the Mime Troupe and
open the Fillmore.
(SFC, 8/8/15, p.C1)
1965 Aug 8, In San Francisco
race car driver Bart Martin (26) was killed at the Candlestick Park
Sports Car Races. A two-mile track had been laid out around
Candlestick Park’s huge parking area.
(SSFC, 8/2/15, DB p.50)
1965 Aug 8, Shirley Jackson,
writer and author of horror fiction, died in Vermont. Her work
included "The Haunting of Hill House" (1959) and "The Lottery"
(1948). In 1997 a collection of short fiction was published titled
"Just an Ordinary Day." In 2016 Ruth Franklin authored “Shirley
Jackson: A Rather Haunted Life."
(SFEM, 1/12/97, BR p.3)(Econ, 9/24/16,
1965 Aug 9, Singapore gained
independence as the Republic of Singapore (remaining within the
Commonwealth of Nations). Yusof Ishak took office as the country’s
first president. Lee Kuan Yew became the new prime minister. This
day is marked annually as Singapore’s National Day.
6/8/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 12/31/96, p.1)
1965 Aug 11, Beatles movie
"Help" opened in NYC.
1965 Aug 11, Rioting and
looting broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los
Angeles. A small clash between the California Highway Patrol and two
black youths sets off six days of rioting in the Watts area of Los
(AP, 8/11/97)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)(HN,
1965 Aug 12, There was a race
riot in West Side of Chicago.
1965 Aug 13, In SF the
Jefferson Airplane made its first public performance opening at the
new Matrix club at 3138 Fillmore Street. Band co-founder Marty Balin
(1942-2018) held an ownership interest in the club.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/17/08, p.E4)(SFC,
1965 Aug 13, The Berkeley Barb,
an underground weekly, debuted in Berkeley, Ca. The radical paper,
founded by Max Scherr, continued for fifteen years.
(SSFC, 8/2/15, p.A1)
1965 Aug 14, The Beatles taped
an appearance for the Ed Sullivan Show.
1965 Aug 14, Sonny and Cher's
"I Got You Babe" hit #1.
1965 Aug 14, The first major
engagement between the regular armed forces of India and Pakistan
took place. The next day, Indian forces scored a major victory after
a prolonged artillery barrage and captured three important mountain
positions in the northern sector. Later in the month, the Pakistanis
counterattacked, moving concentrations near Tithwal, Uri, and Punch.
Their move, in turn, provoked a powerful Indian thrust into Azad
Kashmir. Other Indian forces captured a number of strategic mountain
positions and eventually took the key Haji Pir Pass, eight
kilometers inside Pakistani territory.
1965 Aug 15, Beatles played to
55,000 at Shea Stadium.
1965 Aug 16, The Watts riots
ended in south-central LA after six days with the help of 20,000
National Guardsmen; the riots left 34 dead, 857 injured, over 2,200
arrested, and property valued at $200 million destroyed. The riots
started when police on August 11th brutally beat a black motorist
suspected of drunken driving in Watts area of LA.
(HN, 8/16/00)(MC, 8/16/02)
1965 Aug 17, Glen Goldsmith,
rocker (What You See is What You Get), was born.
1965 Aug 18, Operation Starlite
marked the beginning of major U.S. ground combat operations in
1965 Aug 19, U.S. forces
destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuong, in South Vietnam.
1965 Aug 19, Auschwitz trials
ended with only 6 life sentences. In 2016 documents and recordings
of the trials were submitted to the UN cultural agency.
1965 Aug 21, Gemini 5 was
launched into Earth orbit atop Titan V with Cooper and Conrad.
(SFC, 7/9/99, p.A6)
1965 Aug 22, in San Francisco
Giants’ pitcher Juan Marichal struck Johnny Roseboro, the catcher of
the Los Angeles Dodgers, with a bat sparking a fight in the third
inning that took fourteen minutes to clear before play resumed.
(SSFC, 8/23/15, DB p.46)
1965 Aug 27, Bob Dylan was
booed off stage in NY's Forest Hills.
1965 Aug 27-1965 Sep 13,
Hurricane Betsy killed 75 in Louisiana & Florida. Betsy left New
Orleans under 7 feet of water.
(www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Storm_pages/betsy1965/)(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)
1965 Aug 27, Le Corbusier
(b.1887), Swiss-French architect and writer, died in France. He was
born as Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds,
Switzerland. His book included books include “Vers une architecture"
(Towards a New Architecture) (1923), “The City of Tomorrow" (1925),
and “When the Cathedrals Were White" (1937). In 2014 Anthony flint
authored “Modern man: The Life of Le Corbusier, Architect of
1965 Aug 28, Bob Dylan was
scorned at a concert in NY's Forest Hills.
1965 Aug 28, The Viet Cong were
routed in the Mekong Delta by U.S. forces, with more than 50 killed.
1965 Aug 29, Gemini 5, carrying
astronauts Gordon Cooper and Charles ("Pete") Conrad, splashed down
in the Atlantic after eight days in space.
1965 Aug 30, Columbia Records
released Bob Dylan’s album "Highway 61 Revisited."
1965 Aug 31, The US House of
Reps joined Senate to establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop.
1965 Aug, In Kentucky Alberta
Jones (34), a civil rights pioneer and Louisville’s first black
prosecutor, was brutally beaten and thrown into the Ohio River to
1965 Aug, In Vietnam Soviet
supplied SAM missiles shot down at least two US jets.
1965 Sep 1-19, Indian gains led
to a major Pakistani counterattack in the southern sector, in
Punjab, where Indian forces were caught unprepared and suffered
heavy losses. The sheer strength of the Pakistani thrust, which was
spearheaded by seventy tanks and two infantry brigades, led Indian
commanders to call in air support. Pakistan retaliated on September
2 with its own air strikes in both Kashmir and Punjab.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN,
9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)(MC, 9/1/02)(Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)
1965 Sep 2, The Treblinka trial
in Dusseldorf ended.
1965 Sep 3, Preparing a move to
Anaheim, the LA Angels baseball team change their name to California
1965 Sep 4, Beatles' "Help!"
single went #1 for 3 weeks.
1965 Sep 4, Philosopher,
musician, doctor, theologian and humanitarian Albert Schweitzer
died. Born near Alsace, Germany, in 1875, Schweitzer decided to
devote himself to providing health care to people in Africa at the
age of 30. Schweitzer and his wife Hélène moved to Gabon in 1913 and
opened a hospital in Lambaréné, which he later expanded with money
from the Nobel Peace Prize he was awarded in 1952. Schweitzer also
spoke out against the dangers of nuclear weapons, became an organist
and expert on Johann Sebastian Bach, and served as a church pastor
and university professor. He lived by the principle of "reverence
1965 Sep 6, India and Pakistan
began a second war over Kashmir. Pakistan paratroopers raided
Punjab. It ended in a cease-fire that left India with control of
two-thirds of Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN,
9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)
1965 Sep 8, An AFL-CIO
affiliated Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a union
of mostly Filipino workers, voted to go on strike in Delano, Ca.
Larry Itliong (1913-1977) led the strike. They were joined after
eleven days by Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers Assoc. In
1967 John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) authored "Delano," an account of
the California grape strike.
p.C3)(SFC, 1/1/04, p.A23)c
1965 Sep 8, Dorothy Danridge,
actress (Island in the Sun), died at 41 in Hollywood.
1965 Sep 9, Sandy Koufax,
baseball’s Great Jewish Hope, pitched a perfect game. It was the
first perfect game thrown by a left-hander since 1880. In 2002 Jane
Leavy authored "Sandy Koufax: A Lefty’s Legacy."
1965 Sep 9, US Navy pilot James
Stockdale (d.2005) was shot down in Vietnam. He was beaten, tortured
and taken to Hoa Lo prison (Hanoi Hilton) and released in 1973. In
1992 he ran as VP candidate with Ross Perot.
(SFC, 7/6/05, p.B7)
1965 Sep 9, Francois Mitterrand
was nominated for French presidency.
1965 Sep 9, French President
Charles de Gaulle announced that France was withdrawing from the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in protest of U.S.
domination in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
1965 Sep 10, Father Divine
(b.~1876), African-American preacher, died in Philadelphia. His full
self-given name was Reverend Major Jealous Divine, and he was also
known as "the Messenger" early in his life. He founded the
International Peace Mission movement, formulated its doctrine, and
oversaw its growth from a small and predominantly black congregation
into a multiracial and international church. Due to his ideology,
many consider him to be a cult leader.
1965 Sep 11, The US 1st Cavalry
Division (Airmobile), arrived in South Vietnam and was stationed at
1965 Sep 13, Ben Gazzara
(1930-2012) starred for two seasons, 1965 to 1968, on the NBC
prime-time drama "Run for Your Life." He played a wealthy,
successful lawyer, Paul Bryan, who quits his practice after learning
he has a terminal illness and then embarks on a globe-trotting quest
for adventure before he dies.
1965 Sep 13, The Beatles
1965 Sep 14, The situation
comedy "My Mother the Car" premiered on NBC-TV.
1965 Sep 14, The TV show
"F-Troop" premiered. It ended in 1967 after 65 episodes.
1965 Sep 14, Dmitry Medvedev
was born in Leningrad. In 2008 with the backing of Vladimir Putin,
he became prime minister of Russia.
(WSJ, 2/28/08, p.A14)
1965 Sep 14, The 4th meeting of
2nd Vatican council opened.
1965 Sep 14, Vasily Grossman
(b.1964, Soviet writer, died in Moscow. In 1961 his novel “Life and
Fate," a book about Nazis and Soviets at war, was confiscated. A
copy was smuggled to the US and published in English 1985. In 2011
the BBC dramatized the book on Radio 4.
1965 Sep 15, The TV show “I
Spy" premiered. Bill Cosby and Roger Culp (1930-2010) starred in the
series which ran for 82 episodes until 1968.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.C10)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB
1965 Sep 15, The TV show "Lost
in Space," with its Space Family Robinson and robot premiered on
CBS. It was set in the year 1997. The show was cancelled in 1968.
The CBS TV show featured Guy Williams, June Lockhart, Billy Mumy,
Jonathon Harris (d.2002 at 87) and the robot voice of Dick Tufeld
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.B2)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFEC, 1/3/99,
DB p.28)(SFC, 11/6/02, p.A34)(SFC, 1/30/12, p.C4)
1965 Sep 16, "The Dean Martin
Show" premiered on NBC.
1965 Sep 17, "The Smothers
Brothers Show", debuted on CBS TV.
1965 Sep 18, The NBC situation
comedies "I Dream of Jeannie" and "Get Smart" premiered.
1965 Sep 20, Seven U.S. planes
were downed in one day over Vietnam.
1965 Sep 20, The
India-Pakistani war was at the point of stalemate when the UN
Security Council unanimously passed a resolution that called for a
cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on
September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on
September 23. The Indian side lost 3,000 while the Pakistani side
suffered 3,800 battlefield deaths.
1965 Sep 22, Pres. Johnson
designated Columbus Day a federal public holiday to be celebrated on
Oct. 12. In 1968 He moved it to the 2nd Monday of October. In 2004
Pres. Bush set it to Oct 11.
1965 Sep 22, Pakistan agreed to
the UN brokered cease-fire that India affirmed the day before. [see
Jan 10, 1966]
1965 Sep 25, 60 year old
Satchel Paige of the Kansas City A's pitched 3 scoreless innings.
1965 Sep 26, Queen Elizabeth
decorated the Beatles with the Order of the British Empire.
1965 Sep 27, Clara Bow
(b.1905), silent film star, died in Los Angeles. David Stenn later
authored "Clara Bow: Runnin’ Wild."
1965 Sep 28, A volcano exploded
on Luzon, Philippines; 500 killed.
1965 Sep 30, President Lyndon
Johnson signed legislation that established the National Foundation
for the Arts and the Humanities.
1965 Sep 30, In Indonesia
procommunist military officers, calling themselves the September 30
Movement (Gestapu), attempted to seize power.
1965 Sep, The SF Chronicle and
the SF Examiner began a joint operating agreement for printing and
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W3)
1965 Oct 1, In Indonesia a
small force of junior military officers abducted and killed six
generals in the early morning hours and seized several key points in
the capital city of Jakarta. Gen. Suharto crushed the coup and soon
seized power from Pres. Sukarno.
1965 Oct 3, US Pres. Lyndon
Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act into law,
sweeping away a system that favored white Europeans over other
races. It abolished quotas by national origin and allowed nearly
300,000 immigrants per year.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ, 10/3/15, p.23)
1965 Oct 4, Pope Paul VI became
the first reigning pontiff to visit the Western Hemisphere as he
addressed the U.N. General Assembly.
1965 Oct 5, U.S. forces in
Saigon, South Vietnam, received permission to use tear gas.
1965 Oct 6, Patricia Harris
took post as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, becoming the first
African-American U.S. ambassador.
1965 Oct 8, London's Post
Office Tower opened as the tallest building in England.
1965 Oct 9, Beatles'
"Yesterday," single went #1 and stays #1 for 4 weeks.
1965 Oct 10, Ronald Reagan
spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official
declaration of war in Vietnam.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1965 Oct 10, The "Vinland Map"
was introduced by Yale University as being the 1st known map of
America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
1965 Oct 11, Dorothy Lange
(b.1895), American photographer, died in San Francisco. She is best
known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security
Administration (FSA). In 2009 Linda Gordon authored “Dorothy Lange:
A Life Beyond Limits."
1965 Oct 16, The world’s first
acid rock dance was held at Longshoreman’s Hall. Top band on the
bill was the Charlatan’s with Dan Hicks, a house band from the Red
Dog Saloon in Virginia City. The Jefferson Airplane also made its
first concert appearance. Alton Kelley (1940-2008) and 3 other
people, under the name Family Dog, staged the dance concert.
1965 Oct 17, The musical "On A
Clear Day You Can See Forever," with a score by Burton Lane and book
and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner, opened on Broadway.
1965 Oct 20, Beatles received a
gold record for "Yesterday."
1965 Oct 21, Robert B.
Woodward was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry, "for his
outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis."
1965 Oct 20, Mass arrests of
communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians
were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting
Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote
assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws
included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An
estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate
and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the
government in 1965.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ,
1965 Oct 21, The Orlando
Sentinel announced that Disney is coming to Orlando, Florida. Disney
World property, 27,000 acres, was purchased by Disney for $5
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.28)
1965 Oct 22, Paul Tillich,
German-US Theologian (Courage To Be), died.
1965 Oct 26, Beatles received
MBEs at Buckingham Palace.
1965 Oct 28, The Gateway Arch
(630' (190m) high), designed by Eero Saarinen, was completed in St
1965 Oct 28, Pope Paul VI
issued a decree, Nostra Aetate, absolving Jews of collective guilt
for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
(AP, 10/28/99)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.B10)
1965 Oct 29, Mehdi Ben Barka
(b.1920), a leading opposition figure to Morocco’s King Hassan II
(d.1999), disappeared in front of the famous Left Bank Lipp Cafe.
His body has never been found.
1965 Oct 30, A fireworks
explosions killed 50 in Cartagena, Colombia.
1965 Oct, In Britain
child serial killers Myra Hindley (d.2002) and her boyfriend, Ian
Brady (the Moors Murderers), were caught. [see 1966]
1965 Nov 1, In Cairo,
Egypt, a trackless trolley plunged into Nile River drowning 74.
1965 Nov 6, Edgar Varese
(b.1883), French-born pioneer of musical modernism, died. He moved
to the US in 1915. Varese was the inventor of the term "organized
sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be
grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of music.
1965 Nov 7, Friedrich Wildgans
(52), composer, died.
1965 Nov 8, The American
television soap opera “Days of Our Lives" premiered with Frances
Reid (1914-2010) as Alice Horton. Reid spent over 40 years playing
Alice Horton on the daytime soap.
1965 Nov 8, The US Higher
Education Act became law. It was intended to strengthen the
educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide
financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher
education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnson’s
Great Society program.
1965 Nov 9, A major power
failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a
major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout
several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power
failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and
parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history,
when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
(HFA, '96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP,
1965 Nov 9, Roger Allen LaPorte
a 22 year old former seminarian and a member of the Catholic worker
movement, immolated himself at the United Nations in New York City
in protest of the Vietnam War.
1965 Nov 11, Rhodesia (later
Zimbabwe) under PM Ian D. Smith (d.2007) proclaimed its independence
(AP, 11/11/97)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)
1965 Nov 12, Ferdinand Marcos
was elected president of Philippines.
1965 Nov 13, Director Kenneth
Tynan said "Fuck" on BBC.
1965 Nov 13, San Francisco’s
new Playboy Club opened at 736 Montgomery St.
(SFC, 11/7/15, DB p.50)
1965 Nov 13, The ship "Yarmouth
Castle" burned and sank off Bahamas, killing 89.
1965 Nov 14, US government sent
90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
1965 Nov 14, Bruce Crandall
(32) flew through a gantlet of enemy fire, taking ammunition in and
wounded Americans out of the Battle at Ia Drang Valley, one of the
fiercest battles of the Vietnam War. Crandall's actions were
depicted in the Hollywood movie "We Were Soldiers," adapted from the
book "We Were Soldiers Once ... And Young." In 2007 he was awarded a
Medal of Honor.
1965 Nov 15, In the second day
of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing
Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia Drang Valley,
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(HN, 11/15/99)
1965 Nov 16, Walt Disney
launched Epcot Center: Prototype Community of Tomorrow in Florida.
Epcot opened in 1982.
1965 Nov 16, In the last day of
the fighting at Landing Zone X-Ray, regiments of the U.S. 1st
Cavalry Division repulsed NVA forces in the Ia Drang Valley. Joe
Galloway served at LZ X-ray. He later received the Bronze Star for
his actions during the epic battle. Based on that and his subsequent
actions in Vietnam, Galloway came to be regarded by the military
leadership and the GIs alike as a journalist who was fair,
objective, and who could be trusted to get the story right. He
co-authored with Lt. Gen. Hal More "We Were Soldiers Once...Any
(HN, 11/16/99)(HNQ, 10/2/02)
1965 Nov 17, The NVA ambushed
American troops of the 7th Cavalry at Landing Zone Albany in the Ia
Drang Valley, almost wiping them out. Some 500 US troops from
Landing Zone X-Ray encountered some 500 North Vietnamese troops at
L-Z Albany and more soldiers were killed than in the previous 3 days
of fighting. Among the wounded was Jack Smith (d.2004), son of TV
commentator Howard K. Smith. Jack Smith went on to become an ABC New
(HN, 11/17/00)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E1)
1965 Nov 17, General Meeting of
UN refused admittance of China.
1965 Nov 18, Henry A. Wallace
(77), VP (1941-45) and founder (Progressive Party), died.
1965 Nov 20, UN Security
council called for a boycott of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
1965 Nov 22, The musical "Man
of La Mancha" opened in New York City. Joe Darion (d.2001 at 90)
wrote the lyrics for "The Impossible Dream" and Mitch Leigh wrote
(AP, 11/22/97)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.D4)
1965 Nov 24, Congo had a
military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown.
Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch
the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting
the Cold War in a Hot Zone."
1965 Nov 26, Arlo Guthrie (17)
was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following
a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a
song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into
a movie in 1969.
(WSJ, 11/22/06, p.A1)
1965 Nov 26, France launched
its first satellite, sending a 92-pound capsule into orbit.
1965 Nov 27, 15-25,000
demonstrated in Wash DC against the war in Vietnam.
1965 Nov, John Lindsay was
elected mayor of NYC. In 2001 Vincent J. Cannato authored "The
Ungovernable City," a look at Lindsay’s 8 years as mayor.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1965 Nov, The 1st major
American battle of the Vietnam war using armored vehicles was at Ap
Bau Bang. The 1st Infantry Division engaged in its first major
battle near the village of Ap Bau Bang, along National Route
13--known as "Thunder Road." General William E. DePuy later called
it "one of the most gallant stands of the Vietnam War."
1965 Nov, In California the
Marin County Board of Supervisors approved a development project for
a new community of 20,000 people located in the hills around the
Golden Gate. Lawyers filed suit and the Marincello project was put
on hold. In 1972 the Nature Conservancy got an option on the
property and the development project ended.
(SSFC, 10/24/10, p.A2)
1965 Nov, British-born Rick
Rescorla served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion, 7th
Cavalry when they made their fateful air assault into LZ Albany in
the Ia Drang Valley. He features prominently in Hal Moore’s and Joe
Gallway’s acclaimed book, "We Were Soldiers Once…And Young." He
later helped save thousands of people and died a hero’s death at the
World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001. As the security director
for a major American corporation, Rescorla was a hero of both
attacks on the World Trade Center. On 9-11 he managed to get all but
a few of his company’s thousands of employees out of the tower. He
was last seen heading back into the building with FDNY rescue crews
when it collapsed.
1965 Nov, The British Indian
Ocean Territory (Biot) was created by detaching the Chagos island
group from Mauritius and other small islands from the Seychelles,
then both British colonies. Mauritius was given £3m in compensation;
the following year, Britain signed a military agreement with the US
leasing it the largest island, Diego Garcia, for 50 years. This
meant deporting some 1,500 Chagossians, mostly to Mauritius and the
1965 Nov, Yao Wenyuan
(1931-2005), one of China’s Gang of Four, published a piece titled
“On the New Historical Beijing Opera ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from
Office." It was a 10,000 word diatribe against the popular play.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)
1965 Dec 1, An airlift of
refugees from Cuba to the United States began in which thousands of
Cubans were allowed to leave their homeland.
1965 Dec 1, South Africa
government said children of white fathers are white.
1965 Dec 3, Katarina Witt,
figure skater (Olympic-Gold-1984, 88), was born in Staaken, GDR.
1965 Dec 3, Beatles began their
final UK concert tour in Glasgow.
1965 Dec 3, The National
Council of Churches asked the U.S. to halt the massive bombings in
1965 Dec 4, The United States
launched Gemini 7 with Air Force Lt. Col. Frank Borman and Navy
Comdr. James A. Lovell aboard.
1965 Dec 4, The Brazilian
Democratic Movement (MDB) was founded as the official opposition
party to the supporters of military rule gathered under the National
Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA) umbrella.
1965 Dec 5, Beat poets Michael
McClure and Allen Ginsberg gathered with Bob Dylan at the City
Lights bookstore in SF.
(SFC, 4/4/06, p.E1)
1965 Dec 5, Several dozen
activists gathered in central Moscow to demand that the trial of two
Soviet writers charged with anti-Soviet activity in their
yet-unpublished writings, Andrei Sinyavsky (d.1997) and Yuliy
Daniel, be open. They were tried in 1966 and sentenced to 6 years in
prison for publishing anti-Soviet works. The rally, which was
quickly dispersed, was later regarded as the first pro-democracy
demonstration in the Soviet Union's history.
(SFC, 2/26/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A1)(AP,
1965 Dec 8, Abe Burrows'
"Cactus Flower," premiered in NYC.
1965 Dec 9, The animated TV
special "A Charlie Brown Christmas," premiered on CBS. Producer Lee
Mendelson (1933-2019) won 12 Emmys for his work on the show.
1965 Dec 9, Nikolai V. Podgorny
replaced Anastas I. Mikoyan as president of the Presidium of the
1965 Dec 11, Sam Cooke
(b.1931), pop singer, was shot to death by a motel manager in Los
Angeles after a prostitute stole his clothes and money. His hits
included “You Send Me," “Cupid," and “Chain Gang." In 2005
Peter Guralnick authored “Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke."
1965 Dec 13, In San Francisco
Jerry Rubin (27) of Berkeley was arrested and sentenced to 30 days
in jail along with two other men and a woman for their anti-Vietnam
war protest and picketing against Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor during his
(SSFC, 12/13/15, DB p.54)
1965 Dec 15, The U.S. dropped
12 tons of bombs on an industrial center near Haiphong.
1965 Dec 15, Two U.S. manned
spacecraft, Gemini 6 and Gemini 7, maneuvered to within 10 feet of
each other while in orbit.
1965 Dec 15, In Karachi,
Pakistan, a cyclone killed some 10,000 people.
1965 Dec 16, Somerset Maugham
(91), British playwright and author, died in France. His books
included “Of Human Bondage" (1915) and “The Moon and Sixpence"
(1919), a novel whose main character is based on Paul Gauguin. In
2004 Jeffrey Meyers authored "Somerset Maugham: A Life."
p.M3)(Econ, 3/6/04, p.75)
1965 Dec 16, Taufa’ahau Tupou
IV (1918-2006) became king of Tonga following the death of his
mother Queen Salote Tupou III.
1965 Dec 17, Ending an election
campaign marked by bitterness and violence, Ferdinand Marcos was
declared president of the Philippines.
1965 Dec 18, Kenneth LeBel
jumped 17 barrels on ice skates.
1965 Dec 18, U.S. Marines
attacked VC units in the Que Son Valley, South Vietnam, during
Operation Harvest Moon.
1965 Dec 18, The Borman and
Lovell splash down in the Atlantic ended a 2 week Gemini VII
1965 Dec 19, French president
De Gaulle was re-elected. Mitterrand got 45% of the vote.
1965 Dec 20, The Dating Game TV
show first aired and was the first of many shows created and
packaged by Chuck Barris from the 1960s through the 1980s. ABC
dropped the show on July 6, 1973, but it continued in syndication
for another year (1973–1974) as The New Dating Game.
1965 Dec 20, In the largest
U.S. drug bust to date, 209 lb. of heroin was seized in Georgia.
1965 Dec 21, Four pacifists
were indicted in New York for burning draft cards.
1965 Dec 22, The EF-105F Wild
Weasel made its first kill over Vietnam.
1965 Dec 23, In Britain Roy
Jenkins (1920-2003) began serving his first term as Labour Home
Secretary under PM Harold Wilson and continued to September 30, 967.
Jenkins was responsible for the relaxation of the laws relating to
1965 Dec 24, US troops in
Vietnam reached 184,300. Gen. Westmoreland wanted 210,000 by the end
of the year.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.88)
1965 Dec 25, Entertainer Chris
Noel gave her first performance for the USO at two hospitals in
1965 Dec 25, Sherman Poppen
invented the "Snurfer," the first snowboard by screwing together two
pairs of children’s skis.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)
1965 Dec 26, "Funny Girl" with
Barbra Streisand closed on Broadway.
1965 Dec 28, U.S. barred oil
sales to Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
1965 Dec 29, "Thunderball"
premiered in US.
1965 Dec 29, A Christmas truce
was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the
North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
1965 Dec 30, Ferdinand E.
Marcos was sworn in as the Philippine Republic's sixth president.
(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A26)(HN, 12/30/98)
1965 Dec 31, California became
the largest state in population.
1965 Dec 31, In the Central
African Republic Jean-Bedel Bokassa overthrew his cousin, David
Dacko, in a bloodless coup that was said to be backed by the French.
He abolished the 1959 constitution, dissolved the National Assembly
and concentrated power in the presidency.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A24)
1965 Salvador Dali donated a
sketch depicting Jesus Christ to the prison at Riker's Island, NYC,
in lieu of a planned visit. On Mar 1, 2003, 4 prison officials
staged a fake fire drill, stole the sketch and replaced it with a
fake. The guards were caught by June and claimed the original was
(SFC, 10/6/03, p.A2)
1965 Richard Diebenkorn painted
(SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1)
1965 Willem de Kooning
(1904-1997), abstract artist, painted "Nude."
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)
1965 Robert Motherwell
(1915-1991), painter of the New York School, made his "Lyric
(SFEC, 3/16/97, BR p.8)
c1965 Sigmar Polke, German artist, created his
work "Potato Heads: Nixon and Khrushchev."
(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)
1965 Pop art gave way to Op
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 Andy Warhol became the
manager of the Velvet Underground and suggested they feature the
German-born singer Nico on several songs. Warhol's reputation helped
the band gain a higher profile.
1965 William Alfred wrote his
play "Hogan's Goat."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1965 Samuel Beer (1911-2009),
Harvard professor, authored “British Politics in the Collectivist
Age." This established him as the foremost scholar on modern British
(Econ, 5/2/09, p.88)
1965 New Directions published
"Eugenio Montale: Selected Poems." Montale (1896-1981), an Italian
poet writer and translator, won the Nobel Prize in Literature in
(SFEC, 2/28/99, BR p.8)
1965 Sam Shepard wrote his play
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A12)
1965 The play "The Effect of
Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds," written by Paul Zindel
(d.2003), was 1st produced at the Alley Theater in Houston. It
opened off Broadway in 1970 and was made into a film in 1972.
(SFC, 4/1/03, p.A16)
1965 Ian Barbour, physicist,
published "Issues in Science and Religion."
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A2)
1965 Raymond Dasmann (d.2002 at
83) authored "The Destruction of California." He later authored
"Wildlife Biology" (1981) and "Environmental Conservation" (1984).
In 2002 he authored "’The Autobiography of a Conservationist."
(SFC, 11/7/02, p.A26)
1965 Bel Kaufman (d.2014 at
103) authored of “Up the Down Staircase." It was about the travails
of life in an urban school and became a million-seller.
(SFC, 7/26/14, p.C3)
1965 Paul De Kruif authored
(ON, 3/03, p.9)
1965 Rev. Edward Flannery
(d.1998 at 86) of Providence, R.I., published "The Anguish of the
Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Anti-Semitism.
(SFC, 10/23/98, p.D7)
1965 Stanford Prof. Gerald
Gunther (d.2002 at 75) authored the textbook "Constitutional Law."
It became a gold standard on the subject.
(SFC, 8/2/02, p.A27)
1965 Leslie Halliwell, British
movie maven, published "The Filmgoer’s Companion," a rudimentary
Who’s Who for films.
(SFC, 9/13/00, p.C1)
1965 Richard Hofstadter
authored “The Paranoid Style in American Politics: An Other Essays."
These essays deal with the conditions that have given rise to the
extreme right of the 1950s and the 1960s, and the origins of certain
characteristic problems of the earlier modern era when the American
mind was beginning to respond to the facts of industrialism and
1965 F. Clark Howell
(1925-2007), UC anthropologist, authored “Early Man," as part of the
Time-Life science series.
(SFC, 3/14/07, p.B7)
1965 "The Animal Family" by
Randall Jarrell was published. It was illustrated by Maurice Sendak.
(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)
1965 Consumer advocate Ralph
Nader published "Unsafe At Any Speed," a book criticizing the auto
industry for knowingly producing unsafe cars and not installing
proper safety devices. It specifically attacked the Chevrolet
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 10/13/96, Z1 p.3)
1965 Mancur Olson (d.1998 at
66), economist, published "The Logic of Collective Action," based on
his doctoral thesis. He asked how interest groups were created. His
reply was that people joined interest groups when the returns
exceeded the cost. He showed how groups organized around a narrow
interest affected laws and policies. His 1982 work "The Rise and
Decline of Nations" extended his ideas to countries. In 2000 his
last work "Power and Prosperity" was published. It sought to
identify the incentives that spur producers, consumers and holders
of political power.
3/4/98, p.7)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)
1965 Elizabeth Taylor wrote her
biography "Elizabeth Taylor."
(SFC, 8/28/96, E10)
1965 "The Killing of Sister
George" by Frank Marcus (1928-1996) was first staged in England. It
described a decaying lesbian relationship
(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)
1965 Czech author Bohumil
Hrabal (1915-1997) wrote "Closely Watched Trains." In the 1980s he
wrote "I Served the King of England."
(SFC, 2/4/97, p.A16)
1965 James Michener (d.1997 at
90) wrote his novel "The Source."
1965 Marcus Raskin co-edited
“The Vietnam Reader," an influential historical anthology about
(SFC, 12/28/17, p.D5)
1965 J.D. Salinger published
his novella "Hapworth 16, 1924" in the New Yorker. It came out in
book form in 1997.
1965 C.P. Snow authored "The
Two Cultures," on the chasm between the arts and sciences.
(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.9)
1965 Tivadar Soros (1894-1968),
Hungarian lawyer and editor, authored “Maskerado ĉirkaŭ la morto"
(Masquerade (dance) around death. In 2011 it was translated into
English and published as “Masquerade: The Incredible True Story of
How George Soros' Father Outsmarted the Gestapo".
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tivadar_Soros)(Econ 5/20/17, p.26)
1965 Robert Taber authored “War
of the Flea: The Classic Study of Guerrilla Warfare." He had
witnessed Fidel Castro’s success in Cuba.
(Econ, 10/3/09, p.55)
1965 Morrie Turner (1923-2014)
unveiled his “Wee Palls" (1965) cartoon strip. He was the first
African American cartoonist to draw a nationally syndicated strip
exploring racial themes during the peak of the civil rights movement
(SFC, 1/29/14, p.E1)
1965 The American Conservatory
Theater was founded by William Ball in 1965 in Pittsburgh. ACT moved
west and settled in at the Geary Theater in SF in 1967.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W29)
1965 The musical "Anya" was
written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
(SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)
1965 Harold Fielding (d.2003 at
86) produced "Charlie Girl" in London. It ran for over 5 years.
(SFC, 10/4/03, p.A18)
1965 The musical Don Quixote
opened on Broadway and ran for 5 years with Richard Kiley (d.1999 at
76) as the "Man of La Mancha."
(SFC, 3/6/99, p.A21)
1965 Charlton Heston took over
as president of the Screen Actors Guild. He held the position until
a liberal revolt in 1971.
(WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)
1965 Films: See the film file.
1965 The TV series “The F.B.I."
premiered with Efrem Zimbalist Jr. (1918-2014). The show continued
(SFC, 5/3/14, p.A7)
1965 The first animated Peanuts
TV Special was broadcast on CBS.
(SFC, 12/15/99, p.E1)
1965 The TV series “Honey West"
starred Anne Francis (d.2012 at 80). She played a sexy private eye
in the series, which continued to 1966.
(SFC, 1/4/11, p.C5)
1965 The TV series Wild, Wild
West began and ran to 1970. Government agents Jim West and Artemus
Gordon tracked Arliss Loveless, who sought to assassinate Pres.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, BR p.45)
1965 Louis Armstrong sang
"Hello Dolly." The song was written by Jerry Herman for the remake
of the Thornton Wilder play "Matchmaker." The name of the play was
changed to "Hello, Dolly!" after the song became a hit before the
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)
1965 Syd Barrett (1946-2006)
co-founded Pink Floyd with Roger Waters, Nick Mason and Rick Wright,
and wrote many of the band's early songs. Barrett became mentally
unstable from the pressures of drugs and fame and had to leave the
band in 1968, five years before Pink Floyd's most popular album,
"Dark Side of the Moon."
1965 James Brown (1928-2006),
the dynamic "Godfather of Soul," produced his classic song “I Got
You (I Feel Good)," later considered one of the all-time greatest in
(SFC, 12/26/06, p.A7)
1965 The SF-based Beau Brummels
and lead singer Sal Valentino made a hit with “Laugh Laugh."
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.E1)
1965 Sonny Bono and Cher had a
hit with their song "I Got You Babe."
(SFC, 1/7/98, p.E1)
1965 Cannibal & the
Headhunters, a group from East Los Angeles, made a hit with their
doo-wop recording of “Land of 1000 Dances." Founding member Richard
“Scar" Lopez (b.1945) died in 2010. The song was written and first
recorded by Chris Kenner in 1962.
1965 Bob Dylan (23) did a tour
of England that was chronicled in the film "Don’t Look Back" by D.A.
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D5)
1965 John Fogarty and his band,
the Golliwogs, had a hit with the song "Brown-Eyed Girl. Under
direction from Saul Zaentz of Fantasy Records they soon changed
their name to Creedence Clearwater Revival.
(SFEM, 3/23/97, p.28)
1965 Jerry Garcia and The
Grateful Dead began playing.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.E4)
1965 Marvin Gaye sang "Ain’t
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)
1965 Curtis Mayfield and the
Impressions had a hit with the song "People Get Ready."
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)
1965 The Miracles sang "Tracks
of My Tears."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)
1965 Billy Joe Royal
(1942-2015) made a top ten hit with “Down in the Boondocks," written
and produced by Joe South.
(SFC, 10/15/15, p.D4)
1965 Pharoah Sanders, jazz
saxophonist, debuted his 1st album: “Pharoah’s First."
(SFC, 4/19/06, p.E3)
1965 Frank Sinatra won a Grammy
award for his song, "It Was a Very Good Year."
(SFC, 5/16/98, p.E7)
1965 The Supremes sang "Stop!
In the Name Love," Back in My Arms Again," and "I Hear a Symphony."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)
1965 The Lynyrd Skynyrd rock
and roll band was formed. Their 1973 debut album included "Free
Bird." Their hit songs included "Sweet Home Alabama."
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.69)(WSJ, 3/17/05, p.A1)
1965 Koko Taylor (1928-2009,
Chicago blues singer, made a hit with “Wang Dang Doodle" and made it
(SFC, 6/5/09, p.B6)
1965 Junior Walker & the
All Stars played "Shotgun."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)
1965 Stevie Wonder sang
"Uptight (Everything’s Alright)."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)
1965 Folk-rock edged in next to
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 Ray Repp made his
groundbreaking album: "Mass for Young Americans."
(WSJ, 9/16/96, p.B8)
1965 The Righteous Brothers
released their song: "You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feeling." It was
produced by Phil Spector.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, DB, p.65)(SFEC, 10/5/97, DB
1965 The Sir Douglas Quintet
with Doug Sahm had a hit with the song "She's About a Mover."
(SFC, 11/20/99, p.A22)
1965 Franz Waxman composed his
"Song of Terezin" for the Cincinnati May Festival. The choral song
cycle was written to poetry by children at the notorious Polish
(WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)
1965 In Britain The Who made 3
consecutive hits with "I Can’t Explain," "Anyway Anyhow Anywhere,"
and "My Generation." The group included bassist John Entwistle
(d.2002), drummer Keith Moon (d.1978), singer Roger Daltrey, and
guitarist Pete Townshend.
(SFC, 6/28/02, p.A2)
1965 The Kahala Hilton Hotel
opened on Oahu, Hawaii.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)
1965 In NYC the 1910 grand
Pennsylvania Station was torn down and replaced. Demolition had
begun in 1963.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)
1965 NYC enacted its landmark
Preservation Act. Lawyer Albert Bard (1866-1963) was chief among the
preservation champions. The act was prompted by the demolition of
the original Pennsylvania Station, to make way for the construction
of the current Madison Square Garden, which was being relocated from
50th Street and Eighth Avenue. In 2008 Anthony C. Wood authored
“Preserving New York," and illustrated history of how the act came
(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.W8)(http://tinyurl.com/3afjyj)
1965 In Detroit, Mich., Dr.
Charles Wright began a private collection of African American
cultural artifacts that developed into the 1997 $38.4 million Museum
of African American History.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T5)
1965 Irving Kristol
(1920-2009), political writer and publisher, and Daniel Bell
(1919-2011) founded the “Public Interest," an American quarterly
public policy journal.
1965 Ron Karenga founded US, a
black power movement in Southern California shortly after the Watts
riots. In 2003 Scot Brown authored "Fighting for US: Maulana
Karenga, the US Organization and Black Cultural Nationalism."
(SSFC, 8/3/03, p.M6)
1965 Bernard Rimland
(1928-2006), psychologist, founded “The Autism Society of America."
In 1964 he had authored “Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its
Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior." In 1967 he started
what came to be called the Autism Research Institute in San Diego.
In 2014 it was reported that one in 68 American children is
11/27/06, p.B6)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.69)
1965 In Canal Winchester, Ohio,
the Barbering Hall of Fame was established.
(WSJ, 7/30/99, p.A1)
1965 The Mod fashion was in and
skirts moved way up.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 The Scopitone was a quick
fad that used jukebox machines to show music, video-like, short
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.A23)
1965 The International Swimming
Hall of Fame opened in Fort Lauderdale, Florida under the direction
of Buck Dawson.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.9)
1965 Major League Baseball in
the US began a draft program for American players. In 1990 the draft
was extended to include Canada and Puerto Rico.
(Econ, 2/4/12, p.40)
1965 Muhammad Ali scored
victories over Sonny Liston and Floyd Patterson. In 1998 David
Remnick authored "King of the World." Ali’s own autobiography was
titled "The Greatest."
(WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A20)
1965 The PGA began its
Tournament Training and Qualifying Program as a sort of finishing
school for aspiring golf professionals. In 2000 David Gould authored
"Q School Confidential: Inside Golf's Cruelest Tournament."
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1965 Richard Feynman won Nobel
prize in Physics for his work in quantum electrodynamics.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
(b.1905), Russian novelist (And Quiet Flows the Don), won a
Nobel Prize in Literature.
(HN, 5/24/01)(MC, 5/24/02)
1965 Lyndon Johnson escalated
the war in Vietnam.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 The US sustained bombing
mission known as "Rolling Thunder" was begun in Vietnam.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)
1965 Bobby Garwood, a marine
private motor pool driver, was reported to have gone over to the
enemy in Vietnam. He became hunted by Col. Tom McKenney who led a US
assassin team to track down deserters and POWs accused of working
with the Communists. Garwood maneuvered his release from a POW camp
in 1979 and underwent a military trial in 1980. His story is told by
Monika Jensen-Stevenson in the 1997 book: "Spite House: The Last
Secret of the War in Vietnam."
(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.9)
1965 John Paul Vann (d.972),
American military adviser, returned to Vietnam as a civilian
adviser. He had achieved outstanding tactical results in the field,
but retired from the Army. In 1963 Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann
was the adviser to the ARVN 7th Infantry Division, commanded by
Colonel Huynh Van Cao. Despite Vann’s success in the field, he
alienated Cao and the military-political rulers in Saigon.
Reassigned to the Pentagon after his advisory tour, Vann decided
that his experience in Vietnam would cost him further promotion, and
he retired from the Army. After a stint in the private sector, Vann
returned to Vietnam in 1965 as a pacification representative for the
Agency of International Development (AID). Vann eventually rose to
the level of senior adviser for the Central Highlands, a position
that gave him authority over all U.S. military forces in the region.
The authority was equivalent to that of a major general. As
principal adviser for an ARVN general who commanded 158,000 troops
in the region, he was one of the most influential Americans in
Vietnam, after the ambassador and the commanding general of MACV.
1965 Medicare and Medicaid
began to provide health insurance for the elderly, poor and
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)
1965 The Supreme Court ruled in
Griswold vs. Connecticut to invalidate a state law prohibiting the
use of contraceptives. The court ruled that the government cannot
regulate a married couple's use of birth control.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.A22)(NW, 6/30/03, p.44)
1965 The US National Endowment
for the Arts (NEA) was established. Its initial budget was $2.5
million. In 2000 Lynne Munson authored "Exhibitionism: Art in an Era
of Intolerance," which in part covered the history of the NEA. In
2001 Michael Brenson authored "Visionaries and Outcasts: The NEA,
Congress, and the Place of Visual Arts in America."
(SFC,12/9/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/13/00, p.A24)(SSFC,
3/25/01, BR p.5)
1965 Daniel Patrick Moynihan
(1927-2003), while employed under Pres. Kennedy at the Dept. of
Labor, authored a report that attributed problems among blacks
to the deterioration of the family structure. In this year 8% of
children were born to unmarried parents. By 2006 a third of all US
children were born to unmarried parents as well as nearly 70% of
(SFC, 3/27/03, p.A15)(WSJ, 11/20/06, p.A1)
1965 The US $2 bill was
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)
1965 A long term bear market
began in the US that lasted to 1982. The following bull market ran
(Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)
1965 The United States replaced
silver-alloy quarters and dimes with coins of copper-and-nickel
composition. Non-silver half-dollars and dollar coins were
introduced in the U.S. in 1971.
1965 Dr. John Pina Craven
(1924-2015), Chief US Navy engineer, converted the nuclear submarine
Halibut into a secret spy ship with crab claws and
remote-controlled cameras. In 1968 it was used to find the Soviet
K129 submarine, which had been wrecked by an explosion.
(Econ., 2/28/15, p.82)
1965 George P. Cressman
(1919-2008) was named head of the US National Weather Service. In
1966 he started expressing its forecasts in terms of probability.
(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.A8)
1965 LSD was restricted by the
government. [see Oct 1966]
(SFEC, 10/6/96, Par p.4)
1965 Sam Giancana, a mob boss,
was jailed under US Attorney Edward Hanrahan.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.B5)
1965 In San Francisco the
466-foot Hartford Building was completed at 650 California St.
(SSFC, 2/1/15, p.D5)
1965 In San Francisco the Holy
Virgin Cathedral was completed at 6210 Geary Blvd. The Russian
Orthodox church was designed by Oleg Ivanitsky.
(SFC, 1/25/02, p.G6)(SSFC, 7/13/14, p.C2)
1965 San Francisco’s News
Call-Bulletin was folded into the Examiner newspaper.
(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(SFC, 10/5/13, p.C1)
1965 California State
Assemblyman John Williamson (d.1998 at 85) authored the California
Land Conservation Act that offered tax breaks to farmers who agreed
not to sell their property for at least 10 years. In 1998 the
Williamson Act was amended to increase the farm preservation
contracts from 10 to 30 years.
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.C3)
1965 Harold Bachman (1921-2005)
designed the logo for San Francisco’s Doggie Diner. In 1966 his
dachshund head design was turned into a rotating giant head for the
chain of diners founded by Al Ross (d.2010 at 93). Ross had founded
Doggie Diner in Oakland on San Pablo and 19th Ave. in 1948 and sold
his chain in 1979.
(SFC, 10/6/05, p.B7)(SFC, 4/5/10, p.C6)(SSFC,
1965 In San Francisco Art
Gensler founded his Gensler architectural firm. By 2014 it had
become the world’s largest architectural practice with 46 offices in
(SSFC, 3/16/14, p.A16)
1965 The US Navy lowered SeaLab
II was lowered off the coast of San Diego to see if divers could be
sustained on a helium-oxygen mix. Lawrence Jue (1915-2005), a
Chinese-American, was the principal of the project [see 1969].
(SFC, 3/29/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/9/05, p.B5)
1965 A Navy dolphin named Tuffy
carried tools and messages to Sealab II divers off the coast of La
(SFC, 4/11/03, p.D1)
1965 In San Francisco the
16-story building at 450 Sansome St. was built with a design by
architect Richard Hadley.
(SSFC, 4/26/09, p.B3)
1965 Fritz Maytag saved the
Anchor Brewing Co. in San Francisco when he returned it to
traditional brewing methods.
(SFC, 8/7/96, p.B1)
1965 Serpentine was named the
state rock of California.
(CW, Fall ‘03, p.42)
1965 US Steel workers
negotiated the right to retire on a full pension after 30 years of
service, regardless of age.
(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)
1965 Fred DeLuca, fresh out of
high school, founded Subway, a sandwich shop, with $1,000 start-up
money from a family friend. By 2007 it was the world’s largest
sandwich chain with over 25,000 stores in 83 countries.
(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.C2)
1965 International Harvester
introduced its turbocharged Farmall 1206 tractor.
(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.A1)
1965 Carroll Shelby began
producing the Shelby 427 Cobra. It was a 2-seater with a race-car
body designed in Britain and an 8-cylinder, 500 horsepower engine
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.B1)
1965 The Pepsi-Cola Co. changed
its name to PepsiCo.
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)
1965 The Philip Morris Tobacco
Co. began using ammonia compounds to make smoke less acidic and
provide a stronger dose of nicotine.
(SFC, 2/9/98, p.A2)
1965 A 7-Eleven manager
happened upon an Icee machine in a rival's store. He saw potential
and got them into three 7-Eleven stores. Slurpee was born in Kansas
at a Dairy Queen where owner Omar Knedlik served semi-frozen bottled
soft drinks. When they were a hit, he worked with a Dallas company
to develop the "Icee" machine that replicated that consistency in
slushy soft drinks served at 28 degrees.
1965 Time Magazine entered the
fledgling cable TV business.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)
1965 Helen Gurley Brown, author
of “Sex and the Single Girl" (1963), took over the running of
(SFC, 8/19/05, p.E9)
1965 David Lett (d.2008 at 69)
began Eyrie Vineyards in the Dundee Hills of Oregon with some 3,000
baby vines of the Pinot Noir grape. His 1975 vintage ranked among
the top 10 at a prestigious Paris tasting in 1979.
(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B6)
1965 In this year 30 chiefs
from big [US] companies were paid 44 times more than the average
American employee. In 1995 the multiple was 212.
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.B-1)
1965 Oil companies began eyeing
the Grand Banks of Canada when seismic surveys revealed oil
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.D5)
1965 A Univ. of Florida
professor invented Gatorade. The drink earned him and his school
millions in royalties.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.C1)
1965 Kevlar was invented by
Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist for DuPont, while experimenting with
polymers for new ways to reinforce car tires. In 1970 Herbert Blades
of DuPont developed a process for mass production. Marketing began
in 1971. Soon after that Lester Shubin (1925-2001), a US Justice
Dept. researcher, began developing Kevlar, into body armor for
police and soldiers.
(SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)(SFC, 11/28/09, p.C4)
1965 Eugene Fama (b.1939),
American economist, first proposed his efficient market hypothesis
at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business as an academic
concept of study through his published Ph.D. thesis.
(Econ, 8/8/09, p.67)(www.e-m-h.org/history.html)
1965 Richard Scaife (1932-2014)
of Pittsburgh, heir to the Mellon banking fortune, inherited $500
million. With more family bequests, income from trust funds and
investments he nearly tripled his net worth over his lifetime.
(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C4)
1965 Martin Seligman,
psychologist, conducted experiments with dogs subjected to electric
shock and found that they “learned helplessness" when unable to
(Econ, 3/31/07, p.63)
1965 Mary Ann Wilkes, American
computer programmer, became by most accounts the first person to use
a home computer, a machine she built herself.
(SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)
1965 The Big Bang Theory of the
Universe was announced.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 At California’s
Berkeley Univ. campus, engineering professor Lotfi Zadeh introduced
the ideas of Fuzzy Logic.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.102)
1965 In Berkeley, Ca., a groups
of native plant enthusiasts banded together to save a Berkeley
native plant botanic garden from being sacrificed for development.
This gave birth to the California Native Plant Society (CNPS),
dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of native plants.
1965 Bethlehem Steel built the
Bradley, a carrier escort ship. This was its last ship that
Bethlehem built at SF Pier 70 facility. During the 1960s 57 sections
of underwater steel tubes for BART were created at the shipyards.
(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)
1965 The astronaut, Ed White,
took a walk in space.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)
1965 In western New York the
Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River opened. Construction of the dam
forced the departure of Pennsylvania's last Native Americans, the
Senecas, who now live near Salamanca, New York, on the northern
shores of land flooded by the dam.
1965 There were just 587,000
visitors to Hawaii.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)
1965 Prof. Kenneth Norris
(1924-1998) helped create the UC Natural Reserve System (NRS). In
1998 the system encompassed 120,000 acres of protected habitat
(SFC, 8/31/98, p.A22)
1965 Milton Avery (b.1893),
artist, died. His work was collected by Roy Neuberger, founder of
the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, N.Y.
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)
1965 Dickey Chalelle, Female
correspondent and photographer, died in Vietnam.
(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A20)
1965 Henry Cowell (b.1897),
pianist and composer, died. He originated the term "tone cluster" to
denote a contiguous group of notes played at once. His work included
a Piano Concerto, "The Aeolian Harp," and "The Banshee."
(SFEC, 1/26/97 DB, p.33)
1965 Dorothy Dandridge (41),
actress, died of a prescription drug overdose. Earl Mills later
authored "Dorothy Dandridge: S Portrait in Black," and Donald Bogle
wrote "Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography." A 1999 HBO biopic was based
on the Mills book.
(SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.44)
1965 Gertrude Hurler (b.1889),
Austrian pediatrician, died. In 1919 she described the autosomal
recessive disease (MPS) that results from deficiency of
alpha-l-iduronidase, which leads to severe mental retardation with a
typical "gargoyle" facial appearance (Hurler's Syndrome). Major
Charles H. Hunter, Canadian Army Medical Corps, 1st described it in
(WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A8)(www.medcyclopaedia)
1965 Randall Jarrell (b.1914),
author, critic and translator, died after being hit by a car while
walking on a country road. In 1999 Brad Leithauser edited his
selected essays: "No Other Book: Selected Essays by Randall
Jarrell." Mary von Schrader Jarrell, Randall's wife, authored
"Remembering Jarrell." Jarrell's work included the academic novel
"Pictures From an Institution."
(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A12)
1965 Charles E. Jeanneret
(b.1887), aka Le Corbusier, Swiss-born French architect and city
planner, died. He and Amedee Ozenfant had authored the modernist
manifesto "After Cubism."
1965 Carr Jones (b.1885), SF
Bay Area architect, died. His work was rooted in the 19th century
Arts and Crafts tradition.
(SFC, 9/13/03, p.E1)
1965 John Kelly Jr. (41), Bell
Labs researcher, died in NYC. His Kelly System, reduced to 2 axioms,
instructed how to distribute wagers among different stocks and how
big wagers should be relative to a bankroll. In 2005 William
Poundstone authored “Fortune’s Formula," the story of the Kelly
(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W8)
1965 William Pitsenbarger, an
Air Force Pararescue man, died. He volunteered to descend from a
helicopter to the jungle floor to help a company of the 1st Infantry
Division that was pinned down and fighting for its life. He rescued
many wounded soldiers, and he refused evacuation himself after he
was wounded several times, finally fatally. He was awarded a
posthumous Air Force Cross, but the men of the company he went to
help fought for many years to get the award upgraded to the Medal of
Honor. Pitsenbarger was one of only two Air Force enlisted men to
earn the Medal of Honor in Vietnam, and the first since the end of
World War II.
1965 Dawn Powell (b.1896),
Ohio-born American comic novelist, died. Her work anatomized and
skewered New York and included her autobiographical novel "My Home
Is Far Away." In 1998 Tim page authored: "Dawn Powell: A Biography."
In 1995 Page published an abridged edition of her diaries.
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)
1965 Jack Spicer (40), poet,
died of alcohol poisoning. The "Collected Book of Jack Spicer" was
published nearly 10 years after his death. In 1998 Lewis Ellingham
and Kevin Killian published "Poet Be Like God: Jack Spicer and the
San Francisco Renaissance. "The House That Jack Built : the
Collected Lectures of Jack Spicer was also published in 1998 with an
afterward by Peter Gizzi.
(SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.3)
1965 Henry A. Wallace (b.1888),
former vice-president (1941-1945), died. He was the founder of
Pioneer Hi-Bred Corp. and served as the Sec. of Agriculture from
1933-1940. In 2000 John C. Culver and John Hyde authored the
biography "American Dreamer."
(WSJ, 4/5/00, p.A24)(WUD, 1994 p.1606)
1965 Arab states signed the
Charter of Arab Honor, an Arab league ordnance designed to curb an
aggressive Lebanese press and to discourage mutually hostile regimes
from attacking each other.
(SFC, 6/19/00, p.A5)
1965 Leon Ferrari, Argentine
sculptor, created his work “The Western Christian Civilization." It
depicted Jesus crucified on an American bomber.
(Econ, 3/26/15, p.96)
1965 In Australia the Hazelwood
power station in Victoria started generating electricity. In 2017
the coal-powered station was closed, following ten others closed
over seven previous years.
(Econ, 4/1/17, p.65)
1965 Brazil’s Forest Code of
this year required private landowners to leave to leave forests
standing on part of their farms. In the Amazon this was set at
four-fifths. This particular requirement has never been effectively
1965 Roberto Marinho broke into
Brazil’s television industry. By 1995 Rede Globo became the world's
fourth largest TV network.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)
1965 Peter Laslett (1915-2001),
English historian, authored “The World We Have Lost: England
Before the Industrial Age".
(Econ, 10/4/14, p.82)
1965 The Int’l. Standard Book
Number (ISBN) was invented in Britain and rapidly took off as an
int’l. standard for classifying books.
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.60)
1965 In Britain Bob Guccione
founded Penthouse Magazine. It was a sex magazine with more
provocative poses than Playboy Magazine.
(WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-1)
1965 The first automatic teller
machines came from England.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1965 Imre Lakatos of London's
School of Economics organized a session chaired by Karl Popper at
which philosopher Thomas Kuhn spoke. In 2003 Steve Fuller authored
"Kuhn vs. Popper: The Struggle for the Soul of Science."
(Econ, 8/9/03, p.71)
1965 Canada required its
senators to step down at age 75.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.30)
1965 In the Central African
Republic Col. Jean-Bedel Bokassa, commander of the army and minister
of defense, was picked by France to overthrow David Dacko when Dacko
began establishing close ties with China.
(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A22)
1965 The Gang of Four included
Wang Hongwen, Yao Wen-yuan, Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005) and Mao
Zedong’s third wife, Jiang Qing. All four were relatively
low-ranking members of the Communist party, albeit favored by Mao.
Beginning around 1965, they were able to manipulate the media and
youth to leverage their positions over party moderates, such as Deng
Xiaoping. Mao’s death in 1976 ended their influence and led to their
imprisonment and trial in 1980-81 for their role in the Cultural
(HNQ, 6/6/01)(SFC, 5/11/05, p.B7)
1965 China began the
construction of a subway system in Beijing. The first line of 17
miles began regular service in 1981. By 2008 the subway network
boasted 8 lines over 120 miles.
(WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A10)
1965 In China the local
government of Pingyang, near the southern provincial capital of
Nanning, built a smelting factory for lead and antimony. For decades
the waste was discarded in piles near farmland, where rains washed
the metals into fields and ponds used to water crops. Villagers
later tested for extremely high levels of lead, cadmium and other
metals. The factory was torn down in 2004.
(WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)
1965 Chinese military
researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet
wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
(SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)
1965 In Cuba Carlos Rafael
Rodriguez (d.1997 at 84), "El Tio," was a founding member of the
Cuban Communist Party. From 1962-1965 he was the head of the
National Institute of Agrarian Reform and became a deputy prime
minister in charge of foreign affairs in 1972.
1965 Czechoslovakia adopted the
economic ideas of Ota Sik to improve on stagnant industrial growth.
His “new economic model" called for limited reforms of the Soviet
system including less central planning.
(SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)
1965 In the Dominican Republic
Jose Pena Gomez incited a popular uprising on radio and demanded the
restoration of Pres. Bosch. Leftists in the army revolted and Pres.
Lyndon Johnson sent in 23,000 US Marines to prevent a Cuban-style
(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A21)
1965 In Egypt journalist
Mustafa Amin was arrested while meeting an American diplomat in
Alexandria and accused of being an American spy. He was later freed
by Pres. Anwar Sadat.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1965 Former King Farouk of
Egypt died at a restaurant in Rome. The obese monarch was notorious
for his decadent lifestyle. The David Freeman novel "One of Us" is
based on his life and times.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)
1965 In France IBM established
a large manufacturing plant in Montpellier.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1965 Werner Tubke, German
artist, created his painting “Reminiscences of Schulze, JD III."
(WSJ, 2/10/09, p.D7)
1965 In Honduras Col. Oswaldo
Lopez Arellano held a constitutional assembly that formalized his
position as president of Honduras.
1965 Two Hong Kong banks went
bust. Depositor calls on the government to be made good were
(Econ, 7/17/10, p.74)
1965 India and Pakistan began a
second war over Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1965 The 1982 film “The Year of
Living Dangerously" with Mel Gibson was set in Indonesia’s 1965
civil war. It was adapted from a novel by Christopher Koch.The
film was banned in indo until 1999. An estimated 250-500 thousand
Indonesians were killed on suspicion of being Communist Party
members or sympathizers. US CIA and Embassy officials later admitted
that they furnished as many as 5000 names of “communist" leaders to
the Indonesian army.
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T6)(SFC,
5/16/00, p.A12,14)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)(AP, 10/4/13)
1965 In 2013 an
American-directed documentary, "The Act of Killing," challenged
widely held views about hundreds of thousands of deaths carried out
across Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 in the name of fighting
1965 Indonesia became the
first nation ever to withdraw from the United Nations. Indonesia
withdrew in protest of the seating of Malaysia on the UN Security
Council. The former Dutch colony bitterly opposed the formation of
its neighbor Malaysia in 1963, refusing to recognize it and waging a
guerilla war against it. In 1966 a peace agreement with Malaysia was
reached and shortly thereafter Indonesia resumed its membership in
1965 Indonesia enacted a
blasphemy law in order to prevent abuse of religions.
1965 Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz
(b.1938) began his translation and commentary on the Talmud. In 2010
he published the last book of his 46-volume series. His translation
of the Talmud from Aramaic to Hebrew, with his own added comments,
marked his crowning achievement.
1965 Teddy Kollek (1911-2007)
was elected as mayor of Jerusalem. He sought to bring Arabs into the
Jewish governed city as social and economic equals. In 1993 he was
defeated in a run for a 7th term by Ehud Olmert of the Likud Party.
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)
1965 Israel’s Netafim began on
a Kibbutz in the Negev desert as a firm selling drip irrigations
systems. By 2011 it boasted sales of over $600 million.
(Econ, 5/14/11, p.81)
1965 Luciano Benetton was one
of 4 family members who launched the Italian Benetton clothing
(Econ, 11/3/07, p.82)
1965 Ivory Coast, formerly
French West Africa, established independence.
(WUD, 1994, p.759)
1965 The government of Japan
signed a peace treaty with South Korea that covered reparation
claims of South Korean women used as sex slaves. Japan paid $500
million to South Korea in compensation for wartime excesses and
colonial era claims.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 4/22/98,
p.A11)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.48)
1965 Japan’s recognition of
South Korea enabled Koreans in Japan to become South Korean. Koreans
who did not became North Korean by default and went to Japan’s North
(Econ, 6/15/13, p.38)
1965 Japan’s PM Eisaku Sato
told US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that American military
forces could launch a nuclear attack on China by sea if needed. This
information was not made public until 2008.
1965 Mexico’s Border
Industrialization Program (BIP) was first introduced. It led to the
construction of foreign-owned maquiladoras (assembly plants) to
produce goods for export.
(MT, summer 2003, p.22)
1965 New Zealand signed a free
trade deal with Australia.
(Econ, 2/11/17, p.62)
1965 Niger began planting trees
for a green belt around its capital, Niamey, five years after the
country proclaimed independence from France. Planting continued to
1993 as funding for the 4.5 million-euro (6.2 million-dollar)
project came mainly from abroad. The belt began to decline as
hundreds of rural people fled to the capital to escape the severe
famine of 1984. By 2011 almost half of its original 2,000-hectare
(nearly 5,000-acre) surface area had disappeared.
1965 Yasser Arafat formed his
Fatwah movement for the Liberation of Palestine.
(SFC, 9/8/03, p.A8)
1965 Peruvian author Mario
Vargas Llosa wrote his novel "The Green House."
(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 18)
1965 Peru cut a trail through
the jungle to Inapari, its border town across from Assis, Brazil.
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)
1965 Rarotonga of the Cook
Islands was colonized by the British but ruled until this year by
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)
1965 Television arrive in Saudi
Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could
use it to promote their faith.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)
1965 The modern Scottish
Conservative Party was established with the merger of the Unionist
Party into the Conservative Party in England and Wales.
1965 South Korea banned the use
of Chinese hair in its wig industry. By the late 1960s wigs made up
roughly 10 percent of the country’s total exports by revenue.
(Econ 7/29/17, p.33)
1965 Hafez al-Assad became
Syria's defense minister. He was a member of the Alawite clan, an
offshoot of Shiite Islam. Nearly 80% of Syrians are Sunnis.
(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)
1965 The Syrian Arab News
Agency (SANA), a state media organization linked to the Ministry of
Information, was established.
1965 The United Nations added 4
non-permanent seats to the Security Council, bringing the
non-permanent total to 10 and the whole to 15.
1965 The 21st Vatican Council,
begun in 1962 and later known as the Second Vatican Council (Vatican
II), ended. In 2008 John W. O’Malley authored “What Happened at
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A11)
1965 Nguyen Van Thieu, the
South Vietnam ruling junta's chairman of the National Directorate,
became chief of state.
(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)
1965 In Vietnam the Thuan Thanh
center was established for wounded soldiers. In 1997 it was but one
of 57 veteran’s centers across the country.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)
1965 In Zaire Laurent-Desiree
Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto "Che" Guevara on
behalf of the People’s Revolutionary Party.
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1965 In Zaire (later Congo)
Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi tribe,
seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name
meant “the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen
(SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC,
4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)
1965-1966 King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied
Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television.
There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001
the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)
1965-1966 In Indonesia some 500,000 alleged Communists were
slaughtered during this period. As of 2014 the slaughter was never
(Econ, 8/9/14, p.36)
1965-1968 The 3rd Betty Crocker [General Mills
advertising icon] made her appearance.
(WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)
1965-1968 The Mamas and the Papas consisted of
Dennis Doherty, Michelle Phillips, John Phillips and Cass Elliot
(d.1974). Their songs over this period included "California
Dreamin’" and "Monday Monday."
(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)
1965-1969 Roberto Sanchez Vilella (1913-1997)
became the 2nd governor of Puerto Rico.
(SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)
1965-1970 Cheryl Scott killed 4 of her children,
aged 11 days to 14 months, during this period. 3 died in southern
California and the 4th in Mendocino County. In 2006 Cheryl Athene
Miller was charged in Ukiah, Ca., with the murders after her brother
revealed the secret they had kept for decades. In 2007 Miller was
released for lack of evidence.
(SFC, 11/2/06, p.B1)(SFC, 6/23/07, p.B6)
1965-1971 In the US "Hogan’s Heroes" ran for 168
episodes. Werner Klemperer (d.2000 at 80) played the role of Col.
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/8/00, p.D11)
1965-1972 Sir Martin Jones (d.1997 at 84) led M15,
the British counterintelligence agency. He had succeeded Sir Roger
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A22)
1965-1973 General Bob Worley was the only U.S. Air
Force general officer to die in actual combat during the Vietnam
War. He was a tactical fighter pilot whose RF-4C Phantom caught fire
while on a patrol over North Vietnam.
1965-1973 Some 300,000 South Korean troops fought
alongside US forces in Vietnam. In 1998 South Korea expressed to
Hanoi its regret for its participation in the war.
(WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)
1965-1975 Solomon Barkin (d.2000), labor
economist, writer and professor, covered this period in his book
"Worker Militancy and Its Consequences." His work also included "The
Decline of the labor Movement and What Can Be Done About It."
(SFC, 4/8/00, p.A23)
1965-1979 In Indonesia Pramoedya Ananta Toer,
outspoken writer, was arrested and put into a labor camp on the
island of Buru. He was never charged with a crime.
(WSJ, 4/30/99, p.W9)
1965-1975 In Tajikistan the large aluminum
smelting plant at Tursunzadeh was built.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)
1965-1981 In Bolivia military regimes ran the
country. Their human rights violations were documented in the 1993
book "Never Again for Bolivia" by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)
1965-1985 The Boy Scouts of America collected some
20,000 pages of “perversion files" during this period. They came to
light when used as evidence in a 2010 lawsuit. In 2012 the Oregon
Supreme Court approved their release.
(SFC, 6/15/12, p.A12)