Return to home1971 Jan 1,
The United States began a second decade of involvement in Vietnam.
1971 Jan 1, The US government
ban on TV Cigarette ads went into effect.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, DB p.55)(AP, 4/1/98)
1971 Jan 3, At the top of the
record charts: "My Sweet Lord and Isn’t It" a Pity by George
Harrison; "Knock Three Times" by Dawn; "Black Magic Woman" by
Santana; and "Rose Garden" by Lynn Anderson.
1971 Jan 5, Pres. Nixon named
Robert Dole as chairman of the Republican National Party.
1971 Jan 5, Sonny Liston
(b.1932), World Champion boxer (1962-64), was found dead in his Las
1971 Jan 6, The 1964 Gulf of
Tonkin resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war against
Vietnam, was repealed by Congress. US Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon
and Ernest Gruening of Alaska share the distinction of casting the
only votes against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964.
The resolution supported President Lyndon Johnson's military actions
against North Vietnam in retaliation for its attack on a US spy ship
in the Tonkin Gulf. The resolution passed in the House 414-0 and the
1971 Jan 8, 29 pilot whales
beached themselves and died at San Clemente Island, off Calif.
1971 Jan 10, "Masterpiece
Theatre" premiered on PBS with host Alistair Cooke introducing a
drama series, "The First Churchills."
1971 Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco"
Chanel (b.1883), French fashion designer, died in Paris. In 2011 Hal
Vaughan authored “Sleeping With the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret
1971 Jan 12, The situation
comedy "All in the Family" with Carroll O’Connor (1924-2001) as
Archie Bunker, began on CBS TV and ran to 1983. It later became
"Archie Bunker’s Place." It was the first video-taped sitcom.
Producers Bud Yorkin (1926-2015) and Norman Lear adopted the 1964
British series "Till Death Do Us Part," written by Johnny Speight
(d.1998 at 78) for the sitcom.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.39)(AP, 1/12/00)(SFC,
6/22/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/19/15, p.A10)
1971 Jan 12, Dale Bumpers
(1925-2016) began serving as the 38th governor of Arkansas and
continued to 1975. He then served four terms in the US Senate
(SSFC, 1/3/16, p.A15)
1971 Jan 12, Jimmy Carter
(b.1924) was sworn in as the 76th governor of Georgia.
1971 Jan 12, A federal grand
jury indicted Rev. Philip Berrigan and 5 others, including a nun
& 2 priests, on charges of plotting to kidnap Henry Kissinger.
On 5 September 1972 the Justice Department dropped all charges.
1971 Jan 15, George Harrison’s
"My Sweet Lord" was released in the UK. The US release was in 1970.
1971 Jan 15, Egypt’s Aswan High
Dam, 600 miles upstream from Cairo, was formally inaugurated. It had
been completed Jul 21, 1970.
1971 Jan 18, Two Standard Oil
tankers collided in the fog a quarter mile west of the Golden Gate
Bridge. The Arizona Standard ripped into the Oregon Standard and
caused the spill of some 1.9 million gallons of heavy bunker oil.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.5)
1971 Jan 19, The revival of
"No, No Nanette," first produced on March 11, 1925, opened at 46th
St Theater NYC and continued for 861 performances.
1971 Jan 22, Communist forces
shelled Phnom Penh, Cambodia for the first time.
1971 Jan 24, Bill Wilson
(b.1895), co-founder of AA (1935), died. In 2004 Susan Cheever
authored "My Name Is Bill: Bill Wilson, His life and the Creation of
1971 Jan 24, Pvt. Rogelio Roxas
(d.1993), a former Filipino soldier, allegedly discovered the war
treasure of Japanese Gen’l. Tomoyuki Yamashita in caves near Baguio
City. Roxas was arrested on May 18, 1971, and jailed for 5 years.
The gold bullion was reportedly taken away by Pres. Marcos.
(SFC, 10/12/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 3/4/01,
1971 Jan 25, Charles Manson and
three female followers were convicted in Los Angeles of murder and
conspiracy in the 1969 slayings of seven people, including actress
(AP, 1/25/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)
1971 Jan 25, The Philadelphia
mint made its 1st trial strike of the Eisenhower dollar.
1971 Jan 25, In Milan, Italy,
firebombs damaged the Pirelli tire factory.
(WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A18)
1971 Jan 25, In Uganda Gen. Idi
Amin (d.2003) led a military coup that seized power while Pres.
Obote was at a summit in Singapore. Obote sought refuge in Tanzania.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 10/12/05, p.B7)
1971 Jan 29, "My Sweet Lord" by
George Harrison hit #1 on UK pop chart.
1971 Jan 31, Astronauts Alan B.
Shepard Jr., Edgar D. Mitchell and Stuart A. Roosa blasted off
aboard Apollo 14 on a mission to the moon.
1971 Jan, Fred Speaker
(1930-1996), attorney general of Pennsylvania, ordered the
dismantling of the electric chair at the Rockview Correctional
Institution on his last day in office.
(SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/6qxtu6)
1971 Jan, Intel Corp. created
the first microprocessor. The 4004, the world's first
microprocessor, is signed with the initials F.F., for Federico
Faggin, its designer. The 4004 was released in 16-pin CERDIP
packaging on November 15, 1971.
1971 Jan, Gen. Juan Jose Torres
dismissed Hugo Banzer from his position as director of the military
academy. Banzer followed with a coup attempt and was exiled to
1971 Feb 1, The soundtrack
album from the movie, "Love Story", starring Ryan O’Neal and Ali
McGraw, with music by Frances Lai, was certified as a gold record on
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1971 Feb 1, Evonne Goolagong
(b.1951) scored her first major senior singles victory as she
defeated Margaret Court in the finals of the Victorian Open, played
in Melbourne, Australia.
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1971 Feb 1, The three
astronauts aboard the Apollo XIV overcame a difficult docking
problem but faced a critical test to determine whether they could
land on the moon.
(G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-2)
1971 Feb 2, The Apollo XIV
astronauts confirmed that they would attempt a lunar landing.
(G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)
1971 Feb 2, The Ramsar
Convention, officially titled “The Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat," was
developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in
Ramsar, Iran. Swiss conservationist Luc Hoffman (1923-2016) oversaw
the signing. It came into force on December 21, 1975. The US
ratified the Ramsar agreement in 1986.
p.35)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.74)
1971 Feb 2, Idi Amin assumed
power in Uganda, following a coup that ousted President Milton
Obote. Idi Amin Dada (1925-2003) appointed himself president.
1971 Feb 3, OPEC decided to set
oil prices without consulting buyers.
1971 Feb 4, Rolls-Royce
collapsed due to rising development costs on the RB.211, the sole
powerplant selected for the Lockheed TriStar. The Conservative
nationalized the company to save it from collapse.
1971 Feb 5, Apollo 14 lander
Antares landed on Moon. Astronauts Shepard & Mitchell walked on
1971 Feb 6, In Wilmington, NC,
Mike's Grocery, a white-owned business, was firebombed. When
firefighters arrived to put out the flames, they were fired upon by
snipers positioned on the roof of Gregory Congregational Church. The
National Guard was mobilized to quell rioting. The violence resulted
in two deaths. Reverend Benjamin Chavis, Jr. of Oxford, North
Carolina, and nine others, eight African American men and one white
woman, were arrested and tried and convicted for arson and
conspiracy in connection with the firebombing. They were sentenced
to nearly 28 years in prison. Chavis Muhammad (b.1948), a member of
the Wilmington 10, was sentenced in 1972 to 34 years in prison. He
spent 4 years in prison before his conviction was overturned on
appeal. In 1980 a federal appeals court threw out the convictions.
1971 Feb 6, Alan Shepard hit a
golf ball on the Moon during the Apollo 14 mission.
1971 Feb 7, Switzerland voted
to introduce female suffrage at the federal but not the cantonal
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 2/7/01)
1971 Feb 8, NASDAQ, an
automated unit of the National Association of Securities Dealers,
went live under the leadership of Gordon Macklin (1928-2007).
(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.98)
1971 Feb 8, South Vietnamese
ground forces, backed by American air power, began Operation Lam Son
719, a 17,000 man incursion into Laos that ended three weeks later
in a disaster.
1971 Feb 9, Satchel Paige
became the 1st negro-league player elected to baseball HOF.
1971 Feb 9, The "Apollo 14"
spacecraft returned to Earth after man's third landing on the moon.
1971 Feb 9, In San Fernando,
Ca., a 6.5 earthquake killed 65 people.
(SFEC, 10/17/99, p.A3)
1971 Feb 10, The play "The
House of Blue Leaves" by John Guare (b.1938), American playwright,
opened off Broadway.
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB
1971 Feb 10, Combat
photographers Henri Huet of AP, Kent Potter of UPI, Larry Burrows
(b.1926) of Life Magazine and Keisaburo Shimamato of Newsweek were
killed in a helicopter crash over Laos. In 2003 Richard Pyle and
Horst Faas authored "Lost Over Laos: A True Story of Tragedy,
Mystery and Friendship."
1971 Feb 11, Pres. Nixon issued
Executive Order 11582 dealing with holidays given to federal
(SFC, 2/21/05, p.A7)
1971 Feb 11, John Connally
(1917-1993) replaced David Kennedy as Treasury Secretary under
Richard Nixon. He instituted a 10% surcharge on imports and
repudiated fixed exchange rates.
1971 Feb 11, In SF Officer
Charles Lagasa was killed in an accidental helicopter crash at Lake
(SFC, 1/27/07, p.A8)
1971 Feb 11, Whitney Young Jr.
(b.1921), National Urban League director, drowned in Nigeria.
1971 Feb 12, James Cash Penney
(b.1875), US founder of the J.C. Penney stores, died in NYC. His
first store, a branch of the Colorado based Golden Rule stores
(1902), was in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1971 Feb 14, Moscow publicized
a new five-year plan geared to expanding consumer production.
1971 Feb 15, Britain abandoned
the unit of the penny on Decimal Day, February 15, 1971, replacing
the shilling with five new pence, so that one pound sterling became
divided into 100 new pence.
1971 Feb 16, Richard Nixon
began secret recordings using a newly installed taping system in
(SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)(
1971 Feb 20, The National
Emergency Warning Center in Colorado erroneously ordered radio and
TV stations across the US to go off the air; some stations heeded
the alert, which was not lifted for about 40 minutes.
1971 Feb 20, Young people
protested having to cut their long hair in Athens, Greece.
1971 Feb 21, A series of
tornadoes cut through the lower Mississippi River Valley. The
two-day outbreak, which produced 19 tornadoes, killed 123 people
across 3 states, including 11 in Louisiana, 110 in Mississippi, and
2 in North Carolina.
1971 Feb 24, Algeria
nationalized French oil companies.
1971 Feb 25, "Oh, Calcutta"
opened at the Belasco Theater.
11/3/96, DB p.38)
1971 Feb 28, The male
electorate in Lichtenstein refused to give voting rights to women.
1971 Feb, Fusako Shigenobu
broke from the Japanese Communist league and founded a faction of
The Japanese Red Army with the goal of worldwide communist
revolution. She entered Lebanon and linked with the Popular Front
for the Liberation of Palestine. Shigenobu was arrested in 2000 and
in 2006 was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(AP,
Jul, Pres. Nixon kept over 3000 hours of tapes
that were ordered to be released by Congress in 1975. Univ. of
Wisconsin historian Stanley Kutler won release of the tapes and had
201 hours transcribed for his 1997 book "Abuse of Power."
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-2)(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.4A)
1971 Mar 1, The Weather
Underground bombed the US Capitol building claiming it to be in
protest of US involvement in Laos. The bomb exploded in a Capitol
restroom 30 minutes after a telephone warning. Some $200,000 in
damage was caused with no injuries.
1971 Mar 3, Levi Strauss &
Co., SF-based jeans maker, went public.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(http://tinyurl.com/5wnfjx)
1971 Mar 3, South African
Broadcasting Corp lifted its ban on the Beatles.
1971 Mar 4, Five Turkish
militants (the Turkish Revolutionay Army) kidnapped 4 US military
men in Ankara. The kidnappers released the four airmen unharmed on
March 8, and were subsequently arrested, tried and convicted. Three
were hanged, one was imprisoned, and one was killed in a gunfight
with Turkish authorities.
1971 Mar 4, Canadian Prime
Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (52) married Margaret Sinclair (22)
in North Vancouver, B.C. They later divorced.
(AP, 3/4/99)(SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)
1971 Mar 8, Radio Hanoi
broadcast Jimi Hendrix's "Star Spangled Banner."
1971 Mar 8, Joe Frazier fought
Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight championship at Madison Square
Garden. Frazier won. They fought rematches in 1974 and 1975. In 2001
Mark Kram authored "Ghosts of Manila," and account of the
Frazier-Ali boxing matches.
1971 Mar 8, Pres. Nixon
expressed his bigotry against women, blacks and Mexicans and
Italians on tape recordings that were only made public in 1998.
(SFEC, 12/27/98, p.a15)
1971 Mar 8, Catholic radicals
in Media, Pa., broke into the local FBI offices and stole documents
that revealed the agency’s illegal activities against radical groups
and leaked them to the media. In 2014 Betty Medsger authored “The
Burglary: The Discovery of J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret FBI." Prof. John
Raines (1933-2017) and his wife Bonnie were among the eight antiwar
activists who took part in the burglary.
(SSFC, 1/12/14, p.F1)(SSFC, 11/19/17, p.C9)(SSFC,
1971 Mar 8, Harold Lloyd
(b.1893), US comic, actor (Why Worry), died of cancer. Lloyd, an
avid 3-D photographer, left behind a large collection that included
thousands of nude women as subjects. In 2004 granddaughter Suzanne
Lloyd published “Hollywood Nudes in 3-D."
1971 Mar 8, Joe Frazier fought
Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight championship. Frazier won. They
fought rematches in 1974 and 1975. In 2001 Mark Kram authored
"Ghosts of Manila," and account of the Frazier-Ali boxing matches.
(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W8)
1971 Mar 10, The US Senate
approved an amendment to lower the voting age to 18. On June 30,
1971, the amendment received ratification by the 38 required states,
and became law.
1971 Mar 10, In France a group
of homosexuals of both sexes disrupted a live general public radio
show, devoted to “Homosexuality, that painful problem," and put the
newly-born gay movement on the French political map.
1971 Mar 11, Philo T.
Farnsworth (b.1906), inventor of television, died in Salt Lake City,
Utah. Later Prof. Donald Godfrey authored "Philo T. Farnsworth: The
Father of Television" and Evan I. Schwartz authored "The Last Lone
1971 Mar 12, A Turkish coup
d'état took place amid worsening domestic strife. It was the second
to take place since 1960. Known as the "coup by memorandum," which
the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done
1971 Mar 13, Rockwell Kent
(b.1882), artist, illustrator and printmaker, died in New York. He
was a member of the rugged realist school of landscape painters. In
the 1930s he created a set of illustrations for "Moby Dick." In 1935
he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter
(1931–32) painting and exploring while based in the settlement of
Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1960 he donated 80 paintings and 800
watercolors to the people of the Soviet Union.
(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)(SFC, 8/25/01,
1971 Mar 16, Thomas E. Dewey
(b.1902), US president candidate (R 1944, 1948), died of a heart
1971 Mar 18, U.S. helicopters
airlifted 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers out of Laos.
1971 Mar 19, At least 160
people perished in landslides north of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
1971 Mar 21, Daniel Ellsberg
obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers, commissioned by then-Defense
Secretary Robert McNamara, from his former pentagon colleagues and
showed it to Neil Sheehan, a young New York Times reporter, at
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR
1971 Mar 21, Two US platoons in
Vietnam refused their orders to advance.
1971 Mar 21, In Laos South
Vietnamese Marines at FSB Delta, south of Route 9, came under
intense ground and artillery attacks. During an attempted extraction
of the force, seven helicopters were shot down and another 50 were
damaged, ending the evacuation attempt.
1971 Mar 21, Sheik Mujibur
Rahman (Mujeeb-ur Rehman), head of the Awami League, declared East
Pakistan (later Bangladesh) independent of Pakistan. Pakistani Pres.
Yahya Khan ordered the army in; several million East Bengali
refugees fled to India. Rahman was the father of later PM Hasina
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00,
1971 Mar 23, The US Congress
proposed the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age from 21 to 18.
it was ratified on July 1, 1971. A similar law in 1970 had been
challenged in court.
1971 Mar 23, USSR performed
underground nuclear test.
1971 Mar 23, In Argentina
General Alehandro Lanusse seized power in a bloodless coup from
General Roberto Levingston. He proceeded to re-establish ties with
China and allowed Juan Domingo Peron to return to Argentina after 17
years of forced exile.
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Mar 24, The Washington
Post, after affirming the veracity of files sent by the Citizens'
Commission to Investigate the FBI, ran a front-page story, at which
points other media organizations followed suit. The files had been
obtained on March 8 by anti-war activists in Media, Pa. The
documents revealed the COINTELPRO operation, and led to the 1975
Church Committee and the cessation of this operation by the FBI.
1971 Mar 25, Sheik Mujibur
Rahman was arrested in Dhaka. Pakistani forces started Operation
Searchlight, a systematic plan to eliminate any resistance.
Thousands of people were killed in student dormitories and police
barracks in Dhaka.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Mar 26, East Pakistan
proclaimed its independence, taking the name Bangladesh. [See Mar
21] This is considered the official Independence day of Bangladesh.
This sparked a nine-month war. Pakistani forces surrendered on Dec.
1971 Mar 27, PM of India,
Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her government to the
Bangladeshi struggle for independence. The Bangladesh-India border
was opened to allow the Bangladeshi Refugees safe shelter in India.
1971 Mar 28, CBS aired the
final broadcast of its Ed Sullivan Show. Reruns and pre-emptions
aired in that time slot throughout the following April and May, and
in June, CBS announced that The Ed Sullivan Show had been cancelled.
1971 Mar 28, In the 25th Tony
Awards held in NYC “Sleuth" won for best play & “Company" won
for best musical.
1971 Mar 29, Army Lt. William
L. Calley Jr. (b.1943) was convicted of murdering at least 22
Vietnamese civilians in the March 16, 1968, My Lai massacre. Calley
ended up spending three years under house arrest.
1971 Mar 29, A jury in Los
Angeles recommended the death penalty for Charles Manson and three
female followers for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders. The sentences
were later commuted.
1971 Mar 31, US Lt. William
Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre.
1971 Mar, In Washington DC a
bomb exploded in a Senate rest room. It caused extensive damage but
no injuries. It occurred at a time of rising opposition to US
policies in Vietnam.
(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)
1971 Mar, Mexican fisherman
Rudesindo Cantarell took geologists of Petroleos Mexicanos to an
site where oil impacted his nets. The Cantarell field turned out to
be one of the largest offshore oil fields ever found. In 2006-2006
production fell 20% as the reserve declined.
(WSJ, 4/5/07, p.A1)
1971 Apr 1, President Richard
M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house
arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.
1971 Apr 1, In San Francisco
the Bay Area Reported published its first issue as a community and
culture publication. It was begun by Bob Ross (d.2003 at 69) and
Paul Bentley. Over the next 45 years it evolved to become a local
news source and advocate for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
(SFC, 12/12/03, p.A29)(SFC, 6/25/16, p.A9)
1971 Apr 2, The ABC sci-fi soap
opera "Dark Shadows," which premiered in 1966, aired for the last
1971 Apr 3, Manfred Bennington
Lee (65), detective writer, died. Brooklyn cousins Daniel
Nathan, alias Frederic Dannay (1905-1982) and Manford Lepofsky,
alias Manfred Bennington Lee (b.1905), used Ellery Queen as both a
fictional character and a pseudonym.
1971 Apr 3, Joseph Valachi
(b.1903), US gangster, died at La Tuna Federal Correctional
Institution in Texas. A biography heavily influenced by Valachi’s
memoirs and by interviews with Valachi was written by journalist
Peter Maas and published in 1968 as The Valachi Papers.
1971 Apr 4, Stephen Sondheim’s
musical "Follies" was produced at the Winter Garden in NYC and ran
for 524 performances. The book was written by James Goldman (d.1998
1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)
1971 Apr 5, In Sicily, Italy,
Mount Etna began a series of eruptions.
1971 Apr 5-1971 Apr 23, In
Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) the People’s Liberation Front attempted a
nationwide coup, but the army and Mr. Bandaranaike’s government
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Apr 6,
Igor Stravinsky (b.1882), Russian-born composer, died in NYC.
1971 Apr 7, President Nixon
pledged a withdrawal of 100,000 more men from Vietnam by December.
1971 Apr 7, Pres. Nixon ordered
Lt. Calley, imprisoned for the Mi Lai massacre, free.
1971 Apr 7, Miro Baresic
(b.1950), a declared pro-Ustasha who strived for Croatia's
independence from Yugoslavia, and his friend Andelko Brajkovic shot
Ambassador Vladimir Rolovic inside the Yugoslav embassy in
Stockholm. A group of Croatian far-right radicals hijacked a
Scandinavian Airlines passenger plane in 1972, forcing his release.
He found refuge in Paraguay, but was eventually captured again and
extradited to Sweden in 1980, where his life sentence was converted
to 18 years. He returned to Croatia in 1991 where he was killed in
fighting against Serb-led forces fighting against Croatia's
1971 Apr 8, The 1st legal
off-track betting (OTB) system began in NYC.
1971 Apr 9, Demonstrators
occupying the Stanford Univ. Hospital administration offices clashed
with police and 9 Palo Alto officers were injured. Police later
raided the Stanford Daily to recover photos of the demonstrators.
(SFC, 1/17/03, p.E8)
1971 Apr 10, The American table
tennis team arrived in China.
1971 Apr 14, President Nixon
ended a blockade against People's Republic of China.
1971 Apr 15, In the 43rd
Academy Awards "Patton" won for best picture and George C Scott won
best actor for his role as Patton. Glenda Jackson won as best
actress for her role in “Women in Love." George C. Scott (b.1927)
refused his Oscar nomination for on grounds that actors should not
have to compete against each other. He had refused it before in 1962
for his performance in "The Hustler."
1971 Apr 15, North Vietnamese
troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne
Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American
troops were on a rescue mission.
1971 Apr 17, In Vietnam Lance
Corporal John Gillespie (24), an Australian army medic, died when
his helicopter crashed and caught ablaze after coming under fire
during a medical evacuation in the Minh Dam Mountains of southern
Phuoc Tuy province. His remains were returned to Australia in 2007.
1971 Apr 19, Charles Manson and
3 accomplices were sentenced to death for the Sharon Tate murders.
1971 Apr 19, Russia launched
its first Salyut space station.
1971 Apr 20, The US Supreme
Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld
the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools. The
ruling allowed Charlotte, NC., and other cities nationwide to use
mandatory busing and student assignment based on race to attempt to
further integrate schools. The case arose in 1965 when a black
parent, James E. Swann, challenged the system that kept Charlotte's
black students apart from the white majority. In 2001 an appeals
court ruled that the dual school system was dismantled and busing
could end. A failed appeal to the Supreme Court ended the case in
p.D1)(AP, 4/20/07)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)
1971 Apr 21, In SF the 710-ton
Vaillancourt Fountain, sculpted by French-Canadian artist Armand
Vaillancourt, was unveiled on Justin Herman Plaza. The fountain put
out 30,000 gallons of water per minute.
(SFC, 3/17/04, p.B4)(SFC, 8/5/17, p.A8)
1971 Apr 21, In Haiti Francois
"Papa Doc" Duvalier (b.1907) died. He was succeeded by his teenage
son Jean-Claude "Baby-Doc" Duvalier (19), under the guidance of
Simone Duvalier, aka "Mama Doc."
1971 Apr 22, Former US Navy
lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign
Relations Committee and talked about hearing from fellow veterans
about war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
(SFC, 9/11/04, p.A5)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.E6)
1971 Apr 23, In the final event
of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans
threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol
1971 Apr 23, The Rolling Stones
released their Sticky Fingers album. Following the release of Sticky
Fingers, the Stones left England after allegations by the UK Inland
Revenue service of unpaid income tax.
1971 Apr 23, The Soviet Union
launched Soyuz 10; the cosmonauts became the first in Salyut 1 space
1971 Apr 25, US canal rights in
Nicaragua and rights to Nicaragua’s Corn Islands expired.
1971 Apr 27, In South Korea Kim
Dae-jung, a serious challenger to Park's dictatorship, nearly
defeated Park in the presidential election. After the stunning
election outcome, Park revised the constitution to guarantee himself
victory in future elections.
1971 Apr 28, The US
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was established
within the Dept. of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, which was passed on Dec 29, 1970. It was formed to protect
workers from on-the-job injuries and illnesses.
1971 Apr 29, Bill Graham
announced the close of the Fillmore in SF and the Fillmore East in
NYC along with his retirement from concert promotion. He was angered
by his perceived greed of rock bands and the anger and distrust of
his audience. He soon relented and put on shows with Led Zeppelin,
the Allman Brothers, Pink Floyd, the Who and the Grateful Dead. The
final concert at Fillmore East took place on June 27.
1971 Apr, The world table
tennis championship was held in Japan. Zhuang Zedong (d.2013 at 72)
of China met Glenn Cowan of Santa Monica and their friendship
inspired Chairman Mao to invite the American team to China thus
starting ping-pong diplomacy.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.90)
1971 May 1, Amtrak, which
combined and streamlined the operations of 18 US intercity passenger
railroads, went into service. The Southern Pacific Railroad turned
over its money-losing passenger service and railroad cars to the
government which formed Amtrak.
(AP, 5/1/97)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)
1971 May 3, The National Public
Radio “All Things Considered" program premiered on 112 NPR stations.
NPR, the US national, non-commercial radio network, was founded in
1970 and hit the airwaves in April, 1971.
1971 May 3, John Toland
(1912-2004), American author and historian, won a Pulitzer
prize for “Rising Sun" (1970) which chronicles Imperial Japan
from its Manchurian involvement following World War I to the end of
World War II.
1971 May 3, James Earl Ray
(1928-1998), Martin Luther King's assassin (1968), was caught in a
jail break attempt in Tennessee.
1971 May 3, Anti-war protesters
calling themselves the Mayday Tribe began four days of
demonstrations in Washington aimed at shutting down the nation's
capital. 13,000 anti-war protesters were arrested in 3 days.
(AP, 5/3/97)(MC, 5/3/02)
1971 May 9, In the 23rd Emmy
Awards: Jack Klugman won for his role in “The Odd Couple" & Jean
Stapleton won for her role in “All in the Family."
1971 May 9, Friends of Earth
returned 1500 non-returnable bottles to Schweppes. Friends of Earth
became an international network this year with a meeting of
representatives from the US, Sweden, the UK and France.
1971 May 10, The Russian KOSMOS
419 Probe failed to leave Earth orbit.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1971 May 12, A 6.3 earthquakes
in western Turkey killed about 100 people.
1971 May 13, Pres. Nixon set
his standards for a new IRS commissioner: I want to be sure he is a
ruthless son of a bitch, that he will do what he’s told, that every
income tax return I want to see I see, that he will go after our
enemies and not go after our friends."
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A2)
1971 May 14, Pope Paul VI
(1897-1978), the 262nd pontiff, delivered his Octagesima Adveniens
apostolic letter on the 80th anniversary of the Rerum Novarum
encyclical by Leo XIII. Paul VI was born in Lombardy, Italy, as
Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
(SFC, 11/20/96, p.C1)(http://tinyurl.com/65jr23)
1971 May 17, The musical
"Godspell," by Stephen Schwartz and John-Michael Tebelak, premiered
1971 May 18, The documentary
"Powers That Be" aired for one time and went under litigation from
PG&E. Don Widener (d.2003 at 72) produced the work about
environmental and nuclear dangers.
(SFC, 5/2/03, p.A26)
1971 May 18, President Nixon
rejected the 60 demands of the Congressional Black Caucus.
1971 May 18, The last victim of
Wayne Boden (1948-2006), Canadian serial killer and rapist, was
found. He earned the nickname "the Vampire Rapist" because he had
the penchant of biting the breasts of his victims.
1971 May 18, The 3rd Bulgarian
constitution went into effect.
1971 May 19, The Russian Mars 2
Orbiter and Lander made it to Mars but the Lander crashed when
braking rockets failed. The orbiter returned late until 1972.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1971 May 20, The US Congress
cancelled the supersonic SST airplane program.
1971 May 20, In Turkey the
National Order Party was shut down by Constitutional Court for being
anti-secular. Erbakan went to Switzerland in self-exile.
1971 May 22, A 6.9 earthquake
in eastern Turkey killed about a thousand people.
1971 May 23, In California poet
Lou Welch (b.1926) walked away from Gary Snider’s residence in the
Sierra foothills and was never seen again.
1971 May 25, Justin Henry Rye,
actor (Kramer vs. Kramer, 16 Candles), was born in Rye, NY.
1971 May 25, Jo Etha Collier
(18), a black woman, was killed by 3 drunken white males in Drew,
1971 May 25, Mark Brunswick
(b.1902), American composer, died in London.
1971 May 25, Terence De Marney
(b.1908), English film and TV actor, died.
1971 May 25, USSR performed a
nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk.
1971 May 26, Juan Corona
(b.1934) was arrested for 25 murders. Authorities had found 25
mutilated bodies of male farmworkers in orchards along the Feather
River in Sutter County. The farm labor contractor from Yuba City
Ca., was convicted in 1973 and again in 1982 and sentenced to life
p.B12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Corona)(SFC, 3/5/19, p.C4)
1971 May 28, Pres. Nixon
ordered John Haldeman to do more wiretapping and political espionage
against the Democrats. The orders were recorded on tape.
(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)
1971 May 28, The Russian Mars 3
Orbiter and Lander was launched successfully.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1971 May 28, Audie Murphy
(b.1926), WW II hero and actor, was killed in plane crash near
1971 May 29, Max Trapp
(b.1887), German composer, died in Berlin (other sources say he died
1971 May 30, The American space
probe Mariner 9, the first satellite to orbit Mars, blasted off from
Cape Kennedy, Fla. It later transmitted photos of possible
(AP, 5/30/97)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)(HN, 5/30/98)
1971 May 31, A US proposal was
made to the North Vietnamese that included a cease-fire-in-place, US
withdrawal, and the return of prisoners. 58,167 Americans were
killed in the Vietnam war.
(WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)
1971 May, Mr. Kissinger decided
to let Hanoi keep its army inside South Vietnam. His decision was
made just after the May Day protests in Washington. Many of the
protestors were unconstitutionally arrested.
(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-15)
1971 May, In South Dakota two
girls disappeared on their way to an end of school year party. In
2013 the remains of Cheryl Miller and Pamella Jackson were found in
a creek in their 1960 Studebaker.
(SFC, 4/18/14, p.A7)
1971 May, In Argentina Jacobo
Timerman founded the La Opinion newspaper.
(SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)
1971 May, PM Indira Gandhi of
India proclaimed the established royalty to be ordinary citizens and
abolished their government perks. She made them pay taxes on their
property or pass it to the state. The wealth tax doubled to 8% of
1971 Jun 1, The two-room shack
in Tupelo, Mississippi, where Elvis Presley was born, was opened to
the public as a tourist attraction.
1971 Jun 1, Harold Pinter's
play "Old Times" premiered in London.
1971 Jun 1, Reinhold Niebuhr
(b.1892), US theologist, died. His Serenity Prayer became widely
used by Alcoholics Anonymous: "God, give us grace to accept with
serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the
things which should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the
one from the other." His books included “Moral Man and Immoral
Society" (1932) and “Nature & Destiny of Man" (1942).
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.F2)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)
1971 Jun 6, "Ed Sullivan Show"
made its last broadcasts on CBS-TV.
1971 Jun 7, Soviet Soyuz 11
crew completed the 1st transfer to orbiting Salyut.
1971 Jun 10, Federal marshals,
FBI agents and special forces swarmed Alcatraz Island and removed
the Native American occupiers: 5 women, 4 children and 6 unarmed
1971 Jun 10, In Mexico City a
paramilitary group descended on student demonstrators and at least
11 people were killed. In 2002 criminal complaints were filed
against 14 former federal and Mexico City officials for their
involvement in the massacre. Mayor Alfonso Martinez (d.2002 at 81)
denied any involvement in the massacre that left over 30 protestors
dead. In 2004 charges were filed against former Pres. Echeverria,
but a judge blocked his arrest.
(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A14)(SFC, 11/9/02, p.A19)(SFC,
7/24/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 7/26/04, p.A1)
1971 Jun 12, Tricia Nixon and
Edward F. Cox were married in the White House Rose Garden. The event
was covered by all three major TV networks.
(AP, 6/12/97)(SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)
1971 Jun 13, The Broderick
nonuplets were born in Sydney, Australia. None of the five boys (two
stillborn) and four girls live for more than six days.
1971 Jun 13, The New York Times
began to publish the Pentagon Papers leaked to it by Daniel
Ellsberg. The papers were a secret official history of the Vietnam
War in 47 volumes that were highly classified. The Nixon
administration went to court to stop publication. A legal battle
ensued for 16 days and the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the
government failed to make its case for prior restraint and
publication was resumed. In 1996 the book, "The Day the Presses
Stopped" by David Rudenstine, was published and tells the whole
(SFC, 6/10/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)
1971 Jun 14, The first hard
Rock Café opened in Piccadilly, London, under the ownership of young
Americans Peter Morton and Isaac Tigrett.
1971 Jul 15, President Nixon
announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a
"normalization of relations."
1971 Jul 15, Seventeen UN
members requested that a question of the "Restoration of the lawful
rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations" be
placed on the provisional agenda of the twenty-sixth session of the
UN General Assembly.
1971 Jun 16, An El Greco
sketch, "The Immaculate Conception," stolen in Spain 35 years
earlier, was recovered in New York City by the FBI.
1971 Jun 16, Francois
Mitterrand (1916-1996) became the new leader of the French Socialist
Party at the Socialist Party Congress in Epinay. Over the next few
years he embarked on a strategy of electoral union with the
Communist Party. Jean Poperen (1925-1997) was present at the
inception of the modern-day Socialist Party. He served twice as a
minister of parliamentary relations and as a deputy for more than 15
1971 Jun 17, The United States
and Japan signed the Okinawa Reversion Treaty under which the United
States would return control of the island of Okinawa and the Ryukyu
Island chain, which includes the Senkaku Islands, in 1972.
1971 Jun 17, US Pres. Richard
Nixon declared a war on drugs.
1971 Jun 18, Fred Smith
(b.1944) founded Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air
freight delivery service, in Little Rock, Arkansas. It was based on
a hub and spoke business plan he cooked up at Yale. In 1973 he moved
the operation to Memphis, Tennessee.
(http://tinyurl.com/6mvfvy)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.70)
1971 Jun 18, Southwest
Airlines, co-founded by Herbert Kelleher, made its 1st flight.
1971 Jun 19, The song "Rainy
Days And Mondays" by the Carpenters peaked at #2 on the pop singles
1971 Jun 19, R.C., "It's Too
Late" by Carole King peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart and
stayed there for five weeks.
1971 Jun 20, A 5-day
Glastonbury Fair opened at Worthy Farm near Glastonbury, England.
Arabella Spencer-Churchill (1949-2007), granddaughter of former PM
Winston Churchill, helped found the fair. It featured Hawkwind,
Traffic, Melanie, David Bowie, Joan Baez and Fairport Convention,
and attracted some 12,000 people. Revived as a three-day festival in
1979, it had grown by 2007 to draw 153,000 people to hear acts
including Coldplay, Brian Wilson, Kaiser Chiefs and Elvis Costello.
1971 Jun 23, Pres. Nixon
recorded on tape that "anybody that wants to be an ambassador wants
to pay at least $250,000." The recordings were transcribed and
published in the 1997 book "Abuse of Power."
1971 Jun 26, "Man of La Mancha"
closed at ANTA Wash Square Theater in NYC after 2329 performances.
1971 Jun 26, The U.S. Justice
Department issued a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, accusing him of
giving away the Pentagon Papers. The infamous Pentagon Papers gave
insights into the Johnson administration's thinking on the Vietnam
1971 Jun 27, T. Smirnova,
Russian born astronomer, discovered asteroid #2121, Sevastopol.
1971 Jun 28, The Supreme Court
overturned the draft evasion conviction of Muhammad Ali.
1971 Jun 28, The US Supreme
Court ruled in Lemon vs. Kurtzman that public aid to parochial
schools in unconstitutional.
1971 Jun 28, Daniel Ellsburg
was arrested for leaking the Pentagon Papers to the Press. In 2002
he authored "Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and The Pentagon Papers."
Anthony Russo, a researcher at the Rand think tank, had assisted
Ellsberg in publishing the extracts of a 47-volume Defense Dept.
study of the US role in Indochina over 3 decades.
1971 Jun 28, In NYC mobster
Joseph Colombo (1924-1978) was gunned down at a Unity Day rally in
Columbus Circle in Manhattan. He never regained consciousness and
died seven years later.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Colombo)(SFC, 1/27/17, p.D2)
1971 Jun 30, The Supreme Court
ruled in favor of the Pentagon Papers. On the same day Pres. Nixon
told Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman to break into the Brookings
Institute and bring out files collected on the Vietnam War.
(SFC, 6/10/96, p.A21)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A4)(HN,
1971 Jun 30, The 26th Amendment
to the Constitution was ratified as Ohio became the 38th state to
approve it. The amendment lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to
18. The amendment was authored by Senator Jennings Randolph (d.1998
at 96) of West Virginia.
(AP, 6/30/97)(SFC, 5/9/98, p.A21)
1971 Jun 30, A Soviet space
mission ended in tragedy when three cosmonauts (Georgi Dobrovolsky,
Vladislav Volkov, and Viktor Patsayev) aboard Soyuz 11 were found
dead inside their spacecraft after it returned to Earth.
(AP, 6/30/97)(SFC, 10/2/07, p.A6)
1971 Jun, Vietnam War records
were given to the US National Archives for safe keeping by three
former defense analysts.
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)
1971 Jun, T. Vincent Learson
(1912-1996) became CEO of IBM. He had helped develop the IBM
System/360, one of the first commercially available business
(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A22)
1971 Jun, Manuel Elizalde
(d.1971), a Filipino official, allegedly found the Tasaday, a lost
Stone Age tribe, on Mindanao Island. Enthusiastic reports led to a
book, ''The Gentle Tasaday: A Stone Age People in the Philippine
Rain Forest'' (1975) by John Nance. Skeptics were dismayed in 1974
when Mr. Elizalde, citing a need to protect the Tasadays from
exploitation and the harmful effects of too much contact with
civilization, blocked any further visits by social scientists.
(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M1)(http://tinyurl.com/6e97rz)
1971 Jul 1, President Nixon
ordered chief of staff H. R. Haldeman to have the Brookings
Institute burglarized. Nixon met with Haldeman and Kissinger and
told them: "We’re up against an enemy, a conspiracy, that (sic) are
using any means."
1971 Jul 1, The US Post Office
Department was transformed into the US Postal Service as an
independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government
of the United States. The US government changed the Post Office to a
quasi-government body with a mandate to be financially
1971 Jul 1, The state of
Washington became the 1st US state to ban sex discrimination.
1971 Jul 1, Great Britain and
Argentina signed an accord on sea and air links to the Falkland
Islands, which later caused a war (1982).
1971 Jul 3, James Douglas
Morrison (b.1943), singer for the Doors rock group, died of an
apparent heart attack in Paris, France. Jim Morrison (27) was buried
at Pere Lachaise cemetery.
(SFC, 7/4/96, p.D2)(AP, 7/3/97)
1971 Jul 4, Koko, a female
lowland gorilla who learned American sign language, was born.
1971 Jul 4, A July 4th concert
on the West Lawn of the White House was held and began an annual
(SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)
1971 Jul 4, Michael S. Hart
(1947-2011) began typing the Declaration of Independence into the
memory of a mainframe computer at the Univ. of Illinois. This led
him to begin Project Gutenberg, an effort to put US historical
documents on line. It was later expanded to include books out of
1971 Jul 4, In Bulgaria Marin
Naidenov Minkov (1914-2012) was named Patriarch of the country’s
1971 Jul 4, France performed a
nuclear test at Muruora Island.
1971 Jul 6, Louis Armstrong
(b.1900), jazz and blues musician widely known as "Satchmo," died.
His innovations of early day blues and Dixieland music inspired the
swing eras of the 1920s and 1930s. He invented skat, a technique of
singing jazz improvisations. Louis spoke out against the US
government during the 1957 Little Rock, Ark. school troubles. "The
way they are treating my people in the South, the government can go
to hell." A 32 cent memorial stamp was issued by the Post Office in
1995. Armstrong smoked marijuana every day of his adult life, was
unfaithful to each of his four wives, was arrested 4 times and
consorted freely with prostitutes, pimps and mobsters. His
biographies include: "Louis Armstrong: An American Genius" by James
Lincoln Collier (1983); "Satchmo" by Gary Giddins (1988); and "Louis
Armstrong: An Extravagant Life" by Laurence Bergreen (1997). In 1999
Joshua Berrett published "The Louis Armstrong Companion." In 2009
Terry Teachout authored “Pops: A Life of Louis Armstrong."
(WSJ, 9/27/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/26/97, p.A16)(WSJ,
3/10/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/13/09, p.E1)
1971 Jul 6, US Army Maj. Donald
Carr, a Green Beret from San Antonio, Texas, crashed during a
reconnaissance flight in Vietnam's Kon Tum province. In 2018 his
remains were recovered and identified through DNA.
(SFC, 5/9/18, p.A4)
1971 Jul 6, In Brazil rubber
tapper Raimundo Irineu Serra (b.1892) died. He founded the Santo
Daime (Saint Gimme) religion. It was based on a shamanic brew of
ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic tea made from the Banisteriopsis caapi
vine and Psychotria viridis leaf.
(Econ, 5/12/12, IL
1971 Jul 8, In Northern Ireland
the British army used lead bullets for the first time. Seamus Cusack
(28) and Desmond Beattie (19) were killed.
1971 Jul 9, The United States
turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to
South Vietnamese units. In 1998 Jerry Lembcke authored "The Spitting
Image: Myth, Memory and Legacy of Vietnam.
(HN, 7/9/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, BR p.7)
1971 Jul 9, Henry Kissinger
secretly visited China and met with Premier Zhou Enlai. The
Forbidden City in Beijing reopened for the Kissinger visit.
Kissinger secretly traveled to Beijing to negotiate the
re-establishment of diplomatic ties between the US and China, he
came bearing multiple requests — about the Vietnam War, nuclear
arms, the Soviet Union and more. Kissinger’s Chinese counterpart,
Zhou Enlai, had only one focus: Taiwan.
1/21/17, p.36)(NY Times, 4/9/21)
1971 Jul 10, In Morocco a coup
against King Hassan at the Skhirat palace failed. Nearly 100 guests
were killed. The coup leaders were executed three days later. The
army officers were angered by Hassan's abandonment of thousands of
square miles in an Algerian border war.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)(SFEC,
1971 Jul 11, Chile’s Congress
passed an amendment, submitted by President Allende, to nationalize
all mines. On July 16 Chile by law nationalized the US-owned copper
mines based on a calculation of the companies' "excess profits" from
1955 to 1970. It was determined that Chile owed American companies
Anaconda and Kennecott Copper nothing for the mines.
1971 Jul 12, Kristi Tsuya
Yamaguchi, figure skater, was born in Hayward, Cal. In 1992 she won
an Olympic gold medal.
1971 Jul 13, William Tolbert
(1913-1980), vice-president of Lebanon 1951, succeeded William
Tubman as president and continued Tubman’s policies until his own
death in 1980.
1971 Jul 13, The Army of
Morocco executed ten leaders accused of leading a revolt.
1971 Jul 13-1971 Jul 19,
Jordanian troops proceeded to wipe out Palestinian guerrillas; some
1,500 prisoners were brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria soon broke off
relations with Jordan.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Jul 15, President Nixon
announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a
"normalization of relations."
1971 Jul 18, New Zealand and
Australia announced they would pull their troops out of Vietnam.
1971 Jul 19, In Sudan a coup
was aborted and Pres. Nimeiri was restored to power by loyal troops.
He denounced the Communist Party and executed the rebel leaders 4
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Jul 21, In Nederland,
Colo., Marshal Renner Forbes pulled Guy Goughnor ("Deputy Dawg,"
aged 19) from the Pioneer Inn tavern, drove to a remote area in
Clear Creek County and shot him in the head. Goughnor’s body was
found a month later but their was insufficient evidence to link the
marshal to the killing. In 1997 Forbes at age 68 confessed to the
1971 Jul 22, Salvador Allende
and Alejandro Lanusse, Presidents of Chile and Argentina, signed an
Arbitration Agreement formally submitting the dispute concerning the
territorial and maritime boundaries between them and the title to
the islands Picton, Nueva and Lennox near the extreme end of the
American continent to binding arbitration under auspices of Queen
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
1971 Jul 23, Walid Ahmad Nimer
al-Naser (b.1934), aka, Abu Ali Iyad, a senior Palestinian field
commander based in Syria and Jordan, was reported killed by the
Jordanian army. The PLO claimed he was captured and tortured to
death by Jordanian forces days earlier. A splinter group seeking
revenge soon developed within Fatah and came to be known as the
Black September Organization.
1971 Jul 24, The White House
Plumbers unit formed to stop the leaking (hence "plumbers") of
classified information to the news media during the Nixon
1971 Jul 24, The Berne
Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was
promulgated in Paris. It was first accepted in Berne in 1886 at the
instigation of Victor Hugo.
1971 Jul 26, Apollo 15 was
launched from Cape Kennedy.
1971 Jul 26, Diane Arbus
[Nemerov] (b.1923), photographer, committed suicide in NYC. In 1984
Patricia Bosworth authored: "Diane Arbus: A Biography." In 2011
William Todd Schultz authored “An Emergency in Slow Motion: The
Inner Life of Diane Arbus."
1971 Jul 30, US Apollo 15 with
astronauts Scott and Irwin landed at Mare Imbrium on the Moon.
1971 Jul 30, In SF Officer
Arthur O’Guinn was fatally shot while making a traffic stop. 2
people were caught and convicted of 2nd-degree murder. They were
paroled in the late 1970s.
(SFC, 1/27/07, p.A8)
1971 Jul 30, A Japanese 727
collided with a jet fighter. 162 people were killed.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Jul 31, Apollo 15
astronauts (Dave Scott) took a drive on the moon in their land
1971 Aug 1, The Concert For
Bangladesh, two benefit concerts organized by George Harrison and
Ravi Shankar, played to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square
1971 Aug 1, CBS presented
Masterpiece Theatre's 6 Wives of Henry VIII. The BBC produced
program series first aired in 1970.
(www.tvguide.com/tvshows/six-wives-henry/204436)(WSJ, 7/15/96, p.A9)
1971 Aug 3, Paul McCartney
announced the formation of his group Wings.
1971 Aug 9, British begin
internment without trial in Northern Ireland when almost 300 men
were arrested and interned under the Special Powers Act in dawn
swoops that ended around August 14th. Not one unionist
extremist was interned. Word soon got out of the internment camps
that the men were being routinely mistreated and tortured. Sectarian
attacks continued, supported by the British army. These actions and
other repressive actions by the British administration of the time
lead to the peaceful march which turned bloody on 30 January
1972, now known as Bloody Sunday.
1971 Aug 11, Construction began
on the Louisiana Superdome. It opened on August 3, 1975.
1971 Aug 12, Syrian Pres Assad
dropped diplomatic relations with Jordan.
1971 Aug 13, Britain requested
to exchange US dollars for gold. This prompted Pres. Nixon on August
15 to suspend such conversions.
(Econ, 3/27/10, p.86)
1971 Aug 14, Philip Zimbardo, a
Stanford Univ. psychologist, began his Stanford Prison Experiment.
He had recruited 24 students and randomly divided them into guards
and prisoners in a simulated prison environment on campus. The
experiment ended after six days. A film dramatizing the experiment
opened in 2015.
(SSFC, 7/19/15, p.A6)
1971 Aug 14, Georg von Opel
(b.1912), German auto manufacturer, died.
1971 Aug 15, Pres. Nixon
suspended conversion of dollars to gold and imposed a 90-day price,
wage and rents freeze and 10% import charge. He also cut various
taxes and expenditures. This became known as the “Nixon Shock" and
marked the end of the gold standard and fixed exchange rates. The
Bretton Woods agreement, that defined the post World War II economic
environment, collapsed under the weight of US deficit spending. In
the wake of this exchange rates were allowed to float under the
watchful eye of central bankers.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12)(AP,
8/15/97)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 3/27/10,
1971 Aug 15, Bahrain proclaimed
independence after 110 years of British rule. December 16, 1971, is
the date of independence from British protection.
1971 Aug 17, Horace McMahon
(b.1906), film, theater and TV actor, died.
1971 Aug 18, Joel David Kaplan
(44), a NY businessman and Carlos Antonio Contreras Castro, a
Venezuelan counterfeiter, escaped by helicopter from Mexico’s Santa
Maria Acatitla Federal Prison. Vasilios Basil Choulos (d.2003), SF
lawyer, plotted out the helicopter jailbreak. Kaplan was allegedly
framed and serving 28 years for murder in the Mexican prison. The
successful break led to the 1973 book "Ten-Second Jailbreak" and the
1975 film "Breakout."
1971 Aug 18, In Germany a
twin-engine Boeing CH-47A Chinook exploded in mid-air before
plunging about (180 meters) 600 feet to the ground. The helicopter's
crew of four and 33 members of the 56th Artillery Brigade died in
the crash in Pegnitz, Bavaria. This was the worst training accident
involving American troops in West Germany since the end of World War
1971 Aug 20, FBI began a covert
investigation of CBS journalist Daniel Schorr.
1971 Aug 20, The Cambodian
military launched a series of operations against the Khmer Rouge.
1971 Aug 20, Pakistani pilot
Rashid Minhas (b.1951) foiled attempts by his instructor to defect
with an air force plane to archrival India. To stop the escape,
Minhas disabled the controls of the plane the two were flying, and
died in the resulting crash.
1971 Aug 20-1971 Aug 21, In
Vietnam heavy rains flooded the Red River delta and some 100,000
people were killed.
1971 Aug 21, Three prisoners,
George Jackson (29), Ronald Kane (28), John Lynn (29), and 3 guards,
Jere Graham (39), Frank DeLeon (44) and Paul Krasenes (52), were
killed during an attempted prison escape at San Quentin, California.
Jackson after meeting with his lawyer, Stephen Bingham, pulled a
hidden automatic pistol from his hair and began to release other
prisoners. Jackson’s prison letters were published as "Soledad
Brother." Hugo Pinell, one of the San Quentin 6, was killed in 2015
by two fellow inmates.
(WUD, 1994, p.1688)(SFC, 8/25/96, Z1 p.5)(SSFCM,
8/19/01, p.7)(SFC, 12/10/15, p.D8)
1971 Aug 21, In the Philippines
there was a grenade attack on a political rally of the opposition
Liberal party. It nearly wiped out the party's senatorial slate
running against Marcos' Nacionalista Party. Marcos blamed the
communists, but others believed that Marcos planned the attack.
(SFC, 3/21/00, p.A23)
1971 Aug 22, A coup led by Col.
Hugo Banzer Suarez deposed leftist army Gen’l. Juan Jose Torres, who
had created a Soviet-style legislature. Torres fled to Argentina.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)(SFC,
1971 Aug 23, Shamu the Whale,
the 1st of a number of Shamus, died at Sea World in San Diego, Ca.,
after 6 years in captivity.
1971 Aug 23, South
Korea's Silmido Unit, organized in 1968 to kill North Korea's Kim Il
Sung, rebelled and murdered 18 of its 24 trainers. A film titled
"Silmido" was released Dec 24, 2003.
1971 Aug 26, New Jersey Gov.
William T. Cahill announced that the New York Giants football team
had agreed to leave Yankee Stadium for a new sports complex to be
built in East Rutherford.
1971 Aug 27, Bennett Cerf
(b.1898), publisher and co-founder of Random House, died. Cerf began
appearing weekly on What's My Line? in 1951 and continued until the
show's CBS network end in 1967.
1971 Aug 27, Margaret
Bourke-White (b.1904), US photographer, died.
1971 Aug 28, Marie Paule
Giguere (b.1921), a Catholic nun in Quebec, founded the Army of Mary
as a prayer group, saying she was receiving visions from God. In
2007 the Vatican declared her teachings were heretical and in
Arkansas six nuns were excommunicated after refusing to give up
membership in the sect.
1971 Aug 29, Nathan Leopold
(b.1904), US kidnapper and murderer of Bobby Franks (1924), died in
1971 Aug 29, In SF 2 men burst
into the Ingleside Police Station and fired through a hole in a
bullet-proof glass window killing Sgt. John Young (45). A civilian
clerk was wounded. Black Panthers were suspected. 3 men were charged
in 1975 but charges were dismissed in 1976. In 2005 a SF judge
jailed 4 men for contempt after refusing to answer questions from a
grand jury. In 2007 police charged 9 former members of the Black
Liberation Army with waging a campaign of “chaos and terror" that
left at least 3 officers dead from 1968-1973. 8 of the men were
charged with murder in the Ingleside slaying. On June 29, 2009,
Herman Bell pleaded guilty to involuntary manslaughter, as he
continued to serve a life sentence in New York for the murder of 2
police officers. On July 6 Anthony Bottom pleaded no contest to
conspiracy to commit voluntary manslaughter. Bottom was already
serving a sentence in NY for the murder of a 2 NYC police officers
in May 1971. Prosecutors dismissed charges against 4 other men. This
left just Francisco Torres to stand trial for Young’s murder.
(SFC, 9/1/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/8/05, p.B2)(SFC,
1/26/07, p.A1)(SFC, 6/30/09, p.B1)(SFC, 7/7/09, p.C1)
1971 Aug 31, John Lennon left
UK for NYC, never to return.
1971 Aug, In Northern Ireland
10 people were killed during a military operation in the Ballymurphy
area of Belfast. In 2021 a coroner ruled that the victims were
“entirely innocent’’ and soldiers were responsible for nine of their
1971 Aug, Turkey passed a poppy
licensing law. In return Turkey later accepted a US offer of $35
million, over 3 years, for farmers who agreed to stop growing opium
1971 Sep 3, The Watergate team
broke into Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office.
1971 Sep 3, The Quadripartite
Agreement on Berlin, between the United States, the Soviet Union,
the United Kingdom and France. ended a long time source of tension.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Sep 3, Qatar declared
independence from Britain.
1971 Sep 4, "The Lawrence Welk
Show" was seen for the last time on ABC-TV. A week later it opened
on the Lawrence Welk Network.
1971 Sep 4, An Alaska Airlines
jet crashed near Juneau, killing 111 people.
1971 Sep 6, In Montevideo,
Uruguay, a hundred Tupamaro guerrillas escaped from prison.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Sep 8, The Kennedy Center,
begun in 1964, officially opened in Washington, DC. A performance of
Leonard Bernstein’s Mass was held there three days earlier. The $71
million structure was designed by Edward Durell. The cultural center
was promoted at Kennedy’s request by Roger L. Stevens (1910-1998).
Congress had designated it a national monument to Pres. Kennedy
following his assassination.
1971 Sep 8, Pres. Nixon told
John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews
contributing to the democratic campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie.
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)
1971 Sep 9, John Lennon
released his mega hit "Imagine" album in the US. It was released in
Britain on October 8. A film was made of his recording work and in
April 2000 a version titled "Gimme Some Truth" was released on DVD.
1971 Sep 9, Hockey legend
Gordie Howe of the Detroit Red Wings retired from the National
Hockey League (NHL).
1971 Sep 9, A list of Pres.
Richard Nixon’s major political opponents, compiled by Charles
Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special
counsel to the White House), was sent in memorandum form to John
Dean. It did not become public until 1973.
1971 Sep 9-1971 Sep 13, Some
1,000 prisoners seized control of the maximum-security Attica
Correctional Facility near Buffalo, NY, in a siege that claimed 43
lives. In 2000 a federal judge ordered an $8 million settlement to
some 400 inmates to settle a prisoner class action suit. $4 million
was for lawyers.
1971 Sep 10, Pres. Nixon was
informed and approved of John Ehrlichman’s plan to steal Vietnam War
records from the National Archives building.
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A1,14)
1971 Sep 11, The body of a
woman was found in the Delta-Mendota Canal near Westley, Ca. she had
been stabbed 65 times. In 2008 DNA evidence identified her as Mary
Alice Willey (23) of San Francisco. It was suspected that she had
played a role in the Aug 29 black Panther attack at the Ingleside
police station that left one officer dead.
(SFC, 10/7/08, p.B2)(SSFC, 5/24/09, p.A1)
1971 Sep 11, Egypt adopted a
new constitution by public referendum. It called for the president
to be chosen by at least two-thirds of MPs, and then confirmed by
referendum. In 2007 a questionable referendum approved 34
(Econ, 9/25/04, p.61)(Econ, 3/31/07,
1971 Sep 11, Former Soviet
leader Nikita Khrushchev died at age 77. In 2003 William Taubman
authored "Khrushchev: The Man and His Era." In 2006 Aleksandr
Fursenko and Timothy Naftali authored “Khrushchev’s Cold War: The
Inside Story of an American Adversary."
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 9/11/97)(SSFC, 4/27/03,
M3)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.88)
1971 Sep 13, State troopers and
prison guards stormed Attica Correctional Facility in New York. The
four-day inmates' rebellion over poor living conditions claimed 43
lives, 11 guards and 32 prisoners. Inmate Frank Smith (d.2004) was
beaten tortured and abused by guards. In 1997 a federal jury awarded
him $4 million. Another 1,280 inmates sought $2.8 billion in damages
against the state. In 2000 a federal court described the guards'
reaction as an "orgy of brutality" and ordered the state to pay $8
million to inmates who were tortured after the uprising.
(SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)(AP, 9/13/97)(SFC, 2/16/00,
p.A5)(SFC, 8/3/04, p.B6)
1971 Sep 13, Lin Biao (b.1907)
died in a plane crash in Mongolia as he was trying to flee to the
Soviet Union after the unsuccessful plot to assassinate Mao. He was
once designated as Mao's "closest comrade in arms" and hand-picked
to be the chairman's successor.
1971 Sep 14, "Cannon" with
William Conrad premiered on CBS-TV.
1971 Sep 15, The 1st broadcast
of "Columbo" on NBC-TV.
1971 Sep 15, A group of
activists set sail on the Phyllis Cormack for Alaska from Vancouver,
Canada, to stop a US nuclear weapons test in the Aleutian Islands.
Panels reading Green and Peace dangled from the bridge. Bob Hunter
(d.2005), one of the activists, became the 1st president of
(GQ, summer ‘96, p.18)(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)(Econ,
1971 Sep 17, The San
Francisco-based TV police series “McMillan and Wife" began and
continued to 1977. It starred Rock Hudson and Susan St. James.
(SSFC, 9/6/15, p.F3)
1971 Sep 17, Hugo Black
(1886-1971), US Supreme Court Justice, retired after serving 34
1971 Sep 20, The American
League Ok'd the Washington Senator move to Arlington, where they
became the Texas Rangers.
1971 Sep 20, George Seferis
(b.1900), Nobel Prize-winning (1963) Greek poet, died. In 2003
Roderick Beaton authored "George Seferis - Waiting for the Angel: A
(HN, 3/13/01)(Econ, 11/22/03,
1971 Sep 25, Hugo Black
(b.1886), US Supreme Court Justice (1937-1971), died.
1971 Sep 25, Over 100 Russian
officials were expelled from Britain for spying. Information from
Oleg Lyalin, supposedly a member of the USSR's trade delegation in
the UK, led to the expulsion of 105 Soviet officials from Britain.
1971 Sep 27, Pamela Churchill
Harriman (1920-1997), English-born socialite, married her former
lover and former New York Governor Averell Harriman (79). She was
the former wife (1939-1946) of Randolph Churchill, the son of
Winston Churchill. From 1993-1997 she served as the US ambassador to
1971 Sep 28, Cardinal Josef
Mindszenty (1892-1975) of Hungary, who had spent 15 years in refuge
in the US Embassy in Budapest, ended his exile and flew to Rome.
1971 Sep 30, The Washington
Senators baseball team played their last game before leaving DC for
1971 Oct 1, Walt Disney
Productions opened its Magic Kingdom in Orlando, Florida.
1971 Oct 1, As of this day
divorce in the Netherlands could only be granted on the ground of
the irretrievable breakdown of the marriage (Article 1:151 of the
Dutch Civil Code).
1971 Oct 2, “Soul Train," an
American musical variety TV program premiered and continued to 2006.
It was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first
host and executive producer.
5/18/14, Par p.2)
1971 Oct 3, Pres. Nguyen Van
Thieu of South Vietnam was re-elected in an election in which he was
the only candidate. Vice-President Nguyen Cao Ky refused to
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Oct 6, The LA Times
reported that federal agents had caught 36 illegal immigrants in a
raid on a food processing plant owned by Romana Banuelos who had 3
weeks earlier been named by Pres. Nixon to be treasurer of the US.
Nixon was infuriated and he said on tape "I want Otis Chandler’s
income tax." Chandler was the publisher of the LA Times.
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A7)
1971 Oct 8, Canada’s PM Pierre
Trudeau declared Canada to be bilingual and multicultural.
1971 Oct 9, In Argentina an
armed uprising challenged Gen’l’. Lanusse but he secured the backing
of the Navy and Air Force and broke the challenge.
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)(http://tinyurl.com/5ubr76)
1971 Oct 11, Switzerland
established diplomatic relations with North Vietnam.
1971 Oct 12, The rock opera
"Jesus Christ Superstar" opened at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on
Broadway. It closed July 1, 1973 after 711 performances.
1971 Oct 12, The US House of
Representatives passed the Equal Rights Amendment with a vote of 354
yeas, 24 nays and 51 not voting. It failed to gain ratification
before the end of the deadline
1971 Oct 12, Dean G. Acheson
(b.1893), US secretary of state (1949-53), died in Maryland. In 2006
Robert L. Beisner authored “Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War."
(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAacheson.htm)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.58)
1971 Oct 16, H. Rap Brown
(b.1943) was captured following a shootout with police in NYC. He
was charged with inciting a riot and carrying a gun across state
lines. Brown converted to Islam in jail and became Jamil Abdullah
1971 Oct 19, The last issue of
"Look" magazine was published.
1971 Oct 19, Pakistani soldiers
attack a village in Netrokona district of Bangladesh. At least 7
people were killed.
1971 Oct 20, Willy Brandt, West
German Chancellor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for beginning
the German reunification.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Oct 21, The Nobel Prize
for literature was awarded to Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973).
1971 Oct 21, President Nixon
nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the US Supreme
Court following resignations of Justices Hugo Black and John Harlan.
1971 Oct 21, Half Moon Bay,
Ca., held its 1st Art and Pumpkin Festival. The 1-day event was
thought up by Dolores Mullin to raise money for the Main Street
Beautification Committee to buy trees. John Minaidis of Half Moon
Bay won with a 132-pound pumpkin. Terry Pimsleur (d.2008 at
77), public relations executive, helped develop the fair.
(Ind, 9/29/01, 5A)(SFC, 10/10/06, p.B3)(SFC,
1971 Oct 25, The TV show “The
Electric Company" premiered providing an advance for children raised
on Sesame Street.
1971 Oct 25, Midori Goto,
Japanese violinist, was born in Osaka.
1971 Oct 25, The UN General
Assembly voted to admit the People’s Republic of China and expel
Nationalist China (Taiwan).
1971 Oct 26, California Gov.
Ronald Reagan called Mr Nixon at the White House to complain about
UN members who voted against the US position a day after the UN
voted to admit The People’s Republic of China into the global
organization. Mr Reagan said: “To see those, those monkeys from
those African countries — damn them, they’re still uncomfortable
wearing shoes!" The explosive recordings were originally released by
the National Archives in 2000, though they were later withdrawn due
to a court-ordered review.
(The Independent, 7/31/19)
1971 Oct 27, The Democratic
Republic of Congo was renamed Zaire.
1971 Oct 28, Britain voted to
join the EEC, European Economic Community. The yes vote passed with
a majority of 112.
(Econ., 1/2/21, p.42)
1971 Oct 29, On the east coast
of India a tidal wave and cyclone struck Cuttack in Orissa state and
killed some 10,000 people.
1971 Oct 30, Mack Ray Edwards,
California serial killer, hanged himself while on death row. He
admitted to 6 sexually motivated murders in the 1950s and 1960s and
later told a jailer that the number was closer to 20.
1971 Oct 31, Saigon began the
release of 1,938 Hanoi POW’s.
1971 Oct, Earl W. Sutherland
Jr. (1915-1974), US pharmacologist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine
for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of
1971 Oct, Spiro Agnew
(1918-1996), US Vice-President, visited Greece and called the ruling
junta the country's best leaders since Pericles.
1971 Oct, In San Francisco
Werner Erhard (b.1935 as born John Paul Rosenberg) hosted his first
est courses at the Jack Tar Hotel. The purpose of est was to allow
participants to achieve, in a very brief time, a sense of personal
transformation and enhanced power.
1971 Oct, Bolivia restored the
death penalty for terrorism, kidnapping, and crimes against
government and security personnel. In 1997 the death penalty was
abolished for ordinary crimes.
1971 Oct, Francois Bizot,
French ethnologist, was kidnapped and imprisoned by the Khmer Rouge
in Cambodia. He was released after 3 months by camp commander Kaing
Guek Eav (aka Duch). In 2003 Bizot authored "The Gate," an account
of his captivity and the Khmer Rouge takeover. In 2012 Bizot
authored “Facing the Torturer," an account of his appearance as a
witness at Duch’s 2009 trial.
(WSJ, 3/12/03, p.D10)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.F6)
1971 Oct, In South Africa
antiapartheid activist Ahmed Timol (29) died five days after his
arrest and transfer to John Vorster Square, a notorious police
station in Johannesburg. Officials called his death a suicide. Joao
Rodrigues, a former member of the feared security police, was
allegedly the last officer to have been with Timol before he plunged
to his death from the 10th-floor of Johannesburg police
headquarters. In 2017 a court reopened an inquiry into Timol’s
death. In 2018 Joao Rodrigues (80) appeared in court charged with
the murder of Timol.
(SFC, 6/28/17, p.A2)(AFP, 8/2/17)(AP, 7/30/18)
1971 Nov 1, The Eisenhower
dollar was put into circulation.
1971 Nov 1, The Five Power
Defense Arrangements were concluded by the defense ministers of
Australia, Britain, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2017 it
was upgraded to deal with terrorism threats and new security
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.54)(AP, 6/2/17)
1971 Nov 3, The Clint Eastwood
film "Play Misty For Me" premiered in NYC.
1971 Nov 5, Nixon and Kissinger
met in the Oval Office, to discuss Nixon's conversation with Gandhi
the day before. "We really slobbered over the old witch," Nixon told
Kissinger, according to a transcript of their conversation released
in 2005 as part of a State Department compilation of significant
documents involving American foreign policy.
1971 Nov 6, The musical
"Purlie" closed at ANTA Playhouse in NYC after a total of 688
1971 Nov 6, The US Atomic
Energy Commission exploded a 5-megaton bomb beneath Amchitka Island,
Alaska, just 87 miles from the Petropavlovsk Russian naval base. It
registered as a magnitude-7 earthquake.
(SFC, 12/17/01, p.A4)
1971 Nov 8, Gen’l. John D.
Lavelle, Seventh Air Force Commander in Vietnam, markedly increased
the number of bombing raids against North Vietnam. The raids lasted
until Mar 8, 1972, when he became the target of a congressional
(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.8)
1971 Nov 10, Two women were
tarred and feathered in Belfast for dating British soldiers. In
Londonderry, Northern Ireland, a Catholic girl was tarred and
feathered for her intention of marrying a British soldier.
1971 Nov 11, Neil Simon's
"Prisoner of Second Avenue," premiered in NYC.
1971 Nov 12, Pres. Nixon
announced that he would withdraw 45,000 more troops from Vietnam by
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(HN, 11/12/98)
1971 Nov 13, The US space probe
Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars. NASA's Mariner 9 circled Mars
and revealed dried beds of rivers that flowed billions of years ago.
(SFC, 8/7/96, p.A9)(TMC, 1994, p.1971)(AP,
1971 Nov 14, In Egypt Shenouda
III (b.1923) became the Coptic Orthodox Pope and the 116th successor
to Saint Mark the Evangelist.
1971 Nov 15, Intel first
advertised its 4004 microprocessor in Electronic News. It contained
2,300 transistors, each the size of a red blood cell.
1971 Nov 16, Edie Sedgwick,
actress and model for Andy Warhol, died in California from a
1971 Nov 18, The US federal
Airborne-Hunting Act prohibited shooting animals from planes without
1971 Nov 22, The US Supreme
Court struck down dozens of state laws that discriminated against
women when it ruled that an Idaho law violated the 14th Amendment
guarantee of equal protection.
(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)
1971 Nov 22, Zez Confrey
(b.1895), American composer and pianist, died. His compositions
included "Kitten on the Keys" (1921) and "Dizzy Fingers" (1923).
1971 Nov 22, Guerrilla fighting
escalated on the border of East Pakistan. India massed 12 divisions
near the border.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Nov 23, The People's
Republic of China was seated in the UN Security Council. The UN vote
to admit was Oct 25.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 11/23/97)
1971 Nov 24, On Thanksgiving
eve DB Cooper boarded Flight 305 in Portland, Or., and demanded
$200,000 with the threat of a bomb. He parachuted from a Northwest
Airlines 727 with the money over the Cascade Mountains near Ariel,
Wash., and was never seen again. FBI agent Ralph Himmelsbach
wrote the book NORJAK that described the case. A packet containing
$5,880 of the ransom money was found in 1980 on the north shore of
the Columbia River, just west of the Washington city of Vancouver.
In 2011 evidence was presented that Lynn Doyle Cooper (d.1999) of
Oregon, a Korean war veteran, was the hijacker. On July 13, 2016,
the FBI said it is no longer investigating the case.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, Z1 p.5)(AP, 11/24/97)(SFC,
8/4/11, p.A8)(SFC, 7/13/16, p.A6)
1971 Nov 24, A prison rebellion
took place at Rahway State Prison, NJ.
1971 Nov 26, Giacomo Alberione
(b.1884), Italian priest who also believed in using modern means to
bring God to the faithful, died. He had founded the Paoline Family,
which includes a publishing operation printing many religious books
as well as Famiglia Cristiana, a top-selling weekly that covers
issues of daily life, from homemaking to education, and religious
1971 Nov 27, Eric Menendez,
accused with his brother of killing their parents (1989), was born
in New Jersey.
1971 Nov 28, The Anglican
Bishop of Hong Kong ordained the first two women as priests.
1971 Nov 28, In Uruguay
the Colorado candidate, Juan Maria Bordaberry, and the Blanco
candidate were virtually tied. In February 1972 the Electoral Court
proclaimed Bordaberry president, and he began a five-year term on
1971 Nov 30, TV movie "Brian's
Song," aired for the 1st time on ABC-TV.
1971 Dec 1, In Santiago, Chile,
students began a 2-day against the Allende government. The
government banned public demonstrations and declared a state of
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Dec 2, The British pulled
out of the Trucial States (7 coastal Arab sheikhdoms that included
Sharjah) in the Persian Gulf and these states formed the United Arab
Emirates (UAR). Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al Khaimah, Umm al
Qaiwain, Ajman and Fujairah merged to form the new federation.
(NG, 5/88, p.662)(HFA, '96, p.20)(SFC,12/16/97,
p.B1)(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.B16)
1971 Dec 2, The Mars 3 landed
on Mars and failed after 20 seconds of video data. The orbiter
returned date until August 1972.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1971 Dec 3, The 3rd
Indo-Pakistani war began when India under Indira Gandhi intervened
in the Pakistani civil war. Pakistan attacked Indian airfields and
India mobilized its army after nearly 10 million refugees poured
into India. The India-Pakistani civil war ended with independence
for East Pakistan, which became known as Bangladesh.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 6/12/99, p.A12)(SSFC,
1971 Dec 6, The US Senate
confirmed Lewis Franklin Powell as a Supreme Court justice.
1971 Dec 6, India recognized
the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off
diplomatic relations. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war
atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
1971 Dec 6, Bangladesh became
independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war in a struggle led
by Sheik Mujibar Rahman. Sheik Rahman was nominated as president on
Dec 20 and released from prison on Dec 22; he returned to Bangladesh
(SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)
1971 Dec 9, Ralph J. Bunche
(b.1903), Detroit-born 1st black US diplomat and UN delegate, died
In NYC. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.
1971 Dec 10, Pres. Nixon signed
the US Revenue Act into law launching the income tax check off
system for campaign contributions and paving the way for public
1971 Dec 10, John Lennon made a
public appearance at a benefit concert for poet John Sinclair who
was in jail for possession of marijuana. Three days later Sinclair
(SFEC, 7/21/96, DB p.35)
1971 Dec 10, William H.
Rehnquist (b.1924) was confirmed as US Supreme Court justice.
1971 Dec 12, David Sarnoff
(b.1891), US TV pioneer (RCA), died. He was a Russian immigrant who
transformed NBC from a radio to a TV network.
1971 Dec 15, Pres. Nixon signed
the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burro Act. The $18 million Wild
Horse and Burro Program, headed by the Bureau of Land Management,
was designed to find homes for wild horses. "Excess" animals were
annually culled. The 10-17,000 wild horses grew to some 43,000 in
1998. In 2004 Conrad Burns, Republican Senator for Montana,
introduced an amendment that removed protection for wild horses over
8/25/98, p.A1)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.90)
1971 Dec 16, Bahrain, which had
declared independence on Aug 15, won independence from British
(SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D8)(AP,
1971 Dec 16, Pakistani forces
in East Pakistan surrendered to the allied forces of India and
Bangladesh, jointly known as the Mitro Bahini. Bangladesh gained
independence. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities
that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month
1971 Dec 17, A cease fire began
between India and Pakistan in East Pakistan.
1971 Dec 18, Pres. Nixon
devalued the dollar, and even though the devaluation was effective
immediately, only Congress could officially change the gold value of
the dollar. The US dollar went off the gold standard and was
devalued by 7.9%. The 10% import surcharge was lifted.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Dec 18, Pres. Nixon signed
into law the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). It gave
large portions of prime bear habitat to the Alutiiq people, who had
hunted and fished on the island for 7,000 years. 10% of the state,
44 million acres of land, was ceded to native tribes.
p.A7)(AH, 10/04, p.42)
1971 Dec 18, Reverend Jesse
Jackson announced in Chicago the founding of Operation PUSH (People
United to Save Humanity).
1971 Dec 18, North Vietnamese
troops captured the Plain of Jars in Laos. Throughout the Vietnam
War, the Plain of Jars was a contested area between Lao tribesmen
and Vietnam's communist allies, the Pathet Lao. The area was long
controlled by the Pathet Lao and a continual effort had been made by
the secret CIA-directed force of some 30,000 indigenous tribesmen to
strengthen anti-communist strongholds there. The US committed
hundreds of millions of dollars to the war effort in Laos. Details
of this secret operation were not released until August 1971.
(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Dec 19, Stanley Kubrick's
X-rated "A Clockwork Orange" premiered.
1971 Dec 20, Sheik Mujibar
Rahman was nominated as president of Bangladesh. He was released
from prison in Pakistan on Dec 22 and returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
(SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)
1971 Dec 20, Ten French
physicians created a team that later became known as "Doctors
Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) to help the people in
the Nigerian region of Biafra. They formed in frustration with the
neutrality of the Int'l. Committee of the Red Cross. Bernard
Kouchner (1939), later French foreign minister, was among the
p.A17)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.A14)
1971 Dec 20, In Pakistan Ali
Zulfikar Bhutto (1928-1979), a Sindhi landlord, took over as
President and Chief Martial Law Administrator. He implemented a
policy of quotas that promoted the Sindhi language and favored rural
Sindhis over Urdu-speaking Muhajirs in university admissions and
public sector jobs. This led to a student movement, led by Altaf
Hussein and Farooq Sattar, that later became the Muttahida Qaumi
1971 Dec 22, The UN General
Assembly voted to ratify the election of Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007)
of Austria to succeed U Thant as the 4th Secretary-General.
1971 Dec 22, Aid group Doctors
Without Borders, known by its French acronym MSF, was founded in
1971 Dec 23, Pres. Nixon signed
the National Cancer Act, an initiative that came to be known as the
“war on cancer." Dr. David A. Wood (1905-1996) helped draft the
National Cancer Act. The act added $100 million to the National
Cancer Institute directed by Dr. Carl Baker (1920-2009).
5/6/98, p.A1)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.13)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)(SFC,
1971 Dec 24, Jimmy Hoffa
(1913-1975), Teamster union leader, was released from prison after
President Nixon commuted his jail term.
1971 Dec 24, LANSA Flight 508,
a LANSA Lockheed Electra OB-R-941 commercial airliner, crashed in
the Peruvian rainforest. Juliane Diller Kopcke (17) of Lima, Peru,
was the sole survivor of 92 passengers. She and her mother, famed
ornithologist Maria Kopcke, were traveling to meet with her father,
biologist Hans-Wilhelm Kopcke. Juliane traveled for 9 days in the
jungle before she found help. Her experience became the subject of
two films: the 1974 Giuseppe Maria Scotese film Miracoli accadono
ancora, I (Miracles Still Happen), and the 2000 film “Wings of Hope"
by Werner Herzog film.
1971 Dec 28, Maximilian Raoul
Walter Steiner (b.1888), Austrian-born American composer, died. He
is known best for the score he composed for the classic film “Gone
with the Wind" and for the score and hugely popular theme song for
the film “A Summer Place."
1971 Dec 29, In Italy Giovanni
Leone (1908-2001) became president. He resigned 6 months before the
end of his 7-year term amid allegations of links to a payoff scandal
involving Lockheed Corp.
1971 Dec, The Ms. magazine
first appeared as an insert in New York magazine. It was co-founded
by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding editor
Letty Cottin Pogrebin together with founding editors Patricia
Carbine, Joanne Edgar, Nina Finkelstein, and Mary Peacock. The first
stand-alone issue appeared in January 1972 with funding from New
York editor Clay Felker.
1971 Saul Alinsky (1909-1972),
American community activist and political theorist, authored "Rules
for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals." Here he
defended the arts both of confrontation and of compromise involved
in community organizing as keys to the struggle for social justice.
1971 William E. Brandon
(d.2002) published "The Magic World," an anthology of American
(SFC, 5/31/02, p.A27)
1971 Claudio Bravo (b.1936),
Chilean-born Moroccan based artist, created a surrealist still life
of an assemblage of light bulbs.
1971 Fritz Koenig (b.1924),
German Sculptor, created a 27-foot-tall brass ball and called it
"The Sphere." It was installed at the NYC World Trade Center and was
the only piece of art to survive.
1971 Samuel Beckett
(1906-1989), Irish-born playwright, authored his play "Not I."
Beckett spent most of his life in Paris and in 1969 he won the Nobel
Prize in Literature.
(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR
1971 Al Alvarez (b.1929),
British writer, authored the best seller "The Savage God: A Study of
1971 Jacques Barzun (b.1907)
and Wendell Hertig Taylor (1905-1985) authored “A Catalog of Crime."
It became recognized as the best compendium of mystery and espionage
literature ever assembled.
1971 Prof. Carl Cohen of U of M
published "Civil Disobedience."
1971 Ram Dass (b.1931)
published his best-seller "Be Here Now." It was about his trek
through India. He was accompanied in part by Bhagavan Das, Michael
Riggs. Riggs had set off for India in 1963 at age 18. Bhagavan Das
wrote his own memoir in 1997 titled "It’s Here Now (Are You?): A
1971 John Evans (b.1925),
English archeologist, published the comprehensive survey: "The
Prehistoric Antiquities of the Maltese Islands."
1971 Frederick Forsyth (b.1938)
published his thriller novel "The Day of the Jackal," about an
attempt to assassinate Charles de Gaulle. It was made into a film in
1973. It was remade into a 1997 film called "The Jackal" and another
film about Carlos the Jackal, unrelated to the book, called "The
(SFC, 11/6/96, p.B8)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)(WSJ,
4/18/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 8/24/97, DB p.65)
1971 Eduardo Galeano,
Uruguayan journalist, authored "Open Veins of Latin America: Five
Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent." In 2014 he said that
he would find the book today unreadable.
(AP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.32)
1971 John Gardner (1933-1982),
American novelist, authored his novel "Grendel" based on the Beowulf
poem. It retold the story from the monster’s point of view.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)
1971 M. Goffart wrote the
standard book on sloths: "Function and Form in the Sloth."
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.21)
1971 Philip Jones Griffiths
(1936-2008, Welsh photographer, published "Vietnam Inc," a
collection of black-and-white photos from his 3 years there as a
1971 Walter Hickel (1919-2010),
former governor of Alaska (1966-1969) and former US secretary of the
interior (1969-1970) under Pres. Nixon, authored “Who Owns America."
(AH, 10/04, p.42)(SSFC, 5/9/10, p.C8)
1971 Ivan Illich (1926-2002),
Austrian philosopher, anarchist social critic and former Catholic
priest, authored "De-Schooling Society."
1971 Edward James and his wife,
Janet Wilson James, co-edited "Notable American Women, 1607-1950."
(SFC, 4/20/01, p.D5)
1971 Muriel James (1917-2018),
self-help therapist, and Dorothy Jongeward authored the best-seller
“Born to Win: Transactional Analysis With Gestalt Experiments."
(SSFC, 2/11/18, p.C3)
1971 Elizabeth Janeway
(1913-2005) authored “Man’s World, Woman’s Place: A Study of Social
(SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)
1971 Alvin Karpis (1908-1979),
Barker Gang gangster, completed his autobiography (The Alvin Karpis
Story) based on tape-recorded memories.
(WSJ, 7/15/04, p.D8)
1971 Ursula LeGuin (b.1929),
American author, published "The Lathe of Heaven," a science fiction
novel where all the dreams of the main character come true.
1971 Robert Ludlum (1927-2001)
authored "The Scarlatti Inheritance," his 1st suspense novel.
1971 Bill Mauldin (1921-2003),
American soldier cartoonist, authored “The Brass Ring," his story of
the Stars and Stripes newspaper during WWII. Mauldin had created the
cartoon soldiers Willie and Joe.
1971 John McPhee (b.1931),
American pioneer of narrative non-fiction, authored "Encounters with
1971 James Michener
(1907-1997), American writer, authored "Kent State: What Happened
and Why" as well as his novel "The Drifters."
1971 Wayne Oates (1917-1999),
American psychologist and religious educator, authored "Confessions
of a Workaholic: The Facts About Work Addiction." Prof. Oates coined
the term workaholic.
1971 Walker Percy (1916-1990),
American Southern writer, authored his novel "Love in the Ruins."
1971 John Rawls
(1921-2002), American moral and political philosopher,
authored "Theory of Justice," a work of political philosophy and
ethics in which he addresses the problem of distributive justice
(the socially just distribution of goods in a society). The theory
utilizes an updated form of Kantian philosophy and a variant form of
conventional social contract theory.
1971 Donald Richie (b.1924)
authored his novel "The Inland Sea," about a lonely American
island-hopping across Japan’s Inland Sea.
1971 Mike Royko, Chicago
newspaper columnist, wrote "Boss," a book on Mayor Richard M. Daley.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A6)
1971 Anne Sexton (1928-1974),
American poet and writer, authored "Transformations." It retold
classic fairy stories with a Freudian twist and personal references
and formed the basis for Conrad Susa’s 1973 opera of the same name.
(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/23/98,
1971 Conrad (1906-1999) and
Irene Taeuber (1906-1974) wrote "People of the United States in the
20th Century." Mr. Taeuber had directed the federal census in 1960
and 1970. Their scholarly work helped found the science of
demography and made them authorities on population movements in the
(http://tinyurl.com/58fg3v)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)
1971 Hunter S. Thompson
(1937-2005), "gonzo journalist," wrote "Fear and Loathing in Las
Vegas." It was made into a film in 1998. The term gonzo was 1st
applied to Thompson by his journalist friend Bill Cardoso (d.1006 at
68). The term had kicked around Boston for some time and was used by
youth in the 1950s to describe something as over the top.
(SFC, 5/22/98, p.C1)(SSFC, 3/5/06, p.B7)
1971 Jim and Artie Mitchell of
SF produced their porn film “Behind the Green Door" starring Marilyn
Chambers for $60,000. This was one of the first porn films with a
plot line and went big after it was learned that Chambers had worked
as a model for ivory soap. It grossed more than $25 million.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 7/14/07, p.A7)
1971 The film "Dirty Harry"
with Clint Eastwood and Harry Guardino was released. It was directed
by Don Siegel and had been shot in the SF Bay Area.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.39)
1971 The film "Harold and
Maude" with Ruth Gordon was produced. The opening scene was filmed
at in the music room of Rosecourt, a Burlingame, Ca., home built by
SF Chronicle publisher George Cameron for his wife Helen, a daughter
of Michael de Young.
(SFEC, 10/11/97, DB p.36)(PI, 3/21/98, p.5)
1971 Vera Brodsky Lawrence
(1909-1996), pianist, editor and historian of American music,
published "The Collected Works of Scott Joplin." Joplin had composed
the opera "Treemonisha."
(SFC, 9/22/96, C12)(SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)
1971 Gottfried von Einem
(1918-1996), Austrian composer, composed the opera "The Visit of the
Old Lady," based on the 1956 play by Friedrich Durenmatt.
1971 Former Beatle John Lennon
wrote his song "Imagine," and released his "Imagine" album. A film
was made of his recording work and in 1999 a 56 version titled
"Gimme Some Truth" was reported to be released on DVD in 2000.
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.E1)(SFC, 10/7/99, p.E3)
1971 Leonard Bernstein composed
his "Mass." It combined Latin liturgy with a new English libretto
with strains of pop, rock, jazz and classical sound.
(SFC, 8/10/99, p.B1)
1971 Aaron Copland (12900-1990)
composed "Threnody I for Flute and Strings" in honor of Stravinsky.
1971 Glenn Frey (1948-2016) and
Don Henley co-founded the Eagles rock group in Los Angeles. The
group broke up in 1980 and reformed in 1994. The group was inducted
into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998.
(SFC, 1/19/16, p.A5)
1971 The Electric Light
Orchestra, commonly abbreviated ELO, a symphonic rock group from
Birmingham, England, released their first of studio album. By 1986
they released 10 more and another album in 2001. The ELO was one of
the most innovative bands of the era.
1971 John Denver (1943-1997)
released his album "Poems, Prayers and Promises," that contained the
song "Take me Home, Country Roads."
1971 John Duffey (1934-1996)
formed his Seldom Scene bluegrass group. He had played with Charlie
Waller and the Country Gentlemen.
1971 Marvin Gay (1939-1984)
released his classic R&B album “What’s Going On."
1971 Carole King (b.1942) won 4
Grammys for her album "Tapestry."
1971 Don McLean (b.1945)
recorded his hit "American Pie."
1971 Paul Revere and the
Raiders scored a hit with “Indian Reservation.“
(SFC, 10/6/14, p.C3)
1971 Faron Young (1932-1996),
American country music singer, made a country hit with "It’s 4 in
the Morning," written by Jerry Chessnut (b.1931).
1971 The Walker Art Center in
Minneapolis, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes (1915-2004), was
(SFC, 9/24/04, p.B7)
1971 The Rothko Chapel, an
interfaith chapel in Houston, Texas, was built around the paintings
of Mark Rothko (1903-1970). Composer Morton Feldman wrote his work
“Rothko Chapel" for the occasion. In 1964 Rothko was commissioned by
John and Dominique de Menil (also founders of the nearby Menil
Collection) to create a meditative space filled with his paintings.
1971 William Porter Gale,
anti-Semite, founded his infamous Jew-hating group called the Posse
Comitatus. It was founded on the belief that, constitutionally, no
governmental body higher than the county level is legitimate.
(MT, summer 2003,
1971 Bikram yoga, developed by
master yogi Bikram Choudhury (b.1946) in India, was brought to the
US. The practice included exercises in sweat lodge conditions.
(SSFC, 4/29/01, p.C6)
1971 The Consultative Group on
Int’l. Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was founded.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)(www.cgiar.org/)
1971 Dena Dietrich (1928-2020)
filmed the first of her TV commercials for Chiffon margarine. She
played Mother Nature and spoke the line: "It's not nice to fool
(SSFC, 11/29/20, p.C4)
1971 The American Tinnitus
Association, a mutual support group, was founded.
(SFC, 2/5/98, p.E10)
1971 Roger Chapin founded Help
Hospitalized Veterans (HHV), a non-profit organization to provide
craft kits for hospitalized vets. On September 3, 2007, a Forbes
magazine article by William P. Barrett titled "Shell Game" reported
that Chapin and his wife Elizabeth were accused of spending the
money raised by their non-profit organizations to fund their own
lifestyles, vehicles, and real estate investments, rather than to
benefit troops or wounded veterans at the 97% efficiency rate that
the charity claims.
8/25/96, Par p.8)
1971 The conservative John
Birch Society, founded in 958, began to sponsor summer camps for
youth across the US to rebuild the society.
1971 The American Libertarian
Party was founded.
1971 Simon Kuznets (1901-1985),
Belarus-born American economist, won the Nobel Memorial Prize in
Economic Sciences “for his empirically founded interpretation of
economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the
economic and social structure and process of development."
1971 The US under Pres. Nixon
sent military planes and other material to Pakistan as East Pakistan
fought for independence. Nixon, at the behest of national security
advisor Henry Kisinger, also deployed a naval task force to the Bay
of Bengal to intimidate India.
(Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
1971 The US Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) branded ammonium perchlorate
composite propellant (APCP) as a low explosive. The substance, used
as a rocket propellant by NASA, was also used by rocket hobbyists.
1971 US CIA funding for Radio
Free Europe and Radio Liberty was disclosed. In 2000 Arch
Puddington, deputy director of RFE/RL’s new York bureau from 1985 to
1993, authored "Broadcasting Freedom." The Munich headquarters were
closed in 1994 and the organization moved to an afterlife in Prague.
1971 The US government set
strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included
passive restraints, i.e. air bags. The National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA) delayed a passive-restraint mandate
until 1976 after Henry Ford II and Ford President Lee Iacocca
lobbied President Nixon.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv.
1971 Bela Abzug submitted a
resolution to the US Congress designating August 26 of each year as
Women's Equality Day. Pres. Nixon issued the first proclamation in
1971 Freddie Mac, a US
government mortgage agency, began tracking mortgage rates.
(WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)
1971 American author Clifford
Irving (1930-2017) conned McGraw-Hill publishers into paying him a
$765,000 advance for a book on Howard Hughes. Irving and
collaborator Richard Suskind were indicted on fraud charges and
found guilty in 1972. The bogus autobiography wasn’t published until
(SFC, 12/21/17, p.A8)
1971 Robert Lee Vesco
(1935-2007) fled the US to avoid charges of bilking mutual fund
investors of $224 million. In 1972 the SEC charged him and others in
a civil lawsuit, but Vesco had fled to the Bahamas and then to Costa
Rica where he established a close friendship with Pres. Jose
Figueres, plowing some 11 million into the country.
(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/3/08, p.A6)(Econ,
1971 Arizona indicted Weather
Underground members John Allen Fuerst (25) and Roberta Brent Smith
(SFC, 1/21/02, p.E3)
1971 An Arizona law under Gov.
Jack Williams (1909-1998) outlawed secondary boycotts and
harvest-time strikes, tools used by the growing UFW.
1971 In San Francisco Chuck
Holmes (1945-2000) founded Falcon Studios. His pioneering movies
later enshrined him in the history of adult entertainment as the
“godfather of gay porn."
(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.C10)
1971 John-Roger (1934-2014),
born as Roger Delano Hinkins, founded the Movement of Spiritual
Inner Awareness in southern California. Within a few years he had
followers across the country reading his monthly “Soul Awareness
Discourses" and doing his daily spiritual exercises.
(SFC, 10/24/14, p.D2)
1971 In SF a 30-foot-tall
sculpture by Peter Voulkos was installed outside the “Hall of
Justice." In 2011 it underwent a $35,000 refurbishment.
(SFC, 7/16/11, p.A1)
1971 Justin Herman, executive
director of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency since 1959, died
of a heart attack. He was responsible for razing much of the
Fillmore district and disappearing thousands of its black residents,
in the name of urban renewal.
(SFC, 5/2/17, p.C1)
1971 In SF the Vaillancourt
Fountain, sculpted by French-Canadian artist Armand Vaillancourt,
debuted on Justin Herman Plaza.
(SFC, 3/17/04, p.B4)
1971 The SF Opera made the US
premiere of Donizetti’s "Maria Stuarda" with Joan Sutherland.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.46)
1971 The SF Opera in the Park
program was begun. It was the inspiration of the Opera General
Director Kurt Herbert Adler.
(SFEM, 9/6/98, p.17)
1971 The 14-story Great Western
Building went up in Berkeley, Ca.
(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A12)
1971 The Berkeley Evans Hall
was constructed at UC Berkeley, Ca. It was named after Griffith C.
Evans, chairman of mathematics from 1934 to 1949 who combined the
fields of mathematics and economics.
1971 In SF construction
began on the 977-foot Sutro Tower. It was designed by A.C. Martin
Partners to transmit television signals. Harry Jacobs (d.1999 at 84)
headed the construction of the tower, which was completed in 1973.
(SFC, 4/20/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/27/99,
1971 In SF the Cathedral of St.
Mary of the Assumption, designed by McSweeney, Ryan & Lee with
Pietro Belluschi and Pier Luigi Nervi, opened at Gough and Geary.
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A13)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.D7)(SSFC,
1971 In SF the 46-story Hilton
San Francisco, designed by John Carl Warnecke, opened at 333
(SSFC, 4/4/10, p.D2)
1971 The Int’l. Bird Rescue
Research Center was founded by Alice Berkner in Berkeley, Ca.
(SFC, 8/17/96, p.A17-18)
1971 Barry Adams and Garrick
Beck helped found the Rainbow Family. In 2004 some 20,000 gathered
in northern California. One of the goals of the Rainbow Nation has
been and is to have P.E.AC.E. Villages throughout the United States
of America. P.E.A.C.E. stands for Positive Energy Alternative
1971 Jack Leary, a rebel Jesuit
priest, found New College in San Francisco with the philosophy of
creating a just, sacred and sustainable world.
(SFC, 12/26/05, p.D3)
1971 Saybrook University was
originally founded in 1971 as the Humanistic Psychology Institute.
It was later renamed 'Saybrook Institute' and 'Saybrook Graduate
School and Research Center' and developed programs supporting the
use of mind-body medicine.
1971 Phil Wood (d.2010 at 72)
founded Ten Speed Press in Berkeley, Ca. The publishing house was
named for its first book, a bicycle repair manual called “Anybody’s
(SFC, 12/20/10, p.C3)
1971 KPOO radio was founded in
SF by Lorenzo Milan. In 1973 Joe Rudolph (d.2001 at 63) took over
operations in the 1st black-owned, non-commercial radio station west
of the Mississippi.
(SFC, 3/14/01, p.A20)
1971 In SF David Allen
(1919-1984), actor, opened the Boarding House nightclub at 960 Bush.
He had formerly performed with a repertory theater at the same site.
(SSFC, 5/24/09, DB p.39)
1971 The D.Q. University,
California’s only Indian tribal college, was founded on 643 acres of
federal surplus property 7 miles west of Davis.
(SFC, 4/5/00, p.A15,22)
1971 Journalist Don Hoefler,
editor of the Electronic News, coined the term Silicon Valley to
describe the technology base in the southern San Francisco Bay Area.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.J4)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.67)
1971 Alice Waters (b.1939)
opened Chez Panisse restaurant in Berkeley, Ca.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W35)
1971 James Weinstein
(1926-2005) founded Modern Times Bookstore in SF.
(SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.5)
1971 Kimochi Inc. was founded
in SF as a nonprofit service to Japanese seniors.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.D3)
1971 Franzo King founded the
John Coltrane African Orthodox Church at 351 Divisadero St. in San
Francisco. King named himself Bishop King and played tenor sax every
Sunday at noon for services. A new owner forced the Church to
relocate in 2000.
(WSJ, 1/26/99, p.A16)(SFC, 3/11/00, p.A13)
1971 San Francisco’s first Gay
Pride parade was held.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)
1971 In SF Steve Strauss
founded the Blue Bear School of American Music to teach rock instead
of Bach. The school offered courses in rock, blues, folk and jazz.
In 1996 they celebrated a 25 year anniversary.
(SFC, 9/12/96, p.E1)
1971 Bebe, the SF-based women’s
fashion retailer, was founded as a boutique.
1971 Charles Schwab started his
brokerage firm in San Francisco. In 1975 he took advantage of new
SEC regulations and turned the company into a discount brokerage. In
2019 the company announced a merger with TD Ameritrade and a move to
new headquarters in Texas.
(SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E1)(SFC, 11/26/19, p.A1)
1971 Criminologist Mimi Silbert
(b.1942) along with John Maher (1940-1988), a reformed heroin
addict, and 2 others founded Delancey Street in San Francisco, a
foundation to help ex-cons re-integrate into society.
1971 In SF Amy Meyer
spearheaded a coalition of community support for the Golden Gate
National Recreation Area.
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.B2)
1971 In SF Richard Sorro
(1935-1996) founded the Mission Hiring Hall through the Model Cities
(SFC, 12/19/96, p.C10)
1971 The SF 49ers played at
Kezar Stadium in Goldengate Park up to this year, when they moved
to Candlestick Park.
1971 The SF Warriors moved to
the Oakland Coliseum Arena and changed their name to the Golden Gate
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W29)(SFC, 4/26/10, p.A8)
1971 SF was ordered to begin
bussing to achieve school desegregation. Judge Stanley Weigel
(d.1999 at 93) ordered the desegregation of the SF schools.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 9/4/99, p.A25)
1971 San Francisco’s Jackson
Square at Jackson and Montgomery was declared an official historic
district by the Board of Supervisors. 83 of the buildings dated to
the mid-19th century.
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A18)(SFC, 12/18/01, p.A19)
1971 In SF Joseph Caporale
(1910-1996), part-owner of Capp’s Corner restaurant was identified
by police as the "biggest bookie in North Beach."
(SFC, 12/24/96, p.A16)
1971 The last passenger train
from SF to Monterey was put into retirement. A project to bring it
back was initiated by Monterey in 1997.
(SFC, 5/5/97, p.A20)
1971 San Francisco’s
Fleischhacker Pool closed down.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W38)
1971 Swami Vishnu-devananda
(1927-1993), a student of Swami Sivananda (1887-1963), set up the
Sivananda Ashram Yoga Farm in Grass Valley, Ca.
1971 The Berkeley-Oakland
Support Services program began. It was renamed in 1996 to Building
Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS).
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.2)
1971 George Lucas moved his
film operations to Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, Ca.
(WSJ, 1/22/00, p.B1)
1971 Sue Rugge (d.1999 at 58)
co-founded Information Unlimited, an independent research firm based
in Berkeley, Ca.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.B4)
1971 The American Indian
Council of Mariposa County, Ca., was formed.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
1971 John Belton Dewitt
(1937-1996) became the executive director of the Save-the-Redwoods
League, a California organization established in 1918. Under his
24-years as secretary and director $65 million was raised and 30,000
acres of virgin forest was acquired for public parks and preserves.
1971 Stanley "Tookie" Williams
and Raymond Washington formed the Crips gang as an alliance to
combat rivals in East Los Angeles, Ca.
(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.C2)
1971 California’s Gov. Reagan
approved a major increase in aid to welfare recipients.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1971 California state income
taxes began to be withheld from worker's paychecks. California was
the last state to do so.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1971 The California Supreme
Court in the Serrano-Priest decision ruled that the state system of
primarily using property tax revenue to finance schools was
unconstitutional. The decision was written by Justice Raymond
(SFC, 10/22/99, p.B7)
1971 In California Francis Dale
Calhoon (73) was convicted in the murder of his wife, Marian. He
served 3 years in prison and during that time began writing books on
the California Gold Rush. Calhoon died in 1999 and his 5 Gold
Country sagas were still in print along with a story of his prison
(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1971 John Linley Frazier,
hippie revolutionary, was convicted of killing 5 people in Santa
Cruz, Ca., and was sentenced to death.
(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)
1971 Foster City, Ca., was
(Ind, 8/4/01, 5A)
1971 The San Francisco Bay to
Breakers race sponsors were pressured to add a women’s division. Dr.
Frances Conley won with a time of 54:45.
(SFC, 5/15/09, p.B4)
1971 Dr. Boyd Stephens
(1940-1965) took over the SF coroner’s office as medical examiner.
(SFC, 4/5/05, p.B5)
1971 Two San Francisco
brothers, aged 7 & 10, confessed to the crucifixion murder of
20-month-old Noah Alba. They were never charged but were placed in
foster care and given intense therapy.
(SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-1)
1971 The first Ralph Lauren
Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM,
1971 Mervyns, a
California-based department store chain, went public with a stock
sale of 300,000 shares.
(WSJ, 9/4/08, p.B6)
1971 Toyota Corp. established
the Calty Design facility in Newport Beach, Ca., an automotive
(IBCC, 10/97, #9)
1971 Dominican College in San
Rafael, Ca., began to admit male students.
(SFC, 6/26/00, p.A17)
1971 In northern California
students at San Rafael High School, who smoked pot and called
themselves the Waldos, coined the term 420 (four-twenty) as a
shorthand code for meeting at the campus statue of Louis Pasteur at
4:20 pm to smoke pot.
(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A20)
1971 Stanford Univ. opened up
about 700 acres for development and Hewlett-Packard was among the
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W6)
1971 Stanford Prof. Philip
Zimbardo conducted a psychology experiment that randomly assigned
college-age men to roles as prisoners and guards. The experiment
turned into a nightmare and was soon called off. In 2007 Zimbardo
authored “The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn
(SSFC, 4/29/07, p.M1)
1971 The "Sickle Slayer" hacked
2 campers to death near Nevada City, Ca.
(SFC, 1/12/01, p.A3)
1971 Mary Bowerman (1908-2005)
and Art Bonwell co-founded the Save Mount Diablo group and were
instrumental in expanding the boundaries of the northern California
Mount Diablo state park from 6,788 acres to over 20,000 acres in
2006. In 1944 Bowerman published her doctoral thesis: “Flowering
Plants and Ferns of Mount Diablo."
(SFC, 8/25/05, p.B7)(SFC, 12/29/06, p.B1)
1971 Albert H. Bowker
(1919-2008), 8-year chancellor of City Univ. of New York, was named
chancellor of California’s UC Berkeley.
1971 San Francisco Bay
Area cemetery workers went on a 4-month strike. Some 1800
coffins went unburied until union and cemetery workers reached
(SSFC, 3/28/10, DB p.42)
1971 California had 12 state
prisons. By 2001 the number rose to 33.
(SSFCM, 8/19/01, p.7)
1971 Ralph K. Davies, an oil
millionaire for whom a SF medical center is named, died. He was an
executive for Standard Oil who went off on his own and bought oil
concessions around the world. He also ran American President Lines
and the Natomas Co.
(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A1,11)
1971 In SF Shunryu Suzuki
(Suzuki-roshi), Japanese Zen missionary and abbot of the SF Zen
Center, died of cancer. Richard Baker (36) was installed as the
abbot. Scandals hit the center in 1983. In 2001 Michael Downing
authored "shoes Outside the Door: Desire, Devotion and Excess at the
SF Zen Center."
(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.M3)
1971 A SF police helicopter, a
UH-1 Huey, crashed into Lake Merced and co-pilot Charles D. Lagosa
(30) was killed.
(SFC, 1/13/00, p.A15)
1971 Sonoma, Ca., became the
first California city to place a cap on residential permits. The
restriction was unsuccessfully challenged all the way to the Supreme
(SFC, 2/15/11, p.E8)
1971 In California the Hosgri
fault was discovered and forced PG&E to upgrade the design of
the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. Unit 1 came online on May 7,
1985. Unit 2 became operational on March 13, 1986. In 2011 another
seismic fault was detected on the ocean floor a half mile from the
1971 The US military began
conducting maritime exercises in Hawaii. The Rim of the Pacific
(RIMPAC) drills continued on a biennial schedule.
(SFC, 4/6/20, p.A4)
1971 The fabled stockyards of
(Hem., 12/96, p.89)
1971 AT&T Bell Labs
conducted its first cellular phone test in Chicago.
(WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A3)
1971 William E. Colson
(1941-2007) founded Holiday Management in Salem, Ore., to develop
senior housing. By 2007 Holiday Retirement Corp. owned over 35,000
apartments in the US and Canada and was sold to Fortress Investment
Group for over $6.5 billion.
(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A6)
1971 A 29-year litigation began
over a federal and state suit to desegregate Mississippi's public
universities. In 2004 a federal appeals court upheld a settlement to
allocate $503 million over 17 years toward balanced
integration. Continued litigation was denied.
(SFC, 1/28/04, p.A3)
1971 In Missouri construction
of the New Madrid County smelter was completed, after the state's
governor convinced Associated Electric Cooperative to build the
coal-fired plant next door to provide power. The smelter’s parent
company landed in bankruptcy in 2016, under heavy debt and facing a
flood of cheaper metals from China. Former Glencore Plc trader Matt
Lucke bought the plant out of bankruptcy in 2016 for about $14
million. And Donald Trump’s trade war later helped revive US steel
and aluminum producers. EPA data in 2019 showed the Magnitude 7
Metals facility and the power plant next door that supplies its
electricity together emitted about 30,000 tons of sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxide pollution. In 2020 it was reported that death rates
in the county from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are
87% higher than in the rest of the state.
1971 Aviator Sid Cutter revived
ballooning in Albuquerque, NM, to commemorate his mother’s birthday.
The experience led him to invite balloonists from around the world
for the 1st int’l. balloon festival.
(SSFC, 9/25/05, E9)
1971 Leonard Riggio bought the
single New York store Barnes & Noble company (1873). He then
expanded by buying mall chains such as B. Dalton and Doubleday. The
superstore concept came with the purchase of Bookstop in 1989.
(WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)
1971 William E. Colson
(1941-2007) founded Holiday Management in Salem, Ore., to develop
senior housing. By 2007 Holiday Retirement Corp. owned over 35,000
apartments in the US and Canada and was sold to Fortress Investment
Group for over $6.5 billion.
(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A6)
1971 In South Carolina James
French (1926-2021) founded the Charleston Chronicle to serve the
area's Black communities.
(SSFC, 8/8/21, p.F10)
1971 Stephen Gaskin (b.1935)
and some 300 hundred San Francisco hippies started the Tennessee
rural commune called The Farm. It was located on a 1,750 acre
property in Lewis County and based not on rules but on agreements.
1971 Ina May Gaskin founded the
Farm Midwifery Center in Summertown, Tennessee.
1971 Sister Jogues Egan (d.1998
at 79) was charged as a unindicted co-conspirator with the
Harrisburg Six, in the so-called Kissinger plot that included
Phillip Berrigan and other Catholic peace protestors. They were
charged by the government to have conspired to blow up federal
property and to kidnap Henry Kissinger.
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A20)
1971 Disney Corp. filed suit
against the Air Pirates, underground cartoonists led, more or less,
by Dan O'Neill. 2 issues of Air Pirates Funnies had appeared under
the imprint of Hell Comics, a front for Last Gasp. In 2004 Bob Levin
authored "The Pirates and the Mouse: Disney's War Against the
(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M2)
1971 The first monocline
insurance company, Ambac Financial Group Inc, was formed as an
insurer of municipal bonds. MBIA Inc was formed in 1973. They are so
named because they provide services to only one industry.
1971 Ray Tomlinson (d.2016), an
engineer at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), invented an e-mail
program that allowed users to exchange messages across a distributed
network. He devised the @ symbol to designate a digital address. In
1972 Tomlinson modified the program to run on ARPANET where it
became a quick hit.
p.B1)(TIME, 10/20/14, p.65)(Econ, 3/12/16, p.80)
1971 John W. Nichols
(1914-2008) and his son founded Devon Energy Corp. Devon went public
(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.A12)
1971 Bill Gross, Bill Podlich
and Jim Muzzy co-founded Pacific Investment Management Co. (PIMCO).
It originated as a separate accounts manager for Pacific Life
Insurance Co. In 2000 it became a unit of Allianz, a German
1971 Charles Schwab started his
brokerage firm in San Francisco. In 1975 he took advantage of new
SEC regulations and turned the company into a discount brokerage.
(SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E1)
1971 Rev. Leon Sullivan
(1922-2001), a noted Philadelphia minister, became GM’s 1st black
board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored “Moving Mountains."
1971 Tesoro Corp. was listed on
the NYSE. Robert V. West Jr. (1921-2006), founder of the oil company
(1964), retired in San Antonio, Tx., in 1992.
(WSJ, 11/25/06, p.A6)
1971 General Mills introduced
Hamburger Helper. It helped families stretch a pound of meat into a
family meal as beef prices soared under weak economic growth. In
2001 it was heralded as part of a family of "convenient-involvement
(WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A1)
1971 W.R. Grace & Co.
formed Chemed (chemicals, medicine, education) and sold off a chunk
in an IPO with executive Edward L. Hutton (1919-2009) as the CEO. In
the 1980s Omnicare was formed out of the health business at Grace
and Chemed and Mr. Hutton became chairman of the new concern.
(WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A12)
1971 The first Ralph Lauren
Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM,
1971 Mervyns, a
California-based department store chain, went public with a stock
sale of 300,000 shares.
(WSJ, 9/4/08, p.B6)
1971 McDonald’s opened its
first restaurant in Japan.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.D1)
1971 National Lead changed its
name to NL Industries. It is now a world-wide producer and marketer
of pigments, dyes, and specialty chemicals. It was
incorporated in 1891.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)
1971 Southwest Airlines began
operations. The stewardesses wore white boots and orange hot pants.
(SFC, 5/12/96, Mag. p.4)
1971 Starbucks began in Seattle
as a single coffee shop. Gordon Bowker, Zev Siegl and Jerry Baldwin,
former students of the Univ. of SF, opened Starbuck's Coffee, Tea
and Spice with coffee supplied from Peet's Coffee in Berkeley.
Howard Schultz, a marketing director hired in 1982, later published
"Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a
Time." Schultz bought Starbucks in 1987. The company went public in
1992. By 1996 there were 1,115 stores. By 2006 there were 10,500
locations around the world.
(SFC, 5/4/99, p.C6)(SFEM, 8/1/99, p.8)(Econ,
1971 Ray Tomlinson, computer
engineer, put the @ sign into the first e-mail message sent from one
machine to another at BBN, a computer consulting firm.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.B1)
1971 The 1st laser printer was
made at Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, Ca.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
1971 The US ended routine
vaccination against smallpox.
(SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A5)
1971 Dr. Judah Folkman
(1933-2008) proposed that tumor growth might be prevented if a way
could be found to keep blood vessels from forming around them to
supply nutrients and oxygen. Proteins were later discovered that
spurred angiogenesis and antibodies were found to block them.
(SFC, 6/2/03, p.A11)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)
1971 Harold S. Johnston was the
first scientist to warn that trace amounts of nitrogen emitted to
the upper atmosphere could profoundly damage the ozone layer. He
earned a national Medal of Science in 1997. His discovery led
Congress to initiate the CIAP.
1971 The US government
initiated a $21 million study called the Climactic Impact Assessment
Program (CIAP). Its purpose was to study the impact of high-flying
airplanes on the upper atmosphere, i.e. the stratosphere.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.138)
1971 The Lake Tahoe State Park
in Nevada was officially dedicated.
(SFC, 6/6/06, p.B5)
1971 Ted Fujita, a Univ. of
Chicago wind expert, developed the F0 to F5 scale for measuring the
strength of tornadoes.
(SFC, 2/3/06, p.A18)
1971 Non-renewable sources of
energy accounted for 90% of energy use. Hydro-electric and wood
sources produced less than 6%. Solar and wind energy produced 0.2%
of energy use in the USA.
(Smith., 4/95, p.30)
1971 The US census counted 208
(TMC, 1994, p.1971)
1971 The largest pterosaur
known, Quetzalcoatlus, was discovered in Texas. Its wingspan was
about 12 meters, and it lived on open flat-land probably as a
scavenger. Its body was covered with hair, but its head and neck
were probably naked.
1971 Giacomo Alberione, a
priest who also believed in using modern means to bring God to the
faithful, died. He had founded the Paoline Family, which includes a
publishing operation printing many religious books as well as
Famiglia Cristiana, a top-selling weekly that covers issues of daily
life, from homemaking to education, and religious life.
1971 Bonaire, Netherland
Antilles, outlawed spearfishing off the island.
1971 Hoof-and-mouth disease hit
(SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)
1971 Sidney Nolan (1917-1992),
Australia’s best known modernist, created a piece called “Snake." It
was composed of 1,620 individual panels.
1971 Australia joined with New
Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form
the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific
Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands,
the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall
Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,
the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006,
associate members territories are New Caledonia and French
1971 Hunting crocodiles, aka
"salties," was banned in the Northern Territory.
(WSJ, 1/24/00, p.A1)
1971 In Australia Harold Thomas
(b.1947), an Aboriginal artist, designed a flag as a banner for a
campaign to allow Aboriginals to reclaim their traditional lands. In
1995 the flag was made an official "Flag of Australia". In 2018
Thomas sold exclusive rights to the flag to WAM Clothing. Until 2018
the flag had been reproduced freely.
1971 Belgium banned the
practice of selling products at a loss in order to attract
customers. Also banned was the practice of selling below cost or
selling at “extremely reduced" profit margins. This led to numerous
court cases and limited special seasonal sales.
(Econ, 1/5/08, p.46)
1971 Bhutan joined the United
(WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A1)
1971 Brazil passed legislation
limiting the amount of rural land foreigners could buy. In the 1990s
it was deemed incompatible with the new democratic constitution. The
law was revived in 2010 as state-owned firms began buying up vast
tracts of land.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.48)
1971 Brazil’s army discovered
rebel bases in Araguaia, a remote region in the northern jungle
state of Para. They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the
uprising in the proceeding years. Some 60 rebels were killed, as
well as local civilians, and others were jailed or disappeared.
1971 Britain’s Open University
started teaching via radio and television.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.101)
1971 Peter Brook (b.1925),
British stage and film director, founded his Int’l. Center for
Theater Research in Paris. In 1998 Brook published his memoir
"Threads of Time: Recollections."
(SFEC, 6/14/98, BR
1971 Keith Wylie (1945-1999),
British croquet star, in the Open Championship completed "the
sextuple peel," which involved knocking a ball through 6 hoops using
another ball. He authored "Expert Croquet Tactics" in 1985.
1971 Hydro-Quebec began
flooding Cree land as part of the initial phase of its plan, known
as the La Grande Project. The James Bay Dam Project would inundate
vast tracts of pristine land, flooding spawning grounds, drying up
river beds, and destroying wetlands vital to migratory birds.
(CNT, Nov., 1994, pp.120,124)
1971 Chilean folk singer Victor
Jara released an album titled "El dereche de vivir en paz" (The
right to live in peace). The title song was originally
dedicated to the Vietnamese communist leader Ho Chi Minh, as the
United States waged war in Vietnam.
1971 The Chilean government
confiscated the Chuquicamata mine from the US Anaconda Copper Co.
Anaconda lost two-thirds of its copper production. A unit of
Atlantic Richfield purchased the company for $700 mil. ARCO later
sold most of its interests in Anaconda except for ARCO aluminum.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)
1971 Opportunity International,
a non-profit organization with Christian roots, began lending to the
poor in Colombia.
(Econ, 11/5/05, Survey p.4)
1971 The Roskilde rock
festival, inspired by Woodstock, was first held in Denmark.
(SFC, 7/1/00, p.A12)
1971 Denmark became the first
European country to create a Cabinet-level ministry dealing
exclusively with the environment.
(SFC, 12/15/99, p.AA6)
1971 In Denmark the Christiana
enclave took root in Copenhagen when dozens of hippies moved into
the derelict 18th-century navy fort on 600 acres of state-owned
(AP, 3/16/04)(SSFC, 10/31/04, p.A3)
1971 In Denmark the
Jyllands-Posten newspaper declared itself politically independent.
1971 A number of members of the
Egyptian National Assembly were expelled for plotting to overthrow
(SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)
1971 Franklin Louffrani, French
journalist, registered the mark for the yellow "smiley face," which
he began using in 1968 to show good news after the student riots.
The very earliest known examples of the graphic are attributed to
Harvey Ball, a commercial artist in Worcester, Massachusetts. He
devised the face in 1963 for an insurance firm that wanted an
internal campaign to improve employee morale. In 2006 the Web site
http://www.mysmiley.net/ came online to provide a broad range of
1971 French politicians
challenged IRIA, a state funded computer science institute, to begin
research into a national computer network. Louis Pouzin was chosen
to head the project, which became known as CYCLADES. The project’s
first connection debuted in 1973.
(Econ, 11/30/13, TQ p.20)
1971 Periklis Panagopoulos,
Greek ferry operator, founded Royal Cruise Line.
1971 Milli Gorus, an Islamic
Turkish community organization, was founded in Germany as Turkische
1971 In Honduras Pres. Lopez
Arellano backed elections won by Ramon Ernesto Cruz of the National
1971 Hong Kong film "Fists of
Fury" was released in the United States, making the actor a martial
arts legend overnight. The film broke box office records both in
Hong Kong and overseas. Raymond Chow co-produced two of Lee's best
known films: "Way of the Dragon" in 1972, followed a year later by
"Enter the Dragon", the first cinema collaboration between a Hong
Kong studio and Hollywood.
1971 Vincent Lo (b.1948)
founded the Shui On Group in Honk Kong with a family loan of
$16,700. In 2005 Lo and his partners sold land in Manhattan and
proceeded to purchase the Bank of America Center in SF.
(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.J6)
1971 India numbered 16 states
at this time. By 2009 the number rose 28.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.74)
1971 In Indonesia in south
central Kalimantan, Borneo, Birute Galdikas (b.1946), established a
research center and rehabilitation station for ex-captive
orangutans. The animals are only found in Sumatra and Borneo.
(SFC, 1/6/98, p.A19)
1971 The Shah of Iran seized
the tiny island of Abu Musa as Britain abandoned its former
possession in the Persian Gulf and the United Arab Emirates was
being set up. The UAE later contested Iran’s claims to the island
and two barely inhabited chunks of rock nearby.
(Econ, 5/5/12, p.46)
1971 Italy’s Ferrari Daytona
was the world’s fastest car, capable of 174 mph.
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.11)
1971 Jamaica began protecting
crocodiles by law. By 2013 a growing taste for crocodile meat and
even eggs had conservationists worried that the reptiles might be
wiped from the wild altogether.
1971 The Kodo drummers from
Sado Island, Japan, formed into a performance company. Kodo means
"heartbeat" and "children of the drum."
(SFEC,1/19/97, DB p.9)
1971 Japan’s gentan policy
began whereby the government began paying rice farmers to reduce
rice crops. It was designed to shield farmers from short term price
fluctuations. In 2013 the agricultural ministry said the policy
would be phased out by 2018.
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.71)
1971 Fatah, the armed faction
of the Palestine Liberation Organization, arrived in Lebanon
following its ouster from Jordan after losing the battles of "Black
(SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(Econ, 1/24/15, p.42)
1971 Ngugi wa Thiongo, Kenyan
writer, published his novel “Petals of Blood." He was soon
imprisoned by the government of Pres. Daniel arap Moi for his
satire. Upon his release he went into exile and established himself
as an American academic.
(Econ, 8/19/06, p.70)
1971 In Kenya the Norwegian
government designed a fish processing plant at Lake Turkana to
provide jobs to the nomadic Turkana people. The plant was completed
and soon shut down due to high operating costs for the freezers in
(SFC, 12/21/07, p.A31)
1971 In Latvia the top secret
Russian Skrunda radar station was opened.
(BN, 10/98, p.1)
1971 In Malawi Hastings Kamuzu
Banda (c1896-1997) named himself president for life. He served as
president from 1961 to 1994.
1971 The kwacha became the
currency of Malawi, replacing the Malawian pound. It is divided into
1971 Malaysia’s UMNO party
introduced a New Economic Policy (NEP). It was meant to reduce
absolute poverty provide affirmative action for people of indigenous
decent. The temporary bill expired in 1990, when it was renamed and
1971 Cornelis van Houten
(1920-2002), Dutch astronomer, discovered an asteroid and named it
Asteroid 1877 Marsden after British astronomer Brian Marsden.
(Econ, 12/4/10, p.111)
1971 In Northern Ireland Ian
Paisley founded the uncompromising Democratic Unionist Party. He was
virulently anti-Catholic and sought the military defeat of the IRA.
1971 Norway began extracting
oil from its continental shelf.
(Econ, 10/10/15, p.69)
1971 The world’s biggest known
gas field was discovered in Qatar. Faisal Al Suwaidi (b.1954), head
of Qatargas, later began construction of Ras Lafan gas plant to
liquefy the gas for export. The plant, the largest man-made
structure in centuries, was to be finished in 2010.
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.64)
1971 Pakistan’s Gen. Tikka Khan
(1915-2002) led the crackdown against Bengali separatists. His
tactics won him the name “Butcher of Bengal." From 1972-1976 he
served as Chief of the Army Staff under PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
1971 Archer Blood, the senior
US consul-general in Dhaka, sent regular, detailed and accurate
reports of the bloodshed that was taking place in East Pakistan. In
2013 Gary Bass authored “The Blood Telegram: Nixon, MKissinger and
the Forgotten Genocide."
(Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
1971 Following Pakistan’s
defeat by India and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh war, Pakistan
decided to develop a nuclear weapons program.
(SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)
1971 In Peru Luis Fernando
Figari founded the SCV, or Sodalitium of Christian Life, as a lay
community to recruit "soldiers for God." It was one of several
Catholic societies born as a conservative reaction to the
left-leaning liberation theology movement that swept through Latin
America starting in the 1960s. It was later reported that
Figari sodomized his recruits and forced them to fondle him and one
(AP, 2/25/17)(AP, 1/10/18)
1971 In South Africa
"Umabatha" by Welcome Msomi, playwright and director,
premiered at the Amphitheater of the Univ. of Natal and then in the
US. It was a recast of Shakespeare’s Macbeth in the context of 19th
century Zulu history.
(WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 9/21/97, DB p.35)
1971 In the Orange Free State,
South Africa, 19 citizens were arrested for contravening the
Immorality Act by having sex across the color line.
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.81)
1971 In South Africa shaft No.
14 in Gold Reef City near Johannesburg closed. In the 1980s
developer Norman Jarrett helped create the "Gold Reef City" theme
(SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1
1971 The Korea Advanced
Institute for Science and Technology was founded in Daejeon, South
(WSJ, 5/1/07, p.A1)
1971 The Unification Church of
Rev. Sun Myung Moon (51) of South Korea counted some 500 members in
the US. Missionaries from South Korea and Japan had begun arriving
in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
1971 South Korea’s President
Park Chung-hee gave nearly every village 335 bags of cement. After a
year those thought successful were given more cement plus steel rods
in return for pooling savings into local banks. This was later said
to have been the beginning of the saemaul (new village) movement
that modernized the countryside.
(Econ, 12/6/14, p.44)
1971 Rhodesia’s Bishop
Abel Muzorewa formed the African National Council (ANC) opening
negotiations with the regime of Ian Smith.
1971 A Soviet field test of
weaponized smallpox caused an outbreak that killed 2 young children
and a woman at the port of Aralsk in the Kazak Republic. This was
not made public until 2002.
(SFC, 6/15/02, p.A8)
1971 Mohammed Wardi,
Nubian-Sudanese singer known as the Golden Throat, began a 2 year
prison term under the authoritarian regime of Gen. Jaafar Nimeiri,
who ruled Sudan from 1969-1985.
1971 Sweden moved to keep out
foreign shoes on the grounds of national security.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1971 Sweden’s Saab become the
first car to have heated seating.
1971 Ernest Beyeler
(1921-2010), Swiss art dealer, helped found the Art Basel art fair.
In 1982 he and his wife created the Beyeler foundation and
commissioned Renzo Piano to design a museum in Riehen to house their
(SSFC, 2/28/10, p.C10)
1971 In Switzerland business
professor Klaus Schwab (32) organized a meeting of European
executives that grew to become the World Economic Forum (WEF) at
Davos. By 2000 the forum was a powerful player in global economic
(WSJ, 1/27/00, p.A18)(Econ, 1/17/15, p.66)
1971 Syria allowed Russia to
establish its only naval facility in the Mediterranean.
(Econ., 4/18/15, p.42)
1971 Michael Oliver, a Las
Vegas-based libertarian activist, created the Republic of Minerva by
dumping sand on the Minerva Reefs 310 miles southwest of Tonga. He
proclaimed independence in 1972, but Tonga annexed the place and it
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)
1971 In Thailand The Nation
newspaper was founded largely as a progressive conservative as
pro-democracy activists were struggling against a military
dictatorship. In 2019 The Nation announced it will stop its print
edition, but continue with an online version.
1971 Turkey closed down the
Halki Theological School on Heybeliada Island, near Istanbul, to new
students under a law that put religious and military training under
state control. The school closed its doors in 1985, when the last
five students graduated.
(Econ, 6/25/05, p.50)(AP, 8/28/11)
1971 In Turkmenistan Soviet
geologists started drilling a borehole to prospect for gas in the
Karakum desert. The boring equipment drilled through into an
underground cavern, and a deep sinkhole formed. The equipment
tumbled through though no one was killed. Fearing that the crater
would emit poisonous gases, the scientists took the decision to set
it alight, thinking that the gas would burn out quickly and this
would cause the flames to go out. As of 2014 the pit, dubbed the
Door to Hell," continued to burn.
1971 In Zaire (later Congo DRC)
Joseph-Desire Mobutu changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku
Ngbendu wa za Banga, which meant "the all-powerful warrior who,
because of his inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to
conquest leaving fire in his wake.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)
1971-1972 The US FBI reported more than 2,500
bombings over an eighteen month period.
(SSFC, 4/12/15, p.N1)
1971-1972 In Australia William McMahon (1908-1988)
served as the country’s 20th prime minister. He retained his seat in
parliament until his retirement in 1982. He was later remembered as
one of the country's least popular leaders.
1972-73 Edmund Kemper III (b.1948) murdered 6
female college students and chopped up their bodies in the Santa
Cruz, Ca., area. In 1964, at age 15, he had shot and killed his
grandparents. He killed his mother and a friend of hers in Santa
Cruz on Easter weekend, 1973, and soon surrendered. He was sentenced
to life in prison at Vacaville, Ca.
1971-1975 In South Korea Kim Jong-pil, the founder
of South Korea's spy agency, served as prime minister under dictator
boss Park Chung-hee.
1971-1976 "All in the Family" was the top ranking
network show on television for five seasons with rankings of 34,
33.3, 32.2, 30.2, and 30.1%.
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1971-1977 Bella Savitzky Abzug (1920-1998),
radical feminist and anti-war activist, served as a Democratic
Congress representative from Manhattan.
(SFC, 4/1/98, p.A5)
1971-1978 In Bolivia Colonel Hugo Banzer Suarez
ruled the country through repression and torture.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A10)
1971-1983 Stagflation, a period of rising
inflation, high oil prices and weak labor markets, marked the global
1971-1985 In 2005 Peter Hug, history professor at
the Univ. of Bern, reported that a Swiss nuclear research center
aided South Africa between 1971 and 1985 in the sectors of
acceleration technology and uranium enrichment.
1971-1986 The Hexagon KH-9 space spy satellite
program, dubbed "Big Bird," was centered in Danbury, Connecticut.
During this period total of 19 of 20 satellites were successfully
launched, each containing 60 miles of film and cameras that orbited
the earth snapping photographs of the Soviet Union, China and other
potential foes. The film was shot back through the earth's
atmosphere in buckets that parachuted over the Pacific Ocean, where
C-130 Air Force planes snagged them with grappling hooks. The
program was declassified in Sep 2011. Perkin-Elmer was awarded the
top secret contract in 1966.
1971-1988 Peter Bronfman (1929-1996) and his
brother Edward Bronfman co-owned the Montreal Canadiens hockey team.
Their uncle, Samuel, was the founder of the liquor company, Seagram
Co. Ltd. The brothers acquired holdings in Brascan Ltd., a property
mgmt. company, Noranda Inc., a natural resource company, and John
Labatt Ltd., one of Canada’s 2 biggest brewers.
(SFC, 12/3/96, p.D2)
1971-1991 Derek Bok ran Harvard Univ. In 2006 he
returned as interim president following the resignation of Larry
(Econ, 2/25/06, p.37)