Return to home1991 Jul 1,
President Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas
to the US Supreme Court, beginning a confirmation process marked by
allegations of sexual harassment.
1991 Jul 1, Actor Michael
Landon died in Malibu, California, at age 54.
1991 Jul 2, Actress Lee Remick
(55) died in Los Angeles of cancer.
(AP, 7/2/01)(SC, 7/2/02)
1991 Jul 2, A European
Community-brokered truce between Yugoslavia and the breakaway
republic of Slovenia was shattered as the federal army battled
1991 Jul 2, The first national
conference of the ANC, since the organization was banned in 1960,
began in Durban, South Africa. Oliver Tambo, whose health was
suffering, handed over the presidency of the ANC to Nelson Mandela
and assumed the largely honorary post of national chairperson.
Walter Sisulu was elected deputy president.
1991 Jul 3, Former corporate
enemies Apple Computer and IBM publicly joined forces in a broad
pact to swap technologies and develop new machines. Plans eventually
led to the PowerPC processors.
(AP, 7/3/01)(SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1991 Jul 3, A Fort Worth,
Texas, police officer was videotaped beating a handcuffed prisoner
in his patrol car. The officer was suspended, but later reinstated
after a grand jury refused to indict him.
1991 Jul 4, Americans
celebrated Independence Day, with the Persian Gulf War adding to
emotions. President Bush and his wife, Barbara, attended festivities
in Marshfield, Missouri, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, before
returning to Washington DC for the annual fireworks display.
1991 Jul 4, In Memphis, Tenn.,
the $9.7 million National Civil Rights Museum opened at the former
Lorraine Hotel where Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated in
1968. It was founded by Judge D’Army Bailey (1941-2015).
(SFC, 7/15/15, p.D3)
1991 Jul 4, In Australia Victor
Chang, who had earned an international reputation for his pioneering
work on heart transplant methods, was shot dead near his home as he
made his way to work. Phillip Choon Tee Lim and co-offender Chew
Seng Liew were imprisoned over the killing of Chang in the exclusive
Sydney suburb of Mosman, following a failed extortion attempt. In
2010 Lim (50) was extradited to Malaysia after serving 18 years in
1991 Jul 4, Colombia’s
Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation
concerning Indian rights. It also provided for 2 additional seats in
Congress for Afro-Colombians and a similar quota for Amerindians.
The Constitution also gave the country’s inspector-general a
remit to discipline not just civil servants, but also elected
officials. Parliamentary immunity was removed.
3/30/98, p.A8)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.34)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.36)(Econ,
10/31/15, SR p.12)
1991 Jul 5, A worldwide
financial scandal erupted as regulators in eight countries shut down
the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, charging it with
fraud, drug money laundering and illegal infiltration into the U.S.
banking system. BCCI, headquartered in Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Emirates, failed. It was chartered in Luxembourg and the Cayman
Islands and had offices in 70 countries. The ruling family of Abu
Dhabi was the major investor and faced huge liability claims from
depositors around the world. In 1997 a British court convicted
Pakistani shipping tycoon, Abbas Gokal -chairman of the defunct Gulf
Group, of a 1.2 billion fraud that led to the collapse. Larry Gurwin
later co-authored "False Profits: The Inside Story of BCCI, The
World’s Most Corrupt empire."
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A9B)(WSJ, 4/4/97, p.A1)(AP,
7/5/97)(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A2)(WSJ, 5/1/02, p.AD7)
1991 Jul 6, President Bush sent
a personal message to Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, urging
a stronger effort to conclude arms control talks.
1991 Jul 6, Steffi Graf won the
women’s singles title at Wimbledon, defeating Gabriela Sabatini 6-4,
1991 Jul 7, Responding to
President Bush’s call for stepped-up efforts on arms control talks,
Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev told the White House he was
sending Foreign Minister Alexander Bessmertnykh and other officials
for talks with Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third.
1991 Jul 7, Michael Stich
defeated Boris Becker, 6-4, 7-6, 6-4, to win the men’s singles title
1991 Jul 7, IRA members Pearse
McAuley (b.1965) and Nessan Quinliven escaped from an English jail,
shot a Canadian tourist and took his car during their getaway. They
had been awaiting trial on charges relating to a suspected plot to
assassinate former brewery company chairman, Sir Charles Tidbury.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearse_McAuley)(SSFC, 2/26/17, DB
1991 Jul 7, Jordan’s king
abolished most provisions of martial law.
1991 Jul 8, Reversing earlier
denials, Iraq disclosed for the first time that it was carrying out
a nuclear weapons program, including the production of enriched
1991 Jul 9, The American League
defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in
1991 Jul 9, Former CIA officer
Alan D. Fiers pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges in the
1991 Jul 9, The International
Olympic Committee readmitted South Africa.
1991 Jul 10, President Bush
lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, citing its "profound
transformation" toward racial equality.
1991 Jul 10, President Bush
announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as
Federal Reserve chairman.
1991 Jul 10, Boris N. Yeltsin
took the oath of office as the first elected president of the
1991 Jul 11, A solar eclipse
cast a blanket of darkness stretching nine-thousand miles from
Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some
1991 Jul 11, A Nigerian
Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi
Arabia, int'l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane
was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.
(AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1991 Jul 12, A Japanese
professor who had translated Salman Rushdie’s "The Satanic Verses"
was found stabbed to death, nine days after the novel’s Italian
translator was attacked in Milan.
1991 Jul 13, Soviet and
American negotiators meeting in Washington wrangled over a treaty to
reduce long-range nuclear missiles.
1991 Jul 14, American and
Soviet negotiators in Washington continued work on trying to
complete a treaty slashing long-range nuclear arsenals.
1991 Jul 14, In California a
Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled
18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the
Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40
miles downstream including 250,000 trout.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T7)(SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)
1991 Jul 14, Leaders of the
Group of Seven nations began gathering in London for their annual
1991 Jul 15, Group of Seven
leaders opened their 17th annual economic summit in London, plunging
into debate over aid to the Soviet Union.
1991 Jul 15, Actor and
game-show host Bernard Whalen Convy (57) died in Los Angeles, Ca.,
of a brain tumor. Early in his career, Convy was a member of a
singing trio named the Cheers. Their “Black Denim Trousers" was a
top-ten hit (1955). He was born July 23, 1933 in St. Louis,
1991 Jul 16, Leaders of the
Group of Seven nations holding their economic summit in London
issued a communique calling for a "new spirit of cooperation" in the
1991 Jul 16, Robert Motherwell
(b.1915), US painter (Elegies to Spanish Rep), died.
1991 Jul 16, Frank Rizzo (70),
(Mayor-D-Phila, 1972-80), died of a heart attack.
1991 Jul 17, The US Senate
voted 53-to-45 to give itself a $23,200 pay raise while at the same
time banning outside speaking fees.
1991 Jul 17, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev made a personal appeal for Western aid at the
conclusion of the Group of Seven economic summit in London.
1991 Jul 18, Socialist Party
leader Andre Cools was murdered. Cools had worked for more regional
autonomy for Wallonia, the French-speaking southern half of Belgium,
and the Dutch-speaking Flanders. The murder was believed to be done
by hit men after Cools threatened to reveal certain underworld
activities. 6 men were convicted for the murder in 2004.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A11)(AP, 1/7/04)
1991 Jul 18, Shiite Muslim
kidnappers in Lebanon demanded the release of two Lebanese brothers
being held in Germany, warning there could be "grave consequences."
1991 Jul 19, President Bush
toured the Souda Bay US naval base during a visit to Greece.
1991 Jul 19, Boxer Mike Tyson
had sex with Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant. On
September 9, 1991, an Indiana Grand Jury voted to indict Tyson on
three counts, including one for the rape of Washington. Tyson
was convicted on February 10, 1992 and was imprisoned.
1991 Jul 19, The South African
government acknowledged that it had been giving money to the Inkatha
Freedom Party, the main rival of the African National Congress.
1991 Jul 20,
President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people
1991 Jul 20, Lebanon joined
Syria in agreeing to participate in Mideast peace talks with Israel.
1991 Jul 20, Russian President
Boris N. Yeltsin banned political activity in government offices and
republic-run businesses, effectively curtailing the influence of the
1991 Jul 21, US Secretary of
State James A. Baker the Third met with Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Shamir, trying to persuade the Israelis to agree to the
1991 Jul 21, Jordan became the
fourth Arab country to sign on to a US-backed Middle East peace
1991 Jul 22, President Bush
returned from a nine-day trip that included the Group of Seven
summit in London.
1991 Jul 22, Police in
Milwaukee arrested serial killer Jeffrey L. Dahmer. He was murdered
while in prison in 1994.
(AP, 7/22/97)(SFC, 5/29/96, A4)
1991 Jul 22, Desiree
Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she'd been
raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room 3 days
earlier. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served three years in
1991 Jul 23, The US Senate
voted to impose a long list of strict new conditions on renewal of
China’s normal trade status in 1992; however, the 55-to-44 vote fell
short of the two-thirds majority later needed to override President
1991 Jul 23, The draft of a new
platform for Soviet Communist Party was published, calling for
private property, economic integration into world market and freedom
1991 Jul 24, Isaac Bashevis
Singer (87), Nobel Prize-winning author (1978), died in Miami. In
2006 Florence Noiville authored “Isaac B. Singer: A Life."
(AP, 7/24/01)(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.G6)
1991 Jul 24, India’s finance
minister Manmohan Singh presented a budget to parliament. Singh said
“the room for maneuver, to live on borrowed money or time, does not
exist anymore." His speech marked India’s entry into global
capitalism. The budget was in response to a balance of payments
(Econ, 7/23/11, p.10, 59)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.11)
1991 Jul 24, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced a final agreement on a treaty
designed to preserve the Soviet federation while giving more power
to the republics.
1991 Jul 25, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev urged Communist leaders at a Central Committee
meeting to reject "outdated ideological dogmas" and embrace a market
1991 Jul 25, A deadline for
Iraq to provide full details of its weapons of mass destruction
passed, with US officials indicating military action was not
1991 Jul 26, US Secretary of
State James A. Baker the Third addressed Mongolia’s first
legislature chosen in multiparty elections, applauding the rise of
democracy and promising millions of dollars in aid.
1991 Jul 26, Paul Reubens (Pee
Wee Herman) was arrested in Florida for exposing himself at an adult
1991 Jul 27, Fighting escalated
in the breakaway republic of Croatia, as a Yugoslav air force jet
fired on Croatian forces and ground fighting erupted into clashes
with federal tanks and troops.
1991 Jul 28, Dennis Martinez
pitched the 15th perfect game in major-league baseball history as
the Montreal Expos beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-to-0.
1991 Jul 28, Miguel Indurain of
Spain won the Tour de France bicycle race.
1991 Jul 28, President Bush
warned Iraq it would be making "an enormous mistake" if it failed to
disclose its nuclear weapons program to United Nations inspectors.
1991 Jul 29, President Bush
arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev that included the signing of the Strategic Arms
1991 Jul 30, President Bush and
Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev began their face-to-face
meetings in Moscow.
1991 Jul 31, A volleyball court
was installed at People’s Park in Berkeley at a cost of over $1
million due to the ensuing 12 days of rioting and arrests. The city
established a five year lease with the Univ. to manage the 2.3 acre
(SFC, 1/4/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B3)
1991 Jul 31, President Bush and
Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic
Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. The agreement included the
deactivation and removal by May, 1995, of 150 Minuteman II missiles
in Missouri. The treaty was set to expire in Dec, 2009.
(AP, 7/31/01)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/1/07,
p.A8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1991 Jul 31, The US Senate
voted to allow women to fly combat aircraft.
1991 Jul 31, Seven people were
killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed near Camden, South
1991 Jul 31, Seven people were
killed when a bus carrying Girl Scouts crashed in Palm Springs,
1991 Jul 31, In Lithuania 7
border guards were shot to death and one was wounded as OMON
commandos from the Soviet Interior Ministry raided the Medininkai
checkpoint on the border of Lithuania and Belarus.
1991 Jul, China opened a second
stock exchange in Shenzhen.
(Hem., 1/95, p. 28)
1991 Aug 1, President Bush,
visiting the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, urged Soviet republics to
show restraint in their demands for more autonomy.
1991 Aug 1, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir accepted a US formula for Middle East peace
talks with the Arabs.
1991 Aug 2, President Bush told
a news conference only poor health would prevent his running for
1991 Aug 2, US Secretary of
State James A. Baker III met in Jerusalem with a group of
Palestinians, but failed to line up their immediate support for a
Middle East peace conference.
1991 Aug 2, Blaine Harden of
the Washington Post wrote that the Serbian aim "is obviously ethnic
cleansing of the critical areas that are to be annexed to Serbia."
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1991 Aug 3, Radio La Colifata
(Loony Radio) began broadcasting in Buenos Aires to help mentally
ill patients communicate with their peers. The weekly radio show was
broadcast from inside a psychiatric hospital. Initially taped
segments were broadcast, but by 2007 live programming reached over
30 stations in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin America.
p.A8)(SFC, 1/9/07, p.D3)
1991 Aug 3, The Pan Am games
opened in Havana.
1991 Aug 3, US Secretary of
State James A. Baker III met with King Hassan the Second of Morocco.
Baker asked the monarch for his help in gaining Palestinian
participation in a Middle East peace conference.
1991 Aug 4, The Greek luxury
liner "Oceanos" sank in heavy seas off South Africa’s southeast
coast; all 402 passengers and 179 crew members survived.
1991 Aug 4, Israeli Cabinet
members overwhelmingly backed a Middle East peace conference under
conditions set by Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir.
1991 Aug 5, US Democratic
congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into
whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with
Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the
presidential election. A task force later concluded there was "no
credible evidence" of such a deal.
1991 Aug 5, The Yugoslav army
called off its intervention to Slovenia’s independence.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)
1991 Aug 6, The US Justice
Department joined forces with the anti-abortion group Operation
Rescue in fighting a federal judge’s order to keep two abortion
clinics in Wichita, Kansas, open.
1991 Aug 6, Harry Reasoner
(68), TV newsman, died in Norwalk, Connecticut.
1991 Aug 6, Former Iranian PM
Shahpour Bakhtiar and his chief of staff were killed in Bakhtiar’s
residence outside Paris. Their bodies were found 2 days later. In
1994 Ali Vakili Rad was arrested in Switzerland and sentenced to
life in prison for stabbing Shapour Bakhtiar to death. In 2010
France issued a deportation order to send Rad back to Iran shortly
after Tehran freed a young French academic accused of spying.
(AP, 8/8/01)(AP, 5/17/10)
1991 Aug 7, The five permanent
members of the UN Security Council agreed to authorize Iraq to sell
as much as $1.6 billion in oil over six months to pay for food,
humanitarian supplies and war reparations; however, Baghdad rejected
1991 Aug 8, James B. Irwin
(b.1930), Col USAF, astronaut (Apollo 15), died. He was the 8th
person to walk on the moon.
1991 Aug 8, Lebanese kidnappers
freed British TV producer John McCarthy, held hostage for more than
five years; however, a rival group abducted Frenchman Jerome
Leyraud, threatening to kill him if any more hostages were released
Leyraud was freed three days later.
1991 Aug 8, The 2,120-foot
8-inch Radio One tower in Poland fell down.
1991 Aug 9, In Peru Polish
priests Michael Tomaszek and Zbigniew Strazalkowski were shot in the
head in the rural district of Pariacoto. A few weeks later Italian
priest Alessandro Dordi was also killed. All three were beatified in
(SSFC, 12/6/15, p.A6)
1991 Aug 9, In South Africa,
hundreds of police battled neo-Nazis as pro-apartheid extremists
tried to stop a speech by President F.W. de Klerk.
1991 Aug 10, The Revolutionary
Justice Organization, one of the groups holding hostages in Lebanon,
announced it would release an American within 72 hours. The next
day, Edward Tracy was freed.
1991 Aug 10, Nine Buddhists
were found slain at their temple outside Phoenix, Arizona. Two
teen-agers were later arrested; one pleaded guilty to murder, the
other was convicted of murder.
1991 Aug 10, Metallica staged a
concert in Copenhagen.
1991 Aug 11, Shiite Muslim
kidnappers in Lebanon released two Western captives: Edward Tracy,
an American held nearly five years, and Jerome Leyraud, a Frenchman
who had been abducted by a rival group three days earlier.
1991 Aug 11, The space shuttle
"Atlantis" returned safely from a nine-day journey.
1991 Aug 12, The National
Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, began hosting a
two-day reunion of former Negro League players.
1991 Aug 12, A letter from
Lebanese kidnappers was made public; it offered to trade the release
of Western hostages for the freedom of "all detainees" worldwide.
1991 Aug 13, VP Dan Quayle made
a speech attacking lawyers.
1991 Aug 13, Clark Clifford
resigned as chairman of First American Bankshares Incorporated, a
bank holding company the government said had been illegally acquired
by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. Clifford and law
partner Robert Altman were indicted in 1992 on charges of lying to
regulators and receiving bribes from BCCI; Altman was acquitted at
trial, and remaining charges against both men were dropped.
1991 Aug 13, Jack Ryan
(b.1926), designer and inventor (Barbie Doll, Hot Wheels), died.
1991 Aug 14, President Bush
expressed "100 percent" support for United Nations efforts to
mediate a settlement to the Middle East hostage crisis.
1991 Aug 14, Freed American
hostage Edward Tracy returned to the United States, arriving in
Boston, where he was reunited with his sister, Maria Lambert.
1991 Aug 15, Some 750,000
attended Paul Simon's free concert in Central Park. The event was
recorded and became available on video.
1991 Aug 15, The UN Security
Council, by a vote of 13-to-one, authorized Iraq to export
one-point-six billion dollars’ worth of oil in a tightly controlled
sale to pay for desperately needed food and medicine.
1991 Aug 16, Pope John Paul the
Second began the first-ever papal visit to Hungary.
1991 Aug 16, In Moscow,
Alexander Yakovlev, a top adviser to Soviet President Mikhail S.
Gorbachev, resigned from the Communist Party, warning that
hard-liners were plotting "a party and state coup."
1991 Aug 17, Iraq said it would
"play host" to all foreign citizens in the country who were from
"aggressive nations," and place them in military and civilian
targets until the threat of war was over.
1991 Aug 18, Warren Buffett
stepped in as interim chairman of Salomon Brothers in the wake of
its Treasury securities violations.
1991 Aug 18, Soviet hard-liners
(State Emergency Committee), led in part by PM Valentin Pavlov,
launched a coup aimed at toppling President Mikhail S. Gorbachev,
who was vacationing in the Crimea. They were unhappy with the drift
toward the collapse of the USSR. Gorbachev and members of his family
remained effectively imprisoned until the coup collapsed three days
(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 8/18/98)(AP, 4/1/03)
1991 Aug 19, Yankel Rosenbaum
(29), an Australian Hasidic scholar, was killed in rioting that
erupted in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn following the
traffic death of a black child. Earlier in the day Gavin Cato (7)
had been hit and killed by a car in a Rabbi’s motorcade. On Oct 29,
1992, a New York City jury acquitted 17-year-old Lemrick Nelson of
Rosenbaum’s murder. In February 1997, a jury convicted Nelson and
Charles Price of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights. In 1998 Lemrick
Nelson Jr. was sentenced to 19 and 1/2 years in prison. In 1998 the
city settled a suit for $1.35 million brought by Jews who accused
City Hall of insufficient protection during the riots. In 2002
Lemrick Nelson and Charles Price had their verdicts thrown out and a
new trial scheduled. In 2005 NYC agreed to pay $1.25 million to
settle a suit brought by the Rosenbaum family.
(SFC, 4/1/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.A2)(SFC,
1/8/02, p.A3)(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.A3)
1991 Aug 19, A putsch began in
Moscow. Soviet hard-liners, Gennady Yanayev (1937-2010) and the KGB,
removed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev from power. Yanayev
was one of 12 members of the so-called State Emergency Committee
that announced Gorbachev was being replaced. In defiance Russian
federation Pres. Boris N. Yeltsin called for a general strike. The
coup collapsed two days later.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(AP, 8/19/04)(AP, 9/24/10)
1991 Aug 20, More than 100,000
people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests
against the Soviet coup increased. President Bush said he would
never deal with the coup leaders.
1991 Aug 21, The hard-line coup
against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face
of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Boris N.
Yeltsin. The coup failed in part when General Alexander Lebed
refused to move troops to surround Yeltsin’s Moscow stronghold. 3
young men were killed on the night of the failed coup.
(SFC, 10/18/96, A15)(AP, 8/21/97)(Econ, 12/3/11,
1991 Aug 21, Boris Yeltsin
assured the Foreign Ministers of NATO, who were convened in
Brussels, that the coup attempt was failing.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)
1991 Aug 22, The Supreme Court
of Canada struck down the so-called rape shield law, which said the
previous sexual conduct of a rape victim could not be used in court.
1991 Aug 22, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of
the hard-liners' coup. Later that day, he purged his government of
the men who'd tried to oust him.
1991 Aug 23, In the wake of a
failed coup by hard-liners in the Soviet Union, President Mikhail S.
Gorbachev and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin acted to strip the
Communist Party of its power and take control of the army and the
1991 Aug 24, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev resigned as head of the Communist Party,
culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup
by hard-liners. In Moscow, thousands of people held a martyrs'
funeral for three men killed fighting the coup.
1991 Aug 24, Ukraine declared
independence from USSR.
1991 Aug 24, Bernard Castro
(b.1904), Sicilian-born inventor of the convertible couch, died.
1991 Aug 25, Thousands of
abortion foes rallied at a stadium in Wichita, Kan., where six weeks
of anti-abortion protests led by Operation Rescue resulted in more
than 2,600 arrests.
1991 Aug 25, In the 43rd Emmy
Awards: LA Law, Cheers, Kirstie Alley and Patricia Wettig won.
1991 Aug 25, White-Russia
(Belarus) declared its independence.
1991 Aug 25, Linus Torvalds
(b.1969), Finnish software engineer, asked other software developers
to comment on a computer operating system he had written, which
became known as Linux.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Torvalds)(Econ, 8/27/16, p.46)
1991 Aug 26, In an address to
the Supreme Soviet, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev promised national
elections in a last-ditch effort to preserve his government, but
leaders of Soviet republics told him the hour of central power had
1991 Aug 27, The first flight
of the YF23 V-22 Osprey tiltrotor took place.
(NPub, 2002, p.25)
1991 Aug 27, Moldova (Moldavia)
declared independence from USSR.
1991 Aug 28, In NYC 5 subway
riders were killed after subway motorman Robert Ray fell asleep
drunk while in control of a train. He was convicted of manslaughter
in 1992 and sentenced to 15 years. He was set free in 2001 for good
1991 Aug 28, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his
cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners.
1991 Aug 29, In a stunning blow
to the Soviet Communist Party, the Supreme Soviet legislature voted
to suspend the activities of the organization and freeze its bank
accounts because of the party's role in the failed coup.
1991 Aug 29, Libero
Grassi, Italian underwear manufacturer, anti mafia, was gunned down
1991 Aug 30, At the World Track
and Field Championships in Tokyo, Mike Powell jumped 29 feet, 4 and
1/2 inches for a new world record.
(WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A6)
1991 Aug 30, Azerbaijan
declared its independence, joining the stampede of republics seeking
to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 Aug 31, In
Washington D.C., hundreds of thousands of union members marched in a
"Solidarity Day" protest.
1991 Aug 31, Uzbekistan and
Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of
republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 Aug, The IRS issued a set
of proposed pension regulations that included sentences to protect
companies changing their pension plans to a new cash-balance system.
(WSJ, 12/28/99, p.A1)
1991 Aug, The US Senate voted
to lift a 43-year-old law that banned military women from flying
(SFC, 12/19/98, p.A5)
1991 Aug, James Gossling
developed his new computer language called Oak. It was to be the
progenitor of the new Java software for the Internet by Sun
(Wired, Dec. '95, p.238)
1991 Aug, Alex Hardy fell
asleep in his Chevy Blazer while driving drunk in Alabama. He later
changed his story and claimed that his accident was caused by a
fractured axle and faulty door. He sued GM in Lowndes County and was
awarded $50 million in actual damages and $100 million in punitive
(USAT, 6/27/96, p.13A)
1991 Aug, American soldiers
detected mustard agent from their Fox mobile chemical-detection
laboratory in a large metal tank in Kuwait that was probably left
behind by retreating Iraqi forces.
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.A1)
1991 Aug, Albania’s People's
Assembly passed a law allowing private ownership, foreign investment
and private employment of workers. Some 18,000 Albanians crossed the
Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy, but most were returned.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1991 Aug, Chile’s Hudson
Volcano erupted in Aisen province. It launched a cubic mile of ash
and piled ash 18 inches (45 cm) high killing an estimated 1.5
million sheep on the Argentine side of the Andean mountain chain.
(SFCM, 10/3/04, p.51)(AP, 10/28/11)
1991 Aug, In Germany the body
of Stephanie Drews (10) was found below the 'Devil's Valley Bridge'
about 40 km east of her hometown of Weimar. In 2018 police arrested
a 65-year-old man on suspicion of sexually abusing and killing the
1991 Aug, Karlheinz Schreiber,
an arms dealer, allegedly gave $530,000 to Walther Leisler Kiep, the
treasurer of the Christian Democratic Party, at a Swiss shopping
center. The issue was investigated in 1999 and associated to a later
government approved sale of tanks to Saudi Arabia.
(SFC, 11/23/99, p.A14)(SFC, 12/3/99, p.D2)
1991 Aug, Serbian tanks and
aircraft drove refugees from 3 Croatian towns.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1991 Aug, The World Wide Web
was launched by Tim Berners Lee of CERN.
(Economist, 9/1/12, TQ p.11)
1991 Sep 1, The Burning Man
Festival came to the Black Rock Desert in Nevada from Baker’s Beach
in San Francisco.
(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A15)
1991 Sep 1, Yugoslavia's
presidency and the country's feuding republics accepted a European
Community plan designed to stop months of fierce fighting among
Croats, Serbs and the army.
1991 Sep 2, President Bush
formally recognized the independence of the Baltic states of
Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
1991 Sep 2, In Moscow, the
Soviet Congress of People's Deputies opened its first session since
the failed coup, taking up proposals aimed at drastically
restructuring the country.
1991 Sep 3, Twenty-five people
were killed when fire broke out at the Imperial Food Products
chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, N.C.
1991 Sep 3, Frank Capra (94),
Academy Award-winning director, died in La Quinta, Calif. His 1971
autobiography was titled “The Name Above the Title."
(AP, 9/3/01)(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)
1991 Sep 4, South African
President F.W. de Klerk proposed a new constitution that would allow
blacks to vote and govern; the African National Congress rejected
the plan, charging it was designed to maintain white privileges.
1991 Sep 5, Jury selection
began in Miami in the drug and racketeering trial of former
Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega.
1991 Sep 5, In Moscow, Soviet
lawmakers approved the creation of an interim government to usher in
a new confederation.
1991 Sep 6, In the Soviet
Union, the State Council, a new executive body composed of President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev and republic leaders, recognized the
independence of the Baltic states of Estonia Latvia, and Lithuania.
All three were admitted into the UN later this month.
1991 Sep 6, Dzhokhar Dudayev, a
retired Soviet air force general, led an ouster of Chechnya’s
government. He was then elected president and declared independence.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)
1991 Sep 7, Monica Seles won
the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Martina Navratilova 7-6, 6-1.
1991 Sep 7, The European
Community opened a peace conference in the Netherlands aimed at
bringing peace to Yugoslavia.
1991 Sep 8, Stefan Edberg won
the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Jim Courier in straight sets,
6-2, 6-4, 6-0.
1991 Sep 8, A 55 ton concrete
beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
1991 Sep 8, More than 40 people
were reported killed in factional fighting around Johannesburg,
1991 Sep 9, Boxer Mike Tyson
was indicted in Indianapolis on a charge of raping Desiree
Washington, a beauty pageant contestant. Tyson was later convicted.
1991 Sep 10, The Senate
Judiciary Committee opened hearings on the nomination of Clarence
Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1991 Sep 11, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands
of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly denounced by the Havana
1991 Sep 11, In the Middle East
hopes grew for the release of Western hostages in Lebanon after
Israel freed 51 prisoners.
1991 Sep 12, Saying Middle East
peace negotiations might be in jeopardy, President Bush told
reporters he would use his veto authority, if necessary, to delay
action on Israel's call for $10 billion in housing loan guarantees.
1991 Sep 12, The space shuttle
Discovery blasted off on a mission to deploy an observatory designed
to study the Earth's ozone layer.
1991 Sep 13, President Bush,
who had suffered an irregular heartbeat because of a thyroid
condition, was pronounced in "incredible physical condition" after a
checkup by his doctors.
1991 Sep 13, Virginia Gov. L.
Douglas Wilder declared his candidacy for the Democratic
1991 Sep 13, A 55 ton concrete
beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
1991 Sep 14, US Secretary of
State James A. Baker III met with leaders of the Baltic nations,
which had declared independence from the Soviet Union.
1991 Sep 14, Carolyn Suzanne
Sapp of Hawaii was crowned "Miss America."
1991 Sep 14, The government of
South Africa, the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom
Party signed a national peace pact.
1991 Sep 15, Iowa Sen. Tom
Harkin entered the Democratic presidential race, promising to "take
back government from the privileged few."
1991 Sep 15, Andre Baruch
(b.1908), radio and TV announcer, died at 83.
1991 Sep 16, A federal judge in
Washington dismissed all Iran-Contra charges against Oliver North.
1991 Sep 16, Confirmation
hearings began on the nomination of Robert Gates to head the CIA.
1991 Sep 16, Supreme Court
nominee Clarence Thomas concluded five days of testimony at his
1991 Sep 17, The first flight
of the McDonnell Douglas C-17 military cargo transport took place.
(NPub, 2002, p.25)
1991 Sep 17, The U.N. General
Assembly opened its 46th session, welcoming new members Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania, North and South Korea, the Marshall Islands and
1991 Sep 18, Saying he was
"pretty fed up," President Bush said he would send warplanes to
escort U.N. helicopters searching for hidden Iraqi weapons if Iraqi
President Saddam Hussein continued to impede weapons inspectors.
1991 Sep 18, The Upper
Atmosphere Research Satellite was deployed from the space shuttle
Discovery. It measured the ozone hole for the next decade.
Operations of the satellite ceased in 2001 due to NASA economics.
The space shuttle Discovery landed in California, ending a five-day
(SFC, 8/24/01, p.A13)(AP, 9/18/01)
1991 Sep 19, German hikers
Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse
(c3300BCE), later named Otzi (Frozen Fritz), in a glacier on the
Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It
was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis
indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the
woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were
also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint
arrow was also found in his back.
(SFC, 4/27/96, p.A-5)(SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC,
5/7/00, p.T4)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)
1991 Sep 19, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir accused the United States of tilting toward
the Arabs in its eagerness to organize a Mideast peace conference.
1991 Sep 19, UN Resolution 712
allowed a partial lifting of the embargo against Iraq for
(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A12)
1991 Sep 20, On Capitol Hill,
the Senate concluded hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas
to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1991 Sep 20, U.N. weapons
inspectors left Bahrain for Iraq to renew their search for Iraqi
weapons of mass destruction.
1991 Sep 21, An 18-hour hostage
drama ended in Sandy, Utah, as Richard L. Worthington, who had
killed a nurse and seized control of a hospital maternity ward,
finally freed his nine captives, including a baby who was born
during the siege. Worthington committed suicide in prison in 1994.
1991 Sep 21, Armenia gained
independence and was immediately involved in a territorial dispute
with Azerbaijan over the Nagorny Karabakh region.
1991 Sep 21, The American
University of Armenia began instruction with 101 students enrolled.
1991 Sep 21, Yugoslav army
tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats
said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the
3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)
1991 Sep 22, California’s
Huntington Library said it would make microfilm copies of the Dead
Sea Scrolls available to the public.
1991 Sep 22, The London
newspaper The Mail published an interview with former intelligence
agent John Cairncross, who admitted being the "fifth man" in the
Soviet Union's notorious British spy ring.
1991 Sep 23, President Bush
addressed the United Nations, urging the world body to rescind its
resolution equating Zionism with racism.
1991 Sep 23, UN weapons
inspectors in Baghdad discovered documents detailing Iraq's secret
nuclear weapons program and said Iraq was close to building a bomb.
This triggered a standoff with Iraqi authorities.
(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(AP, 9/23/01)
1991 Sep 24, Children's author
Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, died in La Jolla,
Calif., at age 87. In 2002 Springfield, Mass., his childhood home,
opened a $6.2 million sculpture garden in his memory.
(AP, 9/24/97)(SFC, 5/27/02, p.A2)
1991 Sep 24, Kidnappers in
Lebanon freed British hostage Jack Mann after holding him captive
for more than two years.
1991 Sep 24, In Romania some
5,000 coal miners led by Miron Cozma rampaged through Bucharest
leaving 3 dead and nearly 300 injured. This prompted the resignation
of Prime Minister Petre Roman.
(SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)
1991 Sep 25, A national
commission faulted the US government for a lack of leadership in the
fight against AIDS.
1991 Sep 25, The UN Security
Council unanimously passed Resolution 713 that imposed a worldwide
arms embargo against Yugoslavia and all its warring factions.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP,
1991 Sep 25, Nazi war criminal
Klaus Barbie died in Lyon, France, at age 77.
1991 Sep 26, AIDS patient
Kimberly Bergalis pleaded with Congress to enact mandatory AIDS
testing for health care workers.
1991 Sep 26, In Oracle,
Arizona, 4 men and 4 women began a two-year self-sufficiency stay
inside a $150 million, sealed-off structure on 3.15 acres known as
(AP, 9/26/97)(Wired, 2/98, p.172)(SSFC, 2/20/05,
1991 Sep 27, President Bush
announced in a nationally broadcast address that he was eliminating
all U.S. battlefield nuclear weapons, and called on the Soviet Union
to match the gesture.
1991 Sep 27, The US Senate
Judiciary Committee deadlocked, 7-7, on the nomination of Clarence
Thomas to the US Supreme Court.
1991 Sep 27, Oona Chaplin
(b.1926), daughter of Eugene O'Neill and wife of Charlie Chaplin,
died in Switzerland at age 66.
1991 Sep 28, The quotable
former District of Columbia Mayor Marion Barry was sentenced to six
months in prison for possession of crack (a crystalline form of
1991 Sep 28, Jazz great Miles
Davis died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 65.
1991 Sep 28, Stanislau
Shushkevich became the first leader and head of state of independent
Belarus after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
1991 Sep 28, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically
reduce the U.S. nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
1991 Sep 28, U.N. weapons
inspectors ended a five-day standoff with Iraq over documents
relating to Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
1991 Sep 29, California Gov.
Pete Wilson vetoed a bill outlawing job discrimination against
homosexuals, saying it could have led to unjustified lawsuits.
1991 Sep 30, In Haiti the
military under Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras overthrew Jean-Bertrand
Aristide, the country's first freely elected president. He was later
returned to power. The Prime Minister, Rene Preval, managed to
escape to the French embassy hidden in the trunk of a car.
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-10)(AP, 9/30/01)(ST, 3/2/04,
1991 Sep, A scandal arose from
the US Navy Tailhook convention in Las Vegas. Navy officers were
accused of sexually assaulting female officers. The incident was
documented by Gregory Vistica in his book "Fall from Glory, the Men
Who Sank the US Navy." Paula Coughlin, a Navy lieutenant, pressed
the initial charges and more than 80 women made similar claims.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A19)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC,
1991 Sep, The Croat militia
unit Autumn Rains arrived in Gospic. When front-line fighting ended
early this month, the unit turned its attention to the 9,000 Serbs
who lived in the area. Miro Bajramovic in 1997 admitted that the
unit tortured prisoners and he killed 72 people. He said that he
acted on the orders of interior minister Ivan Vekic.
(SFC, 9/9/97, p.A10,12)
1991 Sep, A referendum was held
in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters voted for independence.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1991 Sep, A group of young,
radical Muslims seizes a government building in the Fergana Valley
town of Namangan in eastern Uzbekistan, demanding establishment of
an Islamic state. The group's leaders, Juma Namangani and Tahir
Yuldash, later set up an Islamic party Adolat, or Justice, and then
the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which grows into a terrorist
group with links to al-Qaida.
1991 Oct 1, President Bush
strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending U.S.
economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to
power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1991 Oct 2, Ousted Haitian
President Jean-Bertrand Aristide asked the Organization of American
States in Washington to send a delegation to his homeland to demand
that the newly installed military junta surrender power immediately.
1991 Oct 3, Arkansas Gov. Bill
Clinton entered the race for the Democratic presidential nomination.
1991 Oct 3, South African
author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in
(SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.3)(AP, 10/3/01)
1991 Oct 4, Pres. Bush signed
Executive Order 12775 which prohibited certain transactions with
respect to Haiti.
1991 Oct 4, Leonard C. Odell
died at age 83. He and his older brother Allan (d.1994) wrote some
7,000 Burma Shave poems beginning in 1925 in rural Minnesota. The
Burma-Shave phenomenon faded in 1963, when Phillip Morris bought
Burma-Vita and the signs began to come down.
1991 Oct 4, In Madrid, Spain,
26 nations, including the United States, signed the Antarctic
Treaty, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in
Antarctica. It would be up for review in 2048. China acceded to the
treaty in 1983.
(AP, 10/4/01)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.50)
1991 Oct 4, Carl Bildt
(b.1949), leader of the Moderates, began serving PM of Sweden and
continued to Oct 7, 1994. His center-right government was blighted
by a deep recession followed by a huge row over whether to build the
Oresund Bridge to Denmark.
9/20/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.60)
1991 Oct 5, The San Jose Sharks
opened local play at the Cow Palace in Daly City while they awaited
the building of an arena in San Jose, Ca.
1991 Oct 5, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in
response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.
1991 Oct 6, Reports surfaced
that a former personal assistant to Supreme Court nominee Clarence
Thomas, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill, had accused
Thomas of sexually harassing her from 1981-1983.
1991 Oct 6, Cable News Network
obtained and aired a videotape made in Beirut, Lebanon, of American
hostage Terry Anderson, who quoted his captors as saying they would
have "very good news."
1991 Oct 7, Former assistant
secretary of state Elliott Abrams pleaded guilty to withholding
information from Congress in the Iran-Contra scandal.
1991 Oct 7, University of
Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill publicly accused Supreme Court
nominee Clarence Thomas of making sexually inappropriate comments in
her presence when she worked for him, and urged the U.S. Senate to
investigate her claims. Thomas denied Hill's allegations.
1991 Oct 7, Leo Durocher,
baseball coach and manager (Dodgers, Giants), died at 86.
1991 Oct 8, The U.S. Senate
postponed its vote on Clarence Thomas' Supreme Court nomination to
investigate allegations that he'd sexually harassed a former aide,
1991 Oct 8, A federal judge in
Anchorage, Alaska, approved a five-billion-dollar settlement against
Exxon for the Valdez oil spill.
1991 Oct 8, Slovenia and
Croatia began operating independently from Yugoslavia. Slovenia took
over its own borders and began printing its own money.
1991 Oct 9, President Bush
declared "total confidence" in his nominee to the U.S. Supreme
Court, Clarence Thomas, who was accused of sexual harassment by
former aide Anita Hill.
1991 Oct 10, The US Senate
Judiciary Committee prepared to re-open the confirmation hearing of
Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, accused of sexual harassment
by former aide Anita Hill.
1991 Oct 11, Televangelist
Jimmy Swaggart was seen hustling a prostitute.
1991 Oct 11, Testifying before
the Senate Judiciary Committee, law professor Anita Hill accused
Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexually harassing her;
Thomas reappeared before the panel to denounce the proceedings as a
(HN, 10/11/98)(AP, 10/11/01)
1991 Oct 11, Comedian Redd Foxx
died in Los Angeles at age 68.
1991 Oct 12, Testifying for a
second day on sexual harassment charges leveled by law professor
Anita Hill, Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas told the Senate
Judiciary Committee he'd "rather die than withdraw," and repeated
his denial of Hill's allegations.
1991 Oct 13, The Minnesota
Twins won the American League pennant, defeating the Toronto Blue
Jays 8-5 at SkyDome.
1991 Oct 13, The US Senate
Judiciary Committee heard conflicting testimony from friends and
associates of Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill,
the University of Oklahoma law professor who'd accused Thomas of
sexually harassing her.
1991 Oct 14, Burmese opposition
leader Aung San Suu Kyi was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
for her non-violent promotion of democracy. Her award was accepted
by her husband, Michael Aris (d.1999 at 53) and their sons. A
collection of her writings is titled "Freedom From Fear."
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.C-1)(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.D6)(AP,
1991 Oct 15, Despite sexual
harassment allegations by Anita Hill, the Senate narrowly confirmed
the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, 52 to 48.
Jane Mayer and Jill Abramson later published "Strange Justice,"
which was made into a 1999 Showtime TV movie.
(AP, 10/15/97)(WSJ, 8/23/99, p.A13)
1991 Oct 16, In Killeen, Texas,
George Jo Hennard (35) crashed his pickup truck into a Luby's
Cafeteria and opened fire, killing 23 people before taking his own
life. Another 20 people were wounded.
(AP, 10/16/97)(SFC, 4/17/07, p.A8)
1991 Oct 17, The Atlanta Braves
won their first National League pennant, defeating the Pittsburgh
Pirates 4-to-0 in game seven of their playoff series.
1991 Oct 17, Tennessee Ernie
Ford (b.1919), country singer (16 Tons), died in Reston, Va.
1991 Oct 18, Confirmed Supreme
Court nominee Clarence Thomas swore to uphold the Constitution
during an oath-taking ceremony at the White House.
1991 Oct 18, In Croatia 22
civilians died after being forced by Serbian soldiers into a mined
clover field in the village of Lovas.
1991 Oct 19, In Louisiana
former Gov. Edwin Edwards and former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke won
runoff slots in the state's gubernatorial primary.
1991 Oct 20, A major fire
burned over 3,400 homes in the Oakland Hills in Oakland, Ca. and
killed 25 people.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)(SFC, 12/23/99, p.C9)
1991 Oct 21, American hostage
Jesse Turner was freed by his kidnappers in Lebanon after nearly
five years in captivity.
1991 Oct 21, Former California
Governor Jerry Brown announced his presidential candidacy.
1991 Oct 21, Steamboat Geyser
erupted in Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park. The next eruption
did not occur until 2000.
(SFC, 5/6/00, p.B8)
1991 Oct 21-1991 Oct 22, The
European Community and the European Free Trade Association concluded
a landmark accord to create a free trade zone of 19 nations by 1993.
1991 Oct 22, General Motors
announced a 9 month loss of $2.2 billion.
1991 Oct 23, Clarence Thomas
was sworn in as US Supreme Court Justice.
1991 Oct 23, Dr. Jack Kevorkian
attended the suicide machine assisted deaths of 2 women in Michigan.
1991 Oct 23, Cambodia's warring
factions and representatives of 18 other nations signed a peace
treaty in Paris. All the factions signed The Paris Peace Agreements
with the UN to provide peacekeeping and elections. Khmer Rouge Pres.
Khieu Samphan and commander Son Sen soon returned to Phnom Penh for
the first time since 1979, then fled the same day as mobs tried to
lynch Khieu Samphan.
(SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)(AP,
1991 Oct 24, President Bush
used a speech in Washington to blast Congress as a "privileged class
1991 Oct 24, Gene Rodenberry
(70), the creator of Star Trek, died in Santa Monica, Calif. He
stipulated in his will that anybody included who challenged his will
would be disinherited. His daughter Dawn challenged and lost the
$500,000 left to her.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)(AP, 10/24/01)
1991 Oct 25, American
rock-and-roll impresario Bill Graham was killed in a helicopter
crash near Highway 37 outside Vallejo, in Sonoma County, Ca. Also
killed were his girlfriend, Melissa Gold, and pilot, Steve Kahn. A
memorial concert in GG Park drew some 300,000 people with music by
the Grateful Dead; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; John Fogerty;
Bobby McFerrin; and Robin Williams.
p.A15)(AP, 10/25/01)(SSFC, 5/6/18, DB p.50)
1991 Oct 25, Israel named a
hard-line delegation to the Middle East peace conference.
1991 Oct 26, Former Washington,
D.C., Mayor Marion Barry arrived at a federal correctional
institution in Petersburg, Va., to begin serving a six-month
sentence for cocaine possession.
1991 Oct 27, The Minnesota
Twins won the World Series, beating the Atlanta Braves 1-0 in the
bottom of the 10th inning in the seventh and deciding game.
1991 Oct 28, Two days before
the start of a Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain,
President George H.W. Bush sought to lower expectations for a
dramatic breakthrough, saying there was a "long, long way to go."
1991 Oct 28, The Andrea Gail, a
72-foot swordfish boat from Gloucester, Mass., disappeared off the
coast of Nova Scotia. Six fishermen were lost. In 1997 Sebastian
Junger authored "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the
Sea." A film version followed in 2000.
1991 Oct 29, President Bush
imposed trade sanctions against Haiti to pressure its new leaders to
restore ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. Bush
ordered home all nonessential US government employees and their
1991 Oct 29, On the eve of a
historic Middle East peace conference in Spain, President Bush and
Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met at the Soviet Embassy in
Madrid and expressed hope for a positive outcome.
1991 Oct 30, The Middle East
peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opened with addresses to the
delegates by President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S.
Gorbachev. The Madrid Two conference was organized by the US.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AP,
1991 Oct 30, BET Holdings Inc.,
became the first African-American company listed on the New York
1991 Oct 31, Theatrical
producer Joseph Papp died in New York at age 70.
1991 Oct 31, On the second day
of the Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Arab delegates clashed bitterly over
1991 Oct, In Missouri Gladys
Kuehler (81) was beaten and sexually assaulted before being stabbed
more than 50 times. In 1994 Walter Barton was convicted of killing
Kuehler, who managed a mobile home. He was sentenced to death. Newly
released blood spatter evidence cast doubt on the murder conviction
days ahead of his scheduled May 19, 2020, execution.
(The Independent, 5/14/20)
1991 Oct, In Bulgaria the UDF
won a modest majority in parliament in the fall, but its government
was ousted in a no-confidence vote after 11 months in power.
1991 Oct, Early this month
Serbs opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik. At least
43 civilians were killed in the attack.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)
1991 Oct, In Croatia during the
siege of Vukovar the Yugoslavian army and Serbian paramilitary
troops killed and buried as many as 1000 Croatian soldiers and
civilians. The bodies began to be uncovered in Apr 1998. Some 250
men were taken from a hospital in Vukovar and massacred under the
direction of Zeljko Raznatovic, aka Arkan.
(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 1/16/00, p.A16)
1991 Oct, A US inspection team
which had returned to the site of Kamisiyah, Iraq, filed a report
that quoted Iraqi officials as suggesting that the detonated bunker
had contained chemical agents.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A15)
1991 Oct-1993, From Oct. of
‘91-1993 Pfiesteria piscicida dinoflagellates were linked to major
fish kills that occurred in the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers (North
Carolina), which empty into the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, the second
largest estuary on the US mainland. The microbe continued to plague
the Chesapeake Bay region into 1997.
(Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.18)(SFC, 9/20/97, p.A6)
1991 Oct, In Chechnya Communist
ruler Doku Zavgayev was overthrown and Gen’l. Dudayev won a disputed
local election and declared independence.
(SFC, 5/13/97, p.A12)
1991 Oct, Vil S. Mirzayanov, a
veteran of the Soviet chemical weapons program, went public with
disclosures that a binary chemical weapon was under development.
(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1991 Nov 1, Clarence Thomas
took his place as the newest justice on the US Supreme Court.
1991 Nov 1, Univ. of Iowa
graduate student Gang Lu (27) of China killed 4 members of his
department, another university employee and himself. He was
reportedly angry that his doctoral dissertation was not nominated
for an academic award.
(SFC, 4/3/12, p.A12)
1991 Nov 1, The 3-day session
of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain. The
conference led to Israeli deals with Jordan and the Palestinians and
established the principle of land for peace.
11/1/01)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.68)
1991 Nov 2, Rev. Jesse Jackson,
who had run for the presidency in 1984 and 1988, announced he would
not be a candidate in 1992.
1991 Nov 2, Chechnya proclaimed
independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)
1991 Nov 3, Israeli and
Palestinian representatives held their first-ever face-to-face talks
in Madrid, Spain.
1991 Nov 3, Hooded men with
automatic weapons with silencers burst into the inner patio of a
downtown Lima tenement and killed 15 people at a barbecue, including
an 8-year-old boy. The Colina death squad run by Vladimiro
Montesinos was suspected. In 2001 the attorney general asked
Congress to pursue homicide charges against former Pres. Fujimori
for the murders. In 2008 two survivors of the attack testified at
the murder trial of former President Alberto Fujimori.
(SFC, 5/25/01, p.A16)(AP, 1/4/08)
1991 Nov 3, Syria opened its
first one-on-one meeting with Israel in 43 years.
1991 Nov 4, Ronald Reagan
opened his presidential library in Simi Valley, Calif., with a
dedication ceremony attended by President Bush and former presidents
Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon - the first-ever
gathering of five U.S. chief executives.
1991 Nov 5, The Senate
confirmed Robert M. Gates as CIA director.
1991 Nov 5, Robert Maxwell
(68), media tycoon, was found floating dead near his yacht off the
Canary Islands. He was born in Czechoslovakia as Jan Hoch (Abraham
Leib) and lost his whole family in the Holocaust. He escaped at 16
through the French Underground and got out of a British prison camp
by volunteering for the British army, who changed his name to Robert
Maxwell. He founded the Pergamon Press and went on to build a media
empire. He served in Parliament from 1964-1970. In the 1970s Israel
recruited him as a spy. He covertly sold Israeli computer software
to the governments of Russia, China, India and Egypt that contained
secret trapdoors. After his death he was found to have
misappropriated hundreds of millions of dollars from company
pensions funds. In 2003 Gordon Thomas and Martin Dillon authored
Robert Maxwell, Israel’s Superspy: The Life and Murder of a Media
Mogul." In 2006 London police said Maxwell was being investigated at
the time of his death for allegedly committing a war crime as a
British soldier by killing an unarmed German civilian during World
(Wired, 2/99, p.86)(AP, 11/5/01)(SSFC, 2/2/03,
1991 Nov 5, Fred MacMurray
(83), film star and actor father of Mike, Robbie and Chip in the TV
series "My Three Sons, died.
(AP, 11/5/01)(USAT, 9/20/02, p.1D)
1991 Nov 5, Nearly 7,000 people
were killed in floods in the Philippines.
1991 Nov 6, Keck II became the
biggest telescope in use at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.
1991 Nov 6, Actress Gene
Tierney died in Houston at age 70.
1991 Nov 6, Kuwait celebrated
the dousing of the last oil fires ignited by Iraq during the Persian
Gulf War. Iraqi forces had blown up an estimated 732 Kuwaiti oil
(AP, 11/6/01)(WSJ, 1/21/02, p.B1)
1991 Nov 6, Russian president
Yeltsin outlawed Communist Party.
1991 Nov 6, Pres. Yeltsin fired
Ivan Silayev as prime minister. Yeltsin served as acting prime
minister until Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009) was appointed in Jun 1992.
(SFC, 5/13/99, p.A19)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.149)
1991 Nov 7, Basketball star
Magic Johnson stunned the country as he announced that he had tested
positive for the AIDS virus, and was retiring.
1991 Nov 7, Pro- and
anti-Communist rallies took place in Moscow on the 74th anniversary
of the Bolshevik Revolution.
1991 Nov 8, The European
Community and Canada imposed economic sanctions on Yugoslavia in an
attempt to stop the Balkan civil war.
1991 Nov 9, President Bush
returned from a four-day European trip that included a NATO summit.
1991 Nov 9, Police in Hong Kong
forcibly repatriated 59 Vietnamese boat people, carrying them onto a
1991 Nov 9, Singer-actor Yves
Montand died near Paris at age 70. His body was exhumed in 1998 for
DNA tests in a paternity suit filed by Aurore Drossard (22).
(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A17)(AP, 11/9/01)
1991 Nov 10, Publishing magnate
Robert Maxwell was buried in Israel, five days after his body was
recovered off the Canary Islands.
1991 Nov 11, The United States
stationed its first diplomat in Cambodia in 16 years to help the
war-shocked nation arrange democratic elections.
1991 Nov 12, Robert Gates was
sworn in as CIA director.
1991 Nov 12, Soviet leader
Mikhail S. Gorbachev told a news conference he'd been warned by
President George H.W. Bush and other U.S. officials that a revolt
was brewing before hard-liners staged their coup, but that he had
discounted their information.
1991 Nov 12, Indonesian troops
under Lt. Gen’l. Sintong Panjaitan killed numerous people in the
Santa Cruz Cemetery of Dili, East Timor. The massacre of over 270
civilians, gathered at the funeral of a young man killed 2 weeks
earlier, by Indonesian troops was witnessed by reporter Allan Nairn.
Nairn was arrested, beaten and banned from the country.
(SFC,11/26/97, p.C2)(SFC, 3/17/98, p.B10)(SFC,
1991 Nov 13, The US House of
Representatives approved a Senate-passed bill guaranteeing many
workers up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family emergencies.
1991 Nov 14, U.S. and British
authorities announced indictments against two Libyan intelligence
officials in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
1991 Nov 14, Tony Richardson
(63), British director (Tom Jones), died of AIDS.
1991 Nov 14, Cambodian Prince
Norodom Sihanouk returned to his homeland after 13 years of exile.
1991 Nov 15, The 28-foot-tall
"Free Stamp" by Claes Oldenburg was inaugurated in a small park in
the heart of Cleveland.
(Smith., Aug. 1995, p.80)
1991 Nov 15, A federal appeals
panel threw out former National Security Adviser John M.
Poindexter's felony convictions in the Iran-Contra affair, saying
his immunized testimony to Congress was improperly used against him.
1991 Nov 16, Former Louisiana
Gov. Edwin Edwards won a landslide victory in his bid to return to
office, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux
1991 Nov 17, Secretary of State
James A. Baker III concluded a three-day visit to China, touting an
arms control agreement and progress on human rights and trade as
"clear gains," but acknowledging that the gains fell short of U.S.
1991 Nov 18, Vukovar, capital
of eastern Slavonia, fell to the Serbs. They removed some 260
wounded Croat patients, hospital staff and political activists
sheltered in the Vukovar hospital and took them to the village of
Ovcara where most were shot and buried. On Mar 26, 1996 Slavko
Dokmanovic, the Serb mayor of Vukovar, was indicted for his role in
the incident. Investigators began uncovering bodies from the mass
grave in Sep, 1996. In Oct, 1996, a mass grave of about 100 bodies
was uncovered. When Serbs captured eastern Slavonia most of its
68,000 Croat residents were displaced to other parts of Croatia. In
1998 Dokmanovic hanged himself in jail at the Hague. In 1998 the
book "The Graves: Srebrenica and Vukovar" was published with
photographs by Gilles Peress and text by Eric Stover. In 1999
Vukovar returned to Croatian control.
(SFC, 9/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 10/3/96, p.A14)(SFC,
4/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)(SFEC,
12/20/98, BR p.6)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.47)
1991 Nov 18, France deported
Marlon Brando's daughter Cheyenne (21) to Tahiti to face charges of
acting as an accomplice in the killing of her lover last year.
1991 Nov 18, Shiite Muslim
kidnappers in Lebanon freed Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite and
Thomas Sutherland, the American dean of agriculture at the American
University of Beirut.
1991 Nov 19, The U.S. House of
Representatives sustained President Bush's veto of a bill that would
have lifted his ban on federally financed abortion counseling.
1991 Nov 20, California
Democrat Alan Cranston accepted a Senate reprimand for his dealings
with former savings-and-loan chief Charles H. Keating Jr., but then
denied he was guilty of many of the allegations, prompting an angry
rebuttal by New Hampshire Republican Warren B. Rudman.
1991 Nov 20, Mile Mrksic,
Miroslav Radic, and Veselin Sljivan-Canin, officers in the Yugoslav
National Army, ordered the Serb army and military police to withdraw
from the hospital at Vukovar. The paramilitary forces then took 194
Croat men in small groups to an area nearby and shot them. Radic
surrendered to Serbian authorities in 2003. Mrksic and Sljivancanin
were convicted by a UN tribunal in 2007. Radic was acquitted.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/22/03, A7)(AP,
9/27/07)(WSJ, 9/28/07, p.A1)
1991 Nov 21, President Bush
signed a civil rights bill, then sought to calm a storm of
controversy by withdrawing a tentative order to end government
hiring preferences for blacks and women.
1991 Nov 21, The UN Security
Council chose Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt to succeed Javier Perez
de Cuellar of Peru as the new Secretary-General.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)(AP, 11/21/97)
1991 Nov 21, Ernest Dichter
(b.1907), Vienna-born American psychologist and marketing expert,
died in New York. Dichter is known as the "father of motivational
research." His 17 books included “The Strategy of Desire" (1960)
(Econ, 12/24/16, p.29)
1991 Nov 22, In an attempt to
break a deadlock, the Bush administration proposed that Middle East
peace talks resume in Washington, D.C.
1991 Nov 23, The bodies of 35
drowned Haitian refugees were recovered off the coast of eastern
1991 Nov 23, Yugoslavia's rival
leaders agreed to a new cease-fire, the 14th of the Balkan civil
1991 Nov 23, Klaus Kinski (65),
German actor (Android, Nosferatu, Little Drummer Girl), died in
1991 Nov 24, The space shuttle
Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts and a
1991 Nov 24, Freddie Mercury
(45), Zanzibar-born rock singer, died in London of pneumonia brought
on by AIDS. Mercury and the rock group Queen made the 1975 hit
(AP, 11/24/01)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A2)
1991 Nov 25, President George
H.W. Bush threatened to veto anti-crime legislation heading for a
final vote in Congress, accusing Democrats of producing a bill that
would actually weaken law enforcement.
1991 Nov 25, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev suffered a setback in his bid to hold the
Soviet Union together when leaders of seven republics refused to
endorse a treaty creating a new political union.
1991 Nov 26, The Stars and
Stripes were lowered for the last time at Clark Air Base in the
Philippines as the United States abandoned one of its oldest and
largest overseas installations, which was damaged by a volcano.
1991 Nov 26, Condoms were
handed out to thousands of NYC High School students.
1991 Nov 26, UNICEF said
fighting and crop failures in southern Sudan had forced an
unprecedented exodus of 200,000 people.
1991 Nov 27, Israel signaled
its anger with what it regarded as the high-handedness of the United
States by rejecting an invitation to attend Mideast peace talks in
Washington on Dec. 4.
1991 Nov 27, The UN Security
Council unanimously adopted a resolution paving the way for the
establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation in war-ravaged
1991 Nov 28, Ryan Thomas (10),
hero, AIDS victim who won a federal court battle to stay in
kindergarten class, died.
1991 Nov 28, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev expressed unhappiness over reports that the
United States might move toward diplomatic recognition of Ukraine
after the republic's upcoming independence referendum.
1991 Nov 29, Seventeen people
were killed in a 164-vehicle pileup during a dust storm on
Interstate 5 near Coalinga, Calif. Over 250 vehicles were involved
and over 100 were injured.
(SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)(AP, 11/29/01)(MC, 11/29/01)
1991 Nov 29, Actor Ralph
Bellamy died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 87.
1991 Nov 30, Boris Yeltsin's
Russian Federation agreed to bail out Mikhail S. Gorbachev's central
Soviet government from a budget crisis that threatened to cut off
the salaries of millions of workers and paralyze the country.
1991 Nov, Consuela Verdugo,
aged 21 months, died in Delano, Ca., eight days after reportedly
hitting her head on a door under the watch of her mother's
boyfriend, Vicente Benavides Figueroa. In 1993 Benavides was found
guilty of murder and sentenced to death. In 2018 the state Supreme
Court tossed the murder conviction following new evidence that
showed no apparent signs of sexual assault or murder. Benavides (68)
had spent 28 years behind bars.
(http://tinyurl.com/yar3mg7e)(SFC, 4/17/18, p.D7)
1991 Nov, Michigan suspended
the medical license of Dr. Kevorkian.
(SFC, 4/14/99, p.A3)
1991 Nov, In Orange County,
California, Omaima Nelson (23), an Egyptian-born former model and
nanny, killed her newlywed husband, William Nelson (56), and chopped
and cooked his body parts over Thanksgiving weekend. She churned his
parts through a garbage disposal that neighbors said ran nonstop in
the hours after the murder. She was convicted and sentenced to 25
years to life in prison.
1991 Nov, In Nicaragua Norwin
Meneses was arrested in Managua with 1,500 pounds of cocaine, some
of it packed in cars headed for the US.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A1,10)
1991 Dec 1, Kidnappers in
Lebanon pledged to release American hostage Joseph Cicippio within
1991 Dec 1, The space shuttle
Atlantis safely returned from a shortened military mission.
1991 Dec 1, Nursultan
Nazarbayev was elected president of Kazakhstan.
1991 Dec 1, In Paraguay the
Colorado party won parliamentary elections.
1991 Dec 1, Ukrainians voted
overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union.
(WP 6/29/96, p.A20)(AP, 12/1/97)
1991 Dec 2, American hostage
Joseph Cicippio, held captive in Lebanon for more than five years,
1991 Dec 2, Testimony began in
West Palm Beach, Fla., in the trial of William Kennedy Smith,
accused of raping Patricia Bowman at his family's estate.
1991 Dec 3, Embattled US White
House chief of staff John H. Sununu resigned; he was succeeded by
Samuel K. Skinner.
1991 Dec 3, Radicals in Lebanon
released American hostage Alann Steen, who had been held captive
nearly five years.
1991 Dec 4, The Judds’ final
concert took place in Nashville.
1991 Dec 4, Charles Keating,
Arizona land developer and chairman of Lincoln Savings and Loan
Association, was convicted on 17 counts of securities fraud in state
court. Keating was one of the most controversial figures in the
savings and loan scandals of the late 1980s. Keating's sales
personnel persuaded depositors to put their money into high-risk
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)(MC, 12/4/01)
1991 Dec 4, Patricia Bowman
testified at William Kennedy Smith's trial in West Palm Beach, Fla.,
that Smith had raped her the previous Easter weekend.
1991 Dec 4, Pan American World
Airways ceased operations. Pan Am’s records went to the Univ. of
Florida and artifacts went to the Historical Museum of South
Florida. However, a new, smaller version of Pan Am was later formed.
(AP, 12/4/01)(SSFC, 11/4/07, p.A9)
1991 Dec 4, Associated Press
correspondent Terry Anderson, the longest held of Western hostages
in Lebanon, was released after nearly seven years in captivity. The
last American hostages in Lebanon were released.
(TMC, 1994, p.1991)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.A3)(AP,
1991 Dec 5, Samuel K. Skinner
was named White House chief of staff by President Bush, succeeding
John H. Sununu.
1991 Dec 5, Richard Speck, who
murdered eight student nurses in Chicago in 1966 died of a heart
attack in prison a day short of his 50th birthday.
(USA Today, 5/14/96, p.3A)(AP, 7/14/97)(AP,
1991 Dec 6, Sen. Edward
Kennedy, D-Mass., testifying at the trial of his nephew, William
Kennedy Smith, denied hearing screams the night Patricia Bowman said
she was raped by Smith at the Kennedy estate in West Palm Beach,
1991 Dec 6, Gen. Pavle Strugar
led the Yugoslav attack on Dubrovnik. At least 43 civilians were
killed in the attack. Serbs had opened bombardment of the Croatian
port of Dubrovnik in early October. In 2001 Strugar (68) turned
himself into the war crimes tribunal at the Hague. In 2005 Strugar
was convicted of two counts of willful destruction of Dubrovnik and
attacking civilians. In 2008 appeals judges added two more
convictions for unjustified devastation of the town and attacking
civilian sites. They also cut his original sentence from eight years
to seven and a half years because of his deteriorating health.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)(AP,
1991 Dec 7, Fifty years after
Japan's sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, a visibly moved President Bush
led the nation in services commemorating the anniversary.
1991 Dec 8, AIDS patient
Kimberly Bergalis, who had contracted the disease from her dentist,
died in Fort Pierce, Fla., at age 23.
1991 Dec 8, Russia, Byelorussia
and Ukraine declared the Soviet national government dead, forging a
new alliance to be known as the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Boris Yeltsin, Ukrainian Pres. Leonid Kravchuk, and Belarus Pres.
Stanislav Shuskevich met in a hunting lodge to proclaim the Soviet
Union null and void and to form a loose Commonwealth of Independent
States. The declaration later became known as the "Belavezha
(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)(AP,
1991 Dec 9, European Community
leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht tentatively agreed
to begin using a single currency by 1999.
1991 Dec 9, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev challenged Boris Yeltsin's declaration that the
Soviet Union was dead, branding a new Slavic commonwealth "illegal
1991 Dec 10, In San Francisco
Frank Jordan was elected over Art Agnos by a margin of 52%-48%.
Agnos fared poorly with Asian voters following his support the
demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway. Jordan had built a huge
margin among absentee voters, who accounted for one-third of the
(SFC, 12/15/99, p.A19)(SSFC, 10/17/04,
p.A22)(SSFC, 12/11/16, DB p.50)
1991 Dec 10, William Kennedy
Smith, accused of raping Patricia Bowman, proclaimed his innocence
during his trial in West Palm Beach, Fla.
1991 Dec 11, A jury in West
Palm Beach, Fla., acquitted William Kennedy Smith of sexual assault
and battery, rejecting the allegations of Patricia Bowman.
1991 Dec 11, European Community
leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a
compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht
treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on
November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary
(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP,
1991 Dec 12, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin won landslide approval in the Russian legislature for
his new commonwealth, while Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev
edged closer to resigning, saying, "The main work of my life is
1991 Dec 13, Five Central Asian
republics of the Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) agreed to join the new Commonwealth of
Independent States (CIS) being organized by Russian President Boris
1991 Dec 13, Iran’s Pres. Akbar
Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed
agreements to train Sudan’s Popular Defense Forces, a version of
Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million
for weapons ordered for Sudan.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)
1991 Dec 13, North Korea and
South Korea signed a non-aggression agreement aimed at eventual
1991 Dec 14, President Bush and
Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, meeting at Camp David,
Md., renewed their commitment to conclude quickly the North American
Free Trade Agreement.
1991 Dec 14, Sarah Yarborough
(16) was beaten, sexually assaulted and strangled to death after she
arrived at her high school in Federal Way, just outside of Tacoma,
to meet her drill team. In 2019 DNA evidence led to the arrest
Patrick Nicholas (55).
1991 Dec 14-1991 Dec 15, At
least 464 people were left dead or missing when an
Egyptian-registered ferry sank in the Red Sea near the port of
Safaga after coral reef tore a hole in a ferry's side.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/3/06)
1991 Dec 14, Former East German
leader Erich Honecker, facing extradition to Germany and trial on
manslaughter charges, was offered asylum in North Korea.
1991 Dec 15, Six Democratic
presidential hopefuls criticized President Bush's handling of the
economy during a debate on NBC TV.
1991 Dec 15, Russian Foreign
Minister Andrei Kozyrev asked U.S. Secretary of State James Baker
for formal U.S. recognition of the various Soviet republics that had
1991 Dec 16, The U.N. General
Assembly rescinded its 1975 resolution equating Zionism with racism
by a vote of 111-25.
1991 Dec 17, In an about-face
the US White House used the word "recession" to characterize the
state of the economy, although spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said the
administration did not believe there was a recession in a technical
1991 Dec 17, Joey Smallwood
(b.1900), Canadian politician and the first premier of Newfoundland
1991 Dec 17, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev agreed to
dissolve the Soviet Union by the new year.
1991 Dec 17, Patrick Manning
(1926-2016) began serving his first term as prime minister of
Trinidad and Tobago and continued to 1995.
1991 Dec 18, General Motors
announced it would close 21 North American plants over the next four
years and slash tens of thousands of jobs in a sweeping
restructuring of the world's largest company.
1991 Dec 19, The failed Bank of
Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) agreed to settle federal
racketeering charges by forfeiting all its U.S. assets.
1991 Dec 19, Patricia Bowman,
who had accused William Kennedy Smith of raping her, told ABC's
"Prime Time Live" she was shocked by his acquittal.
1991 Dec 19, Donna Ann Morrow
(37) was murdered in Menlo Park, Ca., following an argument with her
husband, Joseph Morrow, who fled the country. Her body was found in
2003 in the Santa Cruz Mountains on property that had been owned by
Joseph Morrow. Police tracked Morrow to Manila, where he was
arrested in Jan, 2003. Morrow’s trial began in 2006. In 2007 Morrow
(59) agreed to be sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.
(SFC, 12/24/03, p.A14)(SFC, 1/6/06, p.B5)(SFC,
3/7/06, p.B1)(SFC, 9/12/07, p.B4)
1991 Dec 19, Rebel Serbs
declared independence in the Krajina region, which was almost a
third of Croatia. The Republic of Serbian Krajina lasted 4 years
with the hilltop fortress of Knin as the capital.
(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A15)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(WSJ,
1991 Dec 20, New York Gov.
Mario Cuomo announced he would not be a candidate for the Democratic
presidential nomination, saying his first responsibility was to deal
with his state's budget problems.
1991 Dec 20, Robert Bardo, the
obsessed fan who had stalked actress Rebecca Schaeffer before
killing her, was sentenced in Los Angeles to life in prison without
1991 Dec 20, In Australia Paul
Keating took over as the country’s 24th prime minister. He continued
(Econ, 5/28/11, SR
1991 Dec 21, Cable TV and
sports magnate Ted Turner married actress Jane Fonda near Capps,
Fla. They divorced in May 2001.
1991 Dec 21, El Sayyid Nosair
was acquitted in New York of killing Jewish extremist Rabbi Meir
Kahane. Nosair was later convicted in a federal trial.
1991 Dec 21, In
Bosnia-Herzegovina a Serb minority held an unofficial referendum
opposing separation from Yugoslavia. Local Serb leaders proclaimed a
new republic separate from Bosnia.
1991 Dec 21, Eleven of the 12
former Soviet republics proclaimed the birth of the Commonwealth of
Independent States and the death of the Union of Soviet Socialist
1991 Dec 22, The body of Lt.
Col. William R. Higgins, an American hostage murdered by his
captors, was found dumped along a highway in Lebanon.
1991 Dec 22, In Alabama
Christopher Lee Price used a sword and a dagger to fatally stab a
pastor. In 2019 his April execution was postponed after attorneys
argued that the state's lethal drug combination had led to botched
executions. Price was executed on May 30, 2019.
(SFC, 4/12/19, p.A4)(SFC, 5/31/19, p.A2)
1991 Dec 22, The all-time cold
reading for the hemisphere: -69.6 Celsius was recorded at an
automatic weather station in a remote site called Klinck, not far
from the highest point on the Greenland Ice Sheet.
1991 Dec 23, President George
H.W. Bush spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin,
after which a senior Bush administration official said the United
States would extend diplomatic recognition to the Russian republic.
1991 Dec 23, In Texas the house
of Cameron Todd Willingham caught fire in Corsicana and his 3 young
daughters were killed in the blaze. Investigators said the burn
pattern in the house indicated arson. Willingham maintained his
innocence but was convicted, sentenced to death and executed in
2004. Shortly before his execution an arson expert said the initial
investigation was based on bad science and that there was no proof
(Econ, 10/24/09, p.36)
1991 Dec 24, Walter Hudson
(46), a 1,025 lb. man, died.
1991 Dec 24, In North Korea Kim
Jong Il (b.1942) became head of the armed forces under his ruling
father, Kim Il Sung.
(Econ, 9/13/08, p.49)(AP, 12/28/11)
1991 Dec 24, A day before
resigning, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev briefed Russian
President Boris Yeltsin on nuclear weapons-firing procedures.
Gorbachev also held a farewell meeting with staff members.
1991 Dec 25, William High
Nelson Jr., the son of singer Willie Nelson, committed suicide.
(SSFC, 1/15/06, Par p.2)
1991 Dec 25, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev went on television to announce his resignation
as the eighth and final leader of a Communist superpower that had
already gone out of existence. He was ousted as Soviet leader Boris
Yeltsin established his position. This effectively ended the cold
war. In 2002 Derek Leebaert authored "A Fifty-Year Wound," a history
of the cold war.
(TMC, 1994, p.1991)(SFC, 12/3/97, p.C6)(AP,
12/25/97)(WSJ, 4/16/02, p.D7)
1991 Dec 26, President Bush
nominated businesswoman Barbara Franklin to be commerce secretary.
1991 Dec 26, On Wall Street,
the Dow Jones industrial average rose to a then-record high of
1991 Dec 26, Jack Ruby's gun
sold for $220,000 in auction.
1991 Dec 26, Chris Cohan
(b.1950) purchased a 25% stake in the San Francisco Warriors
basketball team for almost $21 million. In 1994 he paid $119 million
for full ownership.
(SFC, 7/16/10, p.A12)
1991 Dec 26, Sikh separatists
killed about 50 train passengers in Punjab, most of them Hindus.
1991 Dec 26, The Republic of
Tatarstan declared entry into the Commonwealth of Independent States
1991 Dec 27, The United States
and the Philippines announced that the United States would abandon
the Subic Bay naval base by the end of 1992.
1991 Dec 27, Amanda "Nikki"
Campbell (4) was last seen alive in Fairfield, Ca.
(SFC, 1/11/01, p.A19)(SFC, 1/30/19, p.A7)
1991 Dec 27, Muslim
fundamentalists in Algeria won a major victory in free legislative
elections; however, the military ended up canceling the election
1991 Dec 28, Nine people died
in a crush to get into a basketball game at City College in New
York. The game was promoted by rapper Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs. Combs
later testified that security at the Nat Holman facility was
supposed to be provided by NYCC.
(AP, 12/28/97)(SFC, 3/24/98, p.A3)
1991 Dec 28, A 6x8 inch wooden
picture of Irene, the Icon of the Greek Orthodox church, was
returned, stripped of its jewels, to NYC after being stolen on Dec
1991 Dec 28, In Colombia Henry
Rojas (36), a correspondent for the Bogota newspaper El Tiempo, was
killed in the northeastern city of Arauca after reporting on alleged
corruption in the mayor's office and military. Wilson Daza, the
soldier who fatally shot Rojas, later pleaded guilty and was
sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1995. In 2009 Colombia’s high
court ruled that the government is to blame for Rojas’ shooting and
ordered it to pay damages to his family.
1991 Dec 28, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin ordered state land privatized as he pushed ahead with
1991 Dec 29, A Boeing 747-200F
of China Airlines crashed into a mountain at Taipei and 5 people
1991 Dec 29, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin announced that Russia would create its own army; in a
separate year-end address, he also congratulated his countrymen for
avoiding the kind of violence seen in Yugoslavia.
1991 Dec 30, The remains of two
American hostages slain in Lebanon, William Buckley and Marine Col.
William R. Higgins, arrived in the United States for burial.
1991 Dec 30, Leaders of the
Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia et al) agreed to
establish unified command over nuclear weapons, while allowing
member states to form their own armies.
1991 Dec 31, President Bush
arrived in Australia as part of a 12-day Pacific trip.
1991 Dec 31, Representatives of
the government of El Salvador and rebels reached agreement at the
United Nations on a peace accord aimed at ending 12 years of civil
1991 Dec 31, This was the last
day of existence for the USSR.
1991 Dec, An Islamic extremist
conference was held in Oklahoma City. Terrorism expert Steve Emerson
filmed the conference for his documentary, “Jihad in America." The
documentary (which has been shown to Congress several times)
revealed that during the 1991 OKC conference, WTC attacks were
openly discussed and planned by OKC Hamas terrorists being closely
monitored by OKC FBI agents including FBI agent Floyd Zimms.
1991 Dec, Shalanda Burt (19)
shot her boyfriend James Fairley in Bradenton, Florida. She was
three months pregnant at the time. A week after she delivered their
first baby, James raped her and ripped her stitches. Facing 25
years, she was told by a female public defender to take a plea
bargain and 17 years in prison.
1991 Dec, In Albania the
Democratic Party withdrew ministers after accusing communists of
blocking reform. Alia set up a new government headed by Vilson
Ahmeti and set March 1992 for new elections.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1991 Dec, in Azerbaijan Ayaz
Mutallibov was elected Communist Party boss and led the Caspian Sea
nation as it gained independence in the Soviet collapse. He was
ousted from office a few months later and fled to Russia.
1991 Dec, Germany gave
diplomatic recognition to Slovenia and Croatia. The EU said it would
recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent states.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)
1991 Dec, Hungarian officials
discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being
loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms
embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri
Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber, who directed purchases at the
army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying
in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a
blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo
Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to
prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for
independence from Yugoslavia. 11 people were sentenced by a military
court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009,
retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10
and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen.
Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2
years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the
gunman in Huber's murder remained unknown.
(AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)
1991 Dec, Some remains of
Russia’s Czar Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra, and their
five children, executed in 1918, were exhumed from a mine shaft in
Yekaterinburg. The remains were identified using DNA analysis in
1992, but the skeletons of 2 children remained unaccounted for.
1991 Dec, Islam Karimov, a
former Uzbekistan Communist Party boss, was elected president.
(SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(AP, 3/30/04)
1991 Walter Annenberg, media
baron, donated art valued at $1 billion to the NYC Metropolitan
Museum of Art.
(WSJ, 1/20/04, p.A1)
1991 Magdalena Abakanowicz made
her sculpture: "Bronze Crowd," 36 headless, hollow, life-size men in
a double file.
1991 Christo created his
"Umbrellas" sculpture that lasted 3 weeks. 1,760 yellow umbrellas
were unfurled north of Los Angeles and another 1,340 blue ones in
(SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)
1991 Pham Dai, a Vietnamese
artist from Hue, produced an ink painting: "Flocks of Wicked Birds."
He adopts the pictorial language of surrealism in depicting crazed
raptors as figures for human evil.
(SFC, 6/8/96, p.E3)
1991 Jean Howard, Hollywood
photographer and former Ziegfeld girl, published her photography
book "Travels with Cole Porter."
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)
1991 Dorothy Bryant wrote her
play "Dear Master." It was done as an "epistolary dialogue between
novelists George Sand and Gustave Flaubert.
(SFEM, 1/12/97, DB p.13)
1991 Arthur Miller wrote his
play "The Last Yankee" and "The Ride Down Mt. Morgan."
(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A20)
1991 Neil Simon won a Pulitzer
for his play "Lost in Yonkers."
(SFC, 10/11/96, p.C5)
1991 M.A. Cluver wrote his book
on the "Fossils of the Karoo," publ. by the South African Museum.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)
1991 Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel wrote
"The Ends of Human Life," a work on euthanasia.
(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A18)
1991 John Arthur Maynard
authored "Venice West, The Beat Generation in Southern California."
(SFC, 4/13/02, p.A21)
1991 Rev. Pat Robertson wrote
his best-seller "The New World Order."
(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A4)
1991 "See How They Run" by Gil
Troy was published. It was a study of political campaigns for the
(Hem, 8/96, p.86)
1991 Diane Ackerman published
her personal experiences with bats, alligator, whales and penguins,
while accompanied by a world expert on each animal: "The Moon by
(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.78)
1991 Gordon Bell, architect of
DEC’s VAX minicomputer, authored "High Tech Ventures: The Guide to
(SFC, 9/10/98, p.B3)
1991 Burnett Bolloten wrote
"The Spanish Civil War."
(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A22)
1991 Clark Clifford,
presidential counselor, published his memoir: "Counsel to the
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A2)
1991 Graef Crystal authored “In
Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives."
(Econ, 1/20/07, SR p.14)
1991 Carol Field wrote her
cookbook "Celebrating Italy" and was awarded the Barbi Colombini
Prize by the Italian government.
(SFC, 7/2/97, Z1 p.1)
1991 William Jordon published
his collection of 14 essays: "Divorce Among the Gulls."
(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.77)
1991 "Dead Certainties" by
Simon Schama was published. "It was an exercise in the new
(WSJ, 7/31/96, p.A13)
1991 Julia Alvarez, native of
the Dominican Republic, wrote her novel "How the Garcia Girls Lost
(SFC, 2/5/97, p.E1)
1991 Jung Chang (b.1952)
authored her family portrait “Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China,"
which soon became an international best seller.
1991 Catherine Cookson, English
writer, published her novel "The Wingless Bird." It was the
intersecting stories of 3 families on 3 levels of English society
beginning in 1913. It was adopted for TV in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)
1991 Douglas Coupland authored
his novel "Generation X," a portrayal of people born to the baby
(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.4)
1991 Paul Fussell (1924-2012),
WWII veteran, authored “BAD Or, The Dumbing of America."
(Econ, 6/9/12, p.98)
1991 David Gelernter (b.1955),
professor of computer science at Yale, authored “Mirror Worlds," in
which he accurately described websites, blogging, virtual reality,
streaming video, tablet computers, e-books, search engines and
(Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.27)
1991 Leonard H. Goldenson
(d.1999 at 94), chief executive of ABC from 1953-1986, authored his
autobiography: "Beating the Odds."
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.B3)
1991 The Katherine Hepburn
book: "Me: Stories of My Life" was the top selling non-fiction,
hard-cover book of the year (800k copies).
(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)
1991 Sheila Isenberg authored
“Women Who Love Men Who Kill."
(SFC, 9/28/09, p.C4)
1991 Daniel T. Jones, Daniel
Roos and James P. Womack of MIT authored “The Machine That Change
the World: The Story of Lean Production," an account of the Toyota
Production System (TPS).
(Econ, 1/29/05, p.65)
1991 Seth Klarman authored
“Margin of Safety: Risk Averse Value Investing Strategies for the
Thoughtful Investor." He founded (1982) and led the Baupost Group, a
Boston-based private investment partnership.
(Econ, 7/7/12, p.68)
1991 Jonathan Kozol authored
“The Shame of the Nation," in which he criticizes public education
in the US.
(WSJ, 9/29/05, p.D10)
1991 Christopher Lasch
(1932-1994) authored “The True and Only Heaven," in which he pushed
the conventional concepts of left and right.
1991 Richard Layard, Stephen
Nickell and Richard Jackman co-authored “Unemployment."
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.34)
1991 Nicholas Lemann authored
“The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed
America," and account of the 20th century move north by African
Americans. The book established Lemann as a sought-after commentator
on race relations and other fundamental aspects of American society.
1991 James Michener wrote "The
Novel" and "The World Is My Home."
1991 Peter Matthiessen’s novel
"At Play in the Fields of the Lord" was made into a film. His work
includes the celebrated novel "Far Tortuga."
1991 Terence McKenna (d.2000 at
53) authored "Food of the Gods," in which he proclaimed that
prehistoric humans developed language, religion and advanced
civilization only after finding and ingesting psychedelic drugs.
(SFC, 4/6/00, p.C2)
1991 Daniel Quinn wrote
"Ishmael," the story of a telepathic conversation between a wise
gorilla and an idealistic writer. He won the $500,000 Turner
Tomorrow Fellowship prize for fiction that produces creative and
possible solutions to global problems.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, BR p.5)
1991 The novel "Scarlet" by
Alexander Ripley (d.2004) was the best-selling hardcover book of the
year (2.1 mil copies). It was an official sequel to "Gone With the
(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)(SFC, 1/26/04, p.B4)
1991 Geraldo Rivera authored a
memoir titled “Exposing Myself." In 2017 he apologized and expressed
embarrassment about the book that recounts sexual experiences.
(SFC, 12/2/17, p.A4)
1991 Wes Roberts wrote his
bestseller "Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun."
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1991 Rebecca Rothenberg (d.1998
at 50, researcher and musician, published her mystery novel "The
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A20)
1991 Witold Rybcynski authored
“Waiting for the Weekend," a book on leisure.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.80)
1991 Nawal El Saadawi (b.1931),
Egyptian feminist writer, authored "Daughter of Isis," a detailed
account of her childhood. She left Egypt in 1993 and returned in
1996. In 2002 she authored "Walking Through Fire," a continuation of
(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M2)
1991 Dr. Junichi Saga authored
"Confessions of a Yakuza." It was based on the testimony of Eiji
Ijichi, a retired Japanese gangster. In 2003 it was noted that Bob
Dylan used lines from the book in his 2001 album "Love and Theft."
(WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A1)
1991 Jose Saramago (75)
authored "The Gospel According to Jesus Christ."
(SFC, 10/9/98, p.A2)
1991 Jon Savage (b.1953)
authored “England’s Dreaming," a history of the Sex Pistols.
1991 Lynn Schurnberger authored
"Let There Be Clothes," a historical look at clothing.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)
1991 Charles Scribner published
"In the Company of Writers."
(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W13)
1991 Richard Tarnas authored
“The Passion of the Western Mind," a survey of the Western world
(WSJ, 1/21/06, p.P11)
1991 Henny Youngman (d.1998 at
92), comedian, wrote his autobiography "Take My Life, Please!"
(SFC, 2/25/98, p.C2)
1991 Robert S. Wistrich
(1945-2015) authored “Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred."
(SFC, 5/29/15, p.D4)
1991 "The Hard Nut" ballet was
created for the Theatre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels on a subplot
of the E.T.A. Hoffman tale of the "Nutcracker." The score is
completely faithful to Tchaikovsky.
(SFC, 12/16/96, p.D1)
1991 The opera "The Ghosts of
Versailles" by John Corigliano premiered at the Metropolitan Opera
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.C7)
1991 The opera "Atlas" by
Meredith Monk premiered at the Houston Grand Opera.
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.C7)
1991 Paul McCartney composed
his classical work "Liverpool Oratorio." McCartney did not read or
1991 Luke Cresswell and Steve
McNicholas introduced their dance and rhythm ensemble show at the
Scotland Edinburgh Festival.
(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.27)
1991 The Broadway musical
"Black and Blue featured rhythm and blues singer LaVern Baker
(SFC, 3/12/97, p.A19)
1991 PBS broadcast the film
"Absolutely Positive," the story of Doris Butler (1953-1996) and her
son Jared (1988-1992) who were both infected with AIDS.
(SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)
1991 The song "Come to My
Garden" from the musical "The Secret Garden" was composed by Norman
1991 Composer John Corigliano
composed his "Symphony No. 1," a memorial to the victims of AIDS.
(WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)
1991 Perry Farrell, lead singer
of Jane's Addiction, started the alternative-rock extravaganza
(SFC, 8/21/03, p.E1)(SFC,11/20/97, p.D1)
1991 The song "Unforgettable"
by Irving Gordon was the song of the year. The album of the year was
"Unforgettable" by Natalie Cole.
(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)
1991 The "Hyperstring Trilogy"
by Tod Machover was premiered by cellist Yo-Yo Ma.
(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)
1991 The rock group Talking
Heads disbanded. The group had formed in 1974 in NYC. The band
comprised David Byrne (b.1952), Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth and
Jerry Harrison, but auxiliary musicians frequently made appearances
in concert and on the group's albums.
1991 The Tommy Castro Band was
formed led by blues singer-guitarist Tommy Castro.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, DB p.13)
1991 The Eroica Trio won the
Walter F. Naumburg Chamber Music competition.
(WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A20)
1991 The American punk group
Nirvana released its “Nevermind" album.
(WSJ, 12/21/04, p.D8)
1991 Joni Mitchell released her
CD "Night Ride Home."
(SFEM, 11/1/98, p.6)
1991 Pearl Jam released the
multi-platinum "Ten" on Epic Records.
(SFC, 7/30/97, p.E6)
1991 Ivo Papasov, Balkan
accordionist, recorded "Balkanology," a collection of Balkan folk
(BAAC, 1/97, p.7)
1991 Mel Powell received a
Pulitzer Prize for composition. He had become a leading figure in
electronic and serial music following his WW II days with the Glenn
Miller Army Band.
(WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)
1991 The Righteous Brothers
earned a Grammy nomination for "Unchained Melody."
(SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.74)
1991 George Tsontakis composed
his "Ghost Variations."
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A20)
1991 A new downtown building
for the Seattle Art Museum, designed by Robert Venturi, was
completed for $62 million. In 2004 it began an addition in
partnership with Washington Mutual.
(WSJ, 4/20/04, p.D8)(WSJ, 1/18/07, p.D10)
1991 The American Institute of
Architects selected Chicago as number one in architectural quality
(Hem. 7/96, p.13)
1991 Bartholomew I was
enthroned as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the ancient
of Orthodox Christianity. He presided as the "first among equals"
over the 15 patriarchs of the 300 million Christian Orthodox Church.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(SFC, 8/13/97, p.A3)
1991 John Detwiler, brokerage
executive, founded Computers for Schools in San Diego.
(SFC, 11/14/96, p.B1)
1991 Edward Leonard and the
Trappist monks at Holy Cross Abbey in the Blue Ridge Mountains
founded The Electronic Scriptorium, a business to convert library
catalogs to a digital format.
(Wired, 8/96, p.96)
1991 The Nobel Prize in
economics was awarded to Ronald H. Coase of Britain for "the
discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs
and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning
of the economy." Coase noted that the cost of gathering information
determines the size of organizations.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98,
p.A2)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.D1)
1991 The Int’l. Campaign to Ban
Land Mines (ICBL) was formed by Jody Williams and fellow activists
during a Thanksgiving dinner in Washington. The organization
won the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize.
(SFC, 10/11/97, p.A9)
1991 The satirical Ig Nobel
prize was established by the American magazine Annals of Improbable
(Econ, 3/23/13, p.85)
1991 The US scattered some
118,000 land mines in Iraq and Kuwait during the Gulf War.
(WSJ, 1/19/02, p.A1)
1991 Cash Money Records was
founded by Ronald "Slim" and Bryan "Baby" Williams. The rap label
signed a $30 million deal with Universal in 1998.
(SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA2)
1991 Jim Boggio (d.1996) and
Clifton Buck-Kaufman co-founded the Cotati Accordion Festival in
1991 John and Brenda Stephenson
founded Santa Cruz Biotechnology. The operation engaged in raising
goats antibody production.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A15)
1991 Jimmy Carter founded the
Atlanta project to attack social problems associated with poverty.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.3)
1991 The organization Brothers
to the Rescue was founded in Florida to conduct search and rescue
missions for Cubans fleeing Cuba in the Florida Straits.
(WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-18)
1991 The US RVing Women
organization, based in Apache Junction, Az., was founded as a
support group for women travelers touring the country on their own.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.B6)
1991 Visionaire, a fashion and
art magazine, was founded.
(WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W12)
1991 Wisconsin introduced wild
turkeys in Marathon County and sold licenses to hunt them. The birds
took a taste to the local ginseng crops and wrought havoc. In the
early 1900s 4 Fromm brothers had begun cultivating Ginseng in
Wisconsin and it became much appreciated by Chinese users. In the
1990s Canada, having acquired Wisconsin ginseng seeds, began
competing and sold seeds to China causing ginseng prices to plummet
to about $15 per pound.
(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.A1)
1991 Memorabilia dealer Bruce
McNall and hockey star Wayne Gretzky spent $451,000 on a circa 1910
baseball card of the Pittsburgh Pirates shortstop Honus Wagner.
(WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)
1991 Basketball star Magic
Johnson announced that he was HIV-positive. He left the Lakers
Basketball team and his $3.5 mil salary and founded the Magic
Johnson Foundation to help fight AIDS.
(SFC, 6/30/96, PM, p.2)
1991 The Kentucky Derby was won
by Strike the Gold.
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)
1991 Erwin Neher and Bert
Sakmann of Germany won the Nobel Prize in medicine for their
discoveries concerning single ion channels that shed light on
mechanisms underlying several diseases, including diabetes and
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1991 The JCET program (Joint
Combined Exchange and Training) was established under a law that
bypassed State Department policy in which military aid is restricted
to foreign units charged with human rights abuses. This resulted in
US Special Forces assignments for training exercises in Indonesia
(SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2,10)
1991 Al Gore as US Senator held
hearings that led to the passage of the National High-Performance
Computer Technology Act. It boosted federal support of the Internet
by about $1 billion a year.
(Wired, Dec. '95, p.154)
1991 A US requirement for firms
to disclose grants of stock options gave them until early 1992 to do
so, and left open the opportunity to backdate.
(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)
1991 The US Supreme Court ruled
that the New York "Son of Sam" law was unconstitutional. The "Son of
Sam" law referred to the New York serial killer David Berkowitz, who
claimed that he received telepathic messages to kill from a dog
named Sam. The law made it illegal for convicted criminals to profit
from their crimes.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.A6)
1991 Elliott Abrams pleaded
guilty to 2 misdemeanor charges for keeping information from the US
Congress in the Iran-Contra affair (arms to Nicaragua).
(WSJ, 6/29/01, p. A1)
1991 Thomas Kanza, head of a
coffee trading operation in Zaire [later Congo], was convicted in
Tennessee of fraud. The operation had $57,000 of investor’s money
missing. In 1997 he was selected by Laurent Kabila as first minister
of int’l. cooperation.
(WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A1)
1991 Thomas F. Quinn, a US
convicted stock swindler, was sentenced by a French court to 4 years
in prison for an int'l. stock scam that defrauded thousands of
investors of over $500 million in the 1980s.
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.C1,22)
1991 Lamar Alexander was
appointed by Pres. Bush as the Sec. of Education.
(WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-16)
1991 The US Congress passed the
Nunn-Luger Act to help eliminate chemical weapons world-wide.
(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-14)
1991 The US government closed
Norton Air Force base in California’s San Bernadino Ct., costing the
region some 10,000 jobs.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.B8)
1991 US Customs intercepted a
large cocaine shipment and began investigations. It was found to be
part of a CIA operation out of Venezuela.
(WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A12)
1991 A US intelligence report
said Alvaro Uribe was a Colombian drug cartel ally. Uribe was
elected president in 2002 and in 2004 the US state report disavowed
(WSJ, 8/3/04, p.A1)
1991 Melvyn R. Paisley (d.2001
at 77), a former assistant Navy Secretary, pleaded guilty to
conspiracy and bribery as part of "Operation Ill Wind," a 7 ½ year
operation which investigated corporate executives, defense
consultants and government officials.
(SFC, 12/27/01, p.A19)
1991 Paul Biddle, a Navy
contract auditor assigned to the Stanford campus, provoked a debate
in Congress over what universities could properly bill the
government for research costs. The controversy led to the
resignation of Stanford Pres. Donald Kennedy.
(SFC, 4/22/99, p.A11)
1991 Harry V. Mohney, adult
entertainment distributor, was convicted on tax evasion and profit
skimming along with 3 business associates. He served 3 years in
federal prison at Boron in the Mojave Desert. After release he
continued to expand his business.
(SFC, 8/13/97, p.A10)
1991 The US introduced the
leverage ratio in the wake of a housing-loans crises. It ensured
that a bank’s core capital is at least 3% of its balance sheet.
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.87)
1991 In the US 124 FDIC-insured
banks failed this year. By the end of the year the FDIC insurance
fund was insolvent.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A10)
1991 The US government passed
legislation that prevented the American government from spending
public funds on Expo pavilions.
(Econ, 12/5/09, p.54)
1991 The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative
Threat Reduction (CTR) Program began. It was sponsored by US
Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar. CTR assisted the states of the
former Soviet Union in controlling and protecting their nuclear
weapons, weapons-usable materials, and delivery systems.
1991 US Pres. George H.W. Bush
ordered the withdrawal of US nuclear weapons from South Korea as a
prelude to talks with North Korea two years later. 950 had been
placed there after the Korean War.
(Econ, 4/30/17, p.25)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.35)
1991 The number of murders in
Washington, DC, peaked at 482 this year.
(Econ, 1/14/17, p.75)
1991 Charles Keating, Arizona
land developer, was found guilty of fraud in state court.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1991 Three men challenged the
Virgil Earp law in Tombstone, Arizona, that forbade carrying guns in
the city limits.
(SFC, 8/19/96, p.A3)
1991 William L. Dwyer, Wash.
state federal district judge, ordered the government to stop
permitting logging on up to 60,000 acres of ancient forests a year
on public land because it endangered the habitat of the Northern
(SFC, 2/18/02, p.B6)
1991 In Hawaii Japanese
developers spent $104 million to develop the Koolau Golf Course on
Oahu. The investors later defaulted on their loans and the course
was sold at auction in Sep 1997 for 12 million.
(SFC, 2/17/98, p.A1)
1991 The Louisiana legislature
approved most of the state’s gambling on the basis of added jobs and
(SFC, 12/3/97, p.A14)
1991 In Michigan John Engler
came into office as governor facing a $1.5 billion deficit. He
enacted tax cuts, cut 6,000 workers from public payrolls and took
75,000 employable adults off the welfare rolls.
(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A18)
1991 Minnesota became the first
state to pass a law allowing charter schools.
(WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A1)
1991 Paul Wellstone (d.2002),
Minnesota college professor, was elected as a US Senator over Rep.
Sen. Rudy Boschwitz. In 2001 He authored "The Conscience of a
(WSJ, 5/15/01, p.A24)(SFC, 10/26/02, p.A8)
1991 Ithaca, N.Y. established a
local currency called Ithaca Hours to promote local spending.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)
1991 Marlington, West Virginia,
held its first roadkill festival as a joke. The festival received a
boost in 1998 when the state passed a law making the gathering of
(Econ, 10/5/13, p.34)
1991 Stephen Blumberg was
convicted of stealing more than $10 million worth of rare books and
manuscripts from 268 libraries in the US and Canada.
(SFC, 9/6.96, p.C5)
1991 Pee-wee Herman, aka Paul
Reubens, was arrested for exposing himself in an adult theater.
(SFC, 12/4/96, p.E5)
1991 Michael N. Bates
(1952-1996), Wichita correspondent for the Associated press, covered
the six-week Wichita abortion protests and the tornado devastation
of Andover. While in Oklahoma City, Bates covered the Karen Silkwood
trial and the Locust Grove Boy Scout murders.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.B2)
1991 In Montana the name of
Custer Battlefield National Monument was changed to Little Bighorn
Battlefield Monument. A $2 million memorial was dedicated Jun
(WSJ, 6/25/03, p.A1)
1991 Joe Massino took over as
head of the Bonanno family in NYC. In 2004 he faced trial on
racketeering charges and 7 murders.
(SFC, 5/10/04, p.A4)
1991 William H. Donaldson
became chairman of the NYSE. He ran the exchange to 1995.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.A6)
1991 Exxon Corp. entered into a
secret deal with seven Seattle fish processors whereby it agreed to
pay $70 mil to settle oil-spill claims from the 1989 Exxon Valdez
spill, in return quick settlement. However the processors had to
agree to return to Exxon most of any punitive damages that might be
awarded. The secret deal did not become public until 1996.
(WSJ, 6/12/96, p.A3)
1991 Pres. Roh Tae Woo of S.
Korea cancelled an order for F-18 jets from McDonnell Douglass in
favor of 120 F-16s produced by General Dynamics. The project had
been valued at $5.2 bil.
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-10)
1991 ATT bought NCR in a
hostile deal for $7.48 bil.
(WSJ, 9/21/95, p.B-2)
1991 Patrick McGrew (d.2013 at
age 71), architectural preservationist, authored “Landmarks of San
Francisco." At this time the city had 198 landmark buildings. By
2013 there were 264.
(SFC, 2/15/13, p.D7)
1991 "El Dorado" by John Adams
had its world premier by the San Francisco Symphony conducted by the
(SFEC, 11/10/96, DB p.54)
1991 The epic play "Angels in
America" by Tony Kushner premiered at the Eureka Theater. It was
about AIDS, morality and spirituality.
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A6)
1991 Valery Gergiev made his US
opera conducting debut the SF Opera production of "War and Peace."
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.48)
1991 In San Francisco gay
activist Denis Peron (1946-2018) founded the San Francisco Cannabis
Buyers Club, the first public cannabis dispensary in the US. The
club was closed by a SF Superior Court judge in 1998.
(SSFC, 1/28/18, p.A11)
1991 The San Francisco police
department built a $3.6 million state-of-the-art firing range at
lake Merced costing 500% more than original spending estimates. The
range with a chalet-like headquarters was temporarily unusable due
to some design flaws.
(SSFC, 8/7/16, DB p.50)
1991 The 313-room Hyatt at
Fisherman’s Wharf was constructed.
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.B1)
1991 In San Francisco the
3-story, block-long building at 185 Berry St. was designed by
architect Jorge de Quesada. In 2008 a stories were added on top.
(SSFC, 10/11/09, p.C2)
1991 The Epiphany Center was
founded as a federally funded pilot project as a family-centered
program for social services.
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1991 The City Science project
was founded at UCSF with $6 million in federal grants to improve
math and science training for city teachers.
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A18)
1991 The Ark of Refuge was
founded by Rev. Yvette Flunder as a charitable ministry for people
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1991 The private SF Museum was
founded under the driving force of Gladys Hansen, the retired city
archivist. It was housed on 2,000 sq ft on the 3rd level of the
Cannery at Fisherman’s Wharf. In 1997 Mayor Willie Brown proposed a
public Museum of San Francisco. The San Francisco Museum was forced
to close in 2000 when the Cannery required the space for revenue.
(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A19,23)(SFC,10/27/97, p.A15)(SFC,
1991 The Beach Chalet was
closed for code violations.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C4)
1991 In San Francisco Mimi
Silbert opened the Delancey Street Restaurant as the centerpiece of
her live-in drug rehabilitation center.
(SSFC, 2/2/14, p.G3)
1991 Jean Jacobs (d.1999 at 85)
spearheaded the passage of Prop J which made SF the 1st city in the
nation to guarantee a portion of its budget for children. A % of
property taxes was dedicated to children's services for 10 years.
(SFC, 10/19/99, p.A23)
1991 Voters approved an
amendment to the City Charter for a Children’s Fund to support youth
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.A1)
1991 The Youth Law Center sued
over poor conditions at the YGC and the city spent more than $5 mil
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A8)
1991 Jelani House opened as a
residential treatment program to help low income or homeless women
(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)
1991 The SF Garden Project
began as a program for inmates of the County Jail to learn gardening
skills while incarcerated. Upon release they were to be offered a
job tilling the soil at a one-acre plot in the Bayview District.
(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A13)
1991 HUD took over the
operation of the Geneva Towers. It was the first time the agency
ever foreclosed on a property due to unsafe living conditions.
(SFC, 5/16/98, p.A15)
1991 SF taxi fares were raised
to $1.70 for flag drop, waiting time and mileage fees.
1991 The Southern Pacific
Railroad sold the Peninsula line to the Joint Powers Authority, the
counties of San Francisco, Santa Clara and San Mateo, for $230
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)
1991 Connie Norman (1949-1996),
transsexual AIDS activist, debuted the Connie Norman Show on AM
radio on AIDS related issues.
(SFC, 7/20/96, p.A19)
1991 The Southern Pacific
Railroad sold the Peninsula line to the Joint Powers Authority of
the counties of San Francisco, Santa Clara and San Mateo, for $230
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)
1991 In Vacaville, Ca., the
body of a woman was found by contractors working on the Vacaville
Premium Outlets off Nut Tree Road. In 2019 police using new
fingerprint technology identified her as Cynthia Bilardi (38).
(SFC, 3/11/19, p.C1)
1991 Coca-Cola established a
corporate museum in Atlanta.
(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)
1991 Mark E. Whitacre, an
executive with Archer-Daniels-Midland, began diverting millions of
dollars in company funds to personal accounts overseas. He continued
until he was fired in 1995 after helping the FBI monitor meetings
that proved industry price fixing.
(WSJ, 11/25/96, p.B7)
1991 Medarex, an American
biotech company, went public.
(Econ, 6/14/08, p.84)
1991 The Hearst Corp. opened
the Hearst Service Center in Charlotte, N.C. to support all Hearst
units with data processing. Hearst also acquired a 20% interest in
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1991 Lockheed won a $9.55
billion initial contract for a new fighter jet, the F/A-22, to
replace the F-15.
(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A1)
1991 Motorola established a
corporate museum in Schaumberg, Ill.
(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)
1991 Sony introduced the first
commercial lithium-ion batteries in its CCD-TR1 camcorder. They had
a capacity to overheat. In 2004 the US banned them as cargo on
passenger planes. In 2006 Dell and Apple initiated recalls for
laptop computers with recently manufactured, problematic lithium-ion
(Econ, 8/19/06, p.52)(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ
p.23)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.16)
1991 NASA launched the Compton
Gamma Ray Observatory to detect gamma-ray bursts.
(NH, 6/97, p.78)
1991 The Galileo spacecraft’s
high-power antennae failed. A low-gain antennae was redefined to
maximize information from the craft.
(SFC, 11/6/96, p.B8)
1991 Richard DeVos (1926-2018),
the Michigan-based co-founder of direct-selling giant Amway, bought
the Orlando Magic basketball team from a group led by Orlando real
estate developer William du Pont III (b.1952).
(SFC, 9/7/18, p.D2)
1991 Miami urologist, Harold
Reed brought to the US a procedure to lengthen the penis invented by
a Chinese surgeon named Long Daochao.
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A1)
1991 A method to fertilize a
human egg by a single sperm was developed. Intracytoplasmic sperm
injection (ICSI) was used to help couples in where the man has a low
(SFEC, 3/28/99, DB p.32)
1991 The president of Rochester
Inst. of Technology (RIT) resigned following a scandal over CIA
influence on research and curriculum, and his own work for the
(WSJ, 10/4/02, p.A1)
1991 Yale Univ. received a $20
million Bass grant in order to set up a program for Western
Civilization studies to be directed by historian and classicist
Donald Kagan. In 1994 alumnus Less Bass took the grant back when the
Univ. derailed the program. An investigation, the Cabranes-Schacht
study, was launched to discover what happened to the Bass Grant and
why. Yale refused to disclose the contents of the report.
(WSJ, 6/21/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/10/97, p.A22)
1991 The Univ. of N. Carolina
erected the Kenan-Flagler Business School after having received a 10
mil donation from Frank H. Kenan (1913-1996), founder of several oil
and transportation concerns.
(NYT, 6/7/96, p.B14)
1991 Pres. James J. Duderstadt
of the Univ. of Michigan established the University's History and
(MT, 3/96, p.14)
1991 Children born addicted to
Crack made headlines.
(TMC, 1994, p.1991)
1991 The computer game
character Sonic, the hedgehog, was introduced by Sega.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)
1991 The war strategy game
Civilization, created by Sid Meier (b.1954), was published and
became a sensation among PC gamers. In 2020 Civilization VI was
p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sid_Meier)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.74)
1991 Kodak accepted a bill of
$925 million for compensation to Polaroid after it was found guilty
of violating most of the patents cited by Polaroid. This was the
largest fine ever paid in a patent lawsuit.
(Econ., 3/28/15, p.87)
1991 Microsoft introduced its
Windows 3.1 operating system.
(WSJ, 11/16/98, p.R10)
1991 John Malone’s
Telecommunications Inc. helped rescue Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp. by
investing $75 million as part of a financial restructuring.
(WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A10)
1991 Engineer Henry Nicholas
founded Broadcom in his Redondo Beach, Ca., apartment. In 1998 the
maker of chips for TV cable boxes went public. Nicholas quit the
company in Jan 2003. In 2006 he had a falling out with a former
aide, Kenji Kato, who alleged drug use and other outrageous by Mr.
(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.A1)
1991 Alex Wolszczan and Dale
Frail at Pennsylvania State Univ. reported evidence of 3 extra-solar
planets (exoplanets) orbiting around the spinning remains of Pulsar
B1257+12. They found the pulsar in 1990 using the Arecibo radio
(SSFC, 9/30/01, Par
1991 Genzyme Corp. introduced a
targeted enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher disease, a disorder
that swells internal organs and weakens bones due to lack of the
1991 Princeton astrophysicist
J. Richard Gott proposed that cosmic strings could warp space time
enough to create paths to the past, called closed timelike curves.
By 2017 one version of string theory posited the universe to have 11
dimensions, seven of which are beyond human ken.
(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.67)
1991 Carbon nanotubules, formed
from hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms, were first discovered by
Sumio Iijima of NEC Fundamental Research Labs in Tsukuba, Japan. In
2001 IBM scientists assembled transistors using carbon nanotubules.
(SFC, 4/27/01, p.B1,4)
1991 The underwater tunicate,
Diazona chinensis, was discovered near the Philippine island of
Siquijor. It proved to have great potential value in killing colon
cancer cells but could not be found again after the initial sample
(SFC, 1/31/97, p.A4)
1991 A man from the United Arab
Emirates found a large black rock that in 1996 was found to contain
the world’s largest emerald cluster. Bangkok geologists spent a week
removing a thick layer of black mica before finding a group of 127
medium green emeralds weighing 167 pounds.
(SFC, 10/5/96, p.C1)
1991 The int’l. system of units
adopted “yocto" as the smallest prefix. It stands for a multiplying
factor of one part in a million billion billion (one septillion)
parts, often written as 10-24. As of 2010 the largest prefix in the
system was “yotta," signifying one thousand raised to the 8th power.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)
1991 Paleontologist Paul Sereno
led a team in the Andes that discovered a small dinosaur species
called Euraptor that turned out to be 228 million years old.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-3)
1991 The US exported at least
4.1 million pounds of pesticides that have been banned, restricted,
or voluntarily withdrawn from use domestically.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.47)
1991 An estimated one billion
Atlantic menhaden fish died in the Neuse River of North Carolina and
had to be bulldozed off the beach. The culprit was later identified
as the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.187)
1991 A ferocious tornado swept
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1991 Three vast weather systems
came together off the US northeast coast in what meteorologists came
to call "the perfect storm." It later provided the backdrop for the
book "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of men Against the Sea" by
(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)
1991 Volcanic eruptions
occurred in the Galapagos Islands.
(SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-5)
1991 A multiple car crash
caused by a blinding dust storm killed 17 people and injured scores
of others in Fresno Ct., Ca.
1991 Elmer Bischoff (b.1916),
California artist, died. He helped found the Bay Area Figurative
School with David Park and Richard Diebenkorn.
(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)
1991 Colleen Dewhurst (b.1924),
Canadian-born actress, died. Her unfinished autobiography was
completed by Tom Viola: "Colleen Dewhurst: Her Autobiography."
(SFEC, 7/20/97, BR p.1)
1991 Eva Le Gallienne (b.1899),
actress, died. She wrote the biography of actress Eleonora Duse and
her own autobiography. In 1996 Helen Sheehy wrote a new biography:
Eva Le Gallienne.
(SFC, 10/16/96, E5)
1991 Graham Greene, author,
died. His biography was later written by Norman Sherry. In 2000
Shirley Hazzard authored "Greene On Capri: A Memoir," about Greene's
life on the Isle of Capri. In 2001 William Cash authored "The Third
Woman: The Secret Passion That Inspired the End of the Affair," an
account of Greene’s affair with Catherine Walston.
(SFEC, 3/5/00, BR p.5)(SSFC, 2/11/01, BR p.9)
1991 Latasha Harlins (15) was
shot and killed by a Korean store owner in LA over a bottle of
(SFC, 1/1/97, p.A16)
1991 Arturo Islas,
Mexican-American writer, died. His work included the novels: "The
Rain God" and "Migrant Souls." The unfinished "La Mollie and the
King of Tears" was published in 1996.
(SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)
1991 Klaus Kinski (1926-1996),
actor, died. He starred in "Aguirre: The Wrath of God," "Nosferatu"
and "Woyzeck." He wrote his memoirs in 1971 and the English
translation became available in 1996 titled "Kinski Uncut" by Klaus
(SFC, 8/21/96, p.E2)
1991 David Lean, film director,
died. His work included: Great Expectations, The Bridge on the River
Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Ryan’s Daughter, and A
Passage to India.
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.E3)
1991 Robert Motherwell
(b.1915), artist, died.
(SFC, 3/30/02, p.AD1)
1991 Arthur Murray, popular
ballroom dance teacher, died at age 95.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.D8)
1991 Akram Ojjeh, Syrian-born
financier and art collector, died at age 68. He made his fortune as
an arms dealer and investments in oil, hotels, and real estate.
(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)
1991 Isaac Bashevis Singer,
Jewish novelist and storyteller, died. Dvorah Telushkin later wrote:
"Master of Dreams: A Memoir of Isaac Bashevis Singer." Janet Hadda
wrote "Isaac Bashevis Singer: A Life."
(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)
1991 Harry Smith, underground
film maker and record collector, died. His 1952 collection of
hillbilly, blues, gospel and Cajun music was re-issued in 1997 as a
6 CD set by Smithsonian/Folkways.
(WSJ, 10/4/00, p.A24)
1991 Danny Thomas (79),
Lebanese-American sitcom actor, died. He starred in "Make Room for
Daddy" and produced the "Andy Griffith Show" and the "Dick Van Dyke
Show." He was the father of actress Marlo Thomas.
(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A14)(SFC, 7/13/00, p.C7)
1991 Gene Roddenberry, creator
of the Star Trek TV program, died. His ashes were put into space in
(SFC, 4/22/97, p.A3)
1991 As Communism fell apart
thousands of Albanians fled their country. They crossed the Adriatic
in boats to seek asylum in Italy. Lawlessness and unrest gripped the
country. Half the population was unemployed.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)
1991 Archbishop Anastasios (61)
was sent to Albania by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to
report on the country's religious situation.
(SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)
1991 The Organization of
American States (OAS) passed Resolution 1080 which called for a
convocation of OAS members within 10 days of a coup or "self-coup."
(SFC, 6/18/99, p.A14)
1991 In Algeria the military
forced Prime Minister Mouloud Hamrouche to resign.
(SFC, 3/25/98, p.C2)
1991 In Algeria leaders of the
outlawed Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) were arrested and sentenced
to 12 years in prison. Abassi Madani and Ali Belhadj were released
Jul 2, 2003.
(Econ, 7/12/03, p.40)
1991 US intelligence discovered
that Algeria possessed a nuclear research reactor at Ain Oussera,
which was surrounded by air defenses.
(Econ, 8/25/07, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/2j86s7)
1991 In Angola the Bicesse
Accord failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of
(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)
1991 Fighting between US
supported UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola), and the Marxist MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation
of Angola), ended.
(SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)
1991 In Angola Elisol was
established as a refuse collection company. In the 1990s it took on
the maintenance of sanitation networks.
(Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.4)
1991 Argentina’s Pres. Carlos
Menem signed bilateral investment deals with the US and France. They
required Argentina to protect foreign firms’ property rights, and to
air grievances at the Int’l. Center for the Settlement of Investment
(Econ, 2/18/12, p.38)
1991 In Argentina Pres. Carlos
Menem signed an accord to open secret government files to
researchers of the Delegation of Jewish Argentine Associations
(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A12,15)
1991 In Argentina Carlos Bastos
took over as energy secretary. The first thing he did was to divide
the utilities into 3 discreet lines of business: generation,
transmission and distribution.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A1)
1991 In Argentina Domingo
Cavallo, economic minister, instituted a convertibility program that
required each Argentine peso in circulation be backed by a dollar in
(WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A8)
1991 Argentina passed
legislation that required 30% of candidates on party lists for
Congress to be women.
(Econ, 12/15/07, p.44)
1991 In Argentina Mauricio
Macri, elected president in 2015, was kidnapped and held for two
weeks until his father paid a $6 million ransom.
(Econ, 10/31/15, p.34)
1991 In Argentina a group of
struggling Bolivian clothing producers in Buenos Aires bought the
site of abandoned thermal baths and established the La Salada
market. Their Punta Mogote warehouse opened in 1999.
(Econ, 1/25/14, p.30)
1991 Argentina’s overall
government spending was $47.3 billion.
(WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A13)
1991 Sex selective abortions
began increasing in the Caucasus region as ultrasound equipment
became available from the West. By 2013 over 115 boys were born in
Armenia and Azerbaijan for every 100 girls. In Georgia the ration
was 120 to 100.
(Econ, 9/21/13, p.54)
1991 In Australia a simple
formula of catchy children's tunes with sing-along lyrics and
entertaining dances was born when Anthony Field, Murray Cook and
Greg Page were studying to become pre-school teachers. They formed a
children's band called The Wiggles went on to become a global
cultural force. They planned to be the subject of an exhibition at
Sydney's Powerhouse Museum to celebrate their 20th year in 2011.
1991 Dame Roma Mitchell,
founder of the Australian Human Rights Commission, became governor
of South Australia state.
(SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)
1991 In Australia a stable of
horses was infected by an RNA virus. Most of the horses died as did
2 handlers. The virus was from the class morbillivirus that causes
canine distemper and is able to hop from one species to another.
(NH, 6/96, p.16)
1991 A toxic algae bloom choked
a 1,000km stretch of Australia’s Darling River.
(Econ, 4/28/07, p.82)
1991 In Austria Joerg Haider
resigned as governor of Carinthia after praising Nazi Germany for
having a "proper employment policy." By 1996 he led the Freedom
Party, Europe’s strongest nationalist party.
(SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)
1991 Chancellor Franz Vranitzky
admitted Austrian complicity in the Holocaust.
(SFC, 2/10/00, p.A13)(SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)
1991 On the dissolution of the
USSR, Azerbaijan gained its independence.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)
1991 In Belgium the far-right
Vlaams Blok party broke into the mainstream. In 2004 it was renamed
Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest).
(Econ, 10/14/06, p.59)
1991 In Brazil Karen Worcman
(29) helped found the Museum of the Person. By 2009 it was Latin
America’s largest oral history center.
1991 Arminio Fraga joined
Brazil’s central bank as head of int’l. affairs.
(WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1)
1991 The Amazon forest lost was
3 million acres this year.
(NH, 7/98, p.35)
1991 British historian Alan
Sked (b.1947) founded the Anti-Federalist League (AFL) at the London
School of Economics. In 1993 the AFL changed its name to the UK
Independence Party (UKIP).
1991 Britain established a War
Crimes Act which permitted prosecution for crimes committed outside
(SFC, 2/11/00, p.D2)
1991 Britain banned the
ownership of pit bull terriers following a spate of attacks by the
1991 The British Communist
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.M4)
1991 Britain’s Human
Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a statutory body, was
created under the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act (1990).
This was the world’s first regulator in the new field of assisted
1991 Britain’s newspapers set
up the Press Complaints Commission (PCC), a self-regulating body to
enforce a code of conduct of its own devising.
(Econ, 7/16/11, p.12)
1991 Robert Runcie (d.2000),
Archbishop of Canterbury, retired as spiritual leader of the
Anglicans. He then became Lord Runcie as PM John Majors
elevated him to life peer.
(SFC, 7/13/00, p.C7)
1991 Imperial Chemical
Industries (ICI) of Britain split into two parts, ICI, a chemicals
company, and Zeneca, a bioscience and drug company.
(Hem., 1/97, p.27)
1991 Britain's Helen Sharman
flew to Russia's Mir Space Station as a tourist as part of a lottery
system called Project Juno.
1991 In Canada the Algonquins
on the Rapid Lake reserve struck a trilateral deal giving them a
share in what happens on their traditional territory and a share in
any revenues. The Rapid Lake reserve was established for the use of
the Algonquins of Barriere Lake in 1961. Since forest resources are
a provincial jurisdiction, a pilot project about the management of
renewable resources (wildlife and forest) was negotiated between the
Government of Quebec and the Algonquins of Barriere Lake.
(http://tinyurl.com/y8ka7qbl)(Econ 7/1/17, p.30)
1991 In Canada the province of
Ontario passed the Arbitration Act, which allowed family law
disputes to be settled by arbitration. The Act permitted religiously
based as well as secular arbitration tribunals in the province.
1991 A 7-member Royal
commission on Aboriginal Peoples was created after a lengthy armed
standoff between Mohawk Indians and security forces in Quebec.
(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)
1991 In Alberta a gas leak
forced Wiebo Ludwig to evacuate his 320-acre Trickle Creek
"community." Ludwig blamed the Alberta oil and gas industry for the
death of 60 of his livestock and a succession of human health
problems. The gas wells produced sour gas, a gas laced with the
neurotoxin hydrogen sulfide.
(SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
1991 Stewart Blusson, Canadian
geologist, discovered a trove of diamonds south of the Arctic Circle
in the Northwest Territories.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B2)
1991 The Canary Islands banned
(SFC, 3/6/10, p.A2)
1991 In Chile capital controls
were adjusted to a minimum permanence period of 3 years for foreign
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1991 In Chile the National
Commission on Truth and Reconciliation probed the abuses of the
military regime and reported that some people arrested by the DINA
were taken to the Dignity Colony, held there and tortured by agents
of the DINA and by people of the colony. The Rettig Commission was
named by the first post-military government to investigate human
rights abuses. It was headed by a former Allende minister and
counted a total of 2,279 dead and missing on both sides of the civil
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1991 Chile’s Escondida mine,
the world’s biggest, began producing copper.
(Econ, 4/27/13, p.64)
1991 The Chinese film Raise the
Red Lantern was directed by Zhang Yimou. The film won an academy
award and was made into a ballet in 2001.
(SFEC, 5/16/99, DB p.58)
1991 China introduced the
B-share security market to trade stocks reserved for foreigners. In
2001 the B-share market was legally opened to Chinese nationals.
(WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A18)
1991 China passed its first
stand-alone adoption law. State-run orphanages routinely gave
foundlings the surname "Dang" (meaning Party) or "Guo" meaning
(Econ., 7/6/20, p.34)
1991 Ye Xuanping, a popular
leader of China’s Guangdong Province, was moved to a sinecure in
Beijing to prevent him from expanding on a personal power base.
(Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1991 Tsien Hsue-sen,
American-trained rocketry expert, retired in China.
1991 Anta, a Chinese maker of
sportswear, was founded by Ding Shizhong. By 2020 it was the world's
third biggest sportswear firm by market capitalization.
(Econ., 5/16/20, p.53)
1991 China and Vietnam
(Econ, 8/16/14, p.33)
1991 China established the
Laoshan National Forest Park on the north bank of the Yangtze River.
It covers 120 thousand acres with 35 km east to west and 15 km north
1991 In Colombia economic
reforms were enacted and tariffs were lowered.
(WSJ, 12/17/96, p.A18)
1991 Colombia’s office of the
vice-president was created, but it had no assigned duties.
(SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14)
1991 Colombia’s former Pres.
Turbay saw his journalist daughter, Diana, abducted by gunmen
working for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar. She was later killed during
a botched rescue attempt.
1991 In Colombia 17 peasants
were dragged off a bus and killed in Valle del Cauca province. In
1998 3 men were sentenced to 30 years in prison for the killing. the
massacre was allegedly ordered by 2 military majors and their case
was turned over to a military court.
(SFC, 7/11/98, p.A11)
1991 Colombia’s “green war," a
struggle that began in the 1980s for control of the country’s
emerald mines, ended with some 6,000 dead. Victor Manuel Carranza
brokered the peace between the army, drug men and paramilitaries.
(Econ, 4/20/13, p.98)
1991 In Colombia the homicide
rate in Medellin peaked at 381 per 100,000 people. By 2014 it had
dropped to fewer than 50 per 100,000.
(Econ, 5/31/14, p.41)
1991 In Croatia the Eastern
Slavonia region was in part occupied by Serbs who had fled or were
driven from other parts of Croatia.
(SFC, 1/22/96, p.C1)
1991 Cuba’s Fidel Castro
declared a national emergency, dubbed “The Special Period in
Peacetime." This represented an extended period of economic crisis
following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the
(Econ, 3/24/12, SR
1991 Denmark's Vindeby
Offshore Wind Farm, the world’s first offshore wind farm, was built
and remained in operation for 25 years. The site's 11 turbines were
dismantled in 2017.
1991 The population of Denmark
was about 5.154 million.
1991 Former Dominican Rep.
Pres. Jorge Blanco (1982-1986) was sentenced along with three other
men to 20 years in prison for misspending government funds meant for
military purchases. The conviction was overturned in 2001 by an
appeals court that ruled Blanco and the three other men were never
provided the right to defend themselves.
1991 The IMF began extensive
loans to Egypt along with pressure to sell-off state owned
enterprises. The government of Pres. Hosni Mubarak picked 314
companies to privatise.
(SFC, 5/9/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.41)
1991 In El Salvador a
government commission decided to return a swath of the Finca El
Espina land to the Duenas family and that 865 acres be turned into a
reserve. The 550 families of the cooperative that acquired the land
in 1980 were to be left with 700 acres of the poorest, driest land.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)
1991 Pres. Isaias Afeworki took
over the leadership of Eritrea and the People’s Front for Democracy
and Justice (PFDJ).
(SFC, 5/13/98, p.A10)
1991 The Ethiopian Orthodox
Tewahedo Church split over the naming of a new patriarch after the
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) removed
the Derg military junta from power. In 2018 the feuding wings
1991 The European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was founded to help free
markets take root in the ex-communist countries of central and
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.78)
1991 The French satirical
magazine La Grosse Berthe was launched.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.76)
1991 French frigates were sold
to Taiwan. In 2004 a fake list of French public figures (including
later president Nicolas Sarkozy), who allegedly held accounts at a
Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.), was
leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd
1991 Edith Cresson became the
first female prime minister in France.
(SFC, 3/2/00, p.A11)
1991 In Germany theTresor night
club was launched in a former power station in Berlin. It was one of
the first places to play techno music.
(Econ, 1/9/16, p.46)
1991 Germany passed an ordnance
shifting responsibility for the entire life cycle of packaging to
(Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.24)
1991 Germany adopted a
renewable energy law, which became known as EEG.
(Econ, 4/5/08, p.67)
1991 In Germany the Inter-City
Express (ICE) high-speed trains began running.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)
1991 In Germany Hasso Plattner,
a former IBM consultant, unveiled the SAP (Systems, Analysis and
Program Development) R/3 enterprise management software. The company
grew 12-fold from 1990 to 15,000 employees in 1998. Plattner founded
the company with Dietmar Hopp.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1,14)
1991 The last Trabant
automobile was manufactured in East Germany.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A10)
1991 In Greenland 3 radar sites
of the Early Warning DEW line were abandoned.
(SFC, 11/3/01, p.C3)
1991 In Guatemala rebel
guerrillas sacked and burned most of the productive wells of Basic
Petroleum in the northwest corner of the Peten.
(WSJ, 12/26/96, p.A1)
1991 Haitian refugees fled to
the US base at Guantanamo, Cuba. Hundreds were refused further
passage to the US, many because of HIV infection.
(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)
1991 Hong Kong decriminalized
(Econ 6/24/17, p.36)
1991 David Oddsson became prime
minister of Iceland.
1991 The film "City of Joy" was
based on a novel by Dominique Lapierre. It was about the street
children of Calcutta and Mother Teresa.
(SFC, 8/19/97, p.E4)
1991 India launched economic
reforms under finance minister Manmohan Singh. Previous to this the
government controlled the market-place dictating everything from
industrial output to import levels. PM P.V. Narasimha Rao launched
free market policies. Its previous socialist-inspired "License Raj"
system dated back to British rule and required government permits
for almost every aspect of business. A flood of imported products
(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)(WSJ,
1/27/04, p.A1)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.35)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.64)
1991 The IMF foisted tariff
cuts on India as one of the conditions attached to a $2.5 billion
bailout package. Tariffs were cut from an average of 90% this year
to 30% in 1997.
(Econ, 5/9/09, p.82)
1991 India’s federal government
dismissed the state government of Tamil Nadu, controlled by the
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party, for aiding the Tamil Tigers in Sri
(SFC, 9/22/97, p.A10)
1991 In India riots over water
in Karnataka state left 18 people dead, mostly Tamil-speaking
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.40)
1991 Ratan Tata succeeded his
uncle, J.R.D. Tata, as chairman of the Tata Group’s holding company,
just as India began liberalizing its economy. Uncle Tata had started
Tata Airlines which later became India Air.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.53)(Econ, 1/13/07, p.62)
1991 Mount Lokon, one of about
129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, erupted. It killed a Swiss hiker
and forced thousands of people to flee their homes.
1991 In Iran Majid Majidi
directed his film “Baduk." It was about children kidnapped by a
(SFC, 7/9/02, p.D2)
1991 The Iranian film "The
Legend of Sigh" was directed by Tamineh Milani.
(SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.57)
1991 Iran’s government began
fighting elements of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK).
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1991 Iran’s first nuclear
reactor was supplied by China.
(SFC, 9/18/06, p.A1)
1991 Oriana Fallaci recorded
the poignant soliloquy of Dakel Abbas (21), a drafted Iraqi soldier
recovering from wounds in Kuwait. In 2002 Fallaci authored "The Rage
and the Pride."
(WSJ, 4/3/03, p.A14)
1991 Government forces of Iraq
began battling the Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1991 142 aircraft were flown to
Iran from Iraq to escape destruction at the outset of the Gulf War.
Tehran repainted the planes and used them for its own forces. In
1997 Iraq appealed to the UN for help in getting the planes back.
(WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)
1991 In Iraq in the first 8
months following the war some 47,000 children under the age of 5
died from war-related causes.
(SFEM, 2/20/99, p.7)
1991 In Mahaweel, Iraq, every
day for three weeks, Iraqi soldiers brought truckloads of rebellious
Shiite Muslims to a lonely cornfield near the ruins of Babylon. The
victims were shoved into shallow pits and shot. Bulldozers pushed
the earth over them, burying some alive. In 2003 a mass grave
yielded more than 3,100 bodies. Local Iraqis said as many as 12,000
other bodies from the same massacre might be buried in the area.
1991 General Abdul-Qader
Mohammed Jassim al-Mifarji left Saddam Hussein’s army. In 2006 he
was appointed as Iraq’s defense minister.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.52)
1991 The International Atomic
Energy Agency placed a seal over storage bunkers holding
conventional explosives known as HMX and RDX and PETN at the
Al-Qaqaa facility south of Baghdad as part of U.N. sanctions that
ordered the dismantlement of Iraq's nuclear program.
1991 Israel ratified the
102-nation Convention Against Torture.
(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C14)
1991 Tano Grasso was placed
under police protection after he founded Italy’s first anti-racket
association. In 2011 Grasso and Lirio Abate held the Trame literary
festival in Lamezia Terme focusing on books about the Mafia.
(Econ, 7/9/11, p.84)
1991 The Italian Communist
Party (PCI) disbanded to form the Partito Democratico della Sinistra
(PDS), with membership in the Socialist International. It later came
to be known as the Left Democrats (DS).
1991 In Italy Umberto Bossi
founded the Northern League, a regionalist-cum-separatist movement.
1991 In Italy Giulio Andreotti
was made a senator for life.
(SFEC, 10/27/99, p.A17)
1991 In Italy an
anti-laundering act put a limit of 20 million lire on all cash
transactions, but no penalties for passbooks containing sums above
(Econ, 1/29/05, p.71)
1991 In Italy Silvio
Berlusconi’s Fininvest group bribed a judge to win control of
Mondadori, the country’s largest publishing house. In 2007 Cesare
Previti was convicted of buying this judgment. In 2009 a Milan judge
ruled that Fininvest should pay damages of $1.1 billion.
(Econ, 10/10/09, p.53)
1991 Italian authorities
allowed several ships with about 25,000 Albanians into the port of
Bari. When another wave of immigrants showed up a few months later
the policy was reversed and they were sent back home.
(NG, 5/93, p.104)
1991 Ermenegildo Zegna became
the first Italian luxury company to enter the Chinese market. By
2007 it had some 52 shops there.
(Econ, 4/14/07, p.82)
1991 In Japan Toshikazu Sugaya,
a kindergarten bus driver, was arrested in the murder of a
4-year-old girl in Tochigi, north of Tokyo, a year earlier. A local
court sentenced him to life imprisonment in 1993, and Japan's top
court rejected his appeal in 2000. In 2010 a court officially
declared him innocent in the murder and offered a rare apology for a
forced confession and wrongful conviction that kept him behind bars
for more than 17 years. Sugaya (63), was serving a life sentence
when new DNA tests last year showed his innocence.
1991 Ryoei Saito of Japan
purchased 2 paintings by Van Gogh and Renoir for $185 million.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)
1991 Kazakstan established
1991 In Kenya the Kakuma camp
was founded for some 30,000 refugees from Sudan.
1991 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and
Uzbekistan were left with numerous tailings dumps of radioactive
waste following the collapse of the soviet Union. By 2015 cancer
rates were rising as radioactive waste leached into the water
(Econ, 7/11/15, p.40)
1991 Independent Latvia
recognized only the citizens of the pre-1940 Latvian state and their
descendants. Some 740,000 Russian-speaking residents were made
aliens and barred from voting and government sector employment.
(WSJ, 3/11/05, p.A9)
1991 In Latvia the KGB left
behind a catalog of 4,500 people who served as agents and contacts
during the 1980s. Parliament’s decision to open the archives, once
in 2004 and twice in 2006 was vetoed by Pres. Vaira Vike-Freiberga.
1991 In Lebanon Pres. Hrawi
signed the “Treaty of Brotherhood, Cooperation and Coordination"
with Syrian Pres. Hafez Assad. It formalized the intervention of
(SFC, 6/2/00, p.A16)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)
1991 The civil war in Lebanon
(SFC, 9/28/98, p.A8)
1991 RUF guerrillas including
Sam Bockerie invaded Sierra Leone from Liberia. Charles Taylor
formed the guerrillas in 1989.
(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A11)
1991 Macedonia gained
independence from the former Yugoslavia. Its president was Kiro
Glogorov. A quarter to a third of the population is Albanian. Its
population is about 2 mil. Its capital is Skopje.
1991 In Malaysia authorities
banned Mak Yong, a traditional form of dance theater.
(WSJ, 4/19/06, p.A1)
1991 The Mexican banks were
(WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-10)
1991 Mexico shut down an oil
refinery in Mexico City. It was said to have belched out 7$ of the
city’s air pollution.
(Econ, 7/31/10, p.27)
1991 In Mexico Miguel Aleman
Velasco, billionaire from Veracruz State, sold his stake in the
media giant Televisa before entering the Senate. His eldest son
Miguel Aleman Magnani quickly purchased a new stake.
(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A18)
1991 In Mexico Telmex was
privatized and sold to Carlos Slim Helu, a stockbroker and the
richest man in Latin America. Telmex was sheltered from competition
for 6 years and in 2002 controlled 96% of local phone service.
(WSJ, 10/23/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A1)
1991 The population of Moldova
was about 4.3 million. By 2015 it was believed to be under 3
(Econ, 11/21/15, p.51)
1991 In Mongolia the government
began to eliminate price controls and the cost of living zoomed.
(NG, 5/93, p.138)
1991 In Mongolia a group of
young foreign exchange traders gambled away half the national
treasury, $82 mil.
(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A12)
1991 The first Monaco Yacht
Show was held. It featured 1,147 yachts over 30 meters. By 2016 the
number increased to 4,473.
(Econ, 10/8/16, p.63)
1991 The Montenegrin Communist
League finished its transformation into the Democratic Party of
Socialists of Montenegro (DPS).
1991 Khun Sa (1934-2007),
Myanmar drug warlord and head of the Shan United Army, became head
of the Shan State Restoration Council.
(Econ, 11/10/07, p.106)
1991 Klaas Bruinsma, gangster
and drug baron, was gunned down near an Amsterdam hotel.
(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)
1991 In Nicaragua the US based
Pennwalt Corp. shut down its chlorine plant near Lake Managua and
left 60 tons of mercury in the lake.
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A6)
1991 The city of Abuja,
Nigeria, officially replaced Lagos as the new capital.
(SFC, 11/23/06, p.A28)
1991 Ken Saro-Wiwa organized
the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People. It demanded $10
billion for environmental damage and royalties from the federal
government and Royal Dutch/Shell Corp., and it threatened to secede
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)
1991 In Northern Ireland Rory
Finnis (21) was killed by the Irish Republican Army. Accused of
informing the Northern Ireland government of the paramilitary
group’s activities, the Londonderry man was shot in the head. His
hands had been tied behind his back, his eyes taped closed. In 2019
details of his death and many others were revealed in archives newly
opened by the Public Records Office of Northern Ireland.
1991 North Korea declared the
4-country armistice referee group a "non-existent organization."
(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.A1)
1991 Norway became one of the
first countries to adopt a carbon tax in an attempt to slow global
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.28)
1991 Pakistan’s government
sent troops to Karachi to quell rising violence. Since then
the MQM abandoned democracy and took to the streets in an
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-6)
1991 Palestinian terrorist Abu
Nidal recruited orchestrated the murder of Fatah leader Abu-Iyad, a
leader of the Sep 5, 1972, Munich terrorists. Nidal was outraged by
Iyad’s softening on the status of Israel.
(WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)
1991 Peruvians desperate for
work rushed into the taxi and bus businesses with little training
after Peru lowered used-vehicle import tariffs to ease a transport
1991 In Peru there was a
(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A4)
1991 Tough environmental laws
were laid down in Poland and set to take effect in 1997.
(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)
1991 Puerto Rico Gov. Rafael
Hernandez Colon declared Spanish the island's sole official
language. The law was repealed a couple of years later by Gov. Pedro
Rosello, whose first official act was to make both English and
Spanish the official languages.
1991 In the Republic of Congo a
national conference was convened by reform minded citizens and Denis
Sassou Nguesso was stripped of most of his power and national
elections were organized.
1991 Agnieszka Kotlarska became
Miss Poland. She was murdered in 1996.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)
1991 Russian sculptor Zurab
Tsereteli built a colossal statue of Christopher Columbus, titled
"Birth of a New World," to commemorate the 500th anniversary of
Columbus' 1492 arrival in the Western Hemisphere. Several US cities
including New York, Miami and Baltimore refused to accept it for
reasons ranging from cost to appearance. Puerto Rico accepted the
statue as a gift in 1998, using $2.4 million in public funds to
bring it to the island after a former mayor envisioned it as the
main attraction for Catano, a seaside suburb of San Juan. But
officials said it would block airplane flight paths while residents
protested plans to demolish homes to make room for it. In 2008 it
was placed in storage in Mayaguez. In 2011 San Juan Mayor Jorge
Santini said he would consider setting up the statue somewhere in
Puerto Rico’s capital. It was unveiled in 2016.
(AP, 8/20/11)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.45)
1991 In Russia the St.
Petersburg Organization of Soldier’s Mothers was founded.
(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)
1991 The Afghan War Invalids
Fund was founded in Russia to serve 14,000 amputees and other
seriously injured veteran of the 10-year war.
(SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)
1991 The Soviet Union
splintered into sovereign nations.
(TMC, 1994, p.1991)
1991 Yuri Luzhkov, vice-mayor
of Moscow, issued Decision No. 285 transferring ownership of prime
city real estate to a private company called AO Orgkomitet, of which
he was president.
(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A14)
1991 Anatoly Sobchak, a law
professor, was elected mayor of St. Petersburg. Vladimir Putin, an
agent in the KGB, was soon named as his deputy mayor.
(SFC, 1/1/00, p.D2)
1991 Vadim Bakatin (b.1937),
head of the Soviet KGB, presented US Ambassador Robert Strauss with
blueprints for the bugs in the US Embassy. Bakatin served as the
interior minister of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1990. He was the
last chairman of KGB in 1991 before it ceased to exist with the
collapse of the Soviet Union. He later served as the first chairman
of Interrepublican Security Service between 1991 and 1992. In 1993
he noted that although the myth about the KGB’s invincibility had
collapsed, the agency itself was very much alive.
1991 The Russian government,
following Soviet collapse, scrapped the national anthem, and
replaced it with an instrumental piece by 19th-century Russian
composer Mikhail Glinka.
1991 The Moscow
Radisson-Slavyanskaya hotel and the adjoining Americom Business
Center was founded by US businessman, Paul Tatum (1955-1996).
(WSJ, 11/4/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A8)(WSJ,
1991 In Saudi Arabia Khalid bin
Sultan was the commander of the Saudi military forces during the
Gulf war. He later became the principal owner of Al-Hayat, an Arabic
language daily published in London.
(SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)
1991 In Margate, Scotland,
Vicky Hamilton (15) was last seen. In 2007 her skeleton was
discovered at a house where handyman Peter Tobin used to live. Her
remains were found during a search for another missing teenager,
Dinah McNicol (18) from the county of Essex, eastern England, who
was last seen returning from a 1991 music festival. The remains of
McNicol were found a few days after the Hamilton find. Tobin (61)
was charged with the murders.
(AP, 11/16/07)(AFP, 11/17/07)
1991 In Somalia dictator Barre
fell from power and the northeast corner of the country declared
itself the independent Republic of Somaliland.
(SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)
1991 Thousands of Bantus fled
Somalia for Kenya. In 1999 the US designated this group of people as
persecuted and eligible for resettlement in the US.
(NW, 9/2/02, p.35)
1991 South Africa signed on to
the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa had secretly
built several bombs but dismantled them before signing on to the
(Econ, 6/10/06, p.23)
1991 Afrikaner nationalists led
by Prof. Carel Boshoff, son-in-law of the late PM Hendrik Verwoerd,
founded the Orania enclave in the desert of South Africa with a ban
on using black laborers for menial tasks. By 2016 the Afrikaner-only
town numbered 1,300 people.
(SFC, 11/25/02, p.A8)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.41)
1991 In South Africa Eugene
TerreBlanche provoked a street battle that left 3 people dead.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)
1991 Charles D. Moody, Univ. of
Michigan vice-president for minority affairs, led a delegation to
bestow an honorary doctorate to Nelson Mandela. It had been awarded
in absentia in 1990.
(MT, Fall/99, p.16)
1991 Sudan adopted a federal
system with nine states, matching the nine provinces that had
existed from 1948 to 1973. The states were subdivided into 66
provinces, and then into 281 local government areas.
1991 Sudan issued a new penal
code imposing death for a sweeping range of beliefs that can be
categorized as apostasy.
(Econ, 6/7/14, p.53)
1991 The Sudan People’s
Liberation Army, the main rebel group, began to divide along tribal
lines and now four factions control the south.
1991 In Sudan the National
Democratic Alliance began as an opposition grouping.
(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A19)
1991 In Sudan an Arab tribe
sought to resolve ancient disputes over land and water rights by
attacking the Zaghawa, Fur, and Massalit peoples in Darfur. Arab
groups launched a campaign in southwestern Darfur State that
resulted in the destruction of some 600 non-Arab villages and the
deaths of about 3,000 people. In southern Sudan the Nuer tribe
massacred Dinka civilians in Bor. Some Dinka later said tens of
thousands of women and children were killed, a number the Nuer
called an exaggeration.
1991 Sudanese intelligence
approached Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and invited him to move to
Khartoum, which he did.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A20)
1991 Sweden’s right-wing
government passed a law allowing charities, religious organizations,
groups of parents and businesses to open schools and get as much
state money per student as state-run schools.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.24)
1991 Sweden cancelled its
financial transactions tax (FTT).
(Econ, 3/16/13, p.20)
1991 Swiss-based Roche Corp.
paid Cetus Corp. of Emeryville, Ca., $300 million for its PCR gene
amplification business, a DNA copying method that became the
foundation for genetic diagnostics.
(SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)
1991 A dye-sensitized solar
cell, also known as Gratzel cells, was invented by Michael Gratzel
and Brian O'Regan at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
He pioneered research on energy and electron transfer reactions in
mesoscopic-materials and their optoelectronic applications.
1991 Tajikistan gained
independence from the Soviet Union.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A6)
1991 In Tunisia military
officers allegedly held secret meetings with a view to toppling Ben
Ali. The case became known as the "Bakaret Essahel affair", named
after a village 45 km (28 miles) south of Tunis. The officers
involved were tortured.
1991 Turkmenistan gained
(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A14)
1991 Turkey abolished the price
controls that propped up its state-owned tobacco company.
(WSJ, 9/11/98, p.A1)
1991 The United Nations
Compensation Commission was established after the allies’ victory in
the Gulf War to settle claims filed by individuals, corporations and
governments who suffered due to the war.
(WSJ, 8/18/97, p.A1)
1991 The UN set up a modest
Kurdish haven in the mountains of Iraq.
(Econ, 7/9/16, p.38)
1991 The UN’s health agency
destroyed nearly 200 million doses of smallpox vaccine because it
lacked the $25,000 a year for storage.
(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.A1)
1991 The UN began its Change
for Good operation to help support the Children's Fund. The program
recruited flight attendants to collect left over change in foreign
currencies from passengers returning to the US. By 2002 the program
raised some $31 million.
(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.C3)
1991 The UN banned fishing
drift nets longer than 2.5 km. Some had been as long as 50k.
(Econ, 2/22/14, p.52)
1991 Vozrozhdeniye Island
(Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea became the property of
Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
(SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1991 In Uzbekistan Birlik
(Unity) political party was set up. It was outlawed several years
later along with other opposition groups, which forced its leaders
into exile. The party's several attempts to reregister in later
years have failed.
1991 In Uzbekistan Mansur
Maqsudi married Gulnora Karimova, the daughter of the president.
(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A1)
1991 Mansur Maqsudi and his
brother Fareed approached Coca Cola with an offer to bottle Coca
Cola products in Uzbekistan.
(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A6)
1991 Pope John Paul II put
forth his encyclical "Centesimus Annus," on the dignity of the human
person and the free economy in the free society.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1991 Venezuela’s Senate voted
to hold Jaime Lusinchi (b.1924), a former President (1984-1989),
"politically responsible" for multibillion-dollar fraud, though he
has never been tried on corruption charges.
1991 In Venezuela the Compania
Anonima Nacional Telefonos de Venezuela (CANTV) was privatized. In
2007 Pres. Chavez planned to transfer the company into state hands.
(Econ, 1/13/07, p.33)
1991 Vietnam began to develop
industrial parks in Ho Chi Minh City with foreign money and
(Econ, 8/6/16, p.57)
1991 In Western Sahara a
cease-fire was declared between the Polisario Front and Morocco. The
2 parties agreed on an all-or-nothing referendum to be held in 1998.
(SFC, 5/15/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A12)
1991 Yugoslavia exported 149
M-84 tanks to Kuwait. They were assembled in Croatia from components
made throughout Yugoslavia.
(Econ, 1/8/11, p.52)
1991 In Zaire Etienne
Tshisekedi was installed as prime minister after Mobutu was forced
by foreign and domestic pressure to allow multiparty politics and
accept a government formed by the opposition.
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)
1991 In Zaire riots by unpaid
soldiers killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)
1991 In Zambia Pres. Kaunda was
voted out of office. Pres. Frederick Chiluba and his Movement for
Multi-Party Democracy won.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/5/96, p.C16)
1991 Xu Jianxue arrived in
Zambia and began a civil-engineering and construction firm with his
4 brothers. Some 300 Chinese lived in Zambia at this time. By 2006
the number was estimated at 3,000.
(Econ, 10/28/06, p.53)
1991 Meeting in Zimbabwe
Commonwealth heads of government declared that the Commonwealth
should bolster human rights and democracy.
(Econ, 3/19/15, p.63)
1991 In Zimbabwe, the
opposition Daily Gazette began publishing but quickly folded in the
period of heavy drought.
(SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A11)
1991-1992 Some 350,000 Somalis died from disease,
starvation and civil war.
1991-1993 60 Minutes was again the top ranking
network show on television for two seasons with rankings of 21.7 and
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1991-1993 Ecuador’s government overestimated
domestic crude oil demand and to boost its share of production from
Texaco operated wells. It then sold the oil on int’l. markets
depriving Texaco of profits. In 2011 Chevron, which acquired Texaco
in 2001, won a $96 million judgement against Ecuador.
(SFC, 9/1/11, p.D3)
1991-1993 In Togo a democracy movement was
suppressed, strikes ruined the economy and the infrastructure
(SFC, 6/25/97, p.A8)
1991-1994 Bank of America extended full-service
branches into supermarkets throughout California.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)
1991-1994 In Russia the life expectancy for males
fell by five years during this period. The drop was later attributed
to mass privatization.
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.15)
1991-1994 Emmanuel "Toto" Constant headed the
Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti. He was also a paid
US CIA agent and members of FRAPH were believed responsible for many
of the 3,000 political killings over this period. Louis-Jodel
Chamblain co-founded FRAPH.
(SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A3)
1991-1995 Argentina shipped weapons to Ecuador and
Croatia. The guns were initially shipped to Panama and Bolivia and
the Argentine government later blamed arms dealers for their
diversion. In 1996 Oscar Camilion stepped down as defense minister
for his roll in the arms shipments. In 1998 Horacio Estrada, a
retired navy captain, was found shot to death. Four days earlier
prosecutors had begun questioning him about the 1991-1995 arms
(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.A24)
1991-1995 Meles Zenawi (b.1956) served as Chairman
of the EPRDF and President of the Transitional Government of
1991-1995 In Kenya an estimated 1500 were killed
and 300,000 forced from their homes in clashes between Pres. Daniel
arap Moi’s Kalenjin ethnic group and the Kikuyu, Luo and Luhya
tribes over this time.
(SFC, 6/19/97, p.A12)
1991-1995 In Mexico in 1998 the Publico newspaper
reported that Jalisco state officials had shifted almost $20 million
out of accounts meant for charity and that at least $7 million went
into PRI coffers during this period.
(SFC, 6/6/98, p.A11)
1991-1995 Yugoslavia was put under a UN arms
(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A6)
1991-1996 Doug Tompkins, founder of Esprit Corp.,
has spent over $14 million to purchase the sprawling wild lands of
Pumalin, Chile, as a nature sanctuary. His townhouse and office
building are located in the coastal city of Puerto Montt. The deal
for some 700,000 acres was concluded in 2001.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A10)
1991-1996 In India Jayalalitha Jayaram, a former
movie star, served as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu. She was
voted out of office in disgrace.
(SFC, 8/21/98, p.D2)
1991-1997 Russia went into an economic downfall
called the Great Contraction. The decline wiped out the US
equivalent of $3 trillion.
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A1)
1991-1998 James Johnson served as CEO of Fannie
Mae. During this period he lobbied Congress, eviscerated regulators
and courted mortgage lenders to increase home ownership feathering
his and fellow executive nests along the way.
1991-1998 Sadako Ogata was elected as the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. In 1996 that called for
providing food and shelter for some 23 million refugees.
(Hem. 7/96, p.19)
1991-1999 UNITA rebels in Angola raised an
estimated $3-4 billion through diamond sales.
(SFC, 7/30/99, p.A13)
1991-2001 Chile’s capital controls during this
period made foreigners leave part of their investment on deposit
with the central bank where it earned no interset. Research later
showed that this made it harder for small companies to raise fund
and had serious negative microeconomic effects.
(Econ, 10/12/13, SR p.12)
1991-2005 The US spent some $7 billion on Russian
(WSJ, 9/26/05, p.A1)
1991-2002 In Sierra Leone an 11-year civil war
began and by 1996 10,000 had been killed. Foday Sankoh’s
Revolutionary United Front began fighting the bush war. In 1998
Sankoh was charged with treason. By 2002 some 50-200 thousand people
were killed and a third of the country’s 6 million people were
forced to flee.
(WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFC,
9/5/98, p.A12)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.48)