Return to homeCanadian coins: http://coinhistory.info/canada/
Globe and Mail: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/
Montreal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Montreal_history Canada is about the same size as the US.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The native Assembly of First Nations was composed of 633 hereditary
and elected chiefs of Canadian tribes. The Nisga'a in BC are one of
the seven coastal First Nations people.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A18)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T5) 4.55-Bil BC-4.45Bil BC
Researchers in 2010 found what a slab of mantle under Baffin Island,
Canada, believed to date to this period. This would be the oldest
rock found thus far on earth.
4.28Bil BC In 2008 scientists reported that a
pinkish tract of bedrock on the eastern shore of Canada's Hudson Bay
contains the oldest known rocks on Earth, formed 4.28 billion years
ago, not long after the planet was formed. In 2010 older rock,
dating from 4.55 to 4.45 was found on Baffin Island, Canada.
4Bil BC Northwest Canada was formed.
(NG, March 1990, p. 126)
3.77Bil BC Scientists in 2017 reported that
microfossils of tiny tubular structures in ancient Canadian rocks
dated to about this time and were believed to be microbes. The rocks
from Quebec dated back to between 3.8 and 4.3 billion years.
(SFC, 3/2/17, p.A6)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.63)
2Bil BC Fossils found in rock from Ontario,
Canada, consist of bacteria and blue-green algae.
(E&IH, 1973, p.111)
c2Bil BC A Mount Everest-sized object crashed near
Sudbury, Canada about this time and left a crater covering 1,800 sq.
(PacDis, Winter ’97, p.35)
1.85Bil BC In Ontario, Canada, near the town of
Sudbury, a meteor that was at least 10 miles across struck down. The
remaining crater is 60 by 45 miles and was found to contain a
profusion of "buckyballs" (peculiar hollow molecules of carbon) with
samples of ancient star stuff packed inside.
(SFC, 4/12/96, p.A-7)
600Mil BC Layers of lava and ash from volcanic
activity of this time were later evident at Green Gardens,
(SSFC, 8/17/03, p.C7)
570Mil BP-230Mil BP In northern Alberta is the
Peace River Arch; the Transcontinental Arch extends from Minnesota
to Arizona and in Montana is the Montana Dome. The Ozark Mountains
lie on the site of a dome and from Nashville, Tennessee, north to
Michigan lies the Cincinnati Arch. Between Peace River, north-west
Canada, and Montana and occupying much of Saskatchewan is the
Williston Basin. Michigan lies four-square upon the Michigan Basin,
while much of Illinois and Indiana is underlain by the Illinois
Basin. Most of these broad, gentle features developed during
Paleozoic time and have been dormant ever since.
560Mil BC The Fermeuse formation of Newfoundland,
Canada, dated to about this time. In 2014 scientists identified
traces of muscle in a cnidarian, Haootia quadriformis, a creature
related to modern jellyfish, sea anemones and coral.
(Econ, 8/30/14, p.70)
515Mil BC The Burgess Shale, a rock formation amid
the glaciated mountains from British Columbia to Utah, created by
mud slides that swept shallow water Cambrian creatures over a marine
cliff and buried them almost instantly. Specimens include: Pikaia (a
chordate, ancestor of fish, reptiles, and mammals), Odontogriphus,
Amiskwia, Ottoia (a Priapulid worm), Wiwaxia (a Polychaete worm or
mollusk), Burgessochaeta (an annelid worm), Opabinia, Sanctacaris
(arthropod, forerunner of spiders and scorpions), Canadaspis
(arthropod, early crustacean), Aysheaia (possible arthropod),
Eldonia, Hyolith, Brachiopods, Dinomischus, Anomalocaris, Sponges
and Trilobites. In 1989 Stephen Jay Gould authored "Wonderful Life:
The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History." In 1998 Simon Conway
Morris authored "The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the
Rise of Animals."
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.124)(NH, 12/98,
p.48)(SFC, 11/5/07, p.A3)
505Mil BC In 2014 researchers described a fish
named Metaspriggina walcotti that dated to about this time. It was
collected in the Burgess Shale of British Colombia and featured
large eyes and a notochord running along its back.
(Econ, 6/14/14, p.74)
500Mil BC A 30-mile size crater, a mile underneath
the bed of Lake Huron, just north of Port Huron, Michigan, marks the
impact of a meteor. It was discovered in 1990 by scientists from the
Geological Survey of Canada.
(LS MAG, Spring 1995, p.31)
500Mil BC-480Mil BC Scientists in 2002 reported
that sandstone from this period found north of lake Ontario,
contained tracks of foot-long critters with at least 8 pairs of
walking legs. They may have been euthycarcinoids, whose segmented
bodies included outer shells and long legs.
(SFC, 6/4/02, p.A2)
415Mil BC The lighthouse at Peggy's Cove in
Halifax, Canada, stands on granite boulders of this age.
(SFEC, 11/28/99, p.T8)
383Mil BC In 2004 paleontologists found fossils of
a primitive fish, named Tiktaalik roseae, on Ellesmere Island in
Canada’s Nunavut territory that dated to about this time. The
fossils showed evidence of ribs, neck, rudimentary ear bones and
(SFC, 4/6/06, p.A1)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.79)
375Mil BC In 2006 scientists reported the
discovery of a predator fossil fish dating to this time in on
Canada’s Ellesmere Island in the High Arctic. It was later named
Tiktaalik roseae and further analysis found it to have developed a
mobile neck, an important development for living on land. The fish
displayed bones at the ends of its fins suggestive of developing
fingers and toes.
(SFC, 10/16/08, p.A10)(SFC, 5/12/09, p.A8)
359Mil BC-345Mil BC In 2005 it was reported that
tracks of 4-legged terrestrial animals dated to this period were
found at Nova Scotia’s Bay of Fundy.
(NH, 2/05, p.p.16)
350Mil BC - 270Mil BC The first amniotes were
small, apparently secretive insect eaters. The remains of the
earliest representatives were found inside fossilized trunks of
hollow Nova Scotia logs. Amphibians, newts, salamanders and frogs
are all that remain today of a group that became highly successful
and varied in the Carboniferous and Permian periods. The rise of the
insects provided a generous food supply. The amniote egg allowed the
animal to develop to a stage resembling a fully grown adult gave
freedom from the watery environment.
(NH, 6/96, p.41)(DD-EVTT, p.254-255)
320Mil BC Reversing Falls in the Bay of Fundy, New
Brunswick, Canada, dates to this time and is where at high tide
surging salt water reverses the fresh water of the St. John River up
48 feet at high tide.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)
190Mil BC A 4th mass extinction occurred at the
end of the Triassic. Lake Manicouagan in Quebec, a 60-mile crater,
was formed by a cosmic impact that may be related to the extinction.
Cotylosaurs, a possible missing link between mammals and reptiles,
(SFEC, 8/22/99, Par p.12)
190Mil BC Fossils of frogs date back to about this
(Econ 7/8/17, p.71)
125Mil BC In 2004 Canadian geologists reported the
discovery of dinosaur tracks and a fossilized turtle shell,
estimated to be about 125 million years old, north of Terrace,
110Mil BC An ankylosaur, a plant-eating dinosaur
with powerful limbs, armor plating and a club-like tail inhabited
northern Alberta. Its fossils, discovered in 2011, were not supposed
to be there because the area at this time was covered by water.
80Mil BC Upper Cretaceous Oldman and Edmonton
formation in Alberta, Canada, has fossils of Struthiomimus. It was
typical of the "ostrich dinosaurs," the last of the coelurosaurs.
Their forelegs had three-fingered grasping hands. The body was long,
horizontal, and balanced by a long rigid tail.
79Mil BC A triceratops, later named Wendiceratops
pinhornensis, thrived in Alberta, Canada, during this time. In 2015
she was said to be one of the oldest members of the Ceratopsidae
(SFC, 7/9/15, p.D2)
78Mil BC A dinosaur species of this time, later
found in Canada and named Albertaceratops nesmoi, was a plant-eater
with yard-long horns over its eyebrows, suggesting an evolutionary
middle step between older dinosaurs with even larger horns and the
small-horned creatures that followed.
76Mil BC The horned dinosaur Spinops
sternbergorum, which comes from the same herbivore family as the
Triceratops, lived about this time. It remains were discovered in
1916 in a quarry known as the "bone bed" in Alberta, Canada. In 2011
scientists identified the bull-size dinosaur as a new species of the
70Mil BC In 2008 a Canadian researcher reported
what is believed to be North America's smallest dinosaur, a
70-million-year-old chicken-sized beast that was also unusual for
its diet of insects. Its bones were excavated near Red Deer, in
fossil-rich Alberta, in 2002 among about 20 Albertosaurus remains,
and went unnoticed.
70Mil BC The dinosaur Hypacrosaurus stebingeri, a
rhinoceros-sized creature, lived about this time in Canada.
(Econ, 1/7/17, p.62)
49Mil BC The mountains in British Columbia had
already risen as high as 14,000 feet by this time.
(SSFC, 1/16/11, p.C2)
22000BC In 2017 it was reported that archeological
studies at the Bluefish Caves in Canada’s Yukon territory showed
evidence that animal bones dating to about this time had been
stripped of their flesh by stone tools.
(Econ, 2/25/17, p.70)
10900BC Wildfires about this time broke out across
the US and Canada after an object, roughly a kilometer across,
grazed the Earth and broke up in the atmosphere depositing its oomph
as heat. A mass extinction about this time occurred in parts of
North America and coincided with the growing population of Indian
hunters. Archeologists later identified a layer of charcoal and
glass-like beads of carbon as evidence of the event. Fires melted
substantial portions of the Laurentide glacier in Canada sending
waves of water down the Mississippi that caused changes in the
Atlantic Ocean currents. This started a 1,300-year ice age known as
the Younger Dryas.
(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.94)(SFC,
10700 BC Melting glaciers caused a deluge of some
2,000 cubic miles of fresh water from a prehistoric lake in
southwestern Ontario. This impacted the Atlantic thermohaline
circulation and sent temperatures over the North Atlantic
plummeting. Temperatures in Greenland dropped by 18 degrees
(WSJ, 7/17/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/14/04, p.B1)
6200BC The glacial lake Agassiz-Ojibway, body of
water so vast that it covered parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, North
Dakota, Ontario and Minnesota, massively drained, sending a flow of
water into the Hudson Strait and the Labrador Sea. The sudden flood
of fresh water diluted the saltiness of the Gulf Stream weakening
(Econ, 9/9/06, Survey p.6)(AFP, 2/24/08)
c1001 Norse sagas claim that
Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on
an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land
after being blown off course. They found a land they called Vinland
and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
(HT, 5/97, p.31)
1005 Leaf Ericson’s brother,
Thorvald, had arrived in Vinland but was killed by native Indians
and his Viking companions returned to Greenland. A 3-year settlement
was begun a few years later when Thorfin Karlsefni established a
base with around 100 men and women at the L’Anse aux Meadows in
(HT, 5/97, p.33)(ON, 12/07, p.5)
1007 Thorfinn Karlsefni
and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to
the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir
and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland),
the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned
east and settled in Iceland.
(SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)(ON, 12/07, p.5)
1013 The last Viking attempt to
settle Vinland was made.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)
1497 Jun 24, Italian explorer
John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for
England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the
northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for
King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand
Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
(NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP,
1500-1530 The so-called Mantle site, a settlement
on the North shore of Lake Ontario, was occupied by the Wendat
(Huron). Excavations at the site, between 2003 and 2005, uncovered
its 98 longhouses, a palisade of three rows (a fence made of heavy
wooden stakes and used for defense) and about 200,000 artifacts.
Scientists estimate between 1,500 and 1,800 individuals inhabited
1517 Jun 11, Sir Thomas Pert
reached Hudson Bay.
1528 England established its
first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)
1534 May 10, Jacques Cartier
reached Newfoundland. He noted the presence of the Micmac Indians
who fished in the summer around the Magdalen Islands north of Nova
(CFA, '96, p.46)(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T15)
1534 Jun 9, Jacques Cartier
became the first man to sail into the mouth of the St. Lawrence
1534 Jun 29, Jacques Cartier
discovered Canada’s Prince Edward Islands.
1534 Jul 24, Jacques Cartier
(43) on his 1st trip to the new world, landed in Canada and claimed
it for France. Jacques Cartier while probing for a northern route to
Asia visited Labrador and said: "Fit only for wild beasts... This
must be the land God gave to Cain." [see May 10]
(NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 4)(MC, 7/24/02)
1534 Sep, During his voyage
back to France Cartier learned from the 2 Native sons, Dom Agaya and
Taignoagny, who he'd kidnapped from Iroquoian Chief Donnacona, that
their father's village of Stadacona (present-day Quebec) was called
a 'kanata'. Cartier wrote the name 'Kanata' on his charts and maps,
perhaps to mark the land belonging to Chief Donnacona's tribe. This
is the first recorded use of the name 'Canada', and the name by
which the country would become known.
1535 Sep, The site of the city
of Quebec was first visited by Jacques Cartier during his 2nd voyage
to the New World. It was an Indian village called Stadacona. Quebec
is the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in what is now
(HNQ, 10/3/99)(Canada, 1960, p.20)
1535 Oct 2, Jacques Cartier
first saw the site of what is now Montreal and proclaimed "What a
royal mountain," hence the name of the city. [see 1536] Having
landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reached a town, which
he names Montreal.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T7)(HN, 10/2/98)
1536 May, Jacques Cartier
sailed for France from Canada and carried with him the kidnapped
local chief Donnacona, who later died in France. Donnacona, prior to
his death, described a mythical kingdom with great riches called
(Canada, 1960, p.21)
1541 Aug 23, Jacques Cartier
landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America and
established a short-lived community there.
(HN, 8/23/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)
1557 Sep 1, Jacques Cartier,
French explorer, died in St. Malo, France.
1576 Jul 28, Martin Frobisher,
English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored
the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to
England that was found to be iron pyrite. Michael Lok, textile
exporter, led the financing for the 1st expedition which was made to
find a route to China. Lok was later sued for losses from 3
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(ON,
1592 Juan de Fuca, a Greek
sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border
between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of
Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de
(NG, 7/04, p.66)
1604 Samuel de Champlain sailed
into the river estuary at what later became the seaport of St. John
in New Brunswick.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)
1605 Jun, Pierre Dugua moved
the French settlement at St. Croix, Maine, to Nova Scotia at a site
named Port Royal.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.A2)
1607 Sep 28, Samuel de
Champlain and his colonists returned to France from Port Royal Nova
1608 Jul 3, The city of Quebec
was founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain. The French
adventurer Etienne Brule accompanied Champlain to North America and
was reportedly eaten by the Huron Indians.
1609 Sep 12, English
explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the river that now bears his name.
Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company in search of
the Northwest Passage, a water route linking the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans, when he sailed up the present-day Hudson River.
(AP, 9/12/97)(HNQ, 7/23/00)
1610 Aug 3, Henry Hudson of
England discovered a great bay on the east coast of Canada and named
it for himself.
(HN, 8/3/98)(HNQ, 7/23/00)
1611 Jun 22, English explorer
Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in
present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. The starving crew of the
Discovery, which had spent the winter trapped by ice in Hudson Bay,
mutinied against Hudson, who was never seen again.
(AP, 6/22/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(MC, 6/23/02)
1612 The French explorer
Etienne Brule is believed to be the first European to see the Great
Lakes. Brule, believed to have been born in 1592, journeyed to North
America with Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and helped found Quebec.
Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also
explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. Brule is the
first European to live among the Indians and was probably the first
European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania. Brule was
eventually killed by the Hurons, for reasons never known, in 1632.
1612 French explorer Samuel de
Champlain compiled a 17 by 30 inch map depicting the coast of New
England and the Canadian maritime provinces.
(SFC, 12/5/15, p.A6)
1615 Jul 28, French explorer
Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to
the New World.
1616 Jan 20, The French
explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian
village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
c1620 A settlement was
established at Cupers Cove (now Cupids) in Newfoundland.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)
1621 Sep 21, King James of
England gave Canada to Sir Alexander Sterling.
1627 Jul 23, Sir George Calvert
arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
1632 Olivier Le Jeune (7), a
black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future
province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black
enslaved in Canada.
(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1635 Dec 25, Samuel de
Champlain (b.1575), French navigator and founder of Quebec City,
died in Quebec. In 2008 David Hackett Fischer authored “Champlain’s
1640 In Canada three French
nuns in Quebec established Le Monastere des Augustines (the
Augustine Monastery). In 1962 the remaining nuns donated the
building to a non-profit. In 2015 it was re-opened as a luxury
65-room hotel, retreat and wellness center.
(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F6)
1642 May 17, Paul de Chomedy de
Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name
Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of Mont Royal.
1642 May 18, The Canadian city
of Montreal was founded by French colonists.
1656 Oct 25, A party of Oneida
Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen.
Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and
Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French
(AH, 4/01, p.34)
1663 Quebec became the capital
of New France.
1668 The British trading ship
Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)
1669 Jul 6, LaSalle left
Montreal to explore Ohio River.
1670 May 2, The Company of
Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.)
was chartered by England's King Charles II to exploit the resources
of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ,
1672 Apr 30, Marie of the
Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group
of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in
Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.
1672 May 17, Frontenac became
governor of New France (Canada).
1680 Kateri Tekakwitha
(b.1656), known as the "Lily of the Mohawks," died in Canada. She
was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian
mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when
she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and
with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk,
and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was
ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012
she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
1685 In Canada there was a
shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values
for use as money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America,
was built in Quebec City, Canada.
(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)
1689 Aug 4-1689 Aug 5, War
between England and France led them to use their native American
allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the
Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English
support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the
Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put
everything to fire and axe. Some suggest that this is a gross
exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were
captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.
1689 Aug 25, The Iroquois took
1690 May 11, In the first major
engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts
seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the
1690 Oct 7, The English
attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
1690 Oct 23, American colonial
forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt
to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy
1700 Jan 26, A magnitude 9.0
earthquake shook Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British
Colombia. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
1708 Mar 6, Francis de Laval
(b.1623), the first bishop of Quebec, died. He was beatified in 1980
and canonized in 2014.
1708 Aug 29, French Canadian
and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing
1708 Dec 21, French forces
seized control of the eastern shore of Newfoundland after winning a
victory at St. John’s.
1710 Oct 13, English troops
occupied Acadia, Nova Scotia.
1710 Oct 16, British troops
occupied Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
1710 Mohawk and Mohican chiefs
from Canada visited Queen Anne in London on a diplomatic mission.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)
1711 Aug 23, A British attempt
to invade Canada by sea failed.
1713 Apr 11, The Peace of
Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The
French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great
Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm.
Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported.
Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
(WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)
1734 In Canada a black slave
named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the
Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a
1999 play by Lorena Gale.
(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1737 Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a
Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on
Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later
Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian
settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled
them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived
(SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)
1745 Jun 16, English fleet
occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
1745 Jun 17, American New
Englanders captured Louisburg, Cape Breton, from the French. The
ragtag army captured France's most imposing North American
stronghold on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
(HN, 5/17/98)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 6/17/02)
1749 The city of Halifax, Nova
Scotia, was founded.
(SFEC, 6/13/99, p.T3)
1755 Jun 16, British captured
Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova
Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave.
Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana.
Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story
"Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC,
1755 Oct 24, A British
expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in
1756 May 17, After a year and a
half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the
French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final
defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the
Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
1756-1763 The Seven Years War. France and Great
Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000
"Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia,
Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and
Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while
her manpower was occupied in America. This was later considered to
be the first global war because of the number of countries involved.
(V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ,
2/10/00, p.A16)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.19)
1758 Jul 26, British battle
fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France's Fortress of
Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a
7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint
(HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)
1759 Jul 25, British forces
defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7
(HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)
1759 Sep 13, During the final
French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought.
British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de
Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec
City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe landed
3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The
fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the
French. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis
Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by
results, it was one of the great battles of the world." On this
rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the
walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire
continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half
an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became
apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the
battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, "Do not
weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy." By the time the
rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the
British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole
dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from
Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi
(CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP,
9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)
1759 Sep 14, Louis Joseph de
Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm (b.1712) and chief of French
forces, died at age 47 on the Plains of Abraham in Canada.
1759 Sep 18, Quebec surrendered
to the British and the Battle of Quebec ended. The French
surrendered to the British after their defeat on the Plains of
(AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)
1759 Sep 18, British commander
James Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
1760 Apr 28, French forces
besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the
Plains of Abraham.
1760 Sep 8, The French
surrendered the city of Montreal to British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst.
[see Sep 18, 1759]
(HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)
1760 A treaty was made with the
Mi'kmaq Indians. It was later interpreted to support fishing for
profit rights in their traditional 4 Atlantic provinces.
(WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A27)
1763 Feb 10, Britain, Spain and
France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War.
France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in
the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France
retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
(HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC,
1763 Oct 7, George III of Great
Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the
right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in
North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and
ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal
Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and
8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1763 Dec 28, John Molson,
founder of the Montreal Molson brewery, was born.
1766 Jul 24, At Fort Ontario,
Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace
1770 Benjamin West painted “The
Death of General Wolfe." It depicts the Sep 13, 1759, Battle of the
Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec City. West’s painting was the
first by an American artist to gain international renown.
(NY Times, 11/25/20)
1773 Jul 20, Scottish settlers
arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
1775 Sep 25, British troops
captured Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful
of Americans led an attack on Montreal, Canada.
(AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)
1775 Nov 12, US Gen. Montgomery
began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600
(ON, 3/00, p.6)
1775 Nov 13, American forces
under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a
two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec
entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a 1,100 man force
through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A.
Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness," an account of
Arnold’s march to Quebec.
(AP, 11/13/97)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)
1775 Dec 31, The British
repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery
and Benedict Arnold at Quebec during a raging snowstorm; Montgomery
(AP, 12/31/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)
1776 Mar 17, British forces
evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. In
some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War, American
and French troops failed to take Savannah.
1776 Sep 2-1776 Sep 9, The
Hurricane of Independence killed 4,170 people from North Carolina to
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)
1776 Oct 13, Benedict Arnold
was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to
Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9
months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James
L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy."
(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)
1778 Mar 15, Nootka Sound,
Vancouver Island, was discovered by Captain Cook.
(HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)
1780 May 19, A mysterious
darkness enveloped much of New England and part of Canada in the
early afternoon; the cause has never been determined.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(DTnet, 5/19/97)
1780 Oct 31, The HMS Ontario
was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during
a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British
warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history
of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, "The Legend of the Lake."
1783 May 9, Alexander Ross,
pioneer, fur trader, was born in Canada.
1783 The so-called Aroostook
War stemmed from a boundary dispute that had loomed since 1783
between Maine and New Brunswick and was not settled by the Peace of
Ghent. After Maine became a state in 1820, it disregarded British
claims in making land grants to settlers along the Aroostook River.
1783 Loyalist Tory homes in
Maine were taken apart and moved to New Brunswick, Canada, and
reassembled. Boatloads of newcomers from New York and New England
moved. Some of the new arrivals froze to death in makeshift shelters
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T6,7)
1783 John H. Molson (19)
acquired a share in a log cabin brewery on the banks of the St.
Lawrence River and began the Molson beer empire.
(WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A11)
1783 Some 3,000 Blacks, who had
obtained British certificates of freedom for their loyalty in the
American Revolution, arrived in Nova Scotia and spent some miserable
years there. In 1785 a delegation sailed to Britain where they were
offered passage to Africa in return for establishing a British
colony in Sierra Leone. In 2017 a UN human rights working group
criticized Canada and Nova Scotia for failure to ensure that the
descendants of the loyalists have clear title to land they
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.34)
1784 Oct 19, John McLoughlin
(d.1857), Hudson's Bay Co. pioneer at Fort Vancouver and in Oregon
Country, was born in Quebec.
1784 The British gave their
Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of
Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of
independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed
that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent
for a new housing development in Caledonia.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1785 The port city of St. John
in New Brunswick was incorporated.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)
1785 Loyalist graduates of
Harvard and King’s College founded the Univ. of New Brunswick.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)
1787 Nov 21, Samuel Cunard
(d.1865), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, was
born in Canada.
(MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)
1788 Jun 11, The 1st British
ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
1789-1793 Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur
trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)
1792 May 11, The Columbia River
was discovered by Captain Robert Gray.
1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake became
the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament
met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
(WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)
1792 The British St. George’s
Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This
included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of
rebellious slaves from other colonies.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1793 Alexander Mackenzie,
Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his
crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised
Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)
1795 In Nova Scotia, Canada,
local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that
appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down
into what became known as the “Money Pit."
(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)
1796-1865 Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian
jurist and humorist: "When a man is wrong and won't admit it, he
always gets angry."
1808 Jul 2, Simon Fraser
completed his trip down Fraser River, BC. He landed at Musqueam.
1809 Aug 17, In Canada work
commenced on Nelson’s column, a tribute Adm. Horatio Nelson, was
erected Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal, Quebec.
1812 Jul 12, United States
forces led by General William Hull entered Canada during the War of
1812 against Britain. However, Hull retreated shortly thereafter to
Detroit. Madison had called for 50,000 volunteers to invade Canada
but only 5,000 signed up.
(AP, 7/12/99)(ON, 9/02, p.2)
1812 Oct 13, At the Battle of
Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the
Americans who had tried to invade Canada. This was the 1st major
land battle in the War of 1812.
(HN, 10/13/98)(HNQ, 1/31/02)
1813 Apr 27, Americans forces
under Gen. Zebulon M. Pike (34) captured York (present day Toronto),
the seat of government in Ontario; Pike was killed.
(HN, 4/27/99)(MC, 4/27/02)
1813 May 27, Americans captured
Fort George, Canada.
1813 Jun 6, The U.S. invasion
of Canada was halted at Stoney Creek, Ontario.
1813 Oct 5, In Canada the
Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was
decisive in the War of 1812. Some 600 British regulars and 1,000
Indian allies under British Major General Henry Procter and Shawnee
leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated by US
forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison.
Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle. US Col. Richard Mentor
Johnson led troops in the Battle of the Thames and was said to have
killed Tecumseh, a claim that he later used to his political
1813 Oct 26, Canadian militia
defeated American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay.
1813 American militiamen burned
down the Ontario town of Niagara-on-the Lake.
(WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)
1814 Jul 5, US troops under
Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British
force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at
Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some
(AH, 10/07, p.53)
1814 Jul 25, British and
American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane
(Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War
1815 Jan 11, Sir John A.
Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow,
1817 Oct 13, William Kirby,
Canadian writer, was born.
1817 The Bank of Montreal was
established as Canada's first bank. It later became known as BMO
1818 Apr 16, U.S. Senate
ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada
1818 Oct 20, The United States
and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between
Canada and the United States.
1820 Aug 12, Oliver Mowat, a
founder of the Canadian Confederation, was born.
1821 Jul 2, Charles Tupper, 6th
Canadian PM (1896), was born.
1824 Jun 8, A washing machine
was patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
1824 Newfoundland became a
British colony. It became a province of Canada in 1949.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)
1825 Feb 22, Russia and Britain
established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
1825 The Miramichi fires burned
some 3 million acres in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1827 Aug 10, There were race
riots in Cincinnati and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
1827 The Univ. of Toronto,
Canada, was founded.
(Econ, 1/22/05, p.20)
1827 The Chippewa community of
Aamjiwnaang First Nation was founded in Ontario just across from
Port Huron, Mich. Much of the original reserve was sold via
questionable land deals in the 1960s. In 1993 the percentage of boys
born in the community began dropping and by 2005 girls outnumbered
boys by 3:1. Local petrochemical manufacturing was suspected as the
(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A30)
1827 The U.S. and Great Britain
submitted the Maine and New Brunswick boundary dispute to
arbitration by the King of the Netherlands in 1827, whose compromise
was accepted by the British but rejected by the U.S.
1831 Mar 31, Quebec and
Montreal were incorporated.
1831 May 31, Captain John Ross,
English explorer, identified the magnetic north pole on the west
coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory.
1833 Aug 8, Lt. George Back and
his team reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake on their
expedition to find Arctic explorer Capt. John Ross.
(ON, 5/04, p.10)
1833 Aug 17, The first steam
ship to cross the Atlantic entirely on its own power, the Canadian
ship Royal William, began her journey from Nova Scotia to The Isle
1833 Aug 23, The British
Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug
1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the
West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to
enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US.
Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in
compensation for freeing their slaves.
(V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992,
p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)
1833 Oct, Capt. John Ross
(1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.
1833 John James Audubon visited
Canada’s Grand Manan Island off the southeast coast of New Brunswick
to see herring gulls nesting in trees.
(NH, 9/96, p.58)
1834 Mar 6, The city of York in
Upper Canada was incorporated as Toronto.
1834 Aug 1, The British
Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the
British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and
in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape
Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a
spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the
abolition of slavery.
(NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed,
1837 Mar 24, Canada gave blacks
the right to vote.
1837 Dec 29, Canadian
militiamen, claiming self-defense, destroyed the Caroline, a US
steamboat docked at Buffalo, N.Y. It was being used to ferry
supplies to anti-British rebels in Canada.
(AP, 12/29/97)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)
1838 Mar 3, Rebellion at Pelee
Island, Ontario, Canada.
1838 Canadian lumberjacks
entered the disputed Maine and New Brunswick territory in 1838 and
began lumbering operations. The arrest by Canadians of a
Maine-appointed agent sent into the area to force out the Canadians
marked the beginning of the undeclared conflict called the Aroostook
War, which saw the Nova Scotia legislature make war appropriations
and the U.S. Congress authorize a force of 50,000 men and $10
million. General Winfield Scott brokered a truce between Maine and
New Brunswick which averted a real war.
1839 Feb 12, Aroostook War took
place over a boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick. [see
1839 Nov 16, Louis-Honore
Frechette, Canadian poet, was born.
1841 Feb 10, Upper Canada and
Lower Canada were proclaimed united under an Act of Union passed by
the British Parliament.
1841 Jun 14, The first Canadian
parliament opened in Kingston.
1842 Aug 9, The United States
and Canada signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, resolving a border
dispute between Maine and Canada's New Brunswick.
(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ,
1843 Thomas Haliburton of
Windsor, Nova Scotia, published a novel that described local boys
playing hurley, an early form of hockey, behind Kings Edgehill
(WSJ, 1/23/02, p.A1)
1843 The Univ. of Michigan
enrolled its 1st international student. A Canadian joined the body
of 43 students.
(LSA, Fall/03, p.38)
1843 In Canada James McDermott
was convicted and hanged for the murder Dr. Thomas Kinnear and his
lover, Nancy Montgomery. Kinnear’s servant, 16-year-old Grace Marks,
was sentenced to life imprisonment for aiding and abetting her
fellow servant, James McDermott, in the murder. In 1996 Margaret
Atwood wrote a novel: "Alias Grace" based on the incident.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)
1844 Sep 25-1844 Sep 27, The
first int’l. cricket match was played between the USA and Canada at
the St George's Cricket Club, Bloomingdale Park, NY. Canada won by
1844-1885 Louis Riel, Metis leader, was born in
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)
1845 May 28, A fire in Quebec
Canada destroyed 1,500 houses.
1846 Jun 15, The United States
and Britain signed a treaty settling a boundary dispute between
Canada and the United States in the Pacific Northwest at the 49th
parallel. Great Britain and the U.S. agreed on a joint occupation of
Oregon Territory. President Polk agreed to a compromise border along
the 49th parallel. The debate over the northwestern border of the
United States. The campaign slogan "54-40 or fight" referred to the
debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The slogan
"54-40 or fight" refers to the north latitude degree and minute
where many Americans wanted to place the border between the U.S. and
then Great Britain in the Pacific Northwest.
(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(SFC, 1/25/99,
1846 Jun 15, Washington
diplomats established a straight line border between the US and
Canada in the northwest and thus established Point Roberts, Wa. as
the westernmost corner of the US. The enclave is 4.9 sq. miles.
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-6)
1846-1854 John Rae (b.1813), Scottish-born
explorer, helped map the western shore of Hudson’s Bay and the
Arctic over this period. He discovered the last link of the
Northwest Passage. In 2002 Ken McGoogan authored "Fatal Passage," an
account of Rae’s explorations.
(WSJ, 4/19/02, p.W10)
1846-1859 Ownership of the San Juan Islands was
not settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty. The Pig War of 1859 forced an
arbitration under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. Six Royal Marines and
16 US soldiers died during the 13-year occupation from drownings,
disease and suicides.
(SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T8)
1847 Jun 11, A written record
was found in 1859, indicating that Sir John Franklin died on this
day, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The
crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead
poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and
the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found. After
commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British
Admiralty posted a reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of
the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from
England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the
elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Franklin
commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British
Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. Subsequent
expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves
dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850 on Devon Island,
their headstones dated 1846. In 2010 Anthony Brandt authored “The
Man Who Ate His Boots: The Tragic History of the Search for the
Northwest Passage." The book pivoted around explorer John Franklin
(HNQ, 6/11/98)(HN, 6/11/99)(ON, 11/03, p.12)(SFC,
1848 Mar 29, Niagara Falls
stopped flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam in the Niagara River.
(HN, 3/29/98)(MC, 3/29/02)
1849 Jul 12, William Osler
(d.1919), physician, author (circulatory system), was born in
Canada. "The philosophies of one age have become the absurdities of
the next, and the foolishness of yesterday has become the wisdom of
(AP, 10/15/98)(MC, 7/12/02)
1850 May, An American
expedition, organized by shipping magnate Henry Grinnell, departed
to the Canadian Arctic to search for Sir John Franklin and his 1845
Expedition. In late August it joined with British rescue ships. They
soon found 3 graves dug into the permafrost of Beechey Island with
headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859,
indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and
Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been
attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the
solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129
crewmen have never been found.
(HNQ, 6/11/98)(ON, 6/09, p.3)
1851 Apr 23, Canada issued its
first postage stamp, the Three-Penny Beaver, which carried an image
of the beaver.
(CFA, '96, p.44)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.38)
1853 Nov 24, William Masterson
(Bat Masterson), journalist, gambler, frontier lawman, was born in
Henryville, Quebec. He died at his desk as a NYC sports reporter.
[see Nov 24, 1856]
(SFC, 8/2/97, p.E3)(MC, 11/24/01)
1854 Sep 27, The first great
disaster involving an ocean liner in the Atlantic occurred when the
steamship Arctic sank off the coast of Newfoundland with 300 people
aboard. It had collided in heavy fog with the French ship Vesta.
(AP, 9/27/97)(Arch, 7/02, p.7)(Arch, 9/02, p.6)
1854 The Investigator, deployed
in 1850 with a 66-man crew, was abandoned after being locked in the
grip of Arctic ice for two winters. The crew, led by Captain Robert
John LeMesurier McClure, left behind a cache of equipment and
provisions on the shore of what is now part of Aulavik National
Park. The British ship was sent to search for two lost vessels that
were part of Sir John Franklin's ill-fated 1845 Royal Navy
expedition to discover the Northwest Passage linking the Atlantic to
the Pacific through Canada's Arctic archipelago. Canadian
archeologists discovered the wreckage of the ship in 2010 at the
remote Mercy Bay site in the Northwest Territories.
1855 Dec 14, Ice hockey was
played by 2 military teams in Canada. [see 1875]
(CFA, ‘96, p.60)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
1856 Nov 24, Bat Masterson was
born in Quebec, Canada. [see Nov 24, 1853]
1857 Dec 31, Britain's Queen
Victoria decided to make Ottawa the capital of Canada.
1857 In Montreal, Canada, the
Anglican Christ Church Cathedral was constructed. In the 1980s it
was elevated on pylons to allow for an expansion of the underground
(SSFC, 10/9/05, p.D5)
1857 In British Columbia nine
American slaves arrived at Vesuvius Bay on Salt Spring Island to
make a fresh start in a new land. They were later joined by settlers
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T5)
1858 Aug 5, Cyrus W. Field
completed the first transatlantic cable. It linked Newfoundland to
Ireland. The line went completely dead in October. William Thompson
oversaw the operation at sea aboard the HMS Agamemnon, which laid
half the cable. The other half was laid by the USS Niagara. The
cables had been spliced at a central meeting point on June 26. A new
attempt to lay newly designed cable failed in 1865. Another attempt
in 1866 succeeded.
8/5/08)(ON, 10/10, p.2)
1858 Aug 16, A telegraphed
message from Britain’s Queen Victoria to President Buchanan was
transmitted over the recently laid trans-Atlantic cable. The cable
linked Ireland and Canada and failed after a few weeks.
1858 Gold was reported found on
the sand banks of the Fraser River in BC. The first Chinese arrived
in British Columbia seeking gold along the Fraser River.
(enRoute, 2/96, p.21)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T4)
1858 Canada developed its own
(Econ, 5/12/12, p.78)
1858 Britain made British
Columbia a crown colony.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T4)
1859 The Pig War on San Juan
Island forced an arbitration under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany, who
awarded the San Juan islands to the US. Six Royal Marines and 16 US
soldiers died during the 13-year occupation from drownings, disease
(SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T8)
1861 Nov 6, Dr. James Naismith
(d. Nov 28, 1939), Canadian physical education instructor, was born.
He invented the game of basketball in 1891.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/6/99)
1861 Dec 20, Transports were
loaded with 8,000 troops in England. They were setting sail for
Canada so that troops would be available if the "Trent Affair" was
not settled without war.
1862 Apr 19, Simon Fraser,
Canadian explorer, died.
1862 In Canada Billy Barker, a
former British sailor, struck gold in an area called Williams Creek
in British Columbia (Canada). The strike gave birth to the town of
(SSFC, 4/7/13, p.P4)
1863 Aug 12, 1st cargo of
lumber left Burrard Inlet in the Vancouver, BC area.
1864 Jun 29, In Canada the
St-Hilaire train disaster occurred near the town of
Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. The train, which had been carrying many
German and Polish immigrants, failed to acknowledge a stop signal
and fell through an open swing bridge into the Richelieu River. The
widely accepted death toll was 99 persons.
1864 Sep 1, The Charlottetown
Conference, convened in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was the
first of a series of meetings that ultimately led to the formation
of the Dominion of Canada.
1864 Oct 19, The northernmost
action of the American Civil War took place in the Vermont town of
St. Albans. A band of Confederates led by Kentuckian Bennett Young
raided the town near the Canadian border with the intent of robbing
three banks and burning the town. While they managed to leave town
and hide out in Canada with more than $200,000, their attempts to
burn down the town failed. Most of the raiders were captured and
imprisoned in Canada and later released after a court ruled the
robberies in St. Albans were acts of war.
1866 Jun 7, Irish Fenians
raided Pigeon Hill, Quebec.
1866 Oct 15, A great fire in
Quebec destroyed 2,500 houses.
1866 Colonel John O’Neill of
the Fenian Brotherhood--formerly of the U.S. cavalry--led a force of
Irish-Americans against this British-ruled Canada. A year after
America’s Civil War ended, scores of Irish Americans who had once
fought for the Union or the Confederacy joined forces against a new
1867 Mar 29, The British
Parliament passed the North America Act (later known as the
Constitution Act) to create the Dominion of Canada.
(HN, 3/29/98)(AP, 3/29/07)
1867 Jul 1, Canada became a
self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North
America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. A dispute with Manitoba
on territory in northwest Ontario was settled in 1889 on behalf of
Ontario. John Alexander Macdonald became the 1st prime minister.
1867 The Conservative Party of
Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A.
Macdonald. In 1942 it became the Progressive Conservative Party of
1867 Lacrosse was declared the
national game of Canada.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1868 Apr 7, Thomas D’Arcy
McGee, Irish patriot and author, was shot and killed in Ottawa,
Canada. Patrick J. Whelan, a Fenian sympathizer, was accused, tried,
convicted, and hanged for the crime. In 2008 David A. Wilson
authored Thomas D’Arcy McGee: Passion, Reason and Politics
1869 Apr 9, The Hudson Bay
Company ceded its territory to Canada.
1869 Nov 1, Louis Riel seized
Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion. Louis Riel,
Metis leader, helped stage an uprising against the influx of white
settlers in Manitoba that resulted in a provisional government that
he led. Manitoba was admitted as Canada’s 5th province and the Metis
were allocated 1.4 million acres of land, but Riel fled charged with
failing to stop the execution of Thomas Scott, an English Protestant
captured during the fighting.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)(HN, 11/1/98)(Reuters,
1869-1934 Marie Dressler, Canadian actress: "Never
one thing and seldom one person can make for a success. It takes a
number of them merging into one perfect whole."
1869-1944 Stephen Leacock, Canadian
humorist-educator: "If youth only had a chance or old age any
1870 Feb 12, An official
proclamation set April 15 as last day of grace for US silver coins
to circulate in Canada.
1870 May 25, Irish Fenians
raided Eccles Hill, Quebec.
1870 May 12, An act creating
the Canadian province of Manitoba was given royal assent, to take
effect in July.
1870 Jul 15, Manitoba entered
confederation as the fifth Canadian province.
1870 Sep 27, Henry T.P.
Comstock (50), Canadian silver prospector, died.
1870-1996 In Canada an estimated 150,000
indigenous children were wrenched from their homes over this period
and sent to Christian boarding schools, where many were sexually and
physically abused. In 2008 PM Stephen Harper delivered an
unqualified public apology.
(Econ, 6/14/08, p.50)
1871 Jul 20, British Columbia
joined Confederation as a Canadian province. Canada’s government
promised BC a railroad link to the eastern provinces as it joined
(AP, 7/20/97)(ON, 11/07, p.9)
1871 Emily Carr (d.1945),
Canadian artist and author, was born in Victoria. "You come into the
world alone and you go out of the world alone yet it seems to me you
are more alone while living than even going and coming."
(AP, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 9/23/01, p.T2)
1873 Mar 9, Royal Canadian
Mounted Police founded. [see May 23]
1873 Apr 1, The British White
Star steamship Atlantic, enroute to NYC from Liverpool with 811
passengers under Capt. James Agnew Williams (33), sank off Nova
Scotia killing 565 people, mostly women and children. A court of
inquiry suspended Williams for 2 years.
(ON, 4/03, p.7)
1873 May 23, Canada's North
West Mounted Police force was established. The North West Mounted
Police was formed by the Canadian government to protect new settlers
in the territory between Manitoba and British Columbia. [see Mar 9]
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1873 Jul 1, Prince Edward
Island became the 7th Canadian province.
1873 Louis Riel of Manitoba was
elected to the federal Parliament in Ottawa but lawmakers were
resentful of his 1869 uprising and moved to deny him his seat. This
led to a nervous breakdown and he spent three years in a mental
institution in Quebec.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)
1873 In Canada female property
owners in British Columbia got the right to vote in municipal
(Econ., 11/28/20, p.16)
1874-1950 William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian
statesman: "Government, in the last analysis, is organized opinion.
Where there is little or no public opinion, there is likely to be
bad government, which sooner or later becomes autocratic
1875 Mar 3, The 1st recorded
hockey game took place in Montreal. [see 1855]
1875 Aug 26, John Buchan
(d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a
writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his
spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace
without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make
(HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)
1875 Dec 17, Violent bread
riots took place in Montreal.
1875 Calgary was founded by
Troop F of the royal Northwest Mounted Police. They built a log fort
at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers to control illegal
whiskey traders operating from outposts with names like Fort
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1876 A city market was built In
St. John, New Brunswick. It was still active in 2000 and called the
Old City Market.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)
1876 In Canada the Indian Act
was enacted by the Parliament under the provisions of Section 91(24)
of the Constitution Act, 1867, which provides Canada's federal
government exclusive authority to legislate in relation to "Indians
and Lands Reserved for Indians." The statute concerns registered
Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and
the system of Indian reserves.
1877 May 7, Indian chief
Sitting Bull entered Canada with a trail of Indians after the Battle
of Little Big Horn.
1877 Aug 2, Sir James Douglas
(b.1803), the first provincial governor of British Columbia
(1858-1864), died. He was the son of a black woman from Barbados and
a Scottish planter.
(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1877 Oct 17, Brigadier General
Alfred Terry met with Sitting Bull in Canada to discuss the Indians'
return to the United States.
1879 May 25, W. Maxwell Aitken,
Lord Beaverbrook, Canada-English banker, was born.
1880 Aug, Eight Inuit from
Canada’s north-eastern coast agreed to travel to Europe to be
exhibits in a human zoo. They soon died from smallpox. The skeletons
of Abraham Ulrikab (1845-1881) and most of his companions were
rediscovered in 2014 fully mounted for display in the storerooms of
a French museum.
1880 Britain assigned all North
American Arctic islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island.
From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces
(Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon and
Nunavut), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba.
1881 Apr 11, River ferry
"Princess Victoria" sank in Thames River, Ontario, and 180 died.
[see May 24]
1881 May 24, Some 200 people
died when the Canadian ferry Princess Victoria sank near London,
Ontario. [see Apr 11]
1881 William Cornelius Van
Horne (1843-1915), Illinois-born railroad manager, joined the
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as general manager with the task of
managing the construction of the trans Canada railway.
1883 Nov 18, The United States
and Canada adopted a system of Standard Time zones. The railroad
companies got together and established standard railroad time to
increase safety and surmount complex scheduling on local times. This
put an end to “God’s time."
(HFA, '96, p.18)(NG, March 1990, p.115)(AP,
11/18/97)(WSJ, 3/31/05, p.D8)
1883 The first Brownie book was
published. Palmer Cox (1840-1924), Canadian illustrator and writer,
created the stories and drawings, which first appeared in 1879. 12
more books followed and in 1891 Cox registered the illustrations
under the new copyright law.
1883-1998 In Canada some 150,000 aboriginal
children were removed from their homes and put into residential
schools modelled on Victorian poor houses. Half were physically or
sexually abused. In 2008 a “truth and reconciliation commission" was
set up as part of a settlement of a class-action suit brought by
survivors against the government and the churches that operated the
schools. Hector-Louis Langevin (1826-1906), Secretary of State for
the Provinces, was the architect of the residential school program.
p.28)(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)
1884 Jul 25, Davidson Black,
doctor of anatomy (identified Peking Man), was born in Canada.
1884 In Canada the Quebec City
Armory was built. It was famous for having the largest suspended
wood ceiling in Canada. In 2008 it was destroyed by fire.
(SFC, 4/5/08, p.A2)
1884 Metis leaders in
Saskatchewan found Louis Riel in Montana and convinced him to set up
another provisional government.
1884 Joseph Burr Tyrell led the
first expedition for the Geological Survey of Canada to Alberta,
Canada. He found rich coal deposits and dinosaur remains along the
Red Deer River.
(CFA, ‘96, p.62)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N5)
1885 Mar 26, Louis Riel's
forces defeated Canadian forces at Duck Lake, Saskatchewan.
(SS, 3/26/02)(ON, 11/07, p.12)
1885 Apr 24, Metis rebels won a
major victory over Canadian troops at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan. The
troops had been shipped to the region by way of the new Canadian
(Reuters, 11/22/02)(ON, 11/07,
1885 May 9, In the Battle of
Batoche, Saskatchewan, Metis rebels ran out of ammunition and
resorted to firing pebbles from their guns, until they were forced
1885 May 15, Metis rebels
surrendered to Canadian forces.
(ON, 11/07, p.12)
1885 Jul 2, Canada's North-West
Insurrection ended with the surrender of Big Bear.
1885 Sep 15, Jumbo (b.~1860), a
circus elephant, was killed in Ontario, Canada, after being struck
by a goods train while being loaded into a circus carriage. In 2014
John Sutherland authored “Jumbo: The Unauthorized Biography of a
(Econ, 2/8/14, p.81)
1885 Nov 7, The Canadian
Pacific Railway completed its transcontinental rail line with the
last spike driven at the Rocky Mountain town of Craigellachie.
(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)(ON, 11/07, p.12)
1885 Nov 16, Canadian rebel
Louis Riel was executed for high treason after he led another
uprising that was crushed by a powerful militia.
(AP, 11/1697)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)
1885 Canada unjustly imprisoned
Cree Chief Poundmaker, or Pihtokahanapiwiyin, for treason. He was
jailed for seven months before being released because of bad health
in 1886 and died shortly after. In 2019 PM Justin Trudeau, who had
been criticized by some indigenous communities, apologized and
posthumously exonerated Chief Poundmaker.
1885 Canada began forcing tens
of thousands of Chinese, who helped build the nation's railroad, to
pay a "head tax" if they wished to remain in the country and then
taxed them again to bring in their families. It started at $50 and
by 1903 grew to $500. Collections ended in 1923, when immigration
from China was banned. Canada only began admitting Chinese again in
1947. On June 22, 2006, Canada apologized.
1885 In BC St. Paul’s Church
was built at Fulford. It was the first church on Salt Spring Island.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T5)
1885 Canada established Banff
National Park in central Alberta. In 2017 bison were re-introduced
to the park.
1886 Apr 6, The City of
Vancouver, Canada, was incorporated. The ceremony was delayed when
it was discovered no one had thought to bring paper on which to
write down the details. The ceremony was held in Jonathan Miller's
house. The population of the city was about 1,000.
1886 Jun 13, A swift fire
destroyed Vancouver, Canada, in a time variously reported between
twenty and forty-five minutes. At least eight people died, and some
accounts claim 28. About 1,000 wooden buildings, virtually the
entire city, were totally consumed.
1886 Jul 4, The 1st scheduled
Canadian transcontinental passenger train (CPR) reached Pt. Moody,
BC. It had left Montreal on June 28.
(ON, 11/07, p.12)
1886 The Passenger Vessel
Services Act (PSA) of this year required that cruise ships stopping
in at US ports be built and registered in the US, be owned by US
citizens and manned by American seamen—or that they stop at a
foreign port before returning passengers to their departure point.
It was designed to protect US ferry boats operating on the Great
Lakes from Canadian competition.
(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C10)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.B1)
1887 May 23, The 1st
transcontinental train arrived in Vancouver, BC.
1887 In Canada a mining blast
in Nanaimo killed 148 miners.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.27)
1888 The Banff Springs Hotel
opened in what later became Canada's first national park.
(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)
1889 In Canada a dispute with
Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled on behalf of
1889 In New Brunswick, Canada,
the Algonquin Hotel was built at the seaside resort of St. Andrews.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)
1889 A telegraph line connected
Victoria to India by way of an undersea cable from Bamfield.
(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)
1889 Canada’s Bank of Nova
Scotia opened a branch in Jamaica.
(Econ, 3/29/08, p.50)
1891 Dec 1, The Canadian, Dr.
James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the
game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor
provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC,
1892-1979 Mary Pickford, silent film actress, was
born as Gladys Marie Smith in Toronto. Her life is documented in the
1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen
(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)
1893 Jul 1, Canada enacted a
riot act as part of its criminal code.
(SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/lfqouh)
1893 Dec 5, 1st electric car
was built in Toronto. It could go 15 miles between charges.
1893 The baronial-style Royal
Victoria Hospital was built in Montreal, Canada, through the
financial donations of Scottish immigrants: the cousins Donald
Smith, 1st Lord Strathcona, and George Stephen, 1st Lord Mount
1893 Lord Stanley, the 6th
governor general of Canada, established the Stanley Cup. It was
presented to the champion hockey league team. The Stanley Cup, the
trophy of professional ice hockey‘s championship, is named for
Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston, governor general of
Canada. The trophy was first played for in 1893-94 and was won by
the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team. Since 1917, it has
gone to the winner of the National Hockey League playoffs.
(WSJ, 9/6/96, p.A1)(HNQ, 7/28/00)
1894 The Metropolitan United
Church was built in British Columbia. In 2000 it was taken over by
the Victoria Conservatory of Music.
(WSJ, 8/30/06, p.D8)
1895 Sep 18, John G.
Diefenbaker, conservative prime minister (13th) of Canada from 1957
to 1963, was born in Neustadt, Ontario.
(HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 9/18/01)
1895 A Parisian artist and 5
assistants completed a 15,400-sq.-foot circular painting of
Jerusalem at the moment of Christ’s crucifixion after 4 years of
work. It went on display at the St. Anne Museum in St. Anne de
(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T10)
1895-1957 J. Bartlet Brebner, Canadian historian:
"Americans are benevolently ignorant about Canada, while Canadians
are malevolently well-informed about the United States."
1896 Aug, 16, A white man from
California named George Carmack, a fellow not employed at anything
in particular, was hiking around northwest Canada’s Yukon River area
with his two Indian brothers-in-law "Skookum Jim" Mason and "Tagish
Charley." The three found gold on Rabbit Creek, a stream that feeds
the Yukon River near Dawson, Alaska.
1898 Jun 13, The Yukon
Territory of Canada was organized.
1900 Britain had 188 banks and
Canada had 35. Within 25 years half the banks in both countries had
(Econ, 11/10/12, p.78)
1901 Jan 23, A great fire
ravaged Montreal, resulting in $2.5 million in property lost.
1901 Oct 22, Charles Huggins,
US physician, was born in Canada.
1901 Oct 22, In Canada the A.J.
Goddard, a Yukon River stern-wheeler, sank during a winter storm in
Lake Laberge, 40 miles north of Whitehorse. 3 men perished in the
sinking, but 2 survived. It had been disassembled and carried it
thought the narrow White Pass in the winter of 1897. In 2008
archeologists found evidence of the ship. In 2009 divers found the
remains of the vessel.
1901 Dec 11, Marconi sent his
1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall, England to
Newfoundland, Canada. The first transmission failed, but another the
next day succeeded.
1901 Dec 12, Italian scientist
and engineer Guglielmo Marconi received the first long-distance
radio transmission in St. John's, Newfoundland. Electrical engineer
John Ambrose Fleming transmitted the Morse code signal for "s" from
across the Atlantic Ocean in England and Marconi heard it--three
short clicks--through a radio speaker. Marconi had begun
experimenting with radiotelegraphy around 1895, and he realized that
messages could be transmitted over much greater distances by using
grounded antennae on the radio transmitter and receiver. A few years
after the successful transmission with Fleming, Marconi opened the
first commercial wireless telegraph service.
1902 Jun 19, Guy Lombardo
(d.11/5/1977) Canadian bandleader was born in London, Ontario. He
played the sweetest music this side of heaven with his Royal
Canadians and sold over 100 million records.
1902-1979 Donald Creighton, Canadian historian:
"History is the record of an encounter between character and
1903 May 24, Arthur Vineberg,
Canadian heart surgeon, was born.
1903 Oct 20, A joint commission
ruled in favor of the United States in a boundary dispute between
the District of Alaska and Canada.
1904 Apr 8, Britain and France
signed a series of agreements dubbed the entente cordial. It marked
the end of almost a century of intermittent conflict between the two
nations and their predecessor states. King Edward VII gifted French
president Emile Loubet a richly-decorated casket to seal the deal.
It was in fact a series of agreements between Britain and France on
issues from colonialism in North Africa to fishing rights in
Newfoundland. The casket contained a roll of parchment inscribed
with a text celebrating Anglo-French friendship and, on the lid, a
golden sculpture, the allegorical figure of Peace crowning France
and Britain with laurels. The Entente cordiale, along with the
Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance, later became
part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and Russia.
1904 Apr 19, Much of Toronto
was destroyed by fire.
1904 In Canada St. Joseph's
Oratory was founded in Montreal by Andre Bessette. He was canonized
by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.
1904 Canada’s Parliament,
angered by soaring imports of cut-price steel, imposed punitive
tariffs on US steel.
1904 Canada's North West
Mounted Police force was renamed the Royal North West Mounted Police
by King Edward VII. With the incorporation of the federal
organization called the Dominion Police in 1920, the name Royal
Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1904 Edmonton, Canada, a
fur-trading hub and a center for agriculture and cattle, became a
(SSFC, 10/4/15, p.M4)
1904 In Victoria, British
Columbia, Jennie Butchart began a garden of peas and roses. The
garden grew to 55 acres of flower beds and became world famous.
(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.D7)
1905 Sep 1, Alberta and
Saskatchewan became the 8th and 9th Canadian provinces.
(Econ, 9/10/05, p.37)(AP, 9/1/06)
1905 Auto plants were opened in
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1906 Nov 22, The Canadian
steamship J.H. Jones went down during a storm on Lake Huron, near
Lion's Head, Ontario, with 30 people on board. Only one body was
ever found. In 2018 wreckage of the ship was found.
(http://tinyurl.com/y9lde8cu)(SFC, 9/17/18, p.A2)
1906 Dec 6, Lt. Thomas E.
Selfridge flew a powered, man-carrying kite that carried him 168
feet in the air for seven minutes at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.
1906 Dec 24, Canadian physicist
Reginald A. Fessenden became the first person to broadcast a music
program over radio, from Brant Rock, Mass.
1906 The steamer Valencia from
SF ran aground at bluffs on the west side of Vancouver Island. Many
of the passengers and crew made it to shore, but none of the 126
survived due to exposure.
(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)
1907 Apr 16, Joseph-Armand
Bombardier, inventor of the snowmobile, was born in Valcourt,
1907 Sep 15, Fay Wray (d.2004),
film actress, was born in Alberta, Canada. She became best known for
her 1933 performance in “King Kong."
(SFC, 8/10/04, p.B7)
1907 Oct 17, Guglielmo Marconi
began offering limited commercial wireless telegraph service between
Nova Scotia and Ireland.
1907 Nov 20, The McLaughlin
Motor Car Company was founded in Ontario, Canada, under Samuel
McLaughlin (1871-1972). In 1910 he became a director of General
Motors and sold his company in 1918 becoming president of General
Motors of Canada.
1907 The Royal Alexandria
Theater was built in Toronto, Canada.
(SFEC, 12/7/96, p.C21)
1907 Canada’s government
created a Marine Lifesaving Trail between Bamfield and Port Renfrew
on Vancouver Island to aid future shipwreck victims. The trail later
became part of the West Coast Trail.
(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)
1907 A great cantilever bridge
collapsed in Quebec killing 75 workers.
(MT, Summer/04, p.7)
1907 Glenn Curtiss, of New
York, joined with Alexander Graham Bell, F.W. Baldwin, Thomas
Selfridge, and John McCurdy, working in Nova Scotia, to found the
Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) to developing a practical flying
(ON, 12/11, p.10)
1908 Oct 15, John Kenneth
Galbraith, economist, writer and diplomat, was born in Canada. His
work included "A History of Economics" and "Affluent Society"
(1958). He won the Hillman Award in 1958. In 2005 Richard Parker
authored the biography “John Kenneth Galbraith: His Life, His
Politics, His Economics."
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(HN, 10/15/00)(WSJ, 2/22/05,
1908 Dec 6, First flight of the
Silverdart with Canadian JAD McCurdy at the controls.
1908 Assiniboine Park was built
in Winnipeg, Canada.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)
1909 Jan 9, The Silver Dart
made the 1st manned flight in Canada. It was funded by the Aerial
Experiment Association, founded by Alexander and Mabel Bell.
(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1909 Aug 25, Ruby Keeler,
dancer (Dames, 42nd Street), was born in Halifax, NS.
1909 Canada and the US signed a
Boundary Waters Treaty that set up an Int’l. Joint Commission to
deal with water disputes. Water was allowed to exit Lake Superior
through locks, power plants and gates on the St. Marys River, but in
amounts strictly regulated under the 1909 pact with Canada.
(Econ, 7/16/05, p.34)(AP, 8/3/07)
1910 The Flexner Report, a
book-length study of medical education in the US and Canada, led to
the overhaul of medical education. It was written under the aegis of
the Carnegie Foundation.
(Econ, 6/11/11, p.65)
1911 Feb 22, Canadian
Parliament voted to preserve the union with the British Empire.
1911 Jul 1, A proclamation
removed "Dei Gratia" from Canada's coins.
1911 Jul 18, Hume Cronyn, actor
(World According to Garp, Cocoon), was born in London, Ontario.
1911 Jul 21, Marshall McLuhan
(d.1980), Canadian English professor and communication theorist,
author of "The Medium is the Message," was born. He wrote the book:
"Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man." "Only the vanquished
(V.D.-H.K.p.357)(HN, 7/21/98)(AP, 4/11/00)
1911 Oct 10, Sir Robert Borden
(1854-1937) began serving as Canada's prime minister and continued
to 1920. In 2011 his image was placed on the front of a Canadian
1912 May 26, Jay Silverheels
(d.1980) was born as Harold J. Smith on the Six Nations Indian
Reservation, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. He was the son of a Mohawk
Indian chief and became an actor who portrayed Tonto on "The Lone
1912 Jun 6, In Alaska the
Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the
eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across
southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful
volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada
and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash.
(http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)
1912 Aug 21, Mr. Carter-Cotton
was chosen as 1st chancellor of Univ. of British Columbia.
1912 The 1st Calgary Stampede
began as a rodeo organized by American Guy Weadick, a trick roper.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1912 Dofasco was founded in
Canada as the Dominion Steel Casting Co. to make railway parts. In
2006 it accepted a bid by Arcelor, a European steel giant.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)
1913 Apr 25, Russ Conway
Brandon, actor (Richard Diamond Private Eye), was born in Manitoba.
1913 The Bain Morgan bath house
in Montreal was constructed for C$300,000.
(Hem., 12/96, p.64)
1914 May 9, Clarence Eugene
Snow (d.1999), later known as singer Hank Snow (I Went to Your
Wedding), was born in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. His songs included the
1950 hit "I'm Moving On."
(SFC, 12/21/99, p.A27)(MC, 5/9/02)
1914 May 29, The Canadian ship
Empress of Ireland sank while enroute to Quebec City to Liverpool
after colliding with the Norwegian coal freighter Storstad. 1,012
(1,024) of the 1,500 passengers and crew were killed. The site of
the tragedy was proclaimed a protected historic and archeological
site by Quebec in 1999.
(SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)(SC, 5/29/02)
1914 Aug 4, Britain and Belgium
declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States
proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its
dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South
Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news
of a run on the Bank of England.
(HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14,
p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)
1914 The Grand Trunk Railway
established Prince Rupert in British Columbia.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T5)
1915 Feb 12, Lorne Greene,
actor (Bonanza, Battlestar Galactica), was born in Ottawa, Canada.
1915 Jul 10, Saul Bellow,
Pulitzer Prize-winning American author and writer of Jewish moral
and social alarm, was born in Montreal. "A man is only as good as
what he loves." In 2000 James Atlas authored "Bellow: A biography."
(AP, 9/30/98)(HN, 7/10/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, BR
1915 Sep 11, Sir William
Cornelius Van Horne, former president of the CPR, died in Montreal.
His mansion was on Minister’s Island in New Brunswick, Canada. The
American-born Van Horne had managed the construction of Canada’s
transcontinental railway (1881-1886). Van Horne was buried in
1915 Sep 19, Elizabeth Stern,
Canadian pathologist, was born. She first published a case report
linking a specific virus to a specific cancer.
1916 Feb 3, Canada's original
parliament buildings, in Ottawa, burned down.
1916 May 1, Glenn Ford, actor,
was born in Quebec, Canada. He starred in the film "The Blackboard
(HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)
1917 Mar 27, The Seattle
Metropolitans became the first U.S. team to win the Stanley Cup as
they defeated the Montreal Canadiens.
1917 Apr 9, Battle of Arras
began as Canadian troops launched a massive assault on Vimy Ridge in
France. The assault brought four Canadian divisions fought together
for the first time and cost 10,600 lives. The Canadians succeeded in
battling through snow and sleet to push out the Germans who had long
held the strategic post.
8/2/14, p.45)(AP, 4/8/17)
1917 May 21, Raymond Burr,
actor, was born in BC, Canada. He played Perry Mason on television.
(HN, 5/21/99)(MC, 5/21/02)
1917 Mar 27, The Seattle
Metropolitans became the first US team to win the Stanley Cup as
they defeated the Montreal Canadiens.
1917 Aug 29, Canada’s PM Robert
Borden introduced the Military Service Act. The Act was passed:
allowing the government to conscript men across the country if the
PM felt that it was necessary.
1917 Dec 6, In Nova Scotia some
2000 people were killed and thousands wounded following an explosion
in Halifax harbor. The Imo, a Norwegian freighter ship, had collided
with the French munitions ship Mont Blanc and a fire soon caused a
massive explosion. A local court found Captain Le Medec of the Mont
Blanc and other defendants guilty of the collision. Canada’s Supreme
Court ruled that the captains of both ships were equally to blame. A
Privy Council in London ruled that Le Medec had done nothing
(EWH, 4th ed, p.1054)(ON, 7/05, p.7)(AP, 12/6/07)
1918 Jan 1, Canada’s Unionist
government began to enforce the Military Service Act.
1918 Jan 28, Lieutenant Colonel
John McCrae (b.1872), Canadian MD and author of the poem Flanders
Field (1915), died.
1918 May 15, Joseph Wiseman,
actor (Dr No, Viva Zapata, Les Miserables), was born in Montreal.
1918 Oct 25, The Canadian
steamship Princess Sophia foundered off the coast of Alaska; some
350 people perished.
1918 Vancouver workers staged a
general strike after a union organizer was killed under mysterious
circumstances by a posse seeking draft dodgers outside the mining
town of Cumberland.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1918 William Faulkner
(1897-1962), American novelist, enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air
Force as a cadet pilot. Before he finished his basic training, World
War I ended and he returned to his home in Oxford, Mississippi.
Faulkner, born in New Albany, Mississippi, was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1949 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1955.
Faulkner died July 6, 1962.
1919 May 5, George London,
bass-baritone (The Flying Dutchman, Wotan, Scarpia. Rigoletto), was
born in Montreal, Canada.
1919 Jun 14, Pilot John William
Alcock (1892-1919) and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948)
took off from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for Clifden, Ireland, on the
first nonstop transatlantic flight. The flight lasted 16 hours and
28 minutes and carried the first transatlantic airmail. They won a
10 thousand pound prize, first offered by the Daily Mail in 1913.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)
1919 Jun 15, British Captain
John Alcock (26) and navigator Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown (32)
completed the world's first non-stop transatlantic flight in a
groundbreaking journey between Newfoundland in Canada and Ireland.
1919 Oct 18, Pierre Elliott
Trudeau, (L) 15th Canadian PM (1968-79, 1980-84), was born.
1919-1990 Laurence J. Peter, Canadian-born
educator and author of "The Peter Principle" Thought for Today: "A
pessimist is a man who looks both ways when he's crossing a one-way
1920 Feb 1, The Royal North
West Mounted Police was formed as the Royal Northwest Mounted Police
merged with Dominion Police and incorporated as the federal
organization called the Dominion Police. The name Royal Canadian
Mounted Police was adopted.
(AP, 2/1/97)(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)(MC,
1920 Feb 7, Oscar Brand, folk
vocalist (Draw Me a Laugh), was born in Winnipeg, Canada.
1920 Rural Canadian physician
Dr. Frederick G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting
insulin from the pancreas. It took him and 3 others 8 months to
develop the process.
(HNPD, 1/23/99)(SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5)
1920 Solomon Frank Samuels
(S.F. Samuels) founded the Reliable Toy Co. in Toronto.
(SFC, 2/7/07, p.G7)
1920 The first Arctic onshore
oil wells were sunk in Canada’s Mackenzie River valley.
(Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.13)
1921 May 12, Farley Mowat,
Canadian nature writer (Never Cry Wolf), was born.
1921 May 17, Toronto's Dr.
Banting (1891-1941) and graduate student Charles Best (1899-1978)
began research at the Univ. of Toronto that led to their discovery
of insulin. [see Jul 27] In 1982 Michael Bliss authored “The
Discovery of Insulin."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Banting)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)
1921 Jul 27, Canadians Sir
Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin at the
University of Toronto.
1921 Aug 10, Franklin D.
Roosevelt (39) was stricken with polio at his summer home on the
Canadian island of Campobello, New Brunswick. Mrs. Roosevelt acted
as her partially paralyzed husband’s eyes and ears by traveling,
observing and reporting her observations to him. As First Lady, an
author and newspaper columnist and, later, a delegate to the United
Nations, Eleanor Roosevelt labored tirelessly for the poor and
disadvantaged. In the words of historian John Kenneth Galbraith, she
showed "more than any other person of her time, that an American
could truly be a world citizen."
(HNPD, 10//99)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D11)
1921 Oct 13, The Daily Colonist
in Victoria BC mentioned the term "cold turkey" in reference to
quitting an addiction. This was the first know use of the term in
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
1921 The lions in the Royal
Arms of Canada were designed by a committee of Parliament and
proclaimed by King George V.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A6)
1921-1926 W.L. Mackenzie King, Liberal Party,
served as the 10th Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ‘96, p.81)
1922 Jan 11, Insulin, then
called isletin, was 1st used to treat diabetes on Leonard Thompson
(14) of Canada. [see Jan 23]
1922 Jan 23, The first
successful test on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a 2nd
dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson
(14). Following the birth of an idea and nine months of
experimentation, and through the combined efforts of four men at the
University of Toronto, Canada, insulin for the treatment of diabetes
was first discovered and later purified for human use. Rural
Canadian physician Dr. F.G. Banting first conceived the idea of
extracting insulin from the pancreas in 1920. He and his assistant
C.H. Best prepared pancreatic extracts to prolong the lives of
diabetic dogs with advice and laboratory aid from Professor J.J.R.
Macleod. The crude insulin extract was purified for human testing by
Dr. J.B. Collip. Insulin, now made from cattle pancreases, lifted
the death sentence for diabetes sufferers around the world.
1922 Aug 2, Alexander Graham
Bell (b.1847), Scottish-US physicist (telephone), died in Nova
Scotia. He and Gardiner Hubbard, his father-in-law, were the
founders of the National Geographic Society.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1922 Sep 1, Yvonne De Carlo,
actress (10 Commandments, Munsters) was born in Vancouver, BC.
1922 Nov 11, Canada’s Vernon
McKenzie urged fighting U.S. propaganda with taxes on U.S.
1922 Mennonites from Canada and
Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)
1923 Apr 25, Melissa Hayden,
ballerina (1961 Silver Bowl), was born in Toronto, Canada.
1923 Jul, In Canada an
officially sanctioned chuckwagon race started at the Calgary
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F4)
1923 The Canadian Government
Motion Picture Bureau was formed.
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1924 Jul 24, Palmer Cox
(b.1840), Canadian artist and writer, died. He wrote and illustrated
children’s stories about brownies, little elves from Scottish
folklore. 2 dozen of his stories were collected and published in
1887 as “The Brownies: Their Book." His characters inspired the name
for a Kodak camera and for young girl scouts.
1924 The Saskatchewan Wheat
Pool was established as a grain handling, agri-food processing and
marketing company based in Regina, Saskatchewan. In 2007 it became
known as Viterra. In 2012 it was taken over by Swiss-based Glencore.
1925-1933 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, was used by Al
Capone-led mobsters to store liquor for smuggling to the US on the
Soo Line. Underground tunnels, built for steam heating the city,
were converted mob quarters. In 2000 "The Tunnels of Moose Jaw"
opened as a tourist attraction.
(WSJ, 8/19/02, p.B1)
1926 Jun 3, Colleen Dewhurst,
actress (Maggie-Blue & Grey), was born in Montreal, Canada.
1926 Jul 21, Norman Jewison,
Canadian film director (Moonstruck, ...and Justice For All), was
born in Toronto.
1926 Oct 29, Jonathan Stewart
Vickers, tenor, was born in Prince Albert, Canada.
1926 Johnny Miles (d.2003 at
97) of Canada won the Boston Marathon.
(BS, 6/26/03, 7A)
1926 A government crises put
the governor general into a position to fire the prime minister.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)
1927 Jan 9, Fire in Laurier
Palace cinema in Montreal killed 78 children.
1927 Feb 18, The U.S. and
Canada established diplomatic relations independently of Great
1927 Aug 7, The Peace Bridge
between the United States and Canada was dedicated during ceremonies
attended by the Prince of Wales, Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie
King and US Vice President Charles Dawes.
1927 Nov 12, Canada was
admitted to the League of Nations.
1927 Thomas Barnett, a natural
history enthusiast, founded the Niagara Falls Museum in an old
brewery. Its Egyptian collection was sold in 1999 to Georgia’s Emory
(AM, 9/01, p.23)
1927 William Wrigley, gum
magnate, staged a swimming race between Catalina Island and the
California coast, which measured over 20 miles. George Young (17) of
(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.W4)
1928 Mar 31, Gordie Howe, NHL
right wing (Detroit Redwings), was born in Floral, Sask., Canada.
1928 May 4, Maynard Ferguson,
jazz trumpeter (Roulette), was born in Verdun, Quebec.
1928 Jun 3, Commander Amelia
Earhart departed with pilot Bill Stultz from Boston Harbor to
Halifax, Nova Scotia, and then to Trepassey, Newfoundland. From
there on June 17 they embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from
Newfoundland to the British Isles.
(AP, 6/17/97)(HNQ, 3/8/02)(ON, 12/07, p.8)
1928 Jun 17, Amelia Earhart
embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Ireland as
a passenger. They landed the next day in Wales
(AP, 6/17/97)(ON, 12/07, p.9)
1928 Aug 7, Amazing Randi
(James Randi), skeptic magician (Nova), was born in Toronto,
1928 Dec 20, 1st international
dogsled mail left Minot, Maine, for Montreal.
1928-1972 The Alberta Sterilization Act caused
over 2,000 Albertans to be sterilized in order to prevent the
mentally handicapped from passing on potentially defective genes. In
1998 the government agreed to compensate nearly 500 people who were
sterilized without their consent.
(SFC, 6/6/98, p.A11)
1929 Jan 2, The United States
and Canada reached agreement on joint action to preserve Niagara
1929 Mar 22, A US Coast Guard
vessel sank a Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor.
1929 Jun 7, John Turner, (L)
17th Canadian PM (1984), was born in Richmond, England.
1929 Nov 11, The Ambassador
Bridge, linking Detroit, Michigan, to Windsor, Ontario, Canada, was
completed and opened for traffic 4 days later. Financier Joseph
Bower led the project which became the longest suspension bridge in
the world, exceeding by 100 feet the Philadelphia-Camden Bridge
completed in 1926.
1929 Dec 13, Christopher
Plummer, actor (Sound of Music, Doll's House), was born in Toronto.
1929 Dec 31, Guy Lombardo and
his Royal Canadians played "Auld Lang Syne" as a New Year’s Eve song
for the first time. Scottish poet Robert Burns is credited with
writing the song, although a similar poem by Robert Ayton
(1570-1638), not to mention even older folk songs, use the same
phrase, and may well have inspired Burns. The literal translation
means "old long since" which less literally meant "days gone by."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auld_Lang_Syne)(WSJ, 12/29/06, p.W10)
1929 The pilot of a Fokker C.IV
crashed in Vancouver, Canada, during an attempt to fly nonstop from
Seattle to Tokyo. The 1923 plane became a tourist attraction, then
burned and ended up in Maine, where it was restored for the Owls
Head Transportation Museum.
(SFC, 9/13/07, p.E3)
1930 Jul 25, Maureen Forrester,
contralto (Resurrection Symphony), was born in Montreal, Canada.
1930 Jul 29, The US Coast Guard
towed the Canadian rum-runner Ray Roberts into SF with a cargo of
1,050 cases of whiskey.
(SFC, 7/29/05, p.F7)
1930s-1950s Maurice Duplessis served as the
autocratic premier of Quebec.
(SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)
1931 Jan 27, Mordecai Richler
(d.2001), Montreal author, (Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz), was
1931 Jun 7, Lang Jeffries,
actor (Skip-Rescue 8), was born in Ontario, Canada.
1931 Jul 2, Robert Ito, actor
(Sam-Quincy ME), was born in Vancouver, BC.
1931 Jul 10, Alice Munro,
Canadian writer (Open Secrets, Friend of my Youth), was born.
1931 Nov 12, Maple Leaf Gardens
opened in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as the new home of the Maple
Leafs of the National Hockey League.
1931 Dec 11, The Statute of
Westminster recast the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations.
1931 Saskatchewan was the 3rd
most populous province in Canada, but then the depression and
drought ushered in 8 decades of decline.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.51)
1932 May 20, Amelia Earhart
took off from Newfoundland to become the first woman to fly solo
across the Atlantic. Because of weather and equipment problems,
Earhart set down in Northern Ireland after 13 ½ hours instead of her
intended destination, France.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 5/20/01)(AP, 5/20/07)(ON,
1932 Jul 18, The United States
and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.
1933 Dec 21, Newfoundland
reverted to being a crown colony.
1933 Wilf Carter (aka Montana
Slim, 1905-1996), Canadian singer, had his songs "Swiss Moonlight
Lullaby" and "The Capture of Albert Johnson" released by RCA Victor.
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)
1934 Jan 11, John Chretien was
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)
1934 Apr 11, Mark Strand
(b.1934), Canadian poet, was born. He became the fourth national
poet laureate in 1990, and received dozens of angry letters when he
announced that he would not write any poems for national public
figures, even if the president's dog died. "Poetry is about slowing
down. You sit and you read something, you read it again, and it
reveals a little bit more, and things come to light you never could
1934 May 28, The Dionne
quintuplets -- Annette, Cecile, Emilie, Marie and Yvonne -- were
born to Elzire Dionne at the family farm in Ontario, Canada. The
were children removed from their parents by the Ontario government
and put on public display, before paying customers, at a
theme-like-park called Quintland. In 1998 3 surviving sisters
accepted a $2.8 million settlement from the Ontario government.
1935 Mar 16, John J.R. Macleod
(58), Scottish-Canadian physiologist (Nobel 1923), died.
1935 Apr 2, Sharon Acker,
actress (Della Street-Perry Mason 1973), was born in Toronto,
1935 Jul 17, Donald Sutherland,
actor (M*A*S*H, Body Snatchers), was born in Saint John, New
1935 John Buchan (1875-1940),
Scottish novelist and Unionist politician, became Governor General
of Canada and was created Baron Tweedsmuir. Canadian PM William Lyon
Mackenzie King had wanted him to go to Canada as a commoner, but
King George V insisted on being represented by a peer.
1935 Canada’s wheat growers set
up a state-run, but voluntary body, to market their crops
collectively and get better prices. In 1943 the Canadian Wheat Board
(CWB) became compulsory.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.59)
1936 Jan 14, American explorer
Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were
rescued by the research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the
first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to
the Ross Sea, landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited
in the previously constructed shelter at Little America for a month
to be picked up. After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica
failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon in the monoplane Polar
Star and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and
Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named the Ellsworth
1936 The Canadian Broadcasting
Corp. (CBC) was founded.
(Econ, 6/8/13, p.42)
1937 Jun 29, Joseph-Armand
Bombardier received notification that the Canadian government had
granted his patent request for his snowmobile (une autoneige).
(ON, 4/03, p.6)
1937 “Bill" Griffith P. Taylor,
an Australian-Canadian, built his automatic block setting crane: the
“Meccano Robot Gargantua." An article describing the crane was
published in the March 1938 issue of Meccano Magazine.
1937 Americans Robert H. Bates
and Bradford Washburn reached the summit of Mount Lucania in
Canada’s Yukon Territory. At this time Lucania was the highest
unscaled peak in North America. They were forced by weather to hike
some 100 miles for their return. Bates had joined Washburn in 1935
to map the Yukon Territory for the National Geographic
(WSJ, 9/29/07, p.A6)
1938 Aug 18, President
Roosevelt dedicated the Thousand Islands Bridge connecting the
United States and Canada.
1938 Nov 17, Gordon Lightfoot,
folksinger (Sundown), was born in Ontario, Canada.
1938 William Lyon Mackenzie
King served as prime minister and suffered from arthritis.
(G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)
1938 Prime Minister Mackenzie
invited Scottish documentarian John Grierson to assess the Canadian
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1939 Mar 7, Guy Lombardo and
Royal Canadians made the 1st recording of "Auld Lang Syne."
1939 May 17, Britain's King
George VI and Queen Elizabeth arrived in Quebec on the first visit
to Canada by reigning British sovereigns.
1938 May 26, Teresa Stratas,
[Anastasia Stratakis], soprano (Salome), was born in Toronto.
1938 Aug 18, President
Roosevelt and Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King dedicated the
Thousand Islands Bridge connecting the United States and Canada.
1939 Jun 4, During what became
known as the "Voyage of the Damned," the SS St. Louis, carrying 907
Jewish refugees from Germany, was turned away from the Florida
coast. Also denied permission to dock in Canada and Cuba, the ship
eventually returned to Europe. The passengers were divided among
England, France, Belgium and Holland and a number of the refugees
later died in Nazi concentration camps. By 2003 efforts to track
their fates identified 935 out of the 937 passengers. Some 260 ended
in Nazi killing centers.
(AP, 6/4/99)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.D3)(SSFC, 12/7/03,
Par p.5)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.44)
1939 Sep 10, Canada declared
war on Nazi Germany.
1939 Dec 23, The first Canadian
troops arrived in Britain.
1939 The National Film Board
(NFB) was formed as a successor to the Canadian Government Motion
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1940 May 14, Emma Goldman,
anarchist revolutionary, author (Living My Life), died in Toronto
and was buried in Chicago. In 1974 Carol Bolt wrote a play on the
formative years of Emma titled: "Red Emma: Queen of the Anarchists."
In 1995 Ms. Bolt wrote a libretto based on the play for an opera
with music by Gary Kulesha. In 1961 Richard Drinnon authored "Rebel
In Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman." In 1971 Alex Shulman
authored "To the Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman."
(WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(ON, 4/00, p.5)(MC,
1940 Jun 10, Italy declared war
on France and Britain; Canada declared war on Italy.
1940 Jun 11, Princess Juliana
of the Netherlands arrived in Canada as an exile.
1940 Aug 17, President
Roosevelt and Canadian Prime Minister William Mackenzie King met in
Ogdensburg, N.Y., where they agreed to set up a joint defense
1940 Herbert Yardley, American
cryptographer, was hired to help set up Canada’s wartime
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.41)
1940-1959 During this period in Quebec thousands
of poor or illegitimate children were falsely labeled as mentally
deficient and sent to church-run psychiatric institutions under the
government of Maurice Duplessis. More federal funds were thus
secured for their assistance. In 2001 some 1000 surviving victims
accepted a government offer of $16,650 each in compensation for
(SFC, 7/2/01, p.B1)
1941 Jan 3, Canada & US
acquired air bases in Newfoundland with a 99 year lease.
1941 Aug 2, Buffy Sainte-Marie,
folksinger and songwriter, was born in Saskatchewan, Canada.
1941 Aug 9, US President
Franklin Roosevelt and PM Winston Churchill met at Placentia Bay,
Newfoundland. Their meeting produced the August 14 Atlantic Charter,
an agreement between the two countries on war aims, even though the
US was still a neutral country.
1941 Dec 25, Free French
occupied the French Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon off the
1941 Dec 25, Japan announced
the surrender of the British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong. Major
John Crawford (d.1997) and some 1,975 Canadian soldiers were
captured and incarcerated at the Sham Shui Po prison camp at Kowloon
for 44 months.
(G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/25/02)(AP,
1941 Jul 30, Paul Anka, singer
and song-writer, was born in Ottawa. He later composed the song "My
(G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)
1941 The NFB won its first
Oscar for the film "Churchill's Island."
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1942 Mar 3, Canada's Avro
Lancaster military plane made its 1st combat flight.
1942 Jul 1, Genevieve Bujold,
actress (King of Hearts, Choose Me, Coma), was born in Montreal.
1942 Jul 5, Ian Fleming
graduated from a training school for spies in Canada.
1942 Aug 19, About 5,000
Canadian and 2,000 British soldiers launched a disastrous raid
against the Germans at Dieppe, France. Over 3,600 men perished in
this battle. The information gathered from this landing was
considered valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in
Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy, France. Brit. Col. Pat
Porteous (d.2000) received a Victoria Cross for his valor in the
attack which was aimed at gaining experience for the later D-Day
(AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/98)(SFC, 10/16/00,
1942 Oct 1, At Frobisher Bay,
Baffin Island, Canada, the US Air Force Crystal II Radar Base was
established as part of the defensive DEW Line Project. The air base
was closed in 1963. The site was renamed Iqaluit in 1987 and in 1999
became the capital city of the Inuit-run territory of Nunavut.
1942 Nov 2, An amphibious
aircraft foundered in rough weather, in the waters surrounding what
is now the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the eastern
Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The plane was based at Presqu'Ile, Maine, in
the US, and serviced an airfield in the village of
Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan, Quebec. Four of the crew escaped the
flooding plane and were rescued by local fishermen rowing out from
shore in open boats in rough seas. Five others perished, trapped
inside. In 1941 and 1942, the US had constructed a series of
airfields in Eastern Canada to ferry aircraft to Allied air forces
in Northern Europe, as part of the so-called "Crimson Route."
Wreckage of the downed plane was found in 2009.
1942 Nov 21, The
Alaska-Canadian Highway across Canada was formally opened.
(HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/21/97)
1942 Dec 10, The Progressive
Conservative Party of Canada was founded. The party had begun as the
Conservative Party of Canada in 1867, becoming Canada's first
governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, In 2003 it was
dissolved under PM Stephen Harper and merged into the Conservative
party of Canada.
1942-1945 Some 22,000 Japanese-Canadians were
interred during WW II. Their property was confiscated and sold to
pay for the camps. At the end of the war they were not allowed to
return to their former communities. The 1981 novel "Obasan" by Joy
Kogawa was about their experiences.
(SFC, 2/8/99, p.E1,3)
1943 Jan 13, The Canadian
corvette Ville de Quebec rammed the German U-224 submarine, which
sank in the Mediterranean Sea with 57 of its crew. German Lt. Wolf
Danckworth was the only survivor. Years later Danckworth established
contact with Canadian sailor Frank Arsenault, who was on the Ville
de Quebec when it rammed the sub, and the two became good friends.
(SFC, 12/25/10, p.C1)
1943 Mar 19, Airship Canadian
Star was torpedoed and sank.
1943 Nov 7, Joni Mitchell,
singer, songwriter, was born as Roberta J. Anderson in Alberta,
1943 J.T. McCurdy
(1886-1947), Canadian psychiatrist, authored "The Structure of
Morale," an objective analysis of the nature of the
psychological factor in war.
1944 Jun 6, The code name for
the beach used by the Canadians for the D-day invasion of Normandy
1944 Jun 6, By the end of D-Day
156,000 Allied soldiers had come ashore on the Normandy beaches with
losses of 2,500 men. By the end of the day, the Allies had
established a tenuous beachhead that would lead to an offensive that
pinned Adolf Hitler's Third Reich between two pincers--the Western
Allies and the already advancing Soviets--accelerating the end of
World War II. A million Allied troops, under the overall command of
General Dwight D. Eisenhower, moved onto five Normandy beachheads in
three weeks. Operations “Neptune" and “Overlord" put forces on the
beaches and supplies aimed at the liberation of Europe and the
conquest of Germany. Operation Overlord landed 400,000 Allied
American, British, and Canadian troops on the beaches of Normandy,
France. In addition, US and British airborne forces landed behind
the German lines and US Army Rangers scaled the cliffs at Pointe de
Hoc. More than 6,000 trucks of the Red Ball Express kept gasoline
and other vital supplies rolling in as American troops and tanks
pushed the Germans back toward their homeland.
(SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)(HN, 6/6/98)(HNPD,
6/6/99)(ON, 2/08, p.12)
1944 Aug 4, A Halifax JP-276A
took off on its final flight from the Italian city of Brindisi
around 8 p.m., to drop weapons, ammunition and medical supplies for
resistance fighters involved in the Warsaw Uprising against the
Nazis. The plane was shot down by Poland's Nazis occupiers and
crashed near the town of Dabrowa Tarnowska, in southern Poland.
Remnants were recovered in 2006 and the remains of the crew, 5
Canadians and 2 Britons, were formally buried in 2007.
1944 Sep 11, President
Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill met in Canada at the
second Quebec Conference.
1944 Sep 12, The second Quebec
Conference opened with President Roosevelt and British Prime
Minister Winston Churchill in attendance.
1944 Sep 27, Aimee Semple
McPherson (b.1890), Canadian and US evangelist and faith healer,
died at age 53.
1945 Apr 12, Canadian troops
liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
1945 Apr 15, British and
Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at
Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north
of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp,
although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000
people died in Belsen.
(AHD, p.122)(AP, 4/17/05)
1945 Apr 17, Canadian lead
tanks roll into Apeldoorn, Netherlands, loudly cheered by relieved
1945 Oct 23, Jackie Robinson
signed a Montreal Royal contract.
1945 Nov 12, Neil Percival
Young, musician, singer and song writer, was born in Toronto. His
rock groups later included "Buffalo Springfield," "Crosby, Stills,
Nash and Young" and "Crazy Horse." In 2002 Jimmy McDonough authored:
"Shakey: Neil Young’s Biography."
(SSFC, 5/12/02, p.M1)
1945 Russian code clerk Igor
Gouzenko defected to Canada and Elizabeth Bentley changed her role
from Soviet courier to FBI informant. They helped the West gain an
understanding of Soviet spy rings in North America.
(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A22)
1946 Feb 15, Royal Canadian
mounted police arrested 22 as Soviet spies.
1946 Apr 18, Jackie Robinson
debuted as 2nd baseman for the Montreal Royals.
1946 Oct 20, Anne Murray,
country singer (Snowbird), was born in Springhill, Nova Scotia.
1946 Nov 8, In Canada Viola
Desmond (1914-1965) rejected racial discrimination by sitting in a
whites-only section of a New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, movie theatre.
She was arrested and fined. In 2010 she was granted a posthumous
pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.
1946 A dissenting Mormon sect
from Utah set up a community practicing polygamy in Bountiful, BC,
Canada. In 2009 2 leaders of the Bountiful commune appeared in court
to answer criminal charges.
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.44)
1946 Ben Weider (d.2008 at 85)
and his brother Joe, Canadian body builders, co-founded the
International Brotherhood of Body Builders (IFBB). In 1968 they
brought Austrian body builder Arnold Schwarzenegger to California.
(SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B6)
1946 Lincoln Toys began
operating in Walkerville, Ont., and continued to 1958.
(SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)
1947 Jan 1, Canada’s
Citizenship Act of this year became effective. It said that citizens
living outside Canada on their 24th birthday would automatically
lose their citizenship unless they filled out a form saying they
wished to keep it. The law was amended in 1977 and raised the age
factor to 28.
1947 William Ormond Mitchell
(d.1998 at 83) published his first novel "Who Has Seen the Wind." It
was about a boy on the prairies who comes to grips with birth,
death, justice and faith.
(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A19)
1947 Canada’s Montreal
mayor-to-be Jean Drapeau declared food trucks to be unsanitary and
undignified. The Montreal ban on food trucks ended in 2013.
(SSFC, 6/23/13, p.A4)
1948 Jun 3, Newfoundland and
Labrador voted by a slim margin to relinquish status as a British
colony and to become the 10th province of Canada.
1948 Nov 15, William Lyon
Mackenzie King retired as prime minister of Canada after 21 years;
he was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent.
1948 In Canada the Giant Mine
in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, opened for the production of
gold. Canada took over the mine in 1999 after it went bankrupt.
(Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)
1949 Mar 31, Newfoundland,
later called Newfoundland and Labrador, left the UK and entered
confederation as Canada's 10th province. In 1998 Wayne Johnston
authored “The Colony of Unrequited Dreams," a novel about
postconfederation Newfoundland and its 1st premier, Joe Smallwood.
In 2000 Johnston authored “Baltimore’s Mansion," a personal memoir
(SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)(AP, 3/31/08)
1949 Apr 4, The (NATO) North
Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great
Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy,
Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for
mutual defense against aggression and for close military
1949 Sep 17, More than 130
people died when fire gutted the Canadian passenger steamer Noronic
at a pier in Toronto.
1949 Nov 28, Victor Ostrovsky,
Canadian-Israeli, Mossad agent (By Way of Deception), was born.
1950 Feb 13, A US Air Force
B-36 crashed near the coast of northern British Columbia during a
simulated nuclear attack on San Francisco. 12 of 17 men on board
survived. A Mark 4 bomb, which lacked a plutonium core needed for a
nuclear blast, was dropped over the ocean before the plane crashed.
1950 Jun 2, Joanna Gleason,
actress (Morgan-Hello Larry), was born in Toronto, Canada.
1950 Sep 26, Because of forest
fire in British Columbia a blue moon appeared in England.
1950 Oct 31, John Candy,
comedian (SCTV, Uncle Buck), was born in Ontario, Canada.
1950 Ed McCurdy (d.2000 at 81),
singer and songwriter, released his first folk album: "Ed McCurdy
Sings Songs of the Canadian Maritimes."
(SFC, 4/3/00, p.B2)
1950 Canada stopped discharging
refinery waste from its Ottawa mint into the Ottawa River.
(WSJ, 9/25/96, p.C19)
1950 There was a major flood on
the Red River that forced 25% of the residents of Winnipeg,
Manitoba, from their homes.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A11)
1950 Martha Matilda Harper
(b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was
probably the 1st person to perfect the franchise system of business
(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)
1952 Sep 6, Canadian television
broadcasting began in Montreal.
1952 Oct 31, The Stratford
Shakespearean Festival of Canada was incorporated as a legal entity.
It was organized by Tom Patterson. The 1st performance opened Jul
(WSJ, 7/18/02, p.D10)
1952 Nov 19, Scandinavian
Airlines opened a commercial route from Canada to Europe.
1952 The Canadian Government
formed the Crown corporation Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, or
AECL, from precursor organizations dating back to the early 1940s.
1953 Mar 3, Canadian Comet
crashed at Karachi, 11 killed.
1953 Jul 13, The 1st
Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, organized by Tom
Patterson, opened with Alec Guiness in Richard III.
(WSJ, 7/18/02, p.D10)
1953 Aug, Canadian officials
took 34 Inuit from Port Harrison (later known as Inukjuak) in Hudson
Bay and put them on a boat north. One month and 1,390 miles later,
the group was split in two and deposited on two remote islands,
Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord. The Inuit later said the government
used them to assert Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic at a time
when Ottawa was worried about excessive US influence in the region.
1953 Marilyn Monroe stayed at
the Tekarra Lodge in Jasper, Alberta, Canada, while filming “River
of No Return" (1954). She had been asked to leave the Jasper Park
Lodge for dressing inappropriately.
(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N7)
1954 Mar 30, Canada's first
subway line opened in Toronto.
(CFA, '96, p.42) (HN, 3/30/98)
1954 Aug 4, A uranium rush
began in Saskatchewan, Canada.
1954 Oct 15, Hurricane Hazel
struck US and Canada and 348 people died. 81 people were killed in
Ontario where damages were estimated at $24 million.
1954 Quebec celebrated its
first Winter Carnival.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)
1954 Jean Drapeau (d.1999 at
83) took office as mayor of Montreal. He spent 29 of the next 32
years as mayor.
(SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)
1955 Jan 7, The opening of the
Canadian Parliament in Ottawa was televised for the first time.
1955 Glenn Gould, Canadian
pianist, recorded the "Goldberg Variations" by Bach. The recording
was released in 1956. He abandoned the concert hall in 1964.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.C15)(WSJ, 10/7/99, p.A28)
1956 Sep 24, The first
transatlantic telephone cable system from Newfoundland to Scotland
(HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)
1956 Nov 2, The UN passed an
American resolution, 64 to 5, for a ceasefire at the Suez Canal in
Egypt. The General Assembly took up a Canadian suggestion for an
emergency force to monitor the ceasefire. The UN Emergency Force
(UNEF) became the first “blue hat" UN peacekeepers.
1956 In Edmonton, Canada, John
Etter Clark, a provincial politician who served as a member of the
Legislative Assembly of Alberta for four years, killed his wife,
son, three daughters and an employee of their family farm before
taking his own life.
1956 Route 199 knitted together
the 7 main Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec.
(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C6)
1956 Canadian Les Dawes
(d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a
Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri
Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late
(SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)
1957 Jun 10, John Diefenbaker,
Progressive Conservative Party, was elected PM of Canada. He served
(CFA, '96, p.81)(HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 6/10/02)
1957 Aug 1, The United States
and Canada reached agreement to create the North American Air
Defense Command (NORAD).
1957 Oct 14, Lester Bowles
Pearson (1897-1972, former president of the UN General Assembly
(1952-1953) and later Canadian PM (1963-1968) won the Nobel Peace
Prize for his role in defusing the Suez crisis.
1957 Nov 3, Canada fired up the
National Research Universal (NRU) nuclear reactor near Ottawa. The
200 MWt reactor began producing medical and industrial
radioisotopes, including molybdenum-99, a critical isotope used for
1957 A group of scientists and
supporters from around the world gathered in Pugwash, Nova Scotia,
to call attention to the risks of nuclear war. In 1995 scientists in
London had issued a manifesto declaring that researchers must take
responsibility for their creations, such as the atomic bomb. The
manifesto served as the philosophical origin for the Pugwash
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-15)(SFC, 9/2/05, p.B5)
1958 Mar 25, Canada’s era of
supersonic flight began when pilot Jan Zurakowski took off from
Malton Airport near Toronto in an Avro CF-105 Arrow for a 35-minute
maiden flight. Less than a month later, Zurakowski flew the Arrow at
Mach 1.5 at an altitude of 50,000 feet. In spite of the aircraft’s
early promise, the Canadian government scrapped the project before
the Arrow could be put into production.
1958 May 12, The United States
and Canada signed an agreement to create the North American Air
Defense Command (later the North American Aerospace Defense Command,
or NORAD for short).
1958 May 19, The United States
and Canada formally established the North American Air Defense
(AP, 5/19/97)(Econ, 3/5/05, p.38)
1959 Jun 26, President
Eisenhower joined Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in ceremonies
officially opening the St. Lawrence Seaway.
(CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 6/26/97)
1958 Jul 8, President
Eisenhower began a visit to Canada, where he conferred with Prime
Minister John Diefenbaker and addressed the Canadian Parliament.
1959 Steven Truscott (14) was
convicted for the rape and strangling death of 12-year-old school
friend Lynne Harper, becoming Canada's youngest death-row inmate.
His sentence was commuted to life in prison, and he was quietly
released after 10 years behind bars. Truscott always insisted he was
innocent and sought complete exoneration in 2007. On Aug 28, 2007 he
was acquitted by the Ontario Court of Appeal.
(Reuters, 1/31/07)(Reuters, 8/28/07)
1959 Canadian Joseph-Armand
Bombardier introduced the Ski-Doo snowmobile.
(ON, 4/03, p.6)
1960 Oct 19, Canada and the
United States agreed to undertake a joint Columbia River project to
provide hydroelectric power and flood control.
1960s Manitoba’s Premier Duff
Roblin urged the building of a floodway around Winnipeg to reduce
water levels during major flooding.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A11)
1960-1970 Louis J. Robichaud (1926-2005) served as
the Liberal premier of New Brunswick, Canada.
1961 Jan 17, US Pres. Dwight
Eisenhower and Canada’s PM John Diefenbaker signed a treaty to
jointly control the Columbia River. The treaty was implemented in
1961 Jan 26, Wayne Gretzky, NHL
great scorer (Oiler, King, Rangers), was born in Brantford, Ont.
1961 Aug 26, The official
International Hockey Hall of Fame opened in Toronto.
1961 In Canada the New
Democratic party (NDP) was formed as an uneasy alliance of prairie
populists and urban trade unionists.
(Econ, 8/27/11, p.31)
1961 Isadore Sharp opened the
1st Four Seasons Hotel in Toronto, Canada. In 2006 he joined with
partners in a $3.7 billion buyout offer to take the company private.
In 2007 Sharp unloaded all but a 5% stake when the company went
private. By 2009 the chain had 83 hotels in 35 countries. In 2009 he
and Alan Philips authored “Four Seasons: The Story of a Business
(SFC, 11/7/06, p.C3)(WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A11)
1962 Marshall McLuhan
(1911-1980), Canadian educator, authored “The Gutenberg Galaxy: The
Making of Typographic Man." In it he analyzes the effects of mass
media, especially the printing press, on European culture and human
1962 In Ontario, Canada, the
town of Niagara-on-the-Lake began its Shaw festival, producing plays
written during George Bernard Shaw’s lifetime, i.e. 1856-1950.
(WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)
1963 Feb 4, In Canada's Yukon
territory a small plane piloted by Ralph Flores crashed shortly
after takeoff from Whitehorse. The pilot and passenger Helen Klaben
(1941-2018) survived the crash and endured 49 days of subzero
temperatures before they were rescued.
(SFC, 12/13/18, p.C5)
1964 Feb 18, Joseph-Armand
Bombardier (b.1907), inventor of the snowmobile, died in Sherbrooke,
(ON, 4/03, p.6)
1964 Apr, Tim Horton
(1930-1974), Canadian hockey player, and Jim Charade opened the
first Tim Hortons franchise, a coffee and donut shop.
1964 May 5, Separatists rioted
1964 Dec 15, Canada's House of
Commons approved dropping the "Red Ensign" flag in favor of a new
1964 Jane Rule (1931-2007),
American-born Canadian writer, authored her novel, “Desert of the
Heart." It later became recognized as a landmark work of lesbian
(SFC, 12/10/07, p.C5)
1964 Glenn Gould, Canadian
concert pianist, abandoned public performances and devoted himself
to recording, writing and making documentaries.
(WSJ, 10/7/99, p.A28)
1965 Feb 15, Canada replaced
the Union Jack flag with the Maple Leaf in ceremonies in Ottawa.
(CFA, '96, p.40)(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)(440
1965 Mar 1, Gas explosion
killed 28 in apartment complex at La Salle, Quebec, Canada.
1965 Apr 1, Henry D.G. Crerar
(b.1888), Canadian general and the country's "leading field
commander" in World War II, died.
1965 Nov 9, A major power
failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a
major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout
several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power
failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and
parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history,
when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
(HFA, '96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP,
1965 Canada required its
senators to step down at age 75.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.30)
1966 Mar 4, Canadian Pacific
airliner exploded on landing in Tokyo and 64 died.
1966 Toronto, Canada, added an
east-west line to its u-shaped north-south track subway system.
(Econ, 1/14/17, p.30)
1966-1967 The US military tested Agent Orange,
Agent Purple and several other powerful defoliants on a small
section of the base in Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada, over seven
days in 1966 and 1967.
1967 Apr 27, Expo '67 was
officially opened in Montreal by Canadian Prime Minister Lester B.
Pearson. The urban theme park, La Ronde, was built on the Ile
Sainte-Helene for the exposition and continues on to today. The Expo
featured the big-screen, multi-projector film Polar Life. This led
to the formation of Multiscreen Corporation and eventually IMAX.
(Hem., 7/95, p.129)(Hem., 3/97, p.81)(AP,
1967 Jul 24, French President
Charles de Gaulle stirred controversy during a visit to Montreal,
Canada, when he declared, ''Vive le Quebec libre!'' (Long live free
1967 Oct 29, Expo 67 in
Montreal closed after six months.
1967 Charles Plunket Bourchier
Taylor (1935-1997), Beijing correspondent for the Globe & Mail,
published "Reporter in Red China."
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)
1967 The play "Fortune and
Men’s Eyes" by John Herbert (d.2001 at 75), Canadian playwright, was
produced off Broadway. It provided a glimpse of sexual struggles
behind prison doors.
(SFC, 6/29/01, p.D5)
1967 The government of Canada
took over the coal mines of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. In the 1970s
the government lured some 1,800 new workers to the mines to secure a
cheap source of energy for Nova Scotia. In 1999 the government
attempted to end the costly public venture but faced strikes by
miners who claimed inadequate severance packages.
(WSJ, 1/12/00, p.A18)
1967 Canada revised its
immigration policy. A new point system removed discrimination and
prejudice from the process of choosing which immigrants to let in.
It rewarded education, fluency in English or French, and work
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A29)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.31)
1967 Toronto's first Caribbean
festival began as a contribution from its West Indian community to
Canada's 100th anniversary of Confederation and coinciding with Expo
'67 celebrations in Montreal.
1967 Alberta, Canada, began to
develop its oil sands. Fort McMurray, population 4,000, grew to
65,000 residents by 2007, including some 200 families from
(WSJ, 6/26/07, p.A12)
1967 McDonald's opened its
first restaurant outside the US in Canada.
(WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B13)
1968 Apr 20, Pierre Elliott
Trudeau was sworn in as Canada’s 15th Prime Minister. He succeeded
Lester B. Pierson and continued in office to 1979.
(CFA, '96, p.81)(AP,
1968 Jun 25, The Canadian
federal election was held to elect members of the Canadian House of
Commons of the 28th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party won a
majority government under its new leader, PM Pierre Trudeau.
1968 Jun 24, The St. Jean
Baptiste parade in Montreal, an annual celebration of Quebec
nationalism, erupted in violence.
(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)
1968 Jun 25, The Canadian
federal election was held to elect members of the Canadian House of
Commons of the 28th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party won a
majority government under its new leader, PM Pierre Trudeau.
1968 Jun, In Quebec, Canada,
the summertime Festival d’Ete de Quebec was begun.
1968 Dec 26, A Palestinian
terrorist attack in Athens on an Israeli civilian airliner killed
one person. Mahmoud Mohammad (25) and Maher Suleiman (19) were later
captured by Greek officials, In 1970, a Greek court convicted
Mahmoud Mohammad for his role in the attack. In 1987 Mahmoud
Mohammed Issa Mohammed entered Canada, where he was ordered to be
deported in 1988. In 2007 he was still in Canada after some 30
appeals and reviews.
1968 Pierre Trudeau, PM of
Canada, published an admiring book about Mao Tse-Tung’s China.
(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)
1968 Canada renamed its air and
sea forces as the Maritime and Ari Commands. In 2011 the naming
reverted to the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force.
The Land Force again became the Canadian Army.
(Econ, 8/20/11, p.38)
1969 Apr 14, The first major
league baseball game in Canada was played in Montreal. The expansion
Montreal Expos hosted their first game north of the border, marking
the first time a regular season major league game is played outside
of the US. The Expos won their debut at Jarry Park, edging the St.
Louis Cardinals, 8-7.
1969 May 11, Canada’s CBC
public broadcaster announced it will no longer accept advertising
from tobacco companies.
1969 May 14, Abortion and
contraception was legalized in Canada.
1969 May 31, John Lennon and
Yoko Ono recorded "Give Peace a Chance" during their “Bed-In" at the
Queen Elizabeth’s Hotel in Montreal.
1969 Jul 7, Canada's House of
Commons gave final approval to a measure making the French language
equal to English throughout the national government.
1969 Sep 13, John Lennon and
his wife, Yoko Ono, presented the Plastic Ono Band in concert for
the first time at the Toronto Peace Festival (Lennon's first in four
years). The 1st hit by the new group, "Give Peace a Chance," made it
to number 14 on the charts.
1969 Nov 23, Jonathan Seet,
Canadian singer, was born in Singapore. Seet was born to a
Singaporean father and an Irish mother who emigrated to Canada
shortly after he was born.
1969 Neil Young (b.1945,
Canadian singer and songwriter, produced his solo album with the
title track "Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere."
1969 Ben Metcalfe (d.2003 at
83) coordinated the initial campaigns of the Winnipeg-based Don't
Make a Wave Committee (later Greenpeace) against planned nuclear
tests in the Aleutian Islands.
(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)
1969 Dr. Henri Morgentaler
(1923-2013) set up Canada's first independent abortion clinic in
Montreal. Up to this time the procedure could only be performed in
hospitals and was limited to cases when doctors deemed that
continuation of a pregnancy could harm a woman.
1969 In Saskatoon,
Canada, David Milgaard (16) was convicted for the murder and rape of
Gail Miller. He was in prison for 23 years until DNA tests proved
that the crime was done by Larry Fisher, a multiple rapist. His
story was later told by Peter Edwards and Joyce Milgaard, David's
mother in the book "A Mother's Story."
(SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10)
1970 May 12, Premier Robert
Bourassa (1933-1996) began serving his first term as the Liberal
Premier of the province of Quebec. This term ended in 1976. He then
served a 2nd term from 1985-1994.
1970 Jun 1, The Canadian dollar
was allowed to float.
1970 Oct 5, British trade
commissioner James Richard Cross was kidnapped in Canada by militant
Quebec separatists; he was released the following December.
1970 Oct 10, In the October
Crisis Quebec Provincial Labor Minister Pierre Laporte and the
British trade commissioner James Cross were kidnapped by the
left-wing, nationalist Front de Liberation du Quebec, Quebec
Liberation Front (FLQ), a militant separatist group. Laporte's body
was found about a week later. Mr. Cross was released but Mr. LaPorte
was found dead strangled in the trunk of a car. The Canadian
government refused to pay a ransom. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
responded by suspending civil liberties in Quebec and invoking the
War Measures Act, and sending over 1,000 troops to the
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)(AP,
1970 Oct 12, In Quebec, Canada,
the "October Crises" continued. PM Pierre Trudeau imposed martial
law in Quebec and sent troops into Montreal because of bombings and
killings by the Quebec Liberation Front.
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(SFC, 11/22/96,
1970 Oct 13, Canada established
diplomatic relations with China.
1970 Oct 17, Pierre Laporte
(b.1921), the Quebec minister of labor, was found strangled to death
7 days after his kidnapping by the Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ).
1970 Oct 28, In Canada Gerald
Regan (b.1928) became premier of Nova Scotia and continued to 1978.
In 1995 charges were filed that he sexually assaulted 2 girls (14)
in 1956 and another young woman (18) in 1969. He was tried in 1998
at age 70. He was acquitted by a jury as 19 other women came forward
with charges of sexual assault.
(SFC, 12/17/98, p.C9)(SFEC, 12/20/98,
1970 The Don't Make a Wave
Committee of Winnipeg, Canada, was renamed Greenpeace and Ben
Metcalfe became the 1st chairman.
(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)
1970 West Kildonan, a suburb of
Winnipeg, Canada, was incorporated into Winnipeg. Mayor Daniel
Abraham Yanofsky (d.2000 at 74), a chess grandmaster, transferred to
the City Council and served to 1986.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.A17)
1970 Canada’s government set
aside the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve to protect the coastal
(SFEC, 10/8/00, p.T9)
1971 Mar 4, Canadian Prime
Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (52) married Margaret Sinclair (22)
in North Vancouver, B.C. They later divorced.
(AP, 3/4/99)(SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)
1971 May 18, The last victim of
Wayne Boden (1948-2006), Canadian serial killer and rapist, was
found. He earned the nickname "the Vampire Rapist" because he had
the penchant of biting the breasts of his victims.
1971 Sep 15, A group of
activists set sail on the Phyllis Cormack for Alaska from Vancouver,
Canada, to stop a US nuclear weapons test in the Aleutian Islands.
Panels reading Green and Peace dangled from the bridge. Bob Hunter
(d.2005), one of the activists, became the 1st president of
(GQ, summer ‘96, p.18)(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)(Econ,
1971 Oct 8, Canada’s PM Pierre
Trudeau declared Canada to be bilingual and multicultural.
1971 Robin Winks authored “The
Blacks in Canada."
(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1971 Marie Paule Giguere (50),
a Catholic nun in Quebec, founded the Army of Mary as a prayer
group, saying she was receiving visions from God. In 2007 the
Vatican declared her teachings were heretical and in Arkansas six
nuns were excommunicated after refusing to give up membership in the
(SFC, 9/27/07, p.A20)
1971-1988 Peter Bronfman (1929-1996) and his
brother Edward Bronfman co-owned the Montreal Canadiens hockey team.
Their uncle, Samuel, was the founder of the liquor company, Seagram
Co. Ltd. The brothers acquired holdings in Brascan Ltd., a property
mgmt. company, Noranda Inc., a natural resource company, and John
Labatt Ltd., one of Canada’s 2 biggest brewers.
(SFC, 12/3/96, p.D2)
1972 Apr 15, Canada’s PM Pierre
Trudeau and President Richard Nixon met in Ottawa to sign the Great
Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The agreement followed measurements
that showed that high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen led
to the lakes being choked to death from vegetation and algae.
Methods for quantifying eutrophication had been developed by Swiss
scientist Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007).
(http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)
1972 Aug 10, An Earth-grazing
meteoroid grazed the atmosphere above Canada. It entered the Earth's
atmosphere in daylight over Utah.
1972 Nov 27, Pierre Trudeau
formed his Canadian government.
1972 Trudeau’s government
increased the value and duration of unemployment benefits and
decreased the period required to qualify.
(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A17)
1972 Mel Lastman, founder of
the Bad Boy discount appliance chain, was elected mayor of North
York, a municipality just north of Toronto. He went on to win 11
1972 Stephen Reid, a member of
the Stopwatch Gang trio, was sentenced to prison. He escaped 2 times
but was recaptured and was released in 1987. In 1986 he authored
"Jackrabbit Parole" while in prison. The gang was estimated to have
stolen some $15 million in 140 North American robberies. In 1999 he
was again caught following a robbery in Victoria and was convicted
of attempted murder and other charges.
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/2/99, p.D16)
1972 Daniel Abraham Yanofsky
(d.2000 at 74), a chess grandmaster and Winnipeg City Councilman,
was awarded the Order of Canada.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.A17)
1973 Canada’s Supreme Court
recognized that indigenous title to land existed.
(Econ, 7/5/14, p.31)
1973 Indian PM Indira Gandhi
1974 May 8, In Canada the
government of Pierre Trudeau fell on a sub-amendment to the budget
(thus a question of confidence).
1974 Jun 29, Russian ballet
dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov defected in Toronto, Canada.
1974 Jul 8, Trudeau's Liberal
Party won Canadian parliamentary election.
1974 The Royal Canadian Mounted
Police (RCMP) began recruiting women for the first time.
(Econ, 6/29/13, p.35)
1974 Canada’s coast guard
discovered resonance icebreaking.
(Econ, 4/15/17, p.67)
1974 Barry Sherman (d.2017)
founded Canada’s generic drugmaker Apotex, then built it into one of
the world's largest pharmaceutical makers. By 2017 it had annual
sales of more than C$2 billion in more than 45 countries.
1975 Jan 2, Ken Brugger,
searching on behalf of Canadian entomologist Dr. Fred A. Urquhart,
found that vast numbers of monarch butterflies, wintered at Cerro
Pelon, an inactive volcano a hundred miles west of Mexico City.
Urquhart had been tagging butterflies and searching for their winter
quarters since 1954. In 1986 the Mexican government established some
protection over 5 sites where monarchs were known to overwinter.
(ON, 4/07, p.12)
1975 May 6, In hockey the
Philadelphia Flyers won the semifinal series over Boston 4 games to
1975 Public radio on the
Canadian Broadcasting network (CBC) went free of advertising.
(Econ, 6/8/13, p.42)
1976 May 16, The Montreal
Canadiens won the Stanley Cup hockey finals in 4 games over the
1976 Jun 26, The CN Tower in
Toronto, at this time the world’s tallest free-standing structure
(553 meters), opened to the public.
1976 Jul 14, Canada abolished
the death penalty.
1976 Jul 17, The XX1 Olympiad,
opened in Montreal. Closing ceremonies for the summer Olympics were
held August 1. 26 African nations boycotted the games after the IOC
failed to bann New Zealand after its rugby team toured South Africa.
Taiwan withdrew after it was denied the right to compete as the
Republic of China. In 1998 it was revealed that 143 members of
the East German team had taken performance-enhancing drugs.
(WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A1)(WSJ,
1976 Jul 25, Edwin Moses
(b.1955), American track star, won an Olympic Gold Medal In Montreal
in the 400-meter hurdles.
1976 Jul 31, "Sugar" Ray
Charles Leonard (b.1956), American boxer, won an Olympic gold medal
1976 Nov 15, Rene Levesque's
"Parti Quebecois" won elections in Quebec. The pro-independence
Parti Quebecois first came to power.
1976 Lotfi Mansouri was
appointed the general director of the Canadian Opera Company in
(SFC, 2/2/99, p.A11)
1976 Canada’s Alberta province
set up the Heritage Savings Trust Fund, a sovereign wealth fund
(SWF). In 2014 it was valued at $15.3 billion.
(Econ, 1/25/14, p.61)
1976 The Summit of leading
industrial nations was held in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The addition
of Canada let it be called the Group of Seven or G-7.
(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1977 Jan 28, A heavy blizzard
began in Eastern Canada and the US. It claimed as many as 100 lives.
This was the only blizzard declared a natural and national disaster
by the American and Canadian governments. In 1978 Erno Rossi
authored “White Death: Blizzard of ’77."
1977 Feb 11, A 20.2-kg lobster
was caught off Nova Scotia. This was the heaviest known crustacean
1977 Jun, The Inuit Circumpolar
Council, a multinational non-governmental organization (NGO), met
for the first time. Originally known as the Inuit Circumpolar
Conference, the ICC represented the 150,000 Inuit (often referred to
as Eskimo) people living in the United States, Canada, Greenland,
1977 Timothy Findley (d.2002),
Canadian writer, authored his novel "The Wars," which contrasted
social struggles in Toronto with trench horrors in WW I.
(SFC, 6/22/02, p.A18)
1977 The Canada Human Rights
Act was passed and required that men and women be paid the same
amount for doing the same work.
(SFC, 7/30/98, p.A12)
1977 Canada extended its
territorial waters out to 200 miles to stop fishing by boats of
(NH, 5/96, p.61)
1977 English was banned in
(SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1977 Ernst Zundel (b.1939),
German neo-Nazi, founded a small press publishing house in Canada
called Samisdat Publishers, which issued such pamphlets as “The
Hitler We Loved and Why" and “Did Six Million Really Die?," both
prominent documents of the Holocaust denial movement. He wrote under
the name of Christof Friedrich. In 2005 he was deported to Germany,
where he was charged for inciting racial hatred. In 2007 he was
sentenced to 5 years in prison.
1978 Jan 24, Cosmos 954, a
4-month-old nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth's
atmosphere and disintegrated, scattering radioactive debris over
parts of northern Canada.
(SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A1)(AP, 1/24/08)
1978 Feb 9, Canada announced it
was expelling 13 Soviet diplomats who it said had tried to recruit a
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer.
1978 Canada implemented
security certificates to detain and expel, without disclosing
evidence, non-citizens suspected of terrorism. On October 22, 2007,
the Conservative government introduced a bill to amend the security
certificate process by introducing a "special advocate", lawyers who
would be able to view the evidence against the accused.
1979 May 22, Canadians went to
the polls in parliamentary elections that put the Progressive
Conservatives under Joseph Clark in power, ending the 11-year tenure
of PM Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
1979 Jun 4, Joe Clark of the
Progressive Conservatives became the 16th prime minister of Canada.
1979 Aug 26, Alvin Karpis
(1907-1979), Canadian-born US gangster, died. His autobiography,
“The Alvin Karpis Story," was completed in 1971.
1979 Nov 4, In Iran, as
Islamist students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran, six American
diplomats escaped and found sanctuary at the home of Canadian
ambassador Ken Taylor (d.2015 at 81) and his first secretary, John
Sheardown. Taylor then worked with the Canadian government and the
CIA to obtain Canadian passports and forged visas allowing the
diplomats to fly to Switzerland.
(SFC, 10/17/15, p.C3)
1979 John Crosbie (d.1994), a
Canadian writer, founded the Save the Puns Foundation.
(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)
1980 Feb 18, Pierre Elliott
Trudeau's Liberal Party won Canada's elections. Trudeau again served
as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada.
1980 May 12, Maxie Anderson
(45) and his son Kris (23) completed the 1st balloon crossing of the
American continent as they landed their helium-filled balloon on
Canada’s Gaspe Peninsula. Their journey began May 8 in Marin Ct.,
(SFC, 5/6/05, p.F2)
1980 May 20, In Canada a
referendum of 59.5% of Quebec voters rejected separatism.
1980 Jul 1, "O Canada" was
proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.
(CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 7/1/97)
1980 Oct 3, In France a Paris
synagogue bombing killed 3 French men and one Israeli woman. In 2008
Canadian police arrested Hassan Diab in response to a request from
France, where he was wanted on charges of murder and attempted
murder in the bombing. Diab denied guilt and stamps in his 1980
passport indicated he was not in France at the time of the bombing.
In April 2012 Canada’s then-justice minister Rob Nicholson signed an
extradition order surrendering Diab to France. On Nov 15, 2014, Diab
was charged in Paris. He has claimed that he was studying in Beirut
at the time of the bombing and has said that he had been confused
with someone with the same name.
(AP, 11/13/14)(AFP, 11/15/14)
1980 Oct 28, Canada’s federal
government under Pierre Trudeau introduced a national energy
program, which forced Alberta to sell its oil to Canadians at below
market prices. The policy was dismantled in 1984.
(Econ, 12/3/05, Survey
1980 Nov 17, Clifford Olson
(1940-2011) began a murder spree killing 3 girls and 8 boys, ages 9
to 18, in British Columbia over an eight month period. The victims
were tortured and sexually assaulted. Olson, who had an extensive
criminal history, was arrested on August 12, 1981. He later
confessed to the murders and, in a controversial deal, gave police
information on the location of the victims' bodies in return for a
C$100,000 ($95,000) payment to his family.
1980 Dec 31, Marshall McLuhan
(b.1911), Canadian professor, cultural philosopher and writer, died
at age 69. He was the author "Understanding Media: The Extensions of
Man." In 1996 a CD-ROM titled "Understanding McLuhan" was released.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, BR p.8)(V.D.-H.K.p.357)(AP,
1980 In Canada the first
Montreal International Jazz Festival was launched by L’Equipe
(Econ, 6/21/14, p.82)
1980 Canola Oil was registered
as the name for a vegetable oil of low saturated fat. It was
originally called low erucic acid rapeseed oil and was developed by
the Univ. of Manitoba plant breeder Baldur Stefansson after WW II.
Oleic acid later replaced erucic acid which was found to cause
cancer in lab studies.
(BS, 5/3/98, p.6F)
1980 Peter Munk, Hungary-born
entrepreneur, along with David Gilmour and several Arab investors
founded Barrick Petroleum Corp., a Canada-based mining operation. In
1983 the company went public as Barrick Resources Corp., which grew
to become Barrick Gold. By 2008 the company was worth $38 billion
with mines on 5 continents.
1980-1989 Conrad Black and David Radler launched a
small newspaper acquisition spree generated by their 1st small
paper, the Sherbrooke Record in Quebec. In 2003 Black and Radler
became embroiled in suits stemming from their operations in
(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)
1981 Jun 28, Terry Fox (22),
born in Winnipeg and raised in Port Coquitlam, died of cancer. Fox,
who planned to run a marathon a day until he ran across Canada, was
forced to stop his journey on Sept. 1, 1980, because the cancer that
took his leg had spread to his lungs. He ran 5,373 kilometers over
143 days. His goal was to raise $1 for cancer research for every
Canadian, which would have been about $24 million in 1980.
1981 Sep 23, Chief Dan George
(b.1899), actor, died at 82 in British Columbia, Canada. His films
included “Harry & Tonto" (1974) and “Little Big Man" (1970). He
was born Geswanouth Slahoot on a First Nations Reserve in North
Vancouver. His English name was Dan Slaholt. His last name was
changed to George when he entered a residential school at the age of
1981 Israel promised Canada
that the Mossad spy agency would not use Canadian passports.
(WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A1)
1982 Jan 9, A 5.9 earthquake
hit New England & Canada; the 1st since 1855.
1982 Feb 15, The Ocean Ranger
oil-drilling platform sank off the coast of Newfoundland during a
fierce storm and 84 men were killed.
(AP, 2/15/98)(WSJ, 10/3/01, p.A20)
1982 Apr 17, Canada adopted a
new Constitution to replace the 1867 British North America Act. It
enshrined special rights for indigenous peoples. Pierre Trudeau
added a Charter of Rights and Freedoms to Canada’s constitution.
Quebec did not sign the 1982 Constitution.
1982 Jul 24, Anna Paquin, Oscar
winning actress (Piano), was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
1982 Aug 4, Ronald Smith of
Canada killed two Americans in Montana during a drunken road trip.
In March 1893 Smith was convicted and sentenced to death.
1982 Oct 4, Glenn H. Gould
(b.1932), eccentric Canadian pianist, died in Toronto of a cerebral
hemorrhage. In 1997 Peter F. Ostwald wrote a biography titled:
"Glenn Gould." In 2010 the documentary “Genius Within: The Inner
Life of Glenn Gould" was directed by Pater Raymont and Michele
1982 Oct 16, Hans Selye
(b.1907), pioneering Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian
origin, died in Montreal, Canada. Selye conceptualized the
physiology of stress as having two components: a set of responses
which he called the "general adaptation syndrome", and the
development of a pathological state from ongoing, unrelieved
1982 The Canadian NFB
documentary film "If You Love This Planet" was an anti-nuclear film
that won the best documentary Oscar.
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1982 Choi Jung-hwa, a South
Korean taekwondo master, hired two agents to shoot South Korean
President Chun Doo-hwan during a visit to Canada. The plot, however,
was detected and Choi went into hiding in Eastern Europe and North
Korea. In 1991, he surrendered to Canadian authorities and was
sentenced to six years in prison, but was released after one year
for good behavior. In 2008 he returned to South Korea.
1983 Mar 7, In France Claude
Vivier (b.1948), a French-Canadian composer, was found stabbed to
death. A 19-year-old man was convicted of the murder. Vivier left
behind 48 completed scores and part of a 49th. His 1976 "Siddartha"
was a 30 minute orchestral piece written on commission from the CBC
(SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.31)
1983 Jun 2, A toilet caught
fire on Air Canada's DC-9 and 23 died at Cincinnati.
1983 Trivial Pursuit was big as
was MTV (Music Television). Linda F. Pezzano (d.1999 at 54),
marketing consultant, invented the "viral marketing concept" to
publicize the Canadian board game.
(TMC, 1994, p.1983)(SFC, 10/30/99, p.C2)
1983 A couple of Canadian
vineyards began producing ice wine, a 1794 German invention
(eiswein), using frost-bitten grapes to produce a desert wine.
(Econ, 5/22/04, p.32)(http://wine.about.com)
1983 In Regina, Canada, JoAnn
Wilson (43) was found in the garage of her home, beaten, hacked and
shot in the head. Her former husband, Colin Thatcher, former cabinet
minister in Saskatchewan's government, was sentenced to life in
prison for her murder. In 2006 he was granted full parole.
1984 Feb 29, Canadian Prime
Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau announced he was stepping down after
more than 15 years in power.
1984 Apr 13, Pete Rose, playing
for the Montreal Expos, became the 1st NL baseball player to get
4,000 hits in a career, joining Ty Cobb to become only the second
player to enter the 4000 hit club.
1984 Jun 30, John Turner,
Liberal Party, was sworn in as Canada's 17th prime minister,
succeeding Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
(CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 6/30/04)
1984 Jul-1985 May, Seven men,
three women and two children were tortured killed in Calaveras
County, Ca., at the home of Leonard Lake as part of "Project
Miranda," inspired by the John Fowles novel, "The Collector." Lake
killed himself with cyanide during a police interview. Charles Ng
was arrested in Canada in 1985 for stealing and extradited to the US
after 6 years for his role in the murders.
(SFC,10/18/97, p.A13)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.A5)
1984 Sep 4, Canada's
Progressive Conservatives, led by Brian Mulroney, won a landslide
victory in general elections over the Liberal Party of Prime
Minister John N. Turner.
1984 Sep 17, Progressive
Conservative leader Brian Mulroney took office as Canada's 18th
1984 In Canada Larry Zolf
authored “Survival of the Fattest -an Irreverent View of the
1984 The film "Next of Kin" was
directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about a lazy 23-year-old
living with his parents.
1994 In Canada an Ontario judge
ruled that lap dancing was not indecent under standards previously
set by the Supreme Court. The ruling was overturned in 1997.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1984 In Canada responsibility
for security intelligence was taken away from the Mounties when a
separate intelligence agency was created.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.42)
1994 In Canada a majority of
the Mohawk Council of Kahnawake passed a bylaw stipulating that a
person must have at least 4 Mohawk great grandparents to live or own
property on its 13,000 acre reservation just south of Montreal.
(Econ, 2/27/10, p.44)
1984 Guy Laliberte and a group
of stilt-walkers from Baie-Saint-Paul created The Cirque de Soleil,
a Canadian animal-free circus. Revenues in 2004 reached $550
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.B4)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.61)(Econ,
1984 Mike Lazaridis, while a
student at the Univ. of Waterloo in Ontario, co-founded Research In
Motion (RIM) with Douglas Fregin. In 1997 Lazaridis came up with the
idea for a small thumb-using keyboard and RIM went on to produce the
hand-held Blackberry e-mail device.
(Econ, 3/19/05, p.68)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.36)
1984 Canada established a tidal
research station in its eastern Bay of Fundy.
(Econ, 4/28/07, p.71)
1985 Mar 17, President Reagan
agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
1985 May 31, Some 41 tornadoes
swept through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Ontario,
Canada, during an eight-hour period killing 88 people with over
1985 Jun 23, All 329 people
aboard an Air India Boeing 747 were killed when Flight 182 from
Montreal to London crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland,
apparently because of a bomb. An hour earlier, a bomb in baggage
intended for another Air India flight exploded in a Tokyo airport,
killing two baggage handlers. In 2000 Canadian police arrested 2 men
of Sikh origin for the bombing. In 2001 Canadian prosecutors filed
murder charges against Inderjit Singh Reyat. In 2003 Reyat was
sentenced to 5 years for his role in making the bomb. Reyat spent 10
years in prison for building the bomb that exploded at the Narita
airport, and another five years for helping make the Flight 182
bomb. In 2005 a Canadian judge acquitted 2 men who had been accused
of conspiring in the case. Talwinder Parmar (1944-1992) was later
assumed to have been the mastermind behind the attacks. In 2010
Reyat was found guilty of perjury. In 2011 he was sentenced to an
additional 9 years in prison. In 2017 Canada’s parole board allowed
Reyat to return to private residence following a year in a halfway
(AP, 6/23/97)(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A13)(SFC, 6/6/01,
p.C3)(AP, 2/11/03)(AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.47)(Reuters,
9/18/10)(Reuters, 1/7/11)(AFP, 2/15/17)
1985 Sep 1, A US-French
expedition located the wreckage of the Titanic, sunk in 1915, about
560 miles off Newfoundland, Canada. Oceanographer Robert Ballard
used the ship Knorr to pinpoint the location of the Titanic. The
Knorr was decommissioned in 2014 and in 2016 was transferred to the
1985 Sep 25, The Tyrell Museum
of Paleontology was opened to the public. It is located 140 km.
northeast of Calgary at Drumheller, Alberta, Canada.
(CFA, '96, p.63)
1985 Dec 12, 248 American
soldiers and eight crew members were killed when an Arrow Air
charter crashed after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland.
1985 Canadian writer Margaret
Atwood (b.1939) authored her novel “The Handmaid’s Tale." In 2017 it
was made into a ten-part television series.
(Econ, 4/22/17, p.76)
1985 UNESCO declared Old Quebec
a World Heritage Site. It was the first city in North America to
attain the status.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T4)
1985 The Mali town of
Sanankoroba established a sister-town relationship with
(SFC, 2/27/98, p.D2)
1985 Wilf Carter was inducted
into the Canadian music hall of fame.
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)
1985 Canadian Auto Workers
broke away from the US-based United Auto Workers to form their own
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1985 Brenda O’Connor (20), her
husband Lonnie Bond and their baby son disappeared. A video made by
Leonard Lake and Charles Ng later showed her bound to a chair at his
hideaway near Wilseyville in Calaveras Ct., Ca. Charles Ng was
arrested in Canada for killing a dozen people in a hideaway in the
Sierra Nevada foothills in 1984-1985. He fought extradition for 6
years but was finally returned to California by a Canadian Supreme
(SFC, 10/28/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)
1985-1987 A bug in the software of Therac-25
radiotherapy machines, produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited,
caused massive overdoses of radiation to several patients killing at
(Econ, 6/2/12, TQ
1985-1994 Premier Robert Bourassa led the province
of Quebec for his 2nd term.
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)
1986 May 25, In Canada
Punjab Minister Malkiat Singh Sidhu was attacked near Gold River on
Vancouver Island when he was on a private trip to attend his
nephew's wedding. Though Sidhu survived, he was assassinated five
years later in Moga, Punjab. Jaspal Atwal was one of four men later
convicted of attempting to kill Sidhu. He was also charged, but not
convicted, in connection with a 1985 attack on Ujjal Dosanjh, a
staunch opponent of the Sikh separatist movement's push for an
independent state of Khalistan, who later became Premier of British
1986 Nov 22, Elzire Dionne, who
gave birth to quintuplets in 1934, died at a hospital in North Bay,
Ontario, Canada, at age 77.
1986 In Canada there was a
World Exposition in Vancouver.
(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A1)
1986 The Quebec Iron and
Titanium (QIT) subsidiary of Rio Tinto, an int’l. mining concern,
began pursuing rights in Madagascar to extract high-grade ilmenite,
a form of titanium dioxide used to whiten toothpaste, paint and
cleansing powders. A 15,000 acre site at Fort Dauphin was expected
to yield 750,000 tons a year over 60 years for an investment of $400
million. The Malagasy government would receive about $40 million per
year plus $10 million in taxes and fees. A decision was expected in
(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A1)
1987 Jun 30, Canada introduced
a one dollar coin that was soon nicknamed the Loonie.
1987 Sep 16, In Canada an
international convention met in Montreal and negotiators from 23 of
the world’s major industrial nations signed a treaty to slow down
global chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) production in order to restore
atmospheric ozone. One of its most important architects was Egyptian
scientist Mostafa Tolba (1922-2016). The Montreal Protocol, a treaty
designed to save the Earth's ozone layer by calling on nations to
reduce emissions of harmful chemicals by the year 2000, was amended
in 1990 and 1992. In 1991 a fund was established to help developing
countries meet their obligations By 2016 197 nations had signed the
(NOHY, W3/90, p.47)(SFC, 5/31/96, A1,17)(SFEC,
6/15/97, BR p.4)(AP, 9/16/97)(Econ, 4/2/15, p.78)(Econ, 9/24/16,
1987 Sep 20, Pope John Paul II
concluded an 11-day visit to North America as he celebrated Mass for
thousands of Indians at Fort Simpson in Canada's Northwest
1987 Oct 3, Negotiators for the
United States and Canada reached agreement in Washington D.C., on a
framework to eliminate all tariffs between the world's two largest
1987 Nov 1, Rene Levesque
(b.1922), Quebec premier (1976-85), died at age 65.
1987 The film "Family Viewing"
was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was a dark comedy about a
man who fancies S&M and phone sex.
1987 The Meech Lake Accord was
an attempt to modify the Constitution and give Quebec some special
recognition. Quebec did not ratify it and it did not take effect.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.A12)
1988 Jan 2, President Reagan
and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to
lift trade restrictions between their countries.
1988 Jan 28, The Supreme Court
of Canada struck down the nation's restrictive abortion law.
1988 Feb 13, The 15th winter
Olympics opened in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
1988 Feb 14, Hours after
learning that his sister had died of leukemia, American Dan Jansen
(b.1965) lost his bid for a gold medal at the Winter Olympics in
Calgary, Canada, when he fell during the 500-meter speed-skating
1988 Feb 26, The Soviet Union's
hockey team clinched the gold medal at the Winter Olympics in
1988 Feb 27, Katarina Witt of
East Germany won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the
Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, with Elizabeth Manley of Canada
placing second and Debi Thomas of the United States, third. Debi
Thomas became the first African American to win a medal at the
(AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)
1988 Feb 28, The 15th Olympic
Winter Games held its closing ceremony in Calgary, Canada.
1988 May 26, The National
Hockey League's Edmonton Oilers completed a four-game sweep of the
Boston Bruins to capture their fourth Stanley Cup in five seasons.
1988 Jun 17, Leaders of the
world's seven biggest industrial democracies began arriving in
Toronto for their annual economic summit, with the host, Canadian
Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, forecasting progress on dismantling
farm subsidies and alleviating Third World debt.
1988 Jun 19, Leaders of the
world's seven wealthiest industrial democracies opened a three-day
economic summit in Toronto.
1988 Jun 21, Leaders of the
world's seven richest nations concluded their three-day summit in
1988 Jul 21, Canada’s
Multiculturalism Act of 1988 replaced a previous policy of
assimilation with one of acceptance of diversity.
1988 Aug 9, Hockey star Wayne
Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers was traded to the Los Angeles Kings.
1988 Sep 22, The government of
Canada apologized for the World War II internment of
Japanese-Canadians and promised compensation.
1988 Sep 24, Canadian sprinter
Ben Johnson won the men's 100-meter dash in 9.79 seconds at the
Seoul Summer Olympics. He was disqualified three days later for
using anabolic steroids.
(AP, 9/24/98)(Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.15)
1988 Sep 27, Canadian sprinter
Ben Johnson left for home in disgrace 3 days after placing first in
the men's 100-meter dash at the Seoul Summer Olympics. He was
stripped of his gold medal by officials who said he had used
1988 Nov 21, Canada's
Progressive Conservative Party, led by Prime Minister Brian
Mulroney, won the country's general election.
1988 Nov 25, An earthquake
centered in eastern Canada and measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale
was felt widely across Canada and in the northeastern United States.
1988 Canada reformed its tax
system flattening the rate structure and cutting top rates.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.84)
1988 European Airbus jets were
sold to Canada. In 1996 there were allegations of kickbacks in the
deal and in 1996 Swiss Bank records were sought in a corruption
probe. Prime Minister Mulroney filed suit in 1996 for being named in
(WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A14)
1988 In Canada Claude Comair, a
Lebanese-born, computer animation specialist, founded the DigiPen
Institute of Technology in Vancouver. It taught students
fundamentals of video game development and in 1996 moved to Seattle.
(WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)
1989 Mar 13, In Canada a
transformer failure on one of the main power transmission lines in
the HydroQuebec system precipitated a catastrophic collapse of the
entire power grid. The string of events that produced the collapse
took only 90 seconds from start to finish. The transformer failure
was a direct consequence of ground induced currents from a solar
flare. 6 million people lost electrical power for 9 or more hours.
(www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html)(ON, 4/12, p.6)
1989 Mar 1, Charlie Francis,
the coach of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson (b.1961), testified that
Johnson began using steroids in 1981.
1989 Apr 1, In Canada the Oka
conflict began when some 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve
marched though the town of Oka protesting plans to expand the
village's nine-hole golf course to 18 holes, saying expansion
encroaches on their burial ground. A 78-day standoff began on July
11, 1990 and ended Sep 26, 1990. The Oka Crisis cost the Quebec
government an estimated $180 million not including the cost of the
1989 May 25, The Calgary Flames
won their first Stanley Cup by defeating the Montreal Canadiens in
game six of their championship series.
1989 Jul 1, The 1987 Montreal
Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying
pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half
production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone.
(HNQ, 8/11/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)
1989 Oct 15, The NHL's Wayne
Gretzky of the Los Angeles Kings surpassed Gordie Howe's scoring
record of 1,850 points, in a game against the Edmonton Oilers.
1989 Dec 6, In Canada 14 women
were shot to death at the University of Montreal's school of
engineering by Marc Lepine, who then took his own life.
1989 Dec 25, In Canada a 6.3
earthquake, the Ungava event, struck northern Quebec and was later
attributed to retreating ice sheets from 10,000 years earlier.
(WSJ, 6/9/06, p.A11)
1989 The film "Speaking Parts"
was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about a hotel laundry
worker obsessed with watching videos of a bit actor.
1989 Canada ceased issuing C$1
notes. Canada had replaced the C$1 note with a coin in 1987 and the
C$2 note with a coin in 1996.
1989 A human rights tribunal
ruled that equal rights must be provided for women. This opened
Canadian military jobs for women except for submarine duty.
(SFC, 3/26/98, p.B2)
1989-1997 More than 275,000 Hong Kong residents
emigrated to Canada during this period. A Canadian residency permit
could be secured by an investment of $112,000.
(Econ., 8/1/20, p.33)
1990 Feb 13, At a conference in
Ottawa, the United States and its European allies forged agreement
with the Soviet Union and East Germany on a two-stage formula to
1990 The Canadian Parliament
began tracking attendance.
(SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)
1990 The first exchange traded
fund (ETF), an open ended mutual fund, was created by the Toronto
(Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/38dajn)
1990 Canada-based Bombardier
took over American-based Learjet.
(Econ, 1/4/14, p.23)
1991 Jul 9, The American League
defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in
1991 Aug 22, The Supreme Court
of Canada struck down the so-called rape shield law, which said the
previous sexual conduct of a rape victim could not be used in court.
1991 Sep 8, A 55 ton concrete
beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
1991 Nov 8, The European
Community and Canada imposed economic sanctions on Yugoslavia in an
attempt to stop the Balkan civil war.
1991 Dec 17, Joey Smallwood
(b.1900), Canadian politician and the first premier of Newfoundland
1991 The film "The Adjustor"
was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about an insurance
adjuster who gets involved in his clients’ lives.
1991 In Canada the Algonquins
on the Rapid Lake reserve struck a trilateral deal giving them a
share in what happens on their traditional territory and a share in
any revenues. The Rapid Lake reserve was established for the use of
the Algonquins of Barriere Lake in 1961. Since forest resources are
a provincial jurisdiction, a pilot project about the management of
renewable resources (wildlife and forest) was negotiated between the
Government of Quebec and the Algonquins of Barriere Lake.
(http://tinyurl.com/y8ka7qbl)(Econ 7/1/17, p.30)
1991 In Canada the province of
Ontario passed the Arbitration Act, which allowed family law
disputes to be settled by arbitration. The Act permitted religiously
based as well as secular arbitration tribunals in the province.
1991 A 7-member Royal
commission on Aboriginal Peoples was created after a lengthy armed
standoff between Mohawk Indians and security forces in Quebec.
(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)
1991 In Alberta a gas leak
forced Wiebo Ludwig to evacuate his 320-acre Trickle Creek
"community." Ludwig blamed the Alberta oil and gas industry for the
death of 60 of his livestock and a succession of human health
problems. The gas wells produced sour gas, a gas laced with the
neurotoxin hydrogen sulfide.
(SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
1991 Stewart Blusson, Canadian
geologist, discovered a trove of diamonds south of the Arctic Circle
in the Northwest Territories.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B2)
1992 Jan 22-1992 Jan 30,
Roberta Bondar was the first Canadian woman in space. She rode the
shuttle Discovery and performed life and material-science
(USAT, 7/26/99, p.14A)
1992 Aug 11, In Washington,
D.C., negotiators for the United States, Canada and Mexico continued
to work out final details of the proposed North American Free Trade
1992 Aug 12, The North American
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was announced in Washington, D.C. after
14 months of negotiations between the United States, Mexico and
Canada. It created the world's wealthiest trading bloc.
(AP, 8/12/97)(HN, 8/12/02)
1992 Sep, In Edmonton, Canada,
Corinne Gustavson (6) was kidnapped, sexually assaulted and killed.
In 2005 Clifford Sleigh was found guilty of her first-degree murder,
aggravated sexual assault and kidnapping and sentenced to prison
with no parole for 25 years.
1992 Oct 7, Trade
representatives of the United States, Canada and Mexico initialed
the North American Free Trade Agreement during a ceremony in San
1992 Oct 17, The Atlanta Braves
defeated the Toronto Blue Jays in game one of the World Series,
1992 Oct 18, The visiting
Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves in game two of the
World Series, 5-to-4, evening the series at one game apiece. The
pre-game ceremony was marred by a U.S. Marine Corps color guard that
mistakenly presented the Canadian flag upside-down.
1992 Oct 20, The host Toronto
Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves, 3-2 in game three of the
World Series, taking a two-games-to-one lead. This was the first
World Series game to be played outside the U.S. During the pre-game
ceremony, a Marine color guard presented the Canadian flag
correctly, two days after another guard held the banner upside-down
before game two.
1992 Oct 21, The Toronto Blue
Jays won game four of the World Series, defeating the Atlanta Braves
1992 Oct 24, The Toronto Blue
Jays became the first non-U.S. team to win the World Series as they
defeated the Atlanta Braves, 4-3, in game six.
1992 Oct 26, Voters in Canada
rejected a constitutional reform package known as the Charlottetown
1992 Dec 5, Ralph Klein, a
Progressive Conservative, was elected premier of Alberta. He began
to lead Canada in deregulation and privatization. Klein retired at
the end of 2006.
(Econ, 7/17/04, p.37)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.44)
1992 Dec 17, President Bush,
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos
Salinas de Gortari signed the North American Free Trade Agreement in
1992 The "English Patient" by
Michael Ondaatje, born in Sri Lanka, became the first Canadian novel
to win the Booker Prize.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C15)
1992 The legislature of British
Columbia voted 51-1 to declare the province a nuclear-weapons-free
(SFC, 7/22/99, p.C2)
1992 Captain Sandra Perron, the
country’s first female infantry officer, was beaten by other
officers, tied to a tree and left barefoot in the snow for 2 hours
during a training exercise.
(SFC, 1/1/97, p.C1)
1992 Voters in the Northwest
Territories agreed to the formation of an Inuit governed territory
called Nunavut, which means "our land" in the Inuktitut language.
The change would take effect Apr 1, 1999.
(SFC, 3/28/98, p.A10)
1992 A US Senate report linked
the Sun Yee On triad to criminal organizations in Canada, the
Dominican Republic, and 7 US cities including SF. The report stated
that the syndicate was in outright control of the entertainment
industry in Hong Kong.
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A7)
1992 Canada closed the Grand
Banks off of Newfoundland to all cod fishing. The cod fishery had
collapsed due to overfishing. By 2012 the fishery had still not
(NH, 5/96, p.61)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.71)
1993 Feb 24, Canadian Prime
Minister Brian Mulroney announced he was stepping down.
1993 Mar 11, Dino Bravo
(b.1948), wrestler (WWF), was shot to death in Laval, Quebec,
Canada. Bravo, born as Adolfo Bresciano, was known as the “World’s
1993 Mar 16, Canadian soldiers
in Somalia beat to death a local teenager, Shidane Arone, during
their participation in the UN humanitarian efforts. An inquiry led
to the disbanding of Canada's elite Canadian Airborne Regiment,
greatly damaged the morale of the Canadian Forces, and damaged both
the domestic and international reputation of Canadian soldiers.
1993 Jun 23, Canada's Senate
ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1993 Apr 3, President Clinton
and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in
Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian
Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
1993 May 27, The Canadian House
of Commons approved the North American Free Trade Agreement.
1993 Jun 13, Canada's
Progressive Conservative Party chose Defense Minister Kim Campbell
to succeed Brian Mulroney as prime minister; she was the first woman
to hold the post.
1993 Jun 25, Kim Campbell was
sworn in as Canada's 19th prime minister, the first woman to hold
(CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 6/25/98)
1993 Aug 13, Negotiators for
the US, Canada and Mexico announced they had resolved side issues
concerning the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1993 Oct 12, The Toronto Blue
Jays won their second straight American League pennant, defeating
the Chicago White Sox in six games.
1993 Oct 16, The Toronto Blue
Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 8-5, in game one of the
1993 Oct 17, The Philadelphia
Phillies defeated the Toronto Blue Jays, 6-4, evening the World
Series at one game each.
1993 Oct 19, The Toronto Blue
Jays took a 2-1 lead in the World Series by defeating the
Philadelphia Phillies 10-3.
1993 Oct 20, Toronto took a 3-1
lead in the World Series as the Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia
1993 Oct 21, The Philadelphia
Phillies beat the Toronto Blue Jays 2-0 in game five of the World
Series; Toronto still led the Series 3-2.
1993 Oct 25, Canada's Liberal
Party ended nine years of rule by the Progressive Conservatives in
national elections; Liberal leader Jean Chretien became the 20th
Prime Minister, succeeding Kim Campbell.
(CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 10/25/98)
1993 Oct, Robert Latimer (44),
a farmer, killed his disabled 12-year-old daughter, who suffered
from cerebral palsy, using exhaust fumes from his pickup truck. He
was convicted in 1997 but sentenced to one year in jail and one year
probation. In 2001 the Supreme Court upheld his murder conviction.
(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/19/01, p.A17)
1993 The film "Calendar" was
directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was shot in Armenia with funds
won from the Moscow Prize for "The Adjustor." It was a memory piece
of himself as a photographer.
1993 Canada’s former PM
Mulroney began accepting cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a lobbyist
for Airbus and Thyssen. This was only made public in 2003. Public
hearings in the matter began in 2009. Schreiber said he handed over
C$300,000 ($256,000) in cash to Mulroney in separate hotel meetings
so that Mulroney could help promote establishment of a factory to
build light armored vehicles.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.44)(Reuters, 5/12/09)
1993 In Canada Karla Homolka
pleaded guilty in the sex slayings of two southern Ontario teenagers
Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French. She was sentenced to 12 years in
prison and was set for release in 2005. Her husband Paul Bernardo,
eventually convicted of raping 13 Ontario women or girls, committed
many of the assaults during the first three years of his
relationship with Homolka.
1993 In Canada diamond
prospectors found nickel deposits in Labrador’s Voisey Bay. Vale of
Brazil opened a mine there in 2005.
(Econ, 4/12/14, p.27)
1993-1994 Members of the Canadian 12th Armored
Regiment were assigned to protect the Bakovici mental hospital in
Bosnia. Later 57 members were accused of various abuses that
included sex, drinking, and patient abuse.
(SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)
1993-2002 Paul Martin served as Canada’s finance
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.39)
1994 Jun 14, The New York
Rangers won hockey's Stanley Cup for the first time in 54 years,
defeating the Vancouver Canucks.
1994 Sep 12, The Parti
Quebecois won a parliamentary election.
1994 Oct 5, 48 members of a
secret religious doomsday cult were found dead in apparent
murder-suicides carried out simultaneously in two Swiss villages;
five other bodies were found in a sect apartment in Montreal,
1994 Nov 8, In Vancouver a
sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his home.
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)
1994 The film "Exotica" was
directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It won Canada’s Genie Award for
best film. It was about 5 characters whose lives intersected at a
1994 Canada leased its major
airports to private-sector entities.
(Econ, 8/12/17, p.52)
1994 An Ontario judge ruled
that lap dancing was not indecent under standards previously set by
the Supreme Court. The ruling was overturned in 1997.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1994 Wal-Mart acquired 122
Woolco stores in Canada.
(Econ, 2/26/05, p.37)
1995 May 8, Helmut Oberlander
(b.1924), a former Nazi decorated for service in a death squad that
executed 91,678 people in southern Russia, was extradited to Canada
(SSFC, 4/4/10, Par.
1995 Jun 15, The Summit of 7
leading industrialist nations, G-7, met in Halifax, Canada, for
talks on a unified front against terrorism. President Clinton met
with Japanese PM Tomiichi Murayama on the opening day of a Group of
Seven summit in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
(AP, 6/15/00)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1995 Sep 6, An Ontario
Provincial Police sniper fatally wounded protester Dudley George
(1957-1995) as police moved in to try to end the occupation of
Ipperwash Provincial Park, on the shores of Lake Huron, by
demonstrators who were demanding the return of the park and adjacent
lands to native ownership. The Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point
First Nation claimed the park lands as an aboriginal burial ground.
In 2007 Ontario said it will return 109 acres to native ownership.
1995 Oct 30, The people of
Quebec rejected an independence referendum by a very narrow margin,
50.6% to 49.4%. It was the 2nd defeat in 15 years. The margin was
50,000 votes out of 5 million cast.
(WSJ, 11/1/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(WSJ,
1995 Oct 31, Stung by defeat in
the secession referendum, Quebec Premier Jacques Parizeau said he
would resign as head of the bitterly divided province at year’s end.
1995 Nov 10, In Ancaster, Ont.,
a sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)
1995 Dec 2, Robertson Davies,
Canadian writer, died. His book "The Merry Heart: Reflections on
Reading, Writing and the World of Books" was published posthumously
in 1997. His 11 novels included "Fifth Business," "What's Bred in
the Bone," "The Lyre of Orpheus" and “The Cunning Man." Just before
his death he finished a libretto for the opera "The Golden Ass"
based on the Metamorphoses by Apuleius.
(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.1)(WSJ, 5/14/99, p.W8)(WSJ,
1995 The Canadian government
recorded a federal deficit of CA$37.5 billion.
(Fin. Post, 11/2/95, p.2)
1995 Canada enacted a tough
federal Firearms Act. It was upheld in 2000 and required all gun
owners to registers all firearms with police by 2003. In 2009 plans
were afoot to repeal the long-gun (rifles and shotguns) registry,
dismantling some 8 million firearms records.
(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.A1)(SSFC, 11/8/09, p.A10)
1995 Ontario's government
unveiled the biggest budget cuts ever made by a Canadian province,
$4.4 bil. over three years. The cuts will eliminate 3,500 public
sector jobs and cut $1 bil. from hospital funding.
(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-1)
1995 British Columbia enacted a
Forest Practices Code to ensure higher environmental standards and
enforcement. A 1997 report indicated that that standards were not
being followed or enforced.
(SFC, 6/23/97, p.A8)
1995 Native protestors at
Gustafsen Lake took up arms against the RCMP. They claimed that the
land was sacred and never ceded to the crown. In 1997 13 people were
sentenced to prison terms up to 4 1/2 years for the protests.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A1)
1995 Belgium based Interbrew
bought Labatts of Canada.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.125)
1996 Jan, Lucien Bouchard took
over as Quebec’s premier and promised to mend fences.
(WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A8)
1996 Feb 15, In the Toronto
Globe and Star there was a report by Peter Whelan that "pesticides
sprayed on fields in Argentina were killing tens of thousands of
wintering Swainson’s hawks that nest on the Canadian prairies and
the adjacent US Great Plains."
(NH, 10/96, p.51)
1996 Apr 13, The annual
Canadian seal hunt in Newfoundland went out of control and some
16,500 seals were slaughtered instead of the 8,000 quota.
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-15)
1996 May 12, The Canadian
province of Ontario announced a 15% tax cut last week under Premier
Mike Harris, who was elected last June on promises to cut the budget
deficit and taxes. His cuts have led to tuition increases, expected
hospital closures or consolidations, and the marked elimination of
10,000 government jobs.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-10)
1996 May, Forms for the
national census went out. It is held every five years and this
year’s form included questions on housework, child and elder care
for the first time.
(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A5c)
1996 Jul 10, A coalition of
Canadian groups threatened to boycott Florida unless the US relents
on the Helms-Burton law that imposes sanctions on foreign companies
that trade with companies expropriated by from the US by Cuba.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A9)
1996 Jul 23, In Toronto, a
police officer was charged with criminal negligence in the shooting
of a protester who became the first Canadian Indian in modern times
killed in a land dispute with the government.
1996 Jul 23, Canadian
researchers found a hormone, GLP-2, that stimulates growth of the
lining of the small intestine.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.B6)
1996 Sep 19, The Arctic Council
was founded to promote joint scientific research and to study
pollution, conservation and mapping. The Ottawa Declaration named
eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway,
Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden and Finland. The first
step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when
eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection
1996 Sep 14, Team Canada lost
the hockey finals of an 8-nation tournament for the World Cup to a
(SFE, 9/17/96, p.A12)
1996 Oct 22, The
Godfrey-Milliken bill was introduced in response to the US
Helms-Burton bill. It said that 3 million Canadian descendants of
80,000 uprooted loyalists from the time of the American Revolution
have a right to compensation for their confiscated property.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)
1996 Oct 25, Protestors opposed
to spending cuts in Toronto shut down the mass transit system.
Ontario Premier Mike Harris planned to cut the provincial budget by
20% in order to wipe out the deficit by the turn of the century.
(SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)
1996 Nov 29, A Canadian-led
int’l. force won approval to provide humanitarian aid. The force
would be based in Uganda.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)
1996 Nov, Canada revised rules
on overseas sales of ecologically sensitive technology to enable the
sale of two 700-megawat Candu 6, nuclear reactors to China. The $3
billion project will be built in Qinshan and financed by a $1.1
billion loan from Ottawa.
(SFC, 12/31/96, p.A11)
1996 Nov, The Canadian firm
Hurricane Hydrocarbons Ltd. (later known as PetroKazakhstan Inc. of
Calgary) won the bidding in the Kazakhstan’s first oilfield
privatization. For $120 million it acquired a field producing 50,000
barrels a day with reserves of 340 million barrels. The deal was
accompanied by an array of social obligations. It later faced
problems with the Kazakh government over fuel pricing and
(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A11)
1996 Canada’s PM Chretien set
up a program to promote federalism in Quebec after voters narrowly
rejected secession in a referendum.
(Econ, 11/5/05, p.42)
1996 Inco Corp. acquired the
nickel deposits at Voisey Bay in Labrador from Diamond Fields
Resources Inc. for $3.2 billion in cash and stock. At this time
nickel was trading at $3.70 per pound.
(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B4)
1996 Canada began replacing its
two-dollar notes with $2 coins called "toonies."
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.B1)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.75)
1996 Rebecca Middleton (17) of
Ontario, Canada, died after being raped, tortured and stabbed on a
beach in Bermuda. A suspect, Kirk Orlando Mundy, was allowed to
strike a plea bargain deal with police in which he admitted to being
an accessory after the fact and was sentenced to five years. The
case against the other suspect, Justis Raham Smith, collapsed after
a judge in Bermuda said there was insufficient evidence.
1997 Jan 22, Canada and Cuba
announced a 14-point agreement. They pledged cooperation on human
rights and sought to shield foreign investors targeted for
punishment by Washington.
(SFC, 1/23/96, p.A8)
1997 Mar 22, Five Solar Temple
cult members died in an apparent mass suicide in Quebec.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A1)
1997 Apr, The US Illegal
Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act went into effect and began
creating border crossing problems for Canadian business travelers.
(WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A13)
1997 Apr, The Toronto Stock
Exchange closed in favor of automated trading.
(WSJ, 9/15/97, p.B1)
1997 May 30, Canada's 8-mile
long Confederation Bridge, connecting New Brunswick to Prince Edward
Island, was scheduled to be opened. It cost C$1 billion.
(WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A1)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.34)
1997 Jun 2, A federal election
on this date was called by Prime Minister Jean Chretien. He called
for a mandate to decide Canada’s priorities now that the federal
deficit was tamed. Voters returned Chretien and his centrist Liberal
Party to power with a slight parliamentary majority.
(SFC, 4/28/97, p.10)(SFC, 6/3/97, p.A8)
1997 Jun, The Supreme Court
ruled that lap dancing violates standards of decency.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E5)
1997 Jul 1, Thailand let its
currency, the baht, float and it devalued about 20%. This event
marked the beginning of the Asian economic crises. In 1999 Thailand
sought to extradite Rakesh Saxena, a currency trader, from Canada
for his role in an alleged fraud that drained over $2 billion from
the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which led to the devaluation of the
baht. Pin Chakkaphak was blamed for the collapse of the currency and
fled Asia. He was ordered back from Britain in 2001 to face
accounting and theft charges. In 2009 Saxena (57) arrived in
Thailand after his extradition from Canada to face charges he
embezzled $88 million from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which
collapsed in 1995. Saxena was also implicated in backing the
attempted 1997 coup in Sierra Leone.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A1)(SFEC,
5/31/98, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/9/01, p.A16)(Econ, 3/25/06,
p.80)(AP, 10/30/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.42)
1997 Jul 2, A Canadian
commission, established to review the actions of peace-keeping
troops in Somalia between 1992-93, concluded that the troops were
unprepared and victimized by commanders who ignored problems that
escalated to torture and the killing of a Somali teenager.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)
1997 Jul 3, Lions Gate
Entertainment Corp. (Lionsgate) was formed in Vancouver, BC. Its
headquarters were later moved to Santa Monica, Ca.
1997 Jul 21, In Canada
fishermen released the Malaspina ferry, a blocked Alaska-bound ship
at Prince Rupert. They were protesting US fishing of sockeye salmon
heading for spawning in British Columbia.
(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A10)
1997 Aug 14, It was reported
that Ontario planned to close down 7 of 19 nuclear power plants for
repairs. Inadequate maintenance practices and management problems
were charged in an internal document and, Allan Kupcis, the CEO had
(SFC, 8/14/97, p.C3)
1997 Oct 13, In Quebec a bus
with 48 senior citizens overturned near St. Joseph-de-la-Rive and 43
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)
1997 Oct 27, Teachers in
Ontario walked out in protest against budget cuts.
(WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A1)
1997 Nov 10, Classes resumed in
Ontario following settlement of the teacher’s strike.
1997 Nov 11, In Winnipeg a
sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his home.
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)
1997 Nov 19, 45,000 Canadian
postal workers went on strike after Canada Post ordered staffing
(WSJ, 11/20/97, p.A1)
1997 Nov 25, President Clinton
and Pacific Rim leaders meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia,
approved a rescue strategy for Asian economies shaken by plunging
currencies, bank failures and bankruptcies. The 2-day APEC summit in
Vancouver closed and leaders agreed to an IMF bailout plan. Forum
leaders also agreed to admit Russia, Vietnam and Peru into the
organization as of 1998.
(SFC,11/26/97, p.C2)(HN, 11/25/98)
1997 Dec 3, In Canada as many
as 120 countries began signing a ban on land mines in Ottawa. The
US, China, Russia, Iraq were among those countries refusing to sign
(SFC, 12/4/97, p.A1)
1997 Dec 4, Postal workers
ended their strike under threat of heavy fines with a 5.15% wage
increase over 3 years.
1997 Ontario’s Premier forced
the municipal merger of Toronto, East York, Scarborough, York,
Etobicoke and North York.
1997 Quebec, Canada, introduced
a highly subsidized, early childhood education program for all.
(Econ, 6/25/16, p.68)
1997 ING Direct, an online
banking service under Dutch parent ING Groep NV, was launched in
Canada. In 2000 it began operations in the US from Wilmington, Del.
By the end of 2007 it had over 7 million customers and $62 billion
in deposits. In 2008 Arkadi Kuhlman, ING’s US chief, and Bruce
Philp, chairman of ING Direct’s marketing partner, authored “The
Orange Code: How ING direct Succeeded by Being a Rebel with a
(WSJ, 12/10/08, p.A17)
1998 Jan 2, In Canada Mayor Mel
Lastman began running the new municipality of greater Toronto.
1998 Jan 4, Nirmal Singh Gill
(65) was found beaten and bleeding in the parking lot of a Sikh
temple in Surrey near Vancouver. He soon died. 5 young men linked to
a white supremacist group, White Power, were later jailed on charges
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)
1998 Jan 5, An ice storm
knocked out electricity in Quebec & Ontario.
1998 Jan 7, The government
apologized to the nation’s indigenous peoples for past acts of
oppression and pledged $245 million for counseling and treatment
programs. The aboriginal population is about 810,000 that includes
38,000 Inuits and 139,000 Metis, people of mixed Indian and white
(SFC, 1/8/98, p.A13)
1998 Jan 8-1998 Jan 9, The US
Northeast and Canada were hit with a severe ice storm and at least
16 people were reported killed. Three million people were left
without power and damage was estimated to reach $350 million.
(SFC, 1/9/98, p.A3)(SFC, 1/10/98, p.A8)
1998 Feb, Senator Andrew
Thompson was stripped of his salary for poor attendance. He resigned
6 weeks later.
(SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)
1998 Mar 6, It was reported
that Panama hired a Canadian Indian tribe, the Tsuu T’ina, to clean
out unexploded bombs and shells from an area of Empire Range, which
US military forces abandoned.
(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)
1998 Mar 13, Canada legalized
the growing of industrial hemp
(SFC, 3/14/98, p.A10)
1998 Apr 18, It was reported
that marijuana revenues from British Columbia were estimated to be
$400 million to over $3 billion.
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A8)
1998 Apr 26, Jean Chretien,
Prime Minister of Canada, visited Cuba and with Fidel Castro
inaugurated a new $40 million terminal at the Havana airport.
(SFC, 4/20/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A12)
1998 Apr 27, In Cuba Prime
Minister Chretien urged Fidel Castro to release four leading
dissidents. It was reported that about 350 political prisoners were
(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A6)
1998 May 21, Canada ordered
major cuts in the catch of Coho salmon on the West Coast due to
declining stocks. Fishing on the Skeena and Thompson River runs was
banned and US officials were urged to take similar action.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A1)
1998 Jun 18, A commuter plane
crashed near Montreal with engineers of Canadian General Electric
Co. All 11 people aboard were killed.
(SFC, 6/19/98, p.B4)
1998 Jul 29, A human rights
tribunal ruled that Canadian public servants in female-dominated job
categories deserved compensation for unequal pay. Payment was to be
retroactive to March, 1985, and would range from $10k to 20k.
(SFC, 7/30/98, p.A12)
1998 Jul 31, The Canadian
dollar hit a historical low of 66.10 cents to $1US.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 18, Micmac Indians on
the Listuguj reservation ended a 3 week standoff over timber rights
(SFC, 8/19/98, p.C16)
1998 Aug 20, In Canada the
Supreme Court ruled that Quebec can’t secede unilaterally, but that
if the province votes for secession, it must negotiate with the rest
(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A12)
1998 Aug, In Alberta the RC
Mounted Police arrested evangelical pastor Wiebo Ludwig (56), his
wife and son and a friend for bombing an oil-well site. They were
later released for lack of evidence. Over the last 2 ½ years some
160 attacks were made on natural resource companies in the area.
(SFC, 11/3/98, p.C3)
1998 Sep 1, Pilots for Air
Canada went on a two-week strike for the first time in the
association’s 61 year history.
(SFC, 9/2/98, p.A10)
1998 Sep 2, A Swissair MD-11
jetliner crashed off Nova Scotia with 229 people aboard and all were
feared dead. The New York to Geneva flight had 136 Americans on
(SFC, 9/3/98, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/98, p.A17)(AP,
9/2/99)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1998 Sep 4, In Yarmouth Harbor,
New Brunswick, the new Incat 046 catamaran collided with a fishing
dragger and killed Captain Clifford Hood (33). The new ferry carried
up to 900 passengers and 240 cars from Bar Harbor, Maine, to
Yarmouth across the Bay of Fundy at 50 mph. Travel time was cut in
half from 6.5 hours for the 105 mile run.
(SFEC, 10/5/98, p.A3,5)
1998 Sep 6, Divers working off
Nova Scotia found the flight data recorder from Swissair Flight 111,
which had crashed Sep 2, killing all 229 people on board. However,
it turned out the recorder had stopped working several minutes
before the crash.
1998 Sep 10, Air Canada and its
pilots reached an agreement to end a 9-day strike. [see Sep 14]
(SFC, 9/11/98, p.A3)
1998 Sep 11, Divers off Nova
Scotia recovered the cockpit voice recorder from Swissair Flight
111, which had crashed Sept. 2, with 229 people aboard. The data
recorder was found Sep 6.
1998 Sep 14, Air Canada pilots
ended a 13-day strike with a 9% salary increase over 2 years.
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A10)
1998 Oct 12, Canada planned to
begin discussion with Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein for
the first trans-Atlantic free-trade pact.
(WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 27, In Canada the
National Post began operations as a new national daily under the
control of media tycoon Conrad Black.
(WSJ, 10/26/98, p.A15)
1998 Oct, A bomb exploded at a
gas well near Beaverlodge, Alberta. It was initially blamed on Wiebo
Ludwig, a Calvinist organic farmer and preacher. It was later
reported that the bomb was planted by the RCMP to insinuate an
informant into Ludwig's band.
(SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)
1998 Nov 26, The Supreme Court
of Canada ruled authorities at elementary and secondary schools have
the right to search a student without first obtaining a search
1998 Nov 30, Quebec's
separatist premier, Lucien Bouchard, was returned to power, but with
only 43 percent of the vote, setting back the Parti Quebecois' goal
of seeking independence from Canada. The party won 42.7% of the vote
vs. 43.7% for the Liberals.
(AP, 11/30/99)(SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/2/98,
1998 Dec 1, A new gun control
law went into effect that required all 3 million gun owners to be
licensed and every one of an estimated 7 million rifles and handguns
to be registered.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A22)
1998 Wayne Johnson authored his
novel “The Colony of Unrequited Dreams," set in Canada’s province of
(Econ, 8/19/17, p.28)
1998 The Canadian comedy film
"Hard Core Logo" starred Hugh Dillon and was directed by Bruce
McDonald. It was about the reunion of a Vancouver punk band and
based on the novel by Michael Turner.
(SFC, 12/4/98, p.C9)
1998 In Canada the Nisga’a
First Nations tribe signed a treaty after more than a century of
negotiation and litigation. The 6,400 Nisga’a gained ownership of
almost 2,000 square km (770 square miles) in the Nass valley plus
powers of self-government.
(Econ, 12/12/09, p.40)
1998 US federal prosecutors in
NY brought charges of fraud against Livent Inc., the Toronto-based
producer of “Phantom of the Opera." US authorities deferred to their
Canadian counterparts as Canadian police charged founder Garth
Drabinsky and other executives with fraud. A trial was slated to
begin in 2007.
(WSJ, 10/27/05, p.C1)
1998 Quebec created a publicly
funded day care program.
(SFC, 6/9/00, p.A17)
1998 Ellesmere Island National
Park Reserve was created. It covered 37,775 sq. km. of the island,
the northernmost part of North America.
(SFEM, 6/11/00, p.24)
1999 Jan 1, In Canada an
avalanche, possibly triggered ceremonial gunfire, hit the Inuit
village of Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec, and 9 people were killed.
(SFC, 1/2/99, p.C12)(SFEC, 1/3/99, p.A17)
2000 Jan, In Alberta Wiebo
Ludwig, an environmental radical, was arrested on charges of bombing
a gas well.
(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
1999 April 1, In recognition
of Inuit land claims, 770,000 sq. mls. of the Canadian Northwest
Territories' Central Keewatin and Baffin Region became Nunavut
Territory. Nominations for naming the western half were solicited.
The territory would be governed by a 19-member legislature.
(CAM, Nov. Dec. '95, p.28)(WSJ, 10/9/97,
p.B1)(SFC, 3/30/99, p.F3)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.T5)
1999 Apr 19, One of the annual
Goldman Environmental Prizes went to: Bernard Martin, a Canadian
fisherman, for his work opposing large factory trawlers.
(SFC, 4/19/99, p.A2)
1999 Apr 19, In Canada a
Toronto transit strike forced 800,000 commuters to seek alternate
(WSJ, 4/20/99, A1)
1999 Apr 28, In Canada a
14-year-old boy shot 2 17-year-olds and killed one at W.R. Myers
High School in Taber, Alberta. Jason Lang was killed and Shane
Christmas was seriously wounded.
(SFC, 4/29/99, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D4)
1999 May 20, In Canada the
Supreme Court struck down a heterosexual definition of "spouse" as
(SFC, 5/21/99, p.A12)
1999 Jun 3, Ontario's
Conservative Party, led by former golf pro Mike Harris, won the
(SFC, 6/4/99, p.D2)
1999 Jun 3, The US and Canada
signed a 10-year accord to limit salmon fishing in the northwest
based on the abundance of particular species.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.A1)
1999 Jun 26, In Quebec 47,000
nurses launched a wildcat strike over wages and working conditions
following 14 months of negotiations.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A21)
1999 Jun 30, In Canada the
highest court in BC upheld a ruling that Canada's law against the
possession of child pornography is unconstitutional.
(SFC, 7/1/99, p.a14)
1999 Jul 17, The body of
Canadian singer Fatima Kama (28) was found when a member of the
public spotted a black suitcase abandoned on the third floor of a
Heathrow Airport parking lot. Youssef Ahmed Wahid, a former Kuwait
Airways steward, was arrested within days of the discovery at his
hometown of Ramadiyeh in southern Lebanon. He reportedly denied
having anything to do with the killing, and was eventually released
and then went on the run. In 2010 authorities in Bahrain arrested
Wahid as a suspect in the case. On Oct 3, 2011, Wahid was sentenced
to at least 24 years in prison.
(AP, 8/24/10)(AP, 10/3/11)
1999 Jul 19, In Nanaimo public
hearings began on the expropriation of a 140-square-mile area of
Nanoose Bay by the federal government from the province. The area
was used by the US for torpedo testing.
(SFC, 7/22/99, p.C2)
1999 Aug 14, In Canada hunters
found the body of an ancient hunter preserved in a glacier in the
Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Wilderness, 1000 miles north of
Vancouver. The "Iceman" (aka Kwaday Dan Sinchi) was later reported
to be about 500 years old.
(SFC, 8/25/99, p.A1,9)(AM, 9/01, p.17)
1999 Aug, Alfred Reumayr of
British Columbia was arrested in a joint operation by the US Bureau
of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police. In 2008 he pleaded guilty to plotting to blow up the
Trans-Alaskan oil pipeline on New Year's Day 2000. He had planned to
buy energy securities at low prices before the attack, and hoped to
profit by selling them at a higher price amid market turmoil
1999 Sep 1, The 8th biennial
summit of Francophone nations was scheduled to open in Moncton, New
(WSJ, 8/30/99, p.B1)
1999 Sep 3, In Canada at least
7 people were killed on a foggy patch of Highway 401 between Windsor
and London as over 60 vehicles piled up.
(SFC, 9/4/99, p.A12)
1999 Oct 10, Windsor, Nova
Scotia, Canada, held its first pumpkin regatta on Lake Pesaquid.
Danny Dill, son of Howard Dill, had proposed the pumpkin boating
event to help the town capitalize on its history as the birthplace
of giant pumpkin growing. In the 1970s Howard Dill had engineered
mammoth pumpkins and patented the seed as Dill’s Atlantic Giant.
(WSJ, 10/20/07, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/3y5me4)
1999 Sep 10, It was reported
that Canada has 339 species in serious danger of disappearing and no
federal legislation for protection of endangered animals.
(SFC, 9/10/99, p.D4)
1999 Oct 13, Robert A. Mundell
(66), a Canadian born professor at Columbia Univ., won the Nobel
Prize in Economics for his study of cross-border capital flows,
flexible foreign exchange rates, and supply side economics. A 1961
paper by Mundell had pioneered the theory of an “optimal currency
area," which later helped shape the euro zone.
(WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A2)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.10)
1999 Oct, Hong Kong born
Adrienne Clarkson (60) was named governor general. She was the first
Asian to serve as the queen's representative in Canada.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)
1999 Nov 8, In Canada employers
in BC locked out 2,000 waterfront workers and disrupted trade valued
at $60 million per day.
(WSJ, 11/9/99, p.A1)
1999 Dec 14, In Seattle Ahmed
Ressam (32), an Algerian, was arrested after crossing the border at
Port Angeles from Canada with a car trunk with over 150 pounds of
bomb-making materials that included 200 pounds of urea, timing
devices and a bottle of RDX, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine.
Canadian authorities later issued an arrest warrant for Abdelmajed
Dahoumane for possessing or making explosives. Dahoumane was
arrested in Algeria In Oct, 2000. In 2001 Ressam admitted that he
planned to detonate a bomb at the LA Int’l. Airport. Mokhtar Haouari
provided fake ID and $3,000 to Ressam. Haouari was sentenced to 24
years in prison in 2002. In 2005 Ressam was sentenced to 22 years in
(SFC, 12/18/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.D3)(SFC,
12/25/99, p.A3)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A5)(SFC, 12/7/00, p.C10)(SFC,
5/30/01, p.A5)(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A12)(SFC, 7/28/05, p.A3)
1999 The Canadian comedy film
"Last Night" was directed by Don McKellar.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W10)
1999 A 9-floor mausoleum
condominium in Vancouver, with 4 of the floor underground, was
scheduled to be completed by builder Alvin Mitchell. Theme floors
for various religious groups would be included along with a roof top
pyre with room for viewers.
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A1)
1999 Canada took charge of the
Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, after the owner
declared bankruptcy. The mine site contained some 237,000 tons of
arsenic trioxide, a lethal compound produced in the extraction of
(Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)
1999 In Canada the Perimeter
Institute for Theoretical Physics (PI) was set up at Waterloo,
Ontario, by Mark Lazaridis, founder and co-CEO of Research In
Motion. Lazaridis' initial donation of $100 million was announced on
October 23, 2000.
1999 The fungus Cryptococcus
gattii, normally found in Australia and other tropical zones, was
discovered on Vancouver Island, Canada. By 2007 at least 8 people
had died from infection and another 163 sickened.
(SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A11)
2000 Feb 7, Doug Henning,
Canadian-born magician, died in Los Angeles at age 52 from liver
(SFC, 2/9/00, p.C5)(AP, 2/7/01)
2000 Mar 15, Canada passed the
Clarity Act, which set out a procedure for the government to
negotiate with any province that votes for independence by a clear
2000 Mar 25, The Reform Party
entered the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance to oppose the
governing Liberal Party.
(SFC, 3/27/00, p.A13)
2000 Mar, Health Canada
quarantined the country’s sperm banks after a woman contracted
chlamydia from a donor sample.
(SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C4)
2000 Apr 19, Wiebo Ludwig, an
environmental radical, was convicted for bombing a gas well in 1998
and sentenced to prison.
(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
2000 Apr 29, It was reported
that the Molson Beer ad, "Joe’s Rant" featuring Jeff Douglas (28),
had become a national phenomenon for Canadian pride.
(SFC, 4/29/00, p.A13)
2000 May 26, In Canada an
outbreak of E. coli in Walkerton, Ontario, left 5 people dead and
made over 1,000 very ill. The local water system had become
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.A13)
2000 May 27, Maurice "Rocket"
Richard, hockey star, died at age 78. He led the Canadiens to 8
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A1)
2000 Jun 4, A 3-day meeting on
trade of the 34-nation OAS, Organization of American States, began
in Windsor, Canada. Police arrested 41 protesters.
(SFEC, 6/4/00, p.A20)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)
2000 Jun 15, In Canada
demonstrators in Toronto protested cuts in social programs and
clashed with police.
(SFC, 6/16/00, p.A19)
2000 Jun 30, A bill that erased
virtually all legal distinctions between heterosexual marriages and
same-sex unions went into effect.
(SFC, 7/3/00, p.A12)
2000 Jun, British Columbia
created a publicly funded day care program.
(SFC, 6/9/00, p.A17)
2000 Jul 11, In Vancouver Dr.
Garson Romalis (63) was stabbed outside his abortion clinic by a
suspected anti-abortion extremist. In 1994 Romalis was shot at his
home by an anti-abortion sniper from Vermont.
(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A14)
2000 Jul 14, A tornado hit the
Green Acres campground near Red Deer, Alberta, and 9 people were
killed. A 10th camper died the next day.
(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.A2)(SFC, 7/17/00, p.A13)
2000 Jul, Stockwell Day, a
Conservative from Alberta, was elected leader of the Canadian
Conservative Alliance over founder Preston Manning.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A10)
2000 Aug 3, Canadian sailors
dropped from helicopters and took over the GTS Katie, a private
American freighter, that held 3 Canadian soldiers and $250 million
in military equipment that was being returned from Kosovo. The
freighter had refused to dock over a payment dispute.
(SFC, 8/4/00, p.A17)
2000 Sep 28, In Canada Pierre
Trudeau, 2-time former premier, died at age 80. He led Canada from
1968-1979 and from 1980-1984.
(SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)
2000 Oct 3, Canadian Prime
Minister Pierre Trudeau (10/18/1919-09/28/2000) was buried in
Montreal. The spring of 1968 a wave of "Trudeaumania" swept Canada
and Trudeau became a star (and Prime Minster) until he lost eleven
years later. He won parliament election again in 1980-1984. Trudeau
was noted for legislation that shaped Canada's future including
supporting many women entering into political positions. On a
personal note Trudeau was noted for taking a swing at the press
either physically or verbally. While quite dapper with his trade
mark rose in the lapel and his sexy style, Trudeau had a comical
side sliding down banisters, and doing pirouettes behind the Queen's
back at Buckingham Palace. Pierre Elliott Trudeau was named top
Canadian newsmaker of the 20th century.
2000 Oct 22, Canada’s Prime
Minister Jean Chretien called for new elections in an attempt to
increase his parliamentary majority.
(SFC, 10/23/00, p.A10)
2000 Oct 27, Canadian
authorities arrested the men they say masterminded the 1985 bombing
of an Air India jumbo jet near Ireland that claimed the lives of all
329 people aboard. The men were acquitted at trial in March 2005.
2000 Oct, Ron and Loren Koval
disappeared and were soon accused of stealing over $50 million as
directors of a financial company and health center in Toronto.
(SFC, 11/4/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 20, In Calgary Samer
Jaber (17), a student at Lester B. Pierson High School, was stabbed
to death over a $30 debt.
(SFC, 11/21/00, p.A14)
2000 Nov 23, Canadian
authorities apprehended Lai Changxing, a fugitive smuggler from
Fujian province of China.
(SFC, 12/27/00, p.C18)
2000 Nov 27, Prime Minister
Jean Chretien (66) led the Liberal Party to a 3rd consecutive
majority government in parliamentary elections with 41% of the
popular vote and increased their seats in parliament to 173 of 301.
The 63% turnout was a record low.
(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A16)(SFC, 11/29/00, p.A16)(WSJ,
2000 Nov 27, Toronto Mayor
Melvin Lastman was re-elected. In Dec. it was revealed that Lastman
had engaged in a 14-year affair with Grace Louie that ended in 1971.
Louie had just filed suit and alleged that Lastman fathered her 2
(SFC, 1/5/01, p.D6)
2000 Dec 9, Pres. Putin said he
would follow the recommendation of the pardons commission and free
Edmond Pope. It was later reported that Pope’s efforts to buy
technology ran parallel to Canadian efforts to buy advanced Shkval
torpedoes from a defense plan in Kyrgyzstan.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.A27)(SFC, 1/3/01, p.A10)
2000 Dec 18, In Canada Pres.
Putin of Russia met with Prime Minister Chretien and together
supported existing nuclear arms accords. Chretien did not join
Putin’s opposition to a US missile defense plan.
(SFC, 12/19/00, p.B4)
2000 In Canada Mike Lazaridis,
co-founder of Research In Motion (RIM), founded the Perimeter
Institute for Theoretical Physics just outside Ontario’s Waterloo
Univ. His initial support included a donation of C$100 million.
(Econ, 3/19/05, p.68)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.36)
2000 Canadian researchers began
pancreatic islet transplants to patients with diabetes with 70-80%
success to eliminate insulin shots.
(WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)