Timeline Colombia

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WHA: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/42/index-d.html
  The Ika and Kogi are tribes in the Amazon rain forest of Colombia. They are described by Wade Davis in his 1997 book: "One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest." The U'wa tribe lives in the rain forest of northeast Colombia.
 (SFC, 5/12/97, p.T8)(SFC,10/22/97, p.C2)
  The 32 Provinces of Colombia include: Antioquia; Arauca; Bolivar; Boyaca; Cauca; Cundinamarca; Meta; Narino; northern Cesar; Putumayo; Quindio (Armenia); Santander; southern Caqueta, Vaupes (Mitu).

58Mil-60Mil     Researchers in 2009 reported that a snake named Titanoboa cerrejonensis (titanic boa from Cerrejon) lived in Colombia about this time and stretched 42 to 45 feet long, reaching more than 2,500 pounds.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

200BC-1700    The Tairona civilization thrived over this period. A city (Teyuna) later known as Ciudad Perdida (lost city) east of Santa Maria, Colombia, was established around 800. Its ruins were only rediscovered in 1972 and made public in 1975.
    (AM, 11/04, p.19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciudad_Perdida)

250        In Colombia Lord of Sipan, a pre-Columbian ruler died around this time. His remains were discovered in 1987 and hailed as one of the country's most stunning archaeological finds. In 2017 Peruvian authorities revealed the reconstructed face of the Lord of Sipan.
    (AP, 7/21/17)

800        The Tairona peoples of Colombia made Ciudad Perdida their capital from about this time until the arrival of the conquistadors.
    (SSFC, 12/4/11, p.H4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciudad_Perdida)

1300-1400    In Colombia the people of San Agustin, pressed by aggressive invaders, were forced to leave their lands and take refuge in the Amazon and Orinoco regions about this time. They left behind some 500 stone statues carved in accordance to their mythology.

1509-1520    The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).

1524        Nov 14, Pizarro began his 1st great expedition near Colombia.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1533        Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1536          A Spanish conquistador noted oil seeping in the countryside of Colombia.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-1)

1537        Popayan, Colombia, was founded.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T10)

1575-1625    Some of the U’wa tribe (Colombia), pushed up against the timber line at 12,000 feet, threw themselves off the Cliff of Truth rather than submitting to the Spanish conquistadors. Legend held that U’wa Indians led by Chief Guaiticu committed mass suicide to protest Spanish colonialism. A historical record was lacking.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)(SFC,10/22/97, p.C2)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A1)

1575-1625    The Tairona civilization, coerced by the Spaniards to convert to Christianity, fled from their coastal settlements and moved to the mountains of Colombia. They were skilled masons, farmers, weavers and goldsmiths. They had established the city now known as Ciudad Perdida (lost city) east of Santa Maria in the 5th century BCE, whose ruins were only rediscovered in 1975. The indigenous Arhuaco, Assario, and Kogi Indians are thought to be their descendants.
    (WSJ, 7/28/97, p.A16)(AM, 11/04, p.19)

1676        King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink "that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente." In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar's authored, "Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,"
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1700         The Spanish crown monopolized the aquardiente industry in Colombia.
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1708        Jun 8, The San Jose, a 62-gun, three-masted Spanish galleon, was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off Colombia's Baru peninsula, when a mysterious explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver, emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose's resting place 700 feet below the water's surface, a few miles from the historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search's share from 50% to a 5% "finder's fee." By 2007 the treasure was valued at more than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia’s highest court ruled that the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips authored “The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession." In 2015 experts confirmed that they found the San Jose on November 27 in a place never before referenced by previous research. The Remus 6000, an underwater autonomous vehicle operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, assisted in the operation.
    (AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)(AP, 12/6/15)(AP, 5/22/18)

1741        Mar 4, English fleet under Admiral Ogle reached Cartagena, Colombia.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1741        Sep 17, In Colombia Blas de Lezo (b.1689), Spanish admiral, died of typhus four months after leading Spaniards in resisting a siege by a combined British force under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blas_de_Lezo)(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.P5)

1752        In Colombia the village of San Agustin was founded Alejo Astudillo. Attacks by indigenous people destroyed it. A new village was founded in 1790 by Lucas de Herazo and Mendigana.

c1770        A monastery was built in Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1781        In Colombia the Comunero Revolt was the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence. The most important uprising began among artisans and peasants in Socorro (in present day Santander Department). The imposition of new taxes by the viceroy stimulated the revolt further.

1783        Jul 24, Simon Bolivar (d.1830), was born in Caracas, Venezuela. He  was a soldier and statesmen who led armies of liberation throughout much of South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Bolivia, which took its name from Bolivar. Bolivar, called "the Liberator," was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Bolivar died of tuberculosis.
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/24/97)(HNQ, 3/30/00)

1808        Sep 12, Jose Celestino Mutis (b.1732-1808), Spanish naturalist, died in Santa Fe de Bogote (Colombia). He spent 40 years on his unfinished work “Flora de Nueva Granada."

1810        Jul 20, Colombia declared independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1819        Jan 17, Simon Bolivar the “liberator" proclaimed Colombia a republic.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1819        May 23, Bolivar’s revolutionary commanders met in the deserted village of Setenta, Venezuela, and planned a march across the Andes to attack Spanish forces in New Granada (Colombia).
    (ON, 3/05, p.1)

1819        Aug 7, South American liberator Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish forces under Gen. Jose Barreiro in New Granada (Colombia) at the Battle of Boyaca. The revolutionary army entered Bogota Aug 10.
    (HNQ, 9/12/99)(ON, 3/05, p.2)

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and Colombia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(AP, 11/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Jos%C3%A9_de_Sucre)

1822        Jul 26, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin held a secret meeting in Colombia.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1828        Aug 27, Simon Bolívar proclaimed himself dictator of Gran Colombia through the "Organic Decree of Dictatorship".

1828        Sep 25, Conspirators broke into the presidential palace in Bogota in an attempt to murder Simon Bolivar, who escaped thanks to the help of his lover, Manuela Sáenz.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sim%C3%B3n_Bol%C3%ADvar)(Econ, 2/9/08, p.40)

1828        The Republic of Gran Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1830        Dec 17, Simon Bolivar (b.1783), called "the Liberator," died of TB in Santa Marta, in Colombia. He was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of  national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. In 2006 John Lynch authored “Simon Bolivar: A Life."
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 12/17/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)

1851        Slavery was abolished in Colombia.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.34)

1854        Daniel Florence O’Leary (53), Irish-born personal secretary to Simon Bolivar, died in Bogota. After Bolivar’s death (1830) O’Leary served in a diplomatic capacity for the Venezuelan and British governments in Bogota. In 1879 his memoirs were published by his son.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1874        Laura Montoya (d.1949) was born in Colombia. She founded the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Mary and was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1899-1902    The civil war known as the War of the Thousand Days took place in Colombia, beginning in1899 and ending in 1902. Some 100,000 of Colombia's four million people perished in the conflict, mostly from disease. Colombia had been plunged into bankruptcy and subsequent civil war in 1899 after three years of steep declines in world coffee prices.
    (HNQ, 2/25/99)

1902        Sep 17, US troops were sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1903        Jan, The Hay-Herran Treaty with Columbia would have given the United States the land and the right to build a canal across Panama, but Columbia refused to ratify the treaty.
    (HNPD, 11/18/98)

1903        Mar 14, The Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty which guaranteed the US the right to build a canal at Panama. The treaty promised Colombia $10 million plus $250,000 annually for a zone 6 miles wide.
    (HN, 3/14/98)(ON, 1/00, p.2)

1904        Feb 3, Colombian troops clashed with US Marines in Panama.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1906        Jan 31, A magnitude 8.8 quake off the coast of Ecuador and Colombia. It generated a tsunami that killed at least 500 people.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1911        The El Tiempo newspaper was founded by Eduardo Santos. Santos later served as a president of Colombia.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D8)(SFC, 12/8/01, p.A23)

1913        Dec, Konrad Preuss (1869-1938), German anthropologist, arrived in Colombia to study to pre-Columbian statues at San Agustin. He stayed until 1919 and brought back to Germany a number of the statues and a great quantity of ancient ceramics and other items, which he reproduced and documented in his book, “Arte Monumental Prehistórico" (1931).
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.38)(www.sanagustinstatues.org/libroen.pdf)

1914        Apr 8, The US and Colombia signed a treaty concerning Panama Canal Zone.
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1919        Dec 5, Colombian airline Avianca S.A. was initially registered under the name SCADTA (Colombian-German Air Transport Company).     

1920        Apr 12, In Colombia the firm Nacional de Chocolates was founded. In the 1970s three of the largest holding companies in the country bought stock from each other in order to protect themselves from hostile takeovers. The newly formed Antioquean Syndicate was composed of: Suramericana de Seguros, Nacional de Chocolates, and Cementos Argos.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compan%C3%ADa_Nacional_de_Chocolates)(WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A12)

1927        The Colombia coffee federation was set up to act as a buyer, marketer, technical advisor and banker to Colombia’s coffee farmers.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.37)

1928        Mar 6, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Columbian-born novelist and Nobel Prize winner (1982), was born. In 2009 Gerald martin authored “Gabriel Garcia Marquez: A Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Garc%C3%ADa_M%C3%A1rquez)(SSFC, 6/7/09, Books p.J1)

1928        Dec 6, The Colombian army killed a number of banana workers of the United Fruit Co. in Cienaga near Santa Marta. Estimates of the dead, taken by train and cast into the sea, ranged from 47 to as high as 2,000. The exact number of casualties has never been confirmed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana_massacre)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.90)

1933        In Colombia the Palacio de San Francisco, begun in 1918, was completed in La Candelaria, the historic section of Bogota.
    (SSFC, 3/4/07, p.G4)

1934        Feb 27, Compania de Cementos Argos was founded in Medellin, Colombia. In 1936, the factory began production and it issued its first dividend in 1938.

1935        Jun 24, Carlos Gardel, Argentine tango singer, died with 17 others, including three of his guitarists, when the propeller plane they were traveling in collided with another on takeoff from Medellin, Colombia, and burst into flames.
    (AP, 6/25/05)

1939        In Colombia the Museo de Oro (Museum of Gold) opened in Bogota.
    (SSFC, 3/4/07, p.G4)

1948        Apr 30, The charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) was signed in Bogota, Colombia.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1948        Apr 9, In Colombia politician Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Ayala (b.1903) was assassinated during his 2nd presidential campaign.

1948        Peruvian politician Victor Raul de la Torre, following the rise of a dictator, found refuge in a Colombian embassy in Lima for 6 years as army tanks surrounded the building.
    (Econ, 8/25/12, p.26)

1948-1958    This period in Colombia is known as “La Violencia." Over 200,000 people were killed in massacres by the 2 rival parties, the Conservatives and the Liberals.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)

1949        Pedro Antonio Marin (aka Manuel Marulanda) took up arms after Colombia’s Conservative Party henchmen began slaughtering supporters of the peasant-backed Liberal Party.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)

1949        Mother Laura Montoya (b1874), teacher and spiritual mother to Colombia's indigenous peoples, died. In 1914, she and five other women set out on horseback into forests for their mission. They made up the core of a new religious order, the Congregation of Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Virgin. By 2013 the Sisters worked in 21 nations. In 2013 she was canonized as a saint by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

1953        Jun 13, Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1900-1975), a former army general, began serving president of Colombia and continued to 1957. Under his term the police were put under the charge of the defense ministry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustavo_Rojas_Pinilla)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.33)

1953        In Colombia a domestic spy agency was created during the government of Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. In 1960 it reconstructed as the DAS by President Alberto Lleras Camargo.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

1954        In Colombia fewer than 24,000 people, 3% of landowners, held 55% of all farmland.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.51)

1956        Jul 7, Seven Army trucks loaded with dynamite exploded in middle of Cali, Columbia, killing 1,100-1,200. 2000 buildings were destroyed.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1956        In Colombia the Conservative and Liberal politicians agreed to share power.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, SR p.4)

1957        May 10, Gabriel París Gordillo (1910-2008) began serving as President of Colombia and as Chairman of the Colombian Military Junta Government following the 1957 Coup d'état. He was succeeded in August, 1958, by Alberto Lleras Camargo.

1958        Aug 7, Alberto Lleras Camargo (1906-1990) began serving as President of Colombia and continued to August 7, 1962.

1960        Colombia’s a domestic spy agency, created in 1953, was reconstructed as the DAS by President Alberto Lleras Camargo.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

1962        Aug 23, A Colombian DC-3 plane crashed in the Choco jungle killing two Americans, the first Peace Corps volunteers to die in service, as well as 36 Colombians.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A3)(SFC, 7/31/14, p.A14)

1962        The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia began guerilla action.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-8)

1964        Colombian army troops descended on peasant militias who set up the self-styled Independent Republic of Marquetalia. Manuel Marulanda and Pedro Antonio Marin led survivors and co-founded the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Disaffected peasants and Communist intellectuals founded FARC in an effort to share power and to fight poverty and corruption.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/16/03, p.D8)(Econ, 7/17/04, p.36)

1965        Oct 30, A fireworks explosions killed 50 in Cartagena, Colombia.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1967        The book "A Hundred Years of Solitude," by Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez (b.1927), was published in Spanish.

1968        Aug 22, Pope Paul VI arrived in Bogota, Colombia, for the start of the first papal visit to Latin America.
    (AP, 8/22/98)

1969        Fernando Botero, surrealist Colombian painter, created "The Butcher's Table," a pig's head laughing at his own slaughter.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)

1970        Aug 7, In Colombia Misael Pastrana (1923-1997), a member of the Conservative Party, began serving as the country’s 31st president. He was elected by a margin of 63,000 votes. Some who favored his opponent, Gen’l. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, formed the M-19 rebel group and waged war for almost 2 decades before they disarmed in 1989.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misael_Pastrana_Borrero)

1971        Opportunity International, a non-profit organization with Christian roots, began lending to the poor in Colombia.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, Survey p.4)

1977        Emile Rogier Heier (d.1997 at 55), Belgian-born foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, was released from a Colombian prison. He returned to the US and began his book "Down in Colombia" (2003). He later wrote "Lester Leaps In," a biography of the jazz saxophonist Lester Young.
    (SFC, 9/18/97, p.C2)

1978        Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.

1978        In Colombia Hector Jose Buitrago (32) founded a criminal band called the Buitraguenos. It later became the Self-Defense Forces of Casanare, or ACC, one of many right-wing factions that united under the paramilitary umbrella group known as the AUC.
    (AP, 4/8/10)

1978-1979    Three of the largest holding companies in Colombia bought stock from each other in order to protect themselves from hostile takeovers. The newly formed Antioquean Syndicate was composed of: Suramericana de Seguros, Nacional de Chocolates, and Cementos Argos.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A12)

1979        Sep 14, Colombia signed an extradition treaty with the US, but Colombian leaders enacted legislation that nullified the pact. It became effective march 4, 1982.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_extradition_treaties)

1980        Feb 27, The M-19 revolutionary group took over the embassy of the Dominican Republic in Bogota, Colombia, for 2 months. After 61 days they were given $1 million and asylum to Cuba in a deal negotiation by Pres. Turbay.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/14/05)

1980        Sep 12, Authorities in SF seized 20 tons of Colombian marijuana at Pier 26 along with 2 vessels, that included the Potomac, Franklin D. Roosevelt’s historic yacht. Gunnysacks of the marijuana were labeled “Crippled Children’s Society of America." 15 men and a woman were arrested.
    (SFC, 9/9/05, p.F2)

1980        Fidel Castano, a wealthy landowner in Colombia’s Cordoba province, founded the paramilitaries after leftist guerrillas kidnapped his father and returned him dead following a ransom payment.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)

1981        Mar 7, Anti-government guerrillas in Colombia executed kidnapped American Bible translator Chester Allen Bitterman, whom they accused of being a CIA agent.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1981        Colombia decriminalized gay sex.
    (Econ., 8/8/20, p.47)

1981        In Colombia Triton Oil executives singled out Cusiana as the most interesting geological opportunity.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-5)

1982        Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1928-2014), Columbian-born novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1982        Colombia set up the National Indigenous Organization (ONIC) as a lobbying group for legal advice to Indians and for representation before national authorities.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.A10)

1983        Mar 31, A 5.4 earthquake hit the region of Popoyan, Colombia. It killed about 250 people and left some 1,500 injured.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T10)(http://tinyurl.com/2pmrpn)

1983        Nov 27, In Spain 181 people were killed when a Colombian Avianca Airlines Boeing 747 crashed near Madrid's Barajas airport.
    (AP, 11/27/07)

1983        Dec 17, An Economic cooperation agreement between the Community and the Andean Pact countries was signed in Cartagena, Colombia.

1983        Colombia’s Cano Limon Oil Field, operated by Occidental Petroleum, was discovered.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-1)

1984        Colombia’s Pres. Belisario Betancur sent emissaries to a FARC stronghold and established a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)
1984        Colombia passed legislation giving all rights to the treasure of the San Jose galleon, sunk by the British navy in 1708. Sea Search Armada (SSA) reportedly divulged the site of the wreck to the government in 1982. The government later said the ship was nowhere near where SSA said it was.
    (Econ, 12/12/15, p.37)
1984        UNESCO add the city center of Cartagena, Colombia, to its list of world heritage sites.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.26)

1985        May, In Colombia FARC communist guerrillas sponsored the formation of a legal political party, the Patriotic Union (Union Patriotica). Death squads and the army carried out a campaign against the UP and in the ensuing decade 3,000 party activists and 2 presidential candidates were assassinated by right-wing death squads.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriotic_Union_(Colombia))(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)(SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)(Econ, 4/10/04, p.71)

1985        Nov 6, Some 35 leftist M-19 rebels took over Colombia’s Palace of Justice. A military raid to liberate hostages held by M-19 guerrillas at the Supreme Court followed and cost more than 100 lives, including 11 Supreme Court justices and all 30 guerrillas. Intelligence unit soldiers under the command of Ivan Ramirez escorted 11 people out of the building as the military stormed the palace. Witnesses, including soldiers from Ramirez's unit, later said the captives were tortured and killed. In 2008 Ramirez was arrested and faced "forced disappearance" charges. In Oct prosecutors ordered the arrest of Gen. Jesus Armando Arias, who led Bogota's army brigade during the assault. In 2010 a Colombian judge sentenced retired army Col. Luis Alfonso Plazas to 30 years in prison for the disappearance of the 11 people who went missing after soldiers stormed the palace to retake it from leftist guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A6)(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)(AP, 5/28/08)(AP, 10/11/08)(AP, 6/10/10)

1985        Nov 13, Some 23,000 residents of Armero, Colombia, died when a mudslide, triggered by the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, buried the city under 30 feet of mud.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.27)(AP, 11/13/97)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)

1986        May 25, Virgilio Barco (1921-1997) was elected President of Colombia. He served from 1986 to 1990.

1986        Dec 17, In Colombia Guillermo Cano (b.1925), publisher of the Bogota newspaper El Espectador, was assassinated by drug cartel hitmen hired by Pablo Escobar.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillermo_Cano_Isaza)

1986        Colombian cartels shipped 75 metric tons of cocaine into the US.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1987        In Colombia the remains of Lord of Sipan, a pre-Columbian ruler believed to have died around the year 250, were discovered and hailed as one of the country's most stunning archaeological finds.
    (AP, 7/21/17)

1988         Jan. 16, In Colombia an exploratory oil well sunk by Triton Oil and BP was overrun and put to fire by local guerillas.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-6)

1988        May 19, Carlos Lehder Rivas, co-founder of Colombia's Medellin drug cartel, was convicted in Jacksonville, Fla., of smuggling more than 3 tons of cocaine into the US.
    (AP, 5/19/98)

1988        Conservative Andres Pastrana (33), son of former Pres. Misael Pastrana, was elected mayor of Bogota, Colombia.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.A12)

1988        The direct election of mayors and town councils was begun to give Colombia’s municipalities control over a substantial amount of federal funds.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A12)

1989        Aug 18, In Colombia, leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galan was assassinated outside Bogota; the Medellin drug cartel was strongly suspected. On May 12, 2005, Alberto Santofimio Botero, former justice minister, was arrested in connection with the assassination. In 2008 a court overturned the conviction of Alberto Santofimio for lack of evidence. In 2010 Colombian prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for retired Gen. Miguel Maza Marquez (73), a former domestic security chief, who they say participated in the assassination of Galan. In 2011 the Supreme Court reinstated Galan’s murder conviction and reinstated the 24-year prison sentence a lower court imposed in 2007 on Alberto Santofimio.
    (AP, 8/18/99)(AP, 12/22/05)(AP, 10/22/08)(AP, 11/25/10)(AP, 9/1/11)

1989        Aug 21, Colombian soldiers and police raided the estates of drug lords as part of a crackdown that followed the shooting death of a presidential candidate.
    (AP, 8/21/99)

1989        Aug 24, Colombian drug lords declared "total war" on the government.
    (AP, 8/24/99)

1989        Aug 29, Seven bombs believed set off by drug traffickers exploded in Medellin and Bogota, Colombia.
    (AP, 8/29/99)

1989        Oct 14, Colombia extradited three suspected drug traffickers to the United States as part of a war on the cocaine cartel.
    (AP, 10/14/99)

1989        Nov 27, A bomb, blamed by police on drug traffickers, destroyed a Colombian jetliner minutes after takeoff from Bogota's international airport. 107 people were killed.
    (AP, 11/27/99)

1989        Dec 15, Drug trafficker Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha was killed in northern Colombia following a shootout with police.
    (AP, 12/15/99)

1989        Drug kingpin Jose Rodriguez Gacha was killed in Colombia.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A10)

1989        A Time Magazine investigative team that included Tom Quinn (1943-1996) found evidence indicating that Gen’l. Guillermo Medina Sanchez, Colombia’s national police chief, had taken money from drug traffickers.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A17)

1989        In Colombia the M-19 rebel group agreed to disarm.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)

1989        An int'l. accord on coffee prices was lifted. When entire inventories were sold the market was flooded and prices dropped.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12)

1989        A bomb leveled Colombia’s state security headquarters and killed 80 people.
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.A16)

1989-1990    Extreme violence shook Colombia when guerillas and drug traffickers mounted a brutal anti-government campaign known as narcoterrorism. Three pres. candidates were killed including the popular Luis Carlos Galan.
    (WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-11)   

1990        Apr 26, In Colombia Carlos Pizarro (b.1951), a former M-19 rebel leader and presidential candidate was killed when an assailant opened fire with a machine gun inside a crowded airliner in midflight. In 2001 fugitive Carlos Castrano said he organized the killing because Pizarro had links to a drug lord. In 2014 his remains and those of his assailant were dug up to see whether bodyguards assigned by the state to protect the politician also had a hand in his murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Pizarro_Leong%C3%B3mez)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A1)(AP, 11/26/14)

1990        May 27, Cesar Gaviria Trujillo was elected president of Colombia. Luis Carlos Galan, Colombia presidential candidate, had been shot and killed while campaigning south of Bogota. He was so far ahead in the polls for the presidential elections that he was virtually assured of victory. His campaign manager, Cesar Gaviria, ran in his place after the attack and was elected president. Immediately after Galan's assassination, the president at the time, Virgilio Barco, retaliated by reinstating extraditions.
    (AP, 5/27/00)(AP, 5/13/05)

1990        Jun, Colombia’s Pres. Cesar Gaviria and FARC held peace talks in Venezuela.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)

1990        Aug 30, A series of abductions began with the kidnapping of Diana Turbay, a Bogota TV news director and daughter of former president Julio Cesar Turbay. The abductions were by the Medellin drug cartel under Pablo Escobar. In 1997 Gabriel Garcia Marquez published his documentation of the events in “News of a Kidnapping."
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.1,6)

1990        Colombia’s Presidential Program for Reinsertion was founded by the government to help an estimated 7,500 former rebels integrate into society with a variety of assistance programs.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A17)
1990        US CIA and military strategist were sent to Colombia to enhance the efficiency effectiveness of the local military intelligence.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14)
1990        An Colombian army offensive routed the FARC from its rear-guard retreat in Uribe, but the rebels regrouped and grew to 15,000 fighters.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)
1990        In Colombia Jacobo Arenas, FARC political idealogue, died of a heart attack. He was replaced by Alfonso Cano.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.37)

1991        Jan 15, In Colombia Jorge Luis Ochoa turned himself in to police during an intense hunt for leaders of the Medellin drug cartel. The Colombian Constitution of this year forbade the extradition of its citizens.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)

1991        Apr, In Colombia Julio Daniel Chaparro and Jorge Torres, journalists for the El Espectador newspaper, were killed. In 2011 prosecutors shelved their investigation in the murders saying the decision was made because the statute of limitations expired, and because the killers of Chaparro and Torres were leftist rebels later killed in combat.
    (AP, 4/18/11)

1991        Jun 19, Pablo Escobar, head of Colombia’s Medellin drug cartel, surrendered to authorities.
    (AP, 6/19/01)

1991        Jul 4, Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights. It also provided for 2 additional seats in Congress for Afro-Colombians and a similar quota for Amerindians. The Constitution also gave the country’s inspector-general  a remit to discipline not just civil servants, but also elected officials. Parliamentary immunity was removed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_Constitution_of_1991)(SFC, 3/30/98, p.A8)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.34)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.36)(Econ, 10/31/15, SR p.12)

1991        Dec 28, In Colombia Henry Rojas (36), a correspondent for the Bogota newspaper El Tiempo, was killed in the northeastern city of Arauca after reporting on alleged corruption in the mayor's office and military. Wilson Daza, the soldier who fatally shot Rojas, later pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1995. In 2009 Colombia’s high court ruled that the government is to blame for Rojas’ shooting and ordered it to pay damages to his family.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Colombia93eng/chap.9.htm)

1991        Colombia enacted economic reforms and tariffs were lowered.
    (WSJ, 12/17/96, p.A18)
1991        Colombia’s government halted extradition of drug traffickers to the US following a wave of bombings and assassinations.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A12)
1991        Colombia’s office of the vice-president was created, but it had no assigned duties.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14)
1991        Colombia’s former Pres. Turbay saw his journalist daughter, Diana, abducted by gunmen working for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar. She was later killed during a botched rescue attempt.
    (AP, 9/14/05)
1991        In Colombia 17 peasants were dragged off a bus and killed in Valle del Cauca province. In 1998 3 men were sentenced to 30 years in prison for the killing. the massacre was allegedly ordered by 2 military majors and their case was turned over to a military court.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A11)
1991        Colombia’s “green war," a struggle that began in the 1980s for control of the country’s emerald mines, ended with some 6,000 dead. Victor Manuel Carranza brokered the peace between the army, drug men and paramilitaries.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.98)
1991        The US JCET program (Joint Combined Exchange and Training) was established under a law that bypassed State Department policy in which military aid is restricted to foreign units charged with human rights abuses. This resulted in US Special Forces assignments for training exercises in Indonesia and Colombia.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2,10)
1991        A US intelligence report said Alvaro Uribe was a Colombian drug cartel ally. Uribe was elected president in 2002 and in 2004 the US state report disavowed the report.
    (WSJ, 8/3/04, p.A1)
1991        In Colombia the homicide rate in Medellin peaked at 381 per 100,000 people. By 2014 it had dropped to fewer than 50 per 100,000.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.41)

1992        Jul 22, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escaped from his luxury prison near Medellin. He was slain by security forces in December 1993.
    (AP, 7/22/97)

1992        The Colombian government gave Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell the right to explore for oil in the Samore oil block in U'wa Indian territory.
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A1,8)

1993        Jan 14, Colombia’s Galeras Volcano erupted as 15 people gathered at the crater. Only 6 survived. In 2001 Stanley Williams and Fen Montaigne authored “Surviving Galeras."
    (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.W12)

1993        Jan 30, A car bombing in Bogota, Colombia, killed at least 20 people.

1993        May 19, A Boeing 727 of Colombian SAM regional airline crashed into a jungle mountain near Medellin and killed all 132 on board.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A18)

1993        Dec 2, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar (b.1949), number 1 man in drug trafficking, was shot to death by police Col. Hugo Aguilar in Medellin. Escobar's wife and children vanished from Colombia in 1995 and were arrested in Argentina in 1999 for money laundering. In 2001 Mark Bowden authored “Killing Pablo" a chronicle of the hunt for Escobar. In 2003 Aguilar ran for governor of Santander province.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)(AP, 12/2/98)(SFC, 11/17/99, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C1)

1993        Colombia granted collective title rights to black and indigenous groups.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.40)
1993        Colombia privatized the Port of Cartagena. By 2014 it was the 4th largest container hub in South America.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.33)
1993        Colombia introduced universal, taxpayer-financed health care.
    (Econ, 4/11/20, p.23)

1994        Jun 6, A 6.0 earthquake and avalanche destroyed Toez, Colombia. Some 1000 people were killed. The earthquake hit the southern state of Cauca.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A9)(http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Hazards/What/Lahars/HuilaLahar.html)

1994        Jul 2, Colombian soccer player Andres Escobar was shot to death in Medellin, ten days after accidentally scoring a goal against his own team in World Cup competition at the Rose Bowl in Los Angeles on June 22. Humberto Munoz Castro, who had connections to a powerful Colombian cartel, was later arrested and confessed to the killing. Munoz was initially handed a 43-year jail term, but served only 11 years.
    (AP, 7/2/99)(AP, 5/22/18)

1994        Aug 9, Sen. Manuel Cepeda was gunned down on his way to work in Bogota. In 1999 Sgt. Justo Zuniga and Sgt. Hernando Medina were found guilty of participating in the murder. They acted on orders from Col. Rodolfo Herrera Luna, commander of the Ninth Brigade, who died of a heart attack in 1996. In 2010 Colombia's government acknowledged responsibility in the killing and asked forgiveness.
    (SFC, 12/21/99, p.C20)(AP, 1/29/10)

1994        Antanas Mockus, mathematician, was elected mayor of Bogota.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, p.A8)
1994        Colombia passed legislation that said all vacant land must be used for family farming.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, SR p.11)
1994        In Colombia FARC rebels killed the police chief of Cartagena del Chaira and blew up the police station. For the next 9 years no police officer set foot on the streets there.
    (WSJ, 8/10/04, p.A1)
1994        Roberto Pannunzi, Italian mobster, was arrested in Colombia. He had forged links with Colombian cartels for transatlantic trade in cocaine. He was extradited to Italy and released when his detention expired. He was rearrested in 2004 but disappeared in 2009 when sent to a private clinic near Rome following a heart attack.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.54)

1995        Jan 11, A 9-year-old girl survived a Colombian airliner crash that killed the other 52 people aboard near the Caribbean resort of Cartagena.
    (AP, 1/11/00)

1995        Feb 8, A 6.4 earthquake at Trujillo, Colombia, killed over 46 people.

1995         Mar, An oil gusher was struck at Colombia’s Cusiana field.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-6)

1995        Jun 11, A bomb exploded at an outdoor music festival in Medellin, Colombia, spraying shrapnel that killed at least 28 people and wounded more than 200 others.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1995        Jun, Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela, Cali drug cartel chief, was arrested in the summer.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.A10)

1995        Jul, Santiago Medina, Pres. Samper’s campaign treasurer, testified that $6 million was solicited from the Cali drug cartel.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)   

1995        Nov 2, Alvaro Gomez Hurtado, head of the main opposition Conservative Party, was assassinated. In 1998 former Colonel Bernardo Ruiz was charged with the murder.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A13)

1995         Nov, Colombia’s President Ernesto Samper declared a national emergency hours after the assassination of Alvaro Gomez Hurtado, a conservative party leader and three-time candidate for the presidency on Thursday.
    (V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-11)

1995         Dec 20, An American Airlines Boeing 757, Flight 965 jet crashed in Columbia with 164 people on board. Four survivors were reported. It smashed into a mountain near Cali enroute from Miami. It was later reported that pilots had entered an incorrect code for the approach to Cali.
    (WSJ, 12/22/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1995         Dec, Colombia’s government said that urban unemployment was up to 9.4% and that  rural joblessness was 5.7%.

1995        Colombia granted Afro-Colombian communities on the Pacific coast collective titles to land occupied by their ancestors when slavery was abolished in 1851.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.34)
1995        In Colombia the metro system of Medellin opened after years of delays.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.41)
1995        Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela, a leader of Colombia’s Cali drug cartel, was arrested.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A17)
1995        Contraband accounted for as much as a sixth of Colombia’s imports or about $2.34 billion in this year.
    (WSJ, 12/17/96, p.A18)
1995        A study by Alejandro Reyes in Bogota, Colombia, estimated that drug cartels had acquired about 8% of the nation’s best farmland.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A8)

1995-1997    Fraudulent insurance claims plagued Colombia. Criminals bought life insurance policies for unwitting beggars, prostitutes and peasants and then killed them to collect the insurance money. Accident insurance was also abused and indigents were maimed to collect off of policies.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A8)

1996         Jan, A top prosecutor was shot and killed in Cali, Colombia. President Samper had been accused of accepting money from drug traffickers.
    (WSJ, 1/29/96, p. A-1)

1996        Mar 1, President Clinton slapped economic sanctions on Colombia, concluding that Colombian authorities had not fully cooperated with the US war on drugs.
    (AP, 3/1/01)

1996        Apr 2, Architect Juan Carlos Gaviria, brother of former pres. Cesar Gaviria, was kidnapped by a group called Dignity for Colombia.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)

1996        May, Colombia’s Attorney Gen’l. Orlando Vasquez Velasquez was arrested on charges of accepting drug payments.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A12)

1996        Apr 16, Guerillas attacked a military convoy in Colombia. They killed 31 soldiers and wounded 18 near the border of Ecuador outside the town of Pueres. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the largest and oldest rebel group (12,000 men) having fought for 34 years, were believed to be responsible.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-8)

1996        Jun 12, Colombia’s lower house of Congress voted to absolve Pres. Ernesto Samper of charges that his campaign was financed by drug traffickers.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)

1996        Jun 19, Marco Tulio Gutierrez, head of Colombia’s secret police, stepped down amid allegations that his agency was trailing the US ambassador and taping his phones.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)

1996        Jun 29, Masked gunmen killed at least 16 people in Medellin, Colombia. The criminal gang called Los Victorinos feuding with leftist urban militias was suspected.
    (WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A1)

1996        Jul 4, In Panama police arrested Jaime Revello, a top Colombian drug lord, and seized 4.5 tons of cocaine.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)

1996        Jul 5, In Colombia the government released Jorge Luis Ochoa, aka The Fat Man, from prison after 5 1/2 years for drug-trafficking.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)

1996        Jul, Colombian right-wing paramilitary forces under Carlos Castanos began kidnapping the family members of left-wing guerrillas.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, p.C2)

1996        Aug 23, It was reported that British Petroleum signed a 3-year agreement with the defense ministry of Colombia for $60 mil.  for a battalion of soldiers to protect expansion and construction of new drilling sites.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)

1996        Aug 30, The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARQ) guerrillas attacked the army at the Las Delicias military base in Putumayo province. They captured 60 soldiers and killed 30 others. The 12,000 FARQ have gained income by collecting commissions on coca leaf harvests.
    (SFC, 6/16/97, p.A9)

1996        Aug 31, Colombia’s armed forces went on alert after a series of rebel attacks on government targets that killed about 100 people. The attacks were in response to a US government backed campaign to eradicate coca plots. A rebel column overran an army base in Las Delicias and killed 27 soldiers.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A15)(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

1996        Aug, Journalist Richard Velez filmed soldiers beating peasants during protests in Colombia’s southern Caqueta province. He fled the country in 1997 in fear from death threats by the army.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.D5)

1996        Sep 4, Colombia’s government said it will require businesses with a net worth of more than 85k to buy war bonds to finance the war against leftist rebels.
    (WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep 6, In Colombia rebels blew up a section of the largest oil pipeline and killed 16 police officers and soldiers.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9)

1996        Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A8)

1996        Sep 12, In Colombia government officials promised to halt forcible destruction of small coca plantations for the time being in order to end protests.
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.A13)

1996        Sep 20, Leftist guerrillas unleashed a wave of bombings that included 4 against banks and electricity lines in Cartagena, Colombia. 18 coal trucks were torched in northern Cesar province and a truck with 31 tons of ammonium nitrate, base material for explosives, was hijacked.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 20, More than 8 lbs. of heroin were found on Colombia’s Pres. Samper’s presidential jet as it was preparing for a flight to New York. 11 Air Force personnel were later arrested.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A12)

1996        Sep 25, Rebels attacked an oil pipeline in Colombia’s Arauca province and pumping of 220,000 barrels a day was suspended.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Oct 7, In Colombia authorities announced the use of Imazapyr, an all-weather herbicide, to help eradicate illicit drug crops.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A10)

1996        Oct 9, A heroin processing complex of four labs near Santander de Quilichao in Colombia’s Cauca province was destroyed.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 18, Colombia’s Supreme Court ordered the dismissal of Attorney Gen’l. Orlando Vasquez Velasquez, who had been arrested on charges of accepting drug payments. He was also cited for obstruction of justice and abuse of power.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A12)

1996        Oct 20, In Colombia fighting in 3 provinces over the weekend left 24 soldiers and leftist rebels dead.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 29, In Colombia Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela, Cali drug cartel chief, agreed to pay a $105 million fine and plead guilty to crimes that included illicit enrichment.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec 5, Isidro Gil, a union leader at Colombia’s Carepa Coca-Cola bottling plant, was killed at work. It was later alleged that the plant manager hired right-wing paramilitary to help wipe out union activity. In 2002 the labor union filed suit against Coca-Cola in Miami.
    (SFC, 6/6/02, p.A11)

1996        Dec 24, In Bogota, Colombia, at least 37 people were killed. Mayor Antanas Mockus blamed the violence on alcohol consumption.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.B4)

1996        Dec, Colombia’s defense minister offered a $1 million reward for the capture of Carlos Castanos, leader of a right-wing paramilitary group.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, p.C2)

1996        In Apartado, Colombia, death squad members chopped off the head of a primary school student in front of his class mates. They thus came to be called “mocha-cabezas" or head-hackers.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14)

1996        The US barred contacts with Gen’l. Hernando Camilo Zuniga, commander of Colombia’s armed forces, because of suspected ties to drug traffickers.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1996-1997    In Colombia warlord Salvatore Mancuso oversaw 2 massacres that killed 19 farmers in Antioquia province. In 2006 Colombia’s government said it will pay $1.4 million to relatives of the 19 farmers, honoring a ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

1997        Jan 17, In Colombia Cali cartel bosses Gilberto and Miguel Rodriguez drew prison terms of 10.5 and 9 years for cocaine trafficking.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.C1)

1997        Jan 25, Gunmen of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) kidnapped Fernando Caballero Argaez, president of the Bogota Stock Exchange, in Granada.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A8)

1997        Jan 30, Police seized 8 tons of cocaine and shut down a large cocaine processing plant in Colombia’s state of Guaviare.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A15)

1997        Feb 2, At least 25 soldiers were killed and scores wounded in fighting with leftist guerrillas in the mountains east of Bogota, Colombia.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.C3)

1997        Feb 4, In Colombia the U’wa tribe blocked Occidental Petroleum from developing an oil field on their land worth billions.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A9)

1997        Feb, Colombia’s state workers staged a 7-day strike for wage hikes.
    (SFC, 9/4/97, p.A12)

1997        Mar 21, Gerardo Bedoya, executive editor of El Pais, was assassinated in Cali. He was a former congressman and Colombian representative to the EU.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A11)

1997        Apr 7, In Colombia prisoners took over a 1,200 inmate facility in Bucaramanga, the 3rd prison to be seized in a week.
    (WSJ, 4/8/97, p.A1)

1997        Apr 25, It was reported that the semi-nomadic U’wa tribe threatened mass suicide to prevent the Occidental Petroleum Co. from drilling in the Samore field in northeast Colombia.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)

1997        Apr, Some 10,000 inhabitants fled paramilitary violence in Riosucio, Colombia.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A10)

1997        Jun 15, FARQ released 70 soldiers held as prisoners. FARQ regional commander Gen’l. Manuel Jose Bonett read a communiqué that set preconditions for the start of peace talks to end 30 years of civil war.
    (SFC, 6/16/97, p.A9)

1997        Jul 15-1997 Jul 20, In Colombia a right-wing death squad under Carlos Castano killed at least 49 suspected guerrilla sympathizers in Mapiripan, Meta province. In 1998 2 army sergeants, Juan Carlos Gamarra and Jose Miller Urena, were linked to the massacre. In 2001 Gen. Jaime Humberto Uscategui was given a 40-month sentence for failing to defend the town. In 2009 a court convicted Uscategui of murder and sentenced him to 40 years in prison for his role in the notorious massacre.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(SFC, 7/11/98, p.A11)(SFC, 2/14/01, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/coyuh)(AP, 11/26/09)

1997        Jul 22, It was reported that 30,000 violent deaths per year occurred in Colombia, the world’s most violent country.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A8)

1997        Jul, Paramilitaries threatened a delegation of UN and Colombian judicial officials investigating the exodus of peasants from Riosucio.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14)

1997        Jul, The government passed a law that made it illegal to sell more than $170,000 worth of contraband. The annual contraband trade was estimated to be $3 billion.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A9)

1997        Aug 8, Senator Jorge Cristo and a bodyguard were killed in Cucuta. Police said leftist guerrillas were responsible.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.C1)

1997        Aug 10, Police arrested drug trafficker Waldo Simeon Vargas, alias “The Minister." He was a former associate of Pablo Escobar and created his own organization after the Cali chiefs were arrested in 1995.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A8)

1997        Aug 11, Leftist guerrillas killed at least 9 people in 2 separate incident.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A9)

1997        Aug 15, Ten woodcutters were killed by a gang of hooded gunmen near the town of Retiro in Antioquia province.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.C1)

1997        Aug 26, Mayor Mauricio Guzman of Cali was arrested for allegedly accepting money from a drug cartel.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)

1997        Aug, A group of 30 intellectuals issued a plea for UN mediation over the violence in the countryside.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14)

1997        Sep 3, Workers joined protests across the country to protest government privatization plans, for better wages, respect for human rights and an end to the guerrilla war.
    (SFC, 9/4/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 3, A paramilitary group hired to protect a cocaine shipment killed 11 judicial officials near the town of San Carlos de Guaroa.
    (SFC, 10/6/97, p.A11)

1997        Oct 4, Rebels of the Revolutionary Armed Forces killed 17 policemen near San Juan de Arama. The rebels were staging a growing campaign to disrupt municipal elections. They had already killed 26 candidates and forced more than 1,500 to withdraw.
    (SFC, 10/6/97, p.A17)

1997        Oct 7, Leftist guerrillas killed three villagers near San Jose de Apartado, a pilot peace community that had declared neutrality in the civil conflicts.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 16, Leftist rebels killed 8 policemen in the town of Caicedo.
    (WSJ, 10/17/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 19, In Colombia leftist rebels killed Pablo Antonio Hernandez, a mayoral candidate in Saravena and wounded another in Yumbo.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A9)

1997        Oct 23, In Colombia 2 observers from the Organization of American States were kidnapped by rebels and on candidate of the upcoming elections was killed. Rebels detonated some 20 bombs across the country and 2 policemen were killed as they tried to defuse car bombs.
    (WSJ, 10/24/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 26, In Colombia municipal elections were scheduled. Leftist guerrilla had forced nearly 2,000 candidates to withdraw from the elections. Rebels enforced an election boycott in about 40% of the country, but affected only a small portion of the population.
    (SFC, 10/6/97, p.)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A10)(SFC,10/27/97, p.A8)

1997        Oct, In Colombia paramilitary gunmen killed 6 people in Miraflores.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)
1997        Oct, Paramilitary gunmen under Salvatore Mancuso killed 15 people at El Aro in Antioquia department.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.50)(www.cipcol.org/archives/000396.htm)

1997        Nov 12, It was reported that the high court had recently ruled that the Convivir associations, right wing vigilante groups promoting security, were legal. There were an estimated 5,500 employees and 300,000 volunteers nationwide.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.A9)

1997        Nov 21, In Bogota suspected right-wing paramilitaries killed at least 14 people. Later near Urrao a suspected death squad killed 7 people including a Communist boss.
    (WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)

1997        Nov 27, As many as 14 peasants were killed in Dabeiba in Antioquia Province. A 50-member paramilitary group raided the hamlets of Balsita, Buenavista and Toconal and riddled the victims with bullets and set fire to their homes.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A13)

1997        Nov 29, At least 15 people were killed during the night. 7 peasants were found dead outside the town of Pitalito and another 8, including 2 children, in 2 attacks in Medellin.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.A22)

1997        Nov, Carlos Arturo Quiroz, the mayor-elect of San Jacinto, was killed by a paramilitary unit.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A9)

1997        Dec 15, In Colombia at least 26 peasants were killed about this time after paramilitary groups began to "cleanse" the Riosucio region of leftist guerrillas.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A10)

1997        Dec 21, In Colombia rebels overran Patascoy, a small military base in Narino province and killed 22 soldiers. Some 400 rebels overwhelmed 32 defenders. 3 soldiers survived the attack and were found by rescuers after 2 days. In the northwest weekend fighting between rebels and right-wing paramilitaries left 6 dead. Later reports said rebels were holding 18-19 soldiers hostage. Pvt. Libio Jose Martinez was among those captured. Martinez and 3 others were killed by the FARC during combat on Nov 26, 2011.
    (WSJ, 12/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,12/23/97, p.D3)(SFC,12/24/97, p.A8)(SFC,12/27/97, p.A13)(AP, 11/27/11)

1997        Dec 22, A new wave of paramilitary attacks began in the Riosucio region and some 500 more peasants fled to Pavarando for safety.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A10)

1997        Colombia’s congress reinstated extradition with the US under intense US pressure. The law would was not to be applied retroactively.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B3)
1997        Colombia’s constitutional court decriminalized doctor-assisted dying, but gave no guidance on when it would be acceptable.
    (Econ, 6/27/15, p.17)
1997        Colombia’s FARC commanders began an urban extortion program. Their demanded payments from businessmen came to be called la vacuna (vaccine).
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B8)
1997        In Colombia Chiquita Brands Int’l. began paying the AUC paramilitaries after it threatened attacks. In 2001 the US designated the AUC a foreign terrorist organization. In 2003 Chiquita reported illegal payments to the AUC to the Justice department, but continued payments to Feb, 2004.
    (WSJ, 8/2/07, p.A1)

1997-2004    In 2006 Colombia's nonprofit Association of Relatives of the Disappeared Detained recorded 7,300 cases of forced disappearances during this period. Only one-tenth of the bodies have been found, said the group's secretary general, Esperanza Merchan. She estimated the total number of disappeared at 15,000.
    (AP, 8/1/06)
1998        Jan 30, Paramilitary gunmen descended on Puerto Asis, Colombia, and proceeded to kill 48 civilians thought to be guerrilla sympathizers. Mayor Nestor Hernandez warned army commanders at a local garrison but received no assistance.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)

1998        Feb 9, In Colombia rebels blew up the nation’s main oil pipeline spilling 15,000 gallons and forcing a suspension of pumping. It was the 7th attack on a pipeline this year.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 19, In Colombia Jose Nelson Urrego, aka “El Loco" and the purported head of the so-called Cartel del Norte del Valle, was arrested.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A14)

1998        Feb 20, In Colombia Army Major Eduardo Santos Vergara and 3 local police commanders were arrested for allegedly collaborating with paramilitary death squads in the north. They were accused of being responsible for the Nov. murder of Carlos Arturo Quiroz in San Jacinto.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 23, Colombia’s Pres. Samper denied his weekend offer to resign in order to improve relations with the US.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A12)

1998        Feb 24, Victor Manuel Carranza, aka the “Emerald King," was arrested near Bogota, Colombia, on charges of financing right-wing paramilitary death squads.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 26, The US waived the 2-year-old sanctions against Colombia. Military and economic aid were expected to follow.
    (WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 2-1998 Mar 3, Rebels of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia said that some 70 government soldiers were killed near the Caguan River. The bodies of 58 were later recovered. Forty soldiers were rescued and 27 were captured. The fate of 28 was unknown.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 8, Colombia elected new representatives to Congress. Rebels interference forced vote cancellations in 46 municipalities. 8 guerrillas and 7 soldiers were reported killed in combat.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.A10)

1998        Mar 13, It was reported that Carlos Ardila Lulle, owner of Postobon soft-drink bottling, was one of the richest men in Colombia.
    (WSJ, 3/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 24, In Colombia leftist guerrillas killed at least 9 people, wounded 14 and took 20 hostages when they blocked a major highway 30 miles south of Bogota.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 27, Rebels under Comandante Romana freed 9 Colombian hostages but held 4 American birdwatchers and an Italian businessman for ransom.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Mar 30, It was reported that oil pipeline sabotage in Colombia had spilled 1.5 million barrels of crude over the last decade.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.A8)

1998        Apr 2, In Colombia Thomas Fiore (43), one of the hostages captured Mar 27, escaped captivity by the FARC rebel group.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B5)

1998        Apr 6, Manuel Perez, a former priest from Spain and leader of Colombia’s National Liberation's Army (ELN), died at age 62.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A21)

1998        Apr 9, A Catholic priest and a lay worker died from a toxic cocktail of wine mixed with cyanide. At least 10 Easter baskets with poisoned wine were delivered to priests in Colombia’s provinces of Meta and Cundinamarca.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A14)

1998        Apr 12, At least 22 soldiers and leftist rebels were killed in fighting in Restrepo, Colombia.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.C12)

1998        Apr 17, Maria Arango (60), Colombian human rights activist, was killed by multiple gunshots.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)

1998        Apr 18, Eduardo Umana Mendoza (50), Colombia’s top human rights lawyer, was killed with 6 bullets to the head.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)(SFC, 4/21/98, p.A18)

1998        Apr 20, The Goldman Environmental Awards were presented to six winners in SF. The prizes were increased to $100,000. Berita KuwarU’wa (44) of Colombia won for leading the U’wa tribe’s struggle against Occidental Petroleum.
    (SFEC, 4/20/98, p.A8)

1998        Apr 20, In Colombia a Boeing 727 crashed after takeoff from Bogota and all 53 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A12)

1998        Apr 24, In Colombia FARC released kidnapped American Louise Augustine. Two other bird-watchers were released soon after.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A9)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A1)

1998        May 4, In Colombia gunmen killed 21 people in the province of Meta. Some 200 members of a right-wing paramilitary unit laid siege to the village of Puerta Alvira for 3 hours. In 2000 4 army generals and a colonel were accused by the attorney general for allowing the massacre.
    (WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/7rlwt)

1998        May 12, Retired Gen’l. Fernando Landazabal Reyes, a former defense minister, was shot and killed in Bogota, Colombia.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A13)

1998        May 17, In Colombia at least 10 people were killed by an alleged right-wing death squad in Barrancabermeja. Later the United Self-Defense Group acknowledged that they had kidnapped, killed and burned 25 people. At least 11 other people were shot. In 1999 3 military officers were dishonorably discharged and 5 police officers were suspended for failing to halt the kidnappings.
    (SFC, 5/18/98, p.A12)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A14)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A21)

1998        May 19, Colombia’s Pres. Samper disbanded the 20th Intelligence Brigade under US pressure because of evidence that the unit was responsible for a series of murders of civilian politicians and human rights activists.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1998        May 25, It was reported that guerrilla movements were in control of 50% of Colombia. The FARC troops were estimated at 15,000 and the ELN troops at 5,000.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1998        May 27, The Occidental Petroleum Corp. agreed to give up the entire Samore block in return for exploration rights on another 80-square-mile outside the lands of Colombia’s U’wa tribe.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.D3)

1998        May, Police in Cartagena, Colombia, seized 17 metric tons of marijuana bound for Italy.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A12)

1998        May 31, In Colombian presidential elections conservative Andres Pastrana (43), son of former Pres. Misael Pastrana, was in a tight race with Hector Serpa (55) of the ruling Liberals. Serpa led Pastrana 34.6 vs. 34.3 and a runoff was set for Jun 21. Noemi Sanin, an independent female candidate, received 27% of the vote.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.A12)(SFC, 6/2/98, p.A11)(SFC, 6/20/98, p.B1)

1998        Jun 7, Drug cartel leader Alberto Orlandez Gamboa, alias “the Snail," was arrested in Colombia.
    (SFC, 6/8/98, p.A12)

1998        Jun 15, In Colombia rebels seized 15 hostages, members of the army backed civic group called “Girls of Steel."
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 21, In Colombia, former Bogota Mayor Andres Pastrana was elected president, defeating Horacio Serpa, a key player in the scandal-tainted administration of President Ernesto Samper.
    (SFC, 6/22/98, p.A8)(AP, 6/21/08)

1998        Jun 24, In Colombia rebels seized Ed Leonard of the Terramundo Drilling Co. of Canada. They asked for a ransom of $2 million from the Grey Star Resources Co., which had hired Terramundo for exploratory work.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.C1)

1998        Jun 26, The US agreed to modernize 10 helicopters for Colombia and to provide 6 new ones to fight drug traffickers.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A14)

1998        Jul 3, In Colombia rebels of the ELN freed 15 hostages, members of the army backed civic group called “Girls of Steel" in a deal brokered by Jose Ramos-Horta of East Timor.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Jul 11, Police in Cartagena, Colombia, seized 7 metric tons of cocaine in cargo containers bound for Europe.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A12)

1998        Jul 23, Manuel Mejia Vallejo, Colombian novelist, died at age 75. His work included “It was Us," “The Marked Day," and “the House of the Two Palms."
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D5)

1998        Jul 27, In Colombia rebels kidnapped a congressman and 6 others at a roadblock in Santander province.
    (WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul, Colombia’s Pres. Andres Pastrana met secretly with FARC and agreed to temporarily pull army troops out of 5 rural townships that included San Vincente, Vistahermosa, La Macarena, Mesetas and Uribe, in order to encourage negotiations by November.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.A12)

1998        Aug 4, In Colombia over 2 dozen attacks in half of the nation’s 32 provinces left at least 76 people dead.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/5/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 5, In Colombia rebels overran an antinarcotics base in Miraflores. 30 soldiers were killed, 50 wounded and 100 were missing.
    (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 7, Colombia’s Pres. Andres Pastrana took office. Following his inauguration Pastrana replaced the top leaders of the military.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 9, Colombia’s Pres.  Pastrana replaced the top leaders of the military.
    (WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 14, Government soldiers were attacked by some 600 guerrillas near Riosucio in Colombia’s Choco state. Fighting continued for 2 days. 60 soldiers and guerrillas were killed.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A9)

1998        Aug 19, Colombia’s Congress named Carlos Ossa to the post of comptroller general. He had reported links to Pastor Perafan, a convicted drug trafficker, and was opposed by Pres. Pastrana.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.D2)

1998        Aug 21, In Bogota, Colombia, Venezuelan trafficker Fernando "Fatso" Flores was arrested. He was expected to be extradited to the US for shipping nearly 8 tons of cocaine to Florida in 1991.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.D3)

1998        Sep 2, Colombia devalued its currency by 9% and the peso fell 5.3%.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.B1)(SFC, 9/11/98, p.D2)

1998        Oct 6, Norbert Reinhart (49), owner of the Canadian Terramundo drilling Co., exchanged himself for his employee, foreman Ed Leonard, who was being held for ransom by rebels in Colombia.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.C1)

1998        Oct 9, In Colombia tens of thousands of public employees continued their 3-day-old strike after the government declared the walkout illegal. The strike was called against cuts in public spending and a wage increase cap of 14% for next year.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 14, In Colombia Saul Albaraz (29), a journalist, was shot to death in Medellin.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)

1998        Oct 15, In Colombia some 200,000 people marched on the 8th day of a strike against the government’s planned austerity program.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 16, Red ants, called “crazy ants" by farmers in Colombia’s Santander and Boyaca provinces, had destroyed some 10,000 acres of crops and threatened an additional 100,000 acres.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.C1)

1998        Oct 18, In Colombia the Ocensa pipeline in Antioquia province near the village of Machuca exploded. The attack was attributed to the National Liberation Army and at least 25 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/19/98, p.A13)

1998        Oct 20, Jose Ortega, vice president of Colombia’s Unitary Workers’ Federation, was shot and killed. The killing prompted a wildcat strike by thousands of private-sector workers.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 23, Jesus Fernandez, alleged ringleader of Colombia’s Norte del Valle drug cartel, was arrested in Medellin. He was also wanted by the US.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 28, Colombian Pres. Pastrana met with Pres. Clinton in Washington and agreed to expand the fight against drugs.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)

1998        Nov 1, In Colombia some 1,000 rebels attacked a police base in Mitu, capital of Vaupes province with missiles shaped from propane cylinders. As many as 60 officers were believed killed. 80 police officers were reported killed and 45 taken prisoner by the FARC rebels.
    (SFC, 11/2/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.A1)(SFC, 11/3/98, p.A9)

1998        Nov 4, In Colombia government forces retook Mitu after refueling in nearby Brazil. 5 guerrillas were reported killed.
    (SFC, 11/5/98, p.C3)

1998        Nov 7, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana planned to complete the evacuation of government troops from a southern guerrilla stronghold for 90 days to facilitate talks with the rebel FARC. The rebels took control of 5 municipalities straddling Caqueta and Meta provinces, an area the size of Switzerland with 90,000 residents.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.C1)(SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A20)

1998        Nov 9, US customs officials found 1,600 pounds of cocaine on a Colombian C-130 in Florida. Colombia’s air force chief resigned the next day.
    (WSJ, 11/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 10, From Colombia it was reported that right-wing death squads had killed at least 17 peasants.
    (WSJ, 11/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov, Frank Moreno, a US Drug Enforcement agent, was killed along with another man in a Bogota, Colombia, disco. Jorge Figueroa was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison. In 2000 a Superior Court cited legitimate self-defense and reduced his sentence to 5 years.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C4)

1998        Dec 1, It was reported that a US congressional initiative added $165 million in counter-narcotics funds to Colombia. The 1999 aid package totaled $289 million.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Dec 1, In Colombia rebels stormed 2 towns and killed at least 8 people and wounded 30.
    (SFC, 12/2/98, p.A6)

1998        Dec 13, In Colombia an anti-guerrilla raid at Santo Domingo village in Arauca state killed a number of civilians. Most of the dead were victims of rockets and strafing by military aircraft. The US oil-company air attack was coordinated by 3 American civilian airmen. Later reports said the rockets and warplanes were bought with US anti-drug aid. In 2002 a government report faulted a Colombian helicopter pilot and crewman for dropping a bomb that killed 17 civilians in Santo Domingo. Charges of involuntary manslaughter were levied in 2003. In 2009 a judge found two Colombian air force pilots guilty of murder and sentenced them to 31 years in prison each for the cluster-bombing of Santo Domingo that killed 17 people, including 6 children.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A1)(SFC, 12/22/98, p.C4)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/02)(AP, 12/21/03)(AP, 9/27/09)

1998        Dec 27, In Colombia a natural gas pipeline exploded in Arroyo de Piedra and killed at least 12-15 people.
    (SFC, 12/28/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 12/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 29, In Colombia rebels claimed to have killed a right-wing paramilitary leader, Carlos Castano, in a weekend capture of his northern stronghold. Other sources denied the report.
    (WSJ, 12/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 30, Colombian officials found at least 11 burned and dismembered bodies in El Diamante.
    (SFC, 12/31/98, p.D2)

1998        In Colombia a group of 52 families acquired the 1,360 acre La Alemania farm in San Onofre. Two years later illegal right-wing paramilitaries ran the farmers off the land and set up camp there. In 2006 the peasant farmers (campesinos) recovered their farm but faced foreclosure and retaliation from the paramilitaries.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.51)
1998        Semana, Colombia’s leading news magazine, named Manuel Marulanda its "Man of the Year."
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)
1998        Shell ceded its oil exploration rights in Colombia’s Samore block to Occidental Oil, which then renounced 75% of the original block and planned to drill on lands outside of official U'wa Indian lands. The Indians maintained the drill sites still stood on ancestral lands.
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)
1998        There were 2,226 kidnappings in Colombia during the year.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.T14)
1998        Jordan received ok from the American CIA to sell 50,000 surplus AK-47 assault rifles to Peru. Many of the rifles went to leftist guerrillas in Colombia and Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s spy chief, was implicated.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A12)
1998        The remains of 36 boys aged 8 through 16 were found in a ravine and overgrown lot in Pereira, Colombia  [see Luis Eduardo Garavito on Oct 29, 1999].
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A14)

1999        Jan 7, In Colombia Manuel Marulanda, leader of FARC, was scheduled to come down from the mountains to talk peace with Pres. Pastrana at San Vicente del Caguan. Marulanda failed to show but sent 3 top commanders in his place.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 9, In Colombia The United Self-Defense Forces, right-wing death squads, killed 27 people in Playon de Orozco, and 14 people in San Pablo. Meanwhile leftist rebels released Norbert Reinhart, a Canadian mining executive, and Osmar Brohha, a German tourist.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 10, In Colombia The United Self-Defense Forces, right-wing death squads, killed 8 people in Toluviejo, and 20 people in La Hormiga.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 14, In Colombia right-wing paramilitary groups announced they were willing to begin peace talks.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.A15)

1999        Jan 19, In Colombia rebels suspended peace talks and accused the government of backing recent massacres by right-wing death squads.
    (SFC, 1/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 20, Alfredo Molano, a journalist for Colombia’s El Espectador, announced that he would leave for Europe in fear of Carlos Castano, leader of the right-wing militias.
    (SFC, 1/21/99, p.A14)

1999        Jan 25, In Colombia a 6.0 earthquake hit in western Valle del Cauca state and at least 273 people were killed and 900 injured. The cities of Armenia, Pereira, and Calarca were hardest hit. The death toll went up and it was predicted that 2,000 died in Armenia alone.
    (SFC, 1/26/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/26/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 27, Colombia’s Jan 25 earthquake death toll went up to 878 with over 3,400 injured and survivors began looting markets for food.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.A12)

1999        Jan 28, In Colombia Pres. Pastrana ordered in 2,700 soldiers and police to restore order. 2 human rights activists were kidnapped by right-wing militia. They were released Feb 18.
    (WSJ, 1/29/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan, In Colombia 75 people were kidnapped during the month.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.T14)

1999        Feb 5, The demilitarization of southeast Colombia was extended for another 90 days in order to extend talks with FARC.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A12)

1999        Feb 15, In Colombia a right-wing paramilitary group kidnapped 9 officials sent to investigate reports of a mass grave near Ceja.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 25, In Colombia 3 Americans were kidnapped. [see Mar 4]
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 28, In Colombia 3 US citizens, Terence Freitas, Ingrid Washinawatok and Lahe'ena'e Gay, were kidnapped by FARC rebels. The 3 belonged to a group that worked to defend the rights of the Uwa Indians in a dispute with Occidental Petroleum. 3 FARC rebels, wanted for the kidnapping, were captured Nov 28, 2002. [see Mar 4]
    (SFC, 3/1/99, p.A12)(AP, 11/29/02)

1999        Feb, Orlando Garcia was arrested along with 18 members of the “Los Niches" cocaine smuggling ring. Garcia was extradited to the US in 2000 for shipping 230 pounds of cocaine into the US.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.D2)

1999        Mar 1, In Colombia a far-right death squad killed 8 people and kidnapped 3 in Barrancabermeja, a stronghold of the National Liberation Army (ELN).
    (SFC, 3/2/99, p.A9)

1999        Mar 4, In Venezuela the bodies of 3 Americans, who were kidnapped Feb 25 in Colombia, were found shot to death. Ingrid Washinawatok (41), Lahe'ena'e Gay (39) and Terence Freitas (24) were coordinating a campaign for the U'wa Indians when they were abducted. Raul Reyes, senior commander of FARC, later said that local commander Gildardo and 3 rebels seized and executed the 3 Americans without authorization. In Dec. German Briceno, a FARC officer, was indicted in absentia on murder charges along with Gustavo Bogota, a member of the U'wa Indian tribe. In 2000 Nelson Vargas was captured in Saravena and identified as the guerrilla commander responsible for the kidnap-slayings. Police later said Gildardo Gomez was the commander suspected in the killings, but still held Vargas on suspicion of rebel membership.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A10)(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/22/99, p.A18)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.D3)(SFC, 3/27/00, p.A13)

1999        Mar 19, In Colombia Marxist rebels were reported to have abducted over 90 people in 3 provinces. 25 people were taken in Hormiga, over 50 were taken in northern Cesar province, and 19 were seized in Cauca.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A11)

1999        Mar 25, In Colombia an arrest warrant was issued for German Briceno, aka Grannobles, for the kidnapping and killing of 3 Americans. Briceno was the brother of Jorge Briceno, No. 2 leader of FARC.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C1)

1999        Apr 6, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana said that drug traffickers had destroyed an area of rain forest the size of Delaware to plant illicit drug crops.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)

1999        Apr 12, In Colombia an Avianca plane was hijacked with 46 people aboard and flown to a guerrilla stronghold in Bolivar province.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 13, In Colombia rebels released 6 of 46 hostages from a commandeered Avianca airplane.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 15, In Colombia rebels released 3 more hostages as army units fought to free the remaining 32 captured in the hijacking of an Avianca plane.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 21, In Colombia retired Col. Bernardo Ruiz was arrested for arranging the 1995 murder of opposition politician Alvaro Gomez.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.D12)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)

1999        Apr 21, Hernando Santos (76), chairman of Colombia’s El Tiempo newspaper, died.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D8)

1999        Apr 23, Colombia reported that Marxist rebels and right-wing death squads had killed at least 371 civilians in the 1st 3 months of this year. 171 were killed by guerrillas and 179 by paramilitary gangs.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.C1)

1999        Apr 29, In Colombia a 2,500 member group of the Embera-Katio Indians called for a safe haven in Europe due to the civil war in their homeland.
    (SFC, 4/30/99, p.B1)

1999        May 2, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana and Manual Marulanda Velez, the leader of FARC, agreed to begin formal peace negotiations with int'l. observers.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.C5)

1999        May 7, In Colombia ELN rebels released 7 more hostages from the Apr 12 hijacking.
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.C14)

1999        May 14, In Colombia Matthew Aaron Burtchell, a US helicopter technician, was kidnapped by armed men by Yopal, provincial capital of Casanare.
    (SFC, 5/17/99, p.A10)

1999        May 21, In Colombia Piedad Cordoba, an opposition senator, was kidnapped in Bogota by suspected ELN rebels. They said she would be freed with a message about the peace process. Carlos Castano, head of the United Self-Defense Forces later admitted that he ordered the abduction.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A16)(SFC, 5/24/99, p.A13)

1999        May 30, In Colombia suspected ELN rebels kidnapped some 140 churchgoers in Cali and later abandoned at least 84.
    (SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)(SFC, 6/1/99, p.a6)

1999        Jun 4, In Colombia at least 2,000 people crossed the border into Venezuela to escape heavy fighting in northern Santander province.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 5, In Colombia rebels released 5 Catholic hostages. An estimated 55 were still held from the May 30 kidnapping.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A24)

1999        Jun 6, In Colombia 150,000 people rallied in Cali to protest the kidnapping or churchgoers by leftist rebels.
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A11)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 7, In Colombia a rebel chief apologized for the abduction of a church congregation as other rebels kidnapped 11 people on a fishing trip near Barranquilla.
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 15, In Colombia leftist rebels of the ELN released 33 hostages from the church group kidnapped 17 days earlier. At least 20 others were kept captive.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B3)

1999        Jun 19, Colombia’s government agreed to start formal peace talks with the 15,000 strong FARC on July 7.
    (SFC, 6/21/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 21, In Colombia FARC guerrillas attacked the paramilitary United Self Defense Forces (AUC) in the Nudo de Paramillo mountain range. At least 68 people were reported killed in the fighting.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 26, In Colombia Richard Grasso, chairman of the New York Stock Exchange, met with Paul Reyes, leader of the FARC, to discuss peace and the promise of capitalism.
    (SFC, 6/28/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 27, Colombia devalued its currency by lowering its trading band by 9%.
    (WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun, Children, residents, fish and farm animals of Rioblanco de Sotara, a Yanacona Indian village in Colombia’s high Andes, were affected by a government spraying campaign to eradicate heroin poppy.
    (SFC, 5/1/00, p.A12)

1999        Jul 8, In Columbia heavy fighting in Gutierrez between the government and FARC killed as many as 78 soldiers.
    (SFC, 7/9/99, p.A14)(SFC, 7/10/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 10, In Colombia the government declared a dawn-to-dusk curfew across over 30% of the country as guerrillas attacked security forces, raided 15 towns and bombed energy infrastructure. 64 guerrillas, 6 civilians and 3 policemen were reported killed in the last 24 hours.
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, p.A19)

1999        Jul 11, In Colombia the leftist offensive continued. An army statement said 202 guerrillas, 19 policemen, 4 soldiers and 9 civilians had been killed. Rebel sources said 68 security force members were killed and 32 rebels.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 12, In Colombia fighting subsided after a 4-day guerrilla blitz.
    (SFC, 7/13/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 17, In Colombia FARC and government negotiators failed to agree on observers for peace talks and the talks were put on hold.
    (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 23, In Colombia a US anti-narcotics reconnaissance airplane crashed with 5 US Army personnel and 2 Colombians.
    (USAT, 7/26/99, p.7A)

1999        Jul 30, In Colombia a powerful car bomb exploded in Medellin outside an anti-kidnapping unit that had arrested 7 suspected members of FARC just hours earlier. At least 10 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/31/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul, Colombia’s military reported a total of 300 guerrillas killed this month, mostly from air attacks.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A10)

1999        Aug 1, In Colombia a weekend attack by rebels killed at least 17 people in Narino, 100 miles northwest of Bogota.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 3, In Colombia fighting died down in Currulao with 15 FARC rebels and one soldier dead. 2 Pentecostal pastors were reported killed  near Lejanias.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 13, In Bogota, Colombia, Jaime Garzon (39), radio co-host and satirist, was shot and killed by a motorcycle gunman.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A11)

1999        Aug 17, In Colombia suspected rightist gunmen shot and killed at least 13 villagers in Zambrano including a girl age 13.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.C2)

1999        Aug 22, In Colombia at least 36 peasants were killed by paramilitary fighters near the Venezuelan border.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A21)

1999        Aug 23, It was reported that the US was training a 950-man Colombian army counter narcotics battalion to regain control of guerrilla controlled territory.
    (SFC, 8/23/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 27, In Colombia Alistair Taylor, an oil engineer for Weathorford Int’l., was kidnapped by ELN rebels, who demanded a $3 million ransom. He was released July 5, 2001.
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, p.A12)(SFC, 7/7/01, p.A9)

1999        Aug 31, In Colombia rebels seized a hydroelectric plant near Buenaventura and held 100 employees on the 1st day of a nationwide strike. 1.5 million workers protested government austerity moves.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug, Colombia’s government granted the U'wa Indians an expansion of their official reservation boundaries in an effort to placate the anti oil drilling protests.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10)

1999        Aug, US authorities intercepted a 1.2 kg package of heroine, valued at $700,000, mailed by Laurie Hiett (36) in Bogota. She was the wife of James Hiett, a US Army colonel in charge of the military’s anti-drug operation in Colombia. In 2000 Mrs. Hiett was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A2)(SFC, 5/6/00, p.A7)

1999        Sep 1, Colombia took delivery of 6 refurbished Vietnam-era US military helicopters for use in the drug war.
    (WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 16, In Venezuela a Colombian delegation met with the largest guerrilla group to revive peace talks.
    (WSJ, 9/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 21, In Columbia the government gave approval to Occidental Petroleum to drill a test well near the boundary of the 3,600 U'wa Indians.
    (SFC, 9/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Oct 13, In Colombia drug police arrested 30 cocaine traffickers including Medellin cartel leader Fabio Ochoa and reputed distribution boss Alejandro Bernal-Madrigal. Some 1,290 traffickers were also arrested in Mexico, Ecuador, the US and other countries over the last 2 weeks in operation Millennium.
    (WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A1,22)(SFC, 10/14/99, p.A14)(SFC, 11/22/99, p.A12)

1999        Oct 24, In Colombia the government began formal negotiations with the Marxist FARC guerrilla group as millions marched to demand an end to civil war.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)(WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 29, In Colombia it was reported that Luis Eduardo Garavito (42) had confessed to the abduction and killing of some 140 children over a 5-year period. In Dec. Garavitor was convicted and sentenced to 52 years in prison for the 1996 murder of one boy and raping another.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.A20)

1999        Nov 2, In Panama suspected Colombian rebels hijacked 2 helicopters.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.C2)

1999        Nov 11, In Bogota, Colombia, a car bomb killed 7 people and injured 19.
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.A16)

1999        Nov 14, In Colombia the 3rd bomb blast in a week injured a worker at El Tiempo newspaper in Cali.
    (SFC, 11/16/99, p.E4)

1999        Nov 21, In Colombia Jaimi Orlando Lara (30) was extradited to the US for smuggling heroine to the US. He was the first drug offender to be extradited since 1990.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov, In Colombia U'wa Indians purchased 2 farms that covered the proposed Occidental oil drill site and organized a sit in to prevent drilling.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10)

1999        Dec 13, In Colombia leftist rebels attacked a naval base at Jurado near Panama and 23 marines were killed and dozens wounded.
    (SFC, 12/14/99, p.B2)

1999        Dec 20, In Colombia the biggest rebel group called a holiday truce through Jan 9. The last week of fighting killed some 220 soldiers and guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 12/21/99, p.A1)

1999        The Plan Colombia program began as the US under Pres. Clinton deployed a small air force to Colombia to spray coca plants and help Colombia fight insurgents and shut down processing plants for cocaine. At this time traffickers had some 463,322 acres of coca plant cultivation and produced 90% of the world’s cocaine. By 2009, despite 10 years of eradication efforts, Colombia had some 575,750 acres under coca plant cultivation and still produced 90% of the world’s cocaine.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, Insight p.H8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Colombia)

1999        Colombia reported 2,945 kidnappings in this year; 7% were children.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A10)

1999        In Colombia there were some 5,000 killings this year in Medellin. Some 220 gangs with 8,500 gang members fought turf battles on a daily basis.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A20)

2000        Jan 4, In Colombia Red Cross work shut down after peasant refugees took 40 hostages in Bogota and demanded homes.
    (WSJ, 1/5/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 12, In Colombia rebels ended a holiday truce and 24 people were feared dead in attacks on southern mountain towns.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 15, In Colombia the government military claimed to have killed 44 guerrillas. 6 soldier and police also died as well as 8 civilians in a town 30 miles southeast of Bogota.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A9

2000        Jan 16, In Colombia at least 13 guerrillas were killed in Bolivar state. Rebel bombings of power lines left Medellin out of power for several hours. Rebels blew up 22 high-voltage pylons that took out power in Antioquia, Choco and Cordoba provinces.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A9)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 26, In Colombia government soldiers carted off 26 U'wa Indians in helicopters and militarized a drill site on a farm owned by the U'wa.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 16 - 2000 Feb 21, In Colombia militiamen under the command of Rodrigo Tovar (aka Jorge 40) tortured and dismembered at least 60 people in the town of El Salado in northern Bolivar province during this period according to a 2011 report from the National Commission of Reparation and Reconciliation.
    (AP, 7/8/11)(AP, 5/21/20)

2000        Feb 18, In Colombia at least 9 villagers were killed over 3 days near Ovejas by suspected right-wing gunmen.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A10)
2000        Feb 18-2000 Feb 19, At El Salado over 300 right-wing paramilitary executed at least 36 people whom they accused of collaborating with leftist guerrillas. Nearby military and police made no effort to stop the slaughter.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A12,14)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.33)

2000        Feb 24, In Bogota, Colombia, an auto-free day was held as declared by Mayor Enrique Penalosa.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.D3)

2000        Mar 1, In Colombia ELN guerrillas kidnapped 3 teenagers from a school in Cali.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 21, In Colombia rebel bombings caused a blackout in most of Bogota and large portions of the central and northeast regions.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 26, In Colombia Pres. Pastrana pressured Armando Pomorica, president of the lower house of Congress, to take responsibility for a corruption scandal.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 30, In Colombia a truck bomb exploded in Cachipay. 4 people were killed and at least 14 were injured.
    (SFC, 3/31/00, p.A21)

2000        Apr 1, In Colombia leftist rebels stormed the Modelo jail in Cucuta and freed 74 prisoners.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.A9)

2000        Apr 3, Leftist rebels of the national Liberation Army kidnapped 23 motorists in Colombia’s northern Cesar state after calling for a transportation strike.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 6, In Colombia suspected rightist paramilitaries killed 21 unarmed residents of Tibu.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D2)

2000        Apr 12, In Colombia police and US drug agents swept over 4 cities in “Operation Millennium II" and made 49 arrests in the country’s largest heroin ring.
    (SFC, 4/13/00, p.A16)

2000        Apr 24, In Colombia Pres. Pastrana reached a preliminary agreement with the ELN to withdraw government troops from a northern region as a condition for peace talks. Meanwhile FARC rebels announced a campaign to kidnap millionaires and corporate executives who refuse to pay tribute.
    (SFC, 4/25/00, p.A11)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A11)

2000        Apr 25, Dagoberto Ospina (9) was kidnapped by gunmen outside of Cali, Colombia. Some 60 children and teenagers were reported abducted in the 1st 3 months of this year.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 27, In Colombia a riot broke out at Bogota’s El Modelo federal prison after an inmate’s mutilated body was found in a sewer pipe. 26 people were killed over the next 24 hours in fighting between paramilitary and common criminals.
    (SFC, 4/29/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 29, Colombian police agents shot and killed one of the alleged kidnappers of Dagoberto Ospina in a Cali shopping center.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A11)

2000        May 15, Near Chiquinquira, Columbia, Elvia Cortez (53) and Jairo Lopez, a bomb technician, were killed by explosives placed on her neck by kidnappers who claimed to be members of FARC and demanded $7,500. 
    (SFC, 5/16/00, p.A13)(SFC, 5/17/00, p.A14)

2000        Jun 19, In Colombia Guillermo Valencia Cossio, the brother of peace negotiator Fabio Valencia Cossio, was abducted. Carlos Castano, head of the feared Self-Defenses Forces, later confirmed that he ordered the kidnapping.
    (SFC, 6/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 23, In Colombia Guillermo Valencia was freed after 4 days. Luisa Cano (5) was also freed by guerrillas after being kidnapped Apr 15.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 15, In Colombia 13 police officers were executed by rebels following their surrender to a missile attack in Roncesvalles.
    (SFC, 7/17/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 29, In Colombia rebels attacked the town of Arboleda and claimed to have killed nearly 2 dozen police officers. Troops and national police were flown to the site the next day aboard US-supplied helicopters.
    (SFC, 7/31/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 5, In Colombia congressman Oscar Tulio Lizcano was abducted by the FARC. He was freed by a military operation in 2008.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2000        Aug 6, In Colombia rightist paramilitary killed 6 men in Vilanueva.
    (SFC, 8/9/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 7, It was reported that another 16 people were killed by rebels in northern Colombia and that Occidental Petroleum had halted production at its 2nd largest field due to rebel attacks.
    (WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 7, In Colombia rightist paramilitary killed 7 villagers in San Diego.
    (SFC, 8/9/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 15, Colombian authorities and US Secret Service agents captured 10 leaders of a counterfeiting ring that had sent over $40 million in bogus bills to the US over the last 2 years.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A15)
2000        Aug 15, In Colombia 6 students were killed after they were caught in a cross fire between leftist rebels and government troops. The students were on a field trip with teachers. An investigation followed and a military coverup was suspected. 5 officers and 36 soldiers were suspended for the deaths.
    (SFC, 8/16/00, p.A18)(SFC, 8/17/00, p.A15)(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 17, In Colombia a bomb, planted by the Revolutionary Armed Forces Colombia, exploded in the village of Carmen de Bolivar and 2 children were killed.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 18, Alberto Orlandez Gamboa, a drug cartel leader known as “The Snail," was extradited from Colombia to the US to stand trial for drug trafficking and money laundering.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 27, In Colombia gunmen killed at least 17 people in 2 massacres at Cienaga and Buenaventura.
    (SFC, 8/28/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 29, A videotape by Pres. Clinton sought to calm fears over a $1.3 billion aid package expected to escalate the guerrilla war in Colombia. Pres. Clinton was scheduled to arrive the next day. Plan Colombia was America’s 3rd largest military aid package after Israel and Egypt.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A14)(SSFC, 11/11/07, p.M5)

2000        Aug 30, It was reported that many professional and entrepreneurs were leaving Colombia due to the civil war.
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 30, Pres. Clinton stopped in Colombia and pledged that US aid would not lead to military escalation in the drug war. The recent $1.5 billion military aid package was part of a broader $7.5 billion Colombian plan to fight drugs, help refugees and strengthen government institutions.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug, US Special Forces trainers arrived in Colombia to train a 2nd anti-narcotics military battalion.
    (SFEC, 8/6/00, p.C15)

2000        Sep 2, A US-made warplane crashed and 7 airmen were killed during heavy fighting with rebels in Colombia. Another 8 soldiers were killed along with 12 rebels in the combat on Mount Montezuma, 155 miles west of Bogota. A rebel assault on a police station at Tomarrazon in Guajira state left 7 police officers dead.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.A15)(SFC, 9/4/00, p.A9)

2000        Sep 6, In Colombia police found a 100-foot submarine under construction by cocaine smugglers 18 miles from Bogota.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 17, In Colombia government troops engaged FARC rebels at Dabeiba. The offensive had started Sep 13 and high casualties were reported. ELN rebels kidnapped about 54 people from roadside restaurants near Cali.
    (SFC, 9/18/00, p.A9)(SFC, 11/1/00, p.A17)

2000        Sep 18, In Colombia gunmen released 23 captives from as many as 80 in the highlands outside Cali.
    (SFC, 9/19/00, p.A9)

2000        Sep 20, In Colombia ELN rebels released 12 of 55 hostages seized near Cali. They still held 43.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.A13)

2000        Sep 26, Colombia’s Mayor Julio Hernandez Rodriquez Rovelo was shot to death in Rovira.
    (SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A22)

2000        Oct 12, In Ecuador suspected Columbian FARC guerrillas kidnapped 5 Americans and 5 other foreign oil workers, hijacked a helicopter, and crossed back to Columbia. It was later suspected that the kidnappers were Ecuadoran criminals rather than Colombian guerrillas.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A17)(SFC, 10/20/00, p.D8)

2000        Oct 20, FARC guerrillas near Dabeiba, Colombia, killed 54 members of the army and national police. 22 were killed in the crash of a US-made Black hawk helicopter hit by gunfire.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 24, In Colombia political abductions rose to 5 over the last 3 days. Rebel and right wing paramilitaries were suspected in the kidnapping of the opposition Liberal Party members.
    (SFC, 10/25/00, p.A16)

2000        Oct 25, Europe with support from Canada and Japan announced a $280 million support package for Colombian efforts to make peace with leftist rebels.
    (SFC, 10/26/00, p.D8)

2000        Oct 31, In Colombia ELN rebels began freeing 24 hostages from the Sep. 17 kidnapping near Cali. 15 rebels had died and 25 were captured in fighting since the kidnapping.
    (SFC, 11/1/00, p.A17)

2000        Nov 10, A car bomb in Cali, Colombia, injured 11 civilians. The ELN was blamed.
    (SFC, 11/11/00, p.C18)

2000        Nov 15, Gustavo Ruiz (39), a radio reporter, was shot to death in Pivijay, Colombia. The murder appeared to be in retaliation for reports on local vigilante squads.
    (SFC, 11/17/00, p.D6)

2000        Nov 16, Colombian police and US Secret Service cracked a billion dollar counterfeiting operation in Versalles. One man was arrested. The operation was believed to be master-minded by Ramiro Sepulveda.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A14)

2000        Nov 19, In Colombia weekend clashes with leftist rebels left at least 28 dead.
    (WSJ, 11/20/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 28, In Colombia the mayor-elect of Sibundoy was wounded by gunfire.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C7)

2000        Nov 29, In Colombia gunmen killed the mayor-elect of a town in the Putumayo region.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C7)

2000        Dec 5, Fernando Araujo (44), development minister under President Andres Pastrana, was kidnapped by FARC rebels while exercising in Cartagena. Araujo escaped captivity in Jan 2007 during a raid to free him. A marine and six guerrillas died in the battle to free Araujo.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2000        Dec 6, A FARC attack in Granada, Colombia left at least 29 dead.
    (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A18)

2000        Dec 7, Colombia announced an imminent prisoner exchange with leftist guerrillas. FARC held over 500 police and soldiers.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.A21)

2000        Dec 15, Two people were killed in Bogota, Colombia, when right-wing paramilitary gunmen attacked and wounded Wilson Borja, president of the Federation of State Workers. Borja had been organizing peace talks between the government and leftist rebels.
    (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A20)

2000        Dec 17, In Colombia gunmen killed 11 people in the village of Chipaque. Leftist rebels were suspected.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B2)

2000        Dec 18, The mayor of Quipile, Colombia, became the 19th mayor assassinated this year.
    (WSJ, 12/19/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 23, In Colombia rebels freed 42 police officers and soldiers.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B4)

2000        Dec 25, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana announced a draft for an agreement with the ELN to pull government troops from areas in Bolivar state.
    (SFC, 12/26/00, p.C2)

2000        Dec 29, In Colombia gunmen killed Rep. Diego Turbay, a peace envoy, along with 6 other people. A FARC unit was blamed.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A8)

2000        Colombia passed legislation creating the National Commission for the Seeking of Disappeared People and authorized it to build a "unified registry" of the missing.
    (AP, 8/1/06)
2000        In Colombia kidnappings for the year reached a record 3,706.
    (WSJ, 12/27/01, p.A1)

2000-2009    In Colombia over 7,000 fell victim to landmines during this period, most of them planted by the FARC.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.33)

2001        Jan 4, In Colombia a right-wing death squad killed 11 people in a northeast town.
    (WSJ, 1/05/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 10, In Colombia soldiers rescued 56 hostages held by ELN guerrillas outside Barbosa.
    (SFC, 1/11/01, p.A14)

2001        Jan 14, In Colombia 8 people were killed by at least 40 gunmen outside Valledupar in Cesar state. Right-wing paramilitaries were blamed.
    (SFC, 1/15/01, p.A15)

2001        Jan 17, In Colombia 25 men were hacked to death by some 50 AUC right-wing paramilitary at Chengue. 30 homes were set on fire and 7 men taken as hostages. Residents had called for protection 23 months earlier.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D3)

2001        Jan 28, In Colombia gunmen killed at least 10 people in Hato Nuevo.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)

2001        Jan, In Colombia at least 50 suspected guerrilla sympathizers were murdered this month in Barrancabermeja by paramilitary groups.
    (SFC, 2/12/01, p.B1)

2001        Feb 6, In Colombia gunmen killed 14 people in a northern battle zone.
    (WSJ, 2/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 8, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana met with FARC leader Manuel Marulanda at Los Pozos.
    (SFC, 2/9/01, p.A16)

2001        Feb 9, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana and FARC commander Marulanda agreed to resume peace negotiations.
    (SFC, 2/10/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 11, In Colombia 9 young hikers, 6 men and 3 women, were found killed execution style in southwest Purace National Park. FARC later admitted to killing the 8 hikers.
    (SFC, 2/15/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/19/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 26, It was reported that Interpol estimated some 25,000 Colombian women were being trafficked per year in the int’l. sex trade.
    (SFC, 2/26/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 5, In Colombia rightists vowed to prevent the formation of a 2nd leftist sanctuary and fought rebels in a battle that left 24 dead.
    (WSJ, 3/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 7, In Colombia it was reported that Bogota Mayor Antanas Mockus called on women to take a night out and leave men at home to do the chores.
    (SFC, 3/7/01, p.A9)

2001        Mar 10, In Colombia gunmen pulled Sintramienergetica union local president Valmore Locarno and his deputy, Victor Orcasita, off a bus and killed them. The US Drummond Co. was later charged with paying paramilitaries for the executions. In 2007 a civil trial before a federal jury opened in Birmingham, Ala.
    (AP, 7/7/07)   

2001        Mar 17, Colombia suspended meat and livestock imports from Argentina for 60 days due to fears of foot-and-mouth disease. Only Israel and Russia still imported Argentine meat.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A9)

2001        Mar 26, In Colombia Juan Gonzalez, head of the right-wing Calima Front of the United Self-Defense Forces, was killed with 3 others in a bar shootout.
    (SFC, 3/28/01, p.D4)

2001        Mar, Bernardo Velez, brother of Colombia's education minister, was kidnapped by FARC rebels. In 2004 leftist rebels killed Velez even though his family paid a ransom twice.
    (AP, 7/8/04)

2001        Mar, In Colombia Valmore Locarno (38) and Victor Orcasita (37) were killed by members of a right-wing paramilitary group in La Loma, as they returned from work at a Drummond Co. coal mine.
    (WSJ, 10/6/03, p.A1)

2001        Apr 1, In Colombia weekend fighting between leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary groups left at least 35 people dead.
    (WSJ, 4/3/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 10, In Colombia an arrest warrant was issued for Tomas Medina, commander of FARC.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.C3)

2001        cApr 15, In Colombia’s southwest 32 peasant bodies were pulled from a fresh shallow grave and a right-wing death squad was accused of the killing.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 16, In Colombia’s Arauca state a leftist rebel group seized some 100 contract employees of a US oil firm. All the workers were later released.
    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)(WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 21, Luiz Fernando da Costa (33), a Brazilian drug lord, was arrested in Colombia after his plane was forced down by the Colombian air force. He was accused of selling arms to FARC in exchange for cocaine.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.A12)

2001        Apr 30, In Colombia Carlos Alberto Trespalacios (33), information director for the Medellin sports institute, was slain in the El Poblado district.
    (SFC, 5/2/01, p.A9)

2001        May 7, In Colombia leftist FARC guerrillas used dynamite to free 61 prisoners in Caloto.
    (SFC, 5/9/01, p.C5)

2001        May 11, In Colombia an army offensive against FARC began in 7 states. After 3 days of fighting 41 rebels and 3 soldiers were dead.
    (SFC, 5/14/01, p.A12)

2001        May 15, In Colombia paramilitary forces kidnapped some 207 workers as they returned home in the state of Casanare.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A10)

2001        May 16, In Colombia Ronald de Jesus Arrollave, a La Terraza leader, was dragged from his Medellin home and shot to death by 15 hooded gunmen. FARC rebels kidnapped Lothar Hintze, a German businessman, at a tourist complex that he was building in Prado. He was released April 5, 2006.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.A12)(AP, 4/6/06)

2001        May 17, In Colombia the United Self-Defense Forces (AUC) freed 201 recently abducted farmworkers. In Medellin a car bomb killed 7 people and injured 138. The criminal band “La Terraza" was blamed.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A14)(SFC, 5/19/01, p.A8)

2001        May 21, In Colombia a stolen, US-made MK-82, 500-pound bomb was planted by right-wing paramilitaries next to a communist newspaper office in Bogota. It was discovered by a security guard and removed.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A10)

2001        May 25, In Colombia 2 bombs exploded in front of Bogota’s National Univ. and 4 people were killed.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.A9)

2001        May 27-2001 May 28, In Colombia FARC guerrillas killed at least 24 residents of villages near Tierralta.
    (SFC, 6/1/01, p.D3)

2001        Jun 1, In Colombia newspapers speculated that Carlos Castano, head of the right-wing United Self-Defense Forces (AUC), had resigned over internal divisions.
    (SFC, 6/2/01, p.A9)

2001        Jun 2, Colombia’s government and FARC guerrillas agreed to swap sick prisoners followed later by a swap of healthy prisoners.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A16)

2001        Jun 6, In Colombia the AUC acknowledged that Carlos Castano had left the 9-man ruling command council and was reassigned to manage its political affairs.
    (SFC, 6/7/01, p.C2)

2001        Jun 11, The Colombia AUC named a new 9-man command council to lead its fight against rebel guerrillas.
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A9)
2001        Jun 11, In northern Colombia, thousands turned out to protest a US-backed program to aerially eradicate coca crops. They wanted the government to manually eradicate the plant used to make cocaine instead of spraying the countryside.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

2001        Jun 16, Colombia’s government and FARC rebels swapped dozens of prisoners.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A20)

2001        Jun 23, In Colombia the army reported that recent clashes with rebels left 30 soldiers and 26 guerrillas dead. Separately 5 inmates were killed during a FARC arranged prison escape at the La Picota prison in Bogota.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A20)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A9)

2001        Jun 28, In Colombia rebels freed 242 prisoners in a boost to peace talks.
    (WSJ, 6/29/01, p. A1)

2001        Jul 1, In Colombia the body of Alma Jaramillo, an advisor to a peace group, was found in Morales. She had been abducted Jun 29. Rightwing paramilitary militia were blamed.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A10)

2001        Jul 2, In Bogota, Colombia, a firefight erupted between rival gangs at the La Modelo penitentiary and 10 inmates were killed.
    (SFC, 7/4/01, p.A12)

2001        Jul 15, In Colombia FARC guerrillas kidnapped Alam Jara, former governor of Meta state.
    (SFC, 7/17/01, p.A7)

2001        Jul 23, In Colombia retired Gen. Rito Alejo del Rio was arrested on charges of helping create right-wing paramilitary groups.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A12)   

2001        Jul 31, In Colombia 4 rebels and 2 soldiers were killed in fighting in southern and northwestern areas.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)

2001        Jul, In Colombia Maria del Rosario, a regional prosecutor, was shot to death in Cucuta.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.D5)

2001        Aug 2, Colombia reported a big victory over rebels at Juan Jose. 60 rebels were killed along with 13 soldiers.
    (SFC, 8/3/01, p.D3)

2001        Aug 7, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana announced that he was suspending talks with the 5,000 ELN rebels.
    (SFC, 8/8/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 9, In Colombia an explosion killed 3 children and injured 35 in the northern town of San Francisco. Police blamed the ELN.
    (SFC, 8/10/01, p.A18)

2001        Aug 11, In Bogota, Colombia, 3 members of the Irish Republican Army were arrested after spending 5 weeks training FARC rebels in explosives and terrorist tactics.
    (SFC, 8/14/01, p.A7)

2001        Aug 16, In Colombia Pres. Pastrana signed legislation giving the military broad new powers to wage war with less scrutiny from human rights monitors. Gunmen in Santo Tomas killed 12 people for being members in the ELN.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 19, In Colombia thousands of soldiers pursued FARC rebels near San Jose del Guaviare. 20 guerrillas were reported killed including Urias Cuellar, a high-ranking commander.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A9)

2001        Aug 22, In Colombia Felix Chitiva Carrasquilla, one of the top men of the North Valley Cartel, was arrested.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 23, A suspected ELN car bomb killed a woman and wounded over 20 people in Marinilla, Colombia. Separately 15-20 suspected ELN members were killed when explosives in their truck went off in Santander state.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.D2)

2001        Aug 25, In Colombia police in Bogota reported that they had found $35 million stashed in the walls of 2 Bogota apartments. The apartments had been used as private banks by the North Valley Cartel.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 29, In Colombia Yolanda Paternina (50), a government prosecutor, was shot and killed while returning home in Sincelejo. She had been investigating a January paramilitary massacre and 2 of her colleagues were missing since June.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A20)

2001        Aug 30, In Colombia Salvatore Mancuso was being considered as the new head of the AUC, though he had not yet accepted the position. Former commander Carlos Castano said the AUC would operate as a decentralized confederation.
    (SFC, 8/31/01, p.D3)

2001        Sep 2, In Colombia Ramiro Carranza, director of the foreign branch of the secret police (DAS), was abducted near Quetame. 
    (SFC, 9/5/01, p.A9)

2001        Sep 6, In Colombia gunmen killed a congressman who headed a peace commission.
    (WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 7, Fabio Ochoa, former leader of the Medellin cartel, was extradited from Colombia to the US to stand trial for shipping cocaine to the US.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 8, In Colombia police arrested 4 FARC guerrillas who allegedly planned to kill presidential candidate Alvaro Uribe.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A17)

2001        Sep 10, The Bush administration designated the Colombian paramilitary group, the United Self-Defense Forces (AUC), as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 9/11/01, p.B1)

2001        Sep 19, Guambiano Indians in Colombia’s Cauca state attacked Paez Indians and 7 people were killed with at least 19 wounded.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D3)
2001        Sep 19, In Colombia Yolanda Ceron, a Catholic nun active in human rights work, was shot and killed in Tumaco.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D3)

2001        Sep 23, In Colombia 2 men were arrested in connection with a plot to assassinate Pres. Pastrana in July in the town of Armenia.
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.C2)

2001        Sep 24, In Colombia Consuelo Araujo (62), the wife of the attorney general, was kidnapped along with 10 others near Valledupar. Araujo was found shot to death on Sep 30.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A12)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 29, In Colombia FARC used armed road blocks and military attacks to disrupt a planned march into their territory by pres. candidate Horacio Serpa.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct 8, In Bogota, Colombia, Luis Alfredo Colmenares, a representative from Arauca, was assassinated by gunmen on a motorcycle.
    (SFC, 10/9/01, p.B4)

2001        Oct 10, In Colombia AUC paramilitary massacred 24 men in the village of (Alaska) Buga. The bodies of 6 fishermen were recovered near Cartagena, where they had been kidnapped earlier in the week. A cab driver, who drove outside news correspondents, was also slain.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.D2)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 11, In Colombia AUC paramilitary shot and killed 5 men in the town of Samaniego.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.C1)

2001        Oct 12, In Colombia AUC paramilitary shot and killed 5 men and 2 women in the town of Piamonte. The army reported that it had discovered14 bodies in a single grave in the town of Albania.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.C1)

2001        Oct 20-2001 Oct 21, In Penol, Colombia, a bomb in a hot dog cart killed 5 people in an apartment where several police families lived. In Alejandria 10 peasants were killed by paramilitary gunmen. In La Guajira province FARC rebels bombed a gas pipeline and 4 brothers (5-9) were killed. FARC fighters killed 5 men and a woman in El Habra. In Valle del Cauca rebels dragged 4 men and a woman from their car and killed them.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.B2)

2001        Oct 26, US ambassador Anne Patterson said the US would provide counter-terrorist aid: “Colombia has 10% of the terrorist groups in the world."
    (SFC, 10/27/01, p.A9)

2001        Oct 30, Colombia extradited Alejandro Bernal to the US for smuggling up to 30 tons of cocaine a month to the US in the late 1990s.
    (SFC, 10/31/01, p.C12)

2001        Nov 1, In Colombia Carlos Arturo Pinto (53), a regional prosecutor, was shot to death in Cucuta by 2 men on motorcycle. Pinto had replaced Maria del Rosario, who was shot to death in July.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.D5)

2001        Nov 3, In Colombia FARC fighters besieged the town of Paujil and killed 3 police officers. 8 truck drivers were abducted in Casanare province at a roadblock and 3 technicians in the same region.
    (SFC, 11/5/01, p.A13)

2001        Nov 4, In Colombia gunmen abducted a judge and 3 lawyers in Antioquia province. Glen Heggstad (Heregestard) of California was released Dec 7.
    (SFC, 11/5/01, p.A13)(SFC, 12/10/01, p.A5)(SFC, 12/11/01, p.A4)

2001        Nov 7, In Colombia FARC rebels kidnapped Mireya Mejia Araujo, a local peace counselor and demanded $217,000 in ransom.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.A15)

2001        Nov 10, In Colombia AUC paramilitary killed 12 villagers in El Choco for collaboration with the ELN.
    (SFC, 11/12/01, p.A14)

2001        Nov 16, In Colombia some 300-600 leftist rebels attacked the Andean town of Bolivar. 23 police defended the town until their ammunition ran out. Townspeople prevented the rebels from taking away 5 captured officers.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A16)

2001        Nov 19, In Colombia the right-wing AUC militia said that it held 6 mayors hostage in Antioquia state. The mayors were released Nov 20.
    (SFC, 11/20/01, p.A17)

2001        Nov 22, In Colombia At least 47 people were confirmed dead following a mud slide at a condemned gold mine site in Filadelfia.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A18)

2001        Nov 23, A crew dug for bodies and survivors under mud after a huge landslide swept over gold miners illegally digging into the side of a mountain in western Colombia, killing at least 28 people.
    (AP, 11/23/02)   

2001        Dec 16, In Colombia a 5-day battle over cocaine-producing plantations left up to 44 leftist guerrillas and right-wing paramilitary fighters dead in Antioquia state.
    (SFC, 12/17/01, p.A7)

2001        Dec 30, Colombia seized $41 million in counterfeit US currency.
    (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec, Colombia’s Carlos Castano published “Mi Confesion" (My Confession), an biographical account of his rise in the AUC along with details of his “dirty war" against leftist guerrillas.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.H2)

2001        Shakira, Colombian pop star, made a hit with her “Laundry Service" album, mostly in English, selling 13 million copies. Her previous 4 albums in Spanish sold some 12 million copies.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.62)
2001        In Colombia Andres Felipe Perez (12), who had unsuccessfully pleaded to see his father held by FARC, died from cancer.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A8)
2001        Colombian courts convicted Yair Klein, a former lieutenant colonel in the Israeli army, in absentia for helping train far-right paramilitary groups in the 1980s. The Colombian government made unsuccessful attempts to obtain his extradition from Israel. Klein was arrested by Russian authorities in August 2007 as he touched down at a Moscow airport. He was released to Israel in 2010.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yair_Klein)

2002        Jan 9, In Colombia Pres. Pastrana gave FARC 48 hours to retire from their designated safe haven.
    (SFC, 1/10/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 10, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana sent troops to the demilitarized zone occupied by the FARC.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A6)

2002        Jan 12, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana rejected a last minute FARC proposal to save the peace process.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A19)

2002        Jan 14, In Colombia the government and FARC rebels agreed to salvage peace talks.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A9)

2002        Jan 15, In Colombia FARC rebels staged attacks in Puente Quetame, Ibague, Guayabal and Cubarral following an accord to continue peace talks. At least 4 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 18, Five Colombian police officers died while protecting a downed UH-1N helicopter. The US helicopter was destroyed to keep it out of rebel hands.
    (SFC, 1/25/02, p.A15)

2002        Jan 21, In Colombia FARC and government negotiators agreed to a timetable for cease-fire talks.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A11)

2002        Jan 25, A bomb in Bogota, Colombia, killed 4 police officers and a girl (5). FARC rebels were blamed.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A19)

2002        Feb 5, US officials announced plans to train and arm Colombian troops to protect the key Cano Limon oil pipeline.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A12)

2002        Feb 11, In Colombia suspected FARC rebels sent 2 bombs into a southern army garrison and killed 10 sleeping soldiers.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A10)

2002        Feb 20, In Colombia guerrillas hijacked a commercial flight and took captive Sen. Jorge Eduardo Gechem Turbay. In response Pres. Andres Pastrana ended three-year-old peace talks with the FARC and ordered his military to retake the southern rebel haven. Gechem was released on Feb 27, 2008.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pz34776)(SFC, 2/21/02, p.A10)(Econ, 12/6/14, p.38)

2002        Feb 21, The Colombia Air Force dropped 1,500 and 500 pound bombs on FARC rebel sites.
    (SFC, 2/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 22, Colombia began to airlift some 34,000 soldiers of the elite Rapid Deployment Force into San Vicente del Caguan, the largest town in the FARC territory.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A18)

2002        Feb 23, In Colombia FARC rebels kidnapped Ingrid Betancourt (40), a presidential candidate, near La Montanita enroute to San Vicente del Caguan. She was the author of “Until Death do us Part: My Struggle to Reclaim Colombia." Clara Rojas (37) was also kidnapped. Rohas gave birth to a son in 2004 from whom she was separated. Betancourt and other hostages were freed in a military operation in July, 2008.
    (SFC, 2/25/02, p.A6)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.37)(SFC, 12/19/08, p.A1)

2002        Feb 24, In La Macarena, Colombia, 7 civilians were reported killed by retreating rebels.
    (SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)

2002        Feb 26, In Colombia 7 people were killed in various attacks blamed on the FARC. A rebel bombing campaign against infrastructure continued.
    (SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 2, In Colombia the bodies of Sen. Martha Catalina Daniels, her driver, Carlos Lozano, and Ana Maria Medina, the wife of a local politician, were found outside Zipacon, 35 miles north of Bogota. FARC was suspected.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)

2002        Mar 10, In Colombia voters maintained the Liberal Party as the largest force in the 268-member, 2-chamber legislature. Poling in 15 of the nation’s 1,097 municipalities was cancelled due to rebel interference.
    (SFC, 3/11/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 16, In Cali, Colombia, gunmen killed Archbishop Isaias Duarte Cancino (63), a critic of leftist rebels. A hired assassin was arrested in June.
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A20)(SFC, 3/18/02, p.A3)(AP, 6/9/02)

2002        Mar 18, A US federal grand jury unsealed a Mar 7 indictment against 7 men that included 3 Colombian guerrillas for smuggling planeloads of cocaine. These included Tomas Molina Caracas, commander of the FARC 16th Front.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A6)

2002        Apr 5, A car bomb in Fuente de Oro, Colombia, injured 13 people.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 6, In Colombia FARC rebels shot and killed police officers Norberto Perez and Victor Manuel Marulanda as they tried to escape.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 7, In Colombia 2 bombs killed 12 people in Villavicencio and FARC rebels were suspected. One bomb was used to attract people when the 2nd was detonated.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 9, A bomb killed 2 policemen near Bogota, Colombia.
    (WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 11, In Colombia rebels kidnapped 13 lawmakers in Cali. A legislator and 4 aides were rescued and 1 police officer was killed. Sigifredo Lopez, one of the abducted legislators, survived a mistaken rebel attack in 2007 that left his 11 colleagues dead. He was released by the FARC in 2009.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)(AP, 9/13/12)

2002        Apr 14, In Barranquilla, Colombia, a bomb exploded near the motorcade of Alvaro Uribe (49), a presidential candidate. 3 bystanders were killed.
    (SFC, 4/15/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr 19, In Colombia a Russian-made Antonov jet, used to transfer inmates, crashed near Popayan airport and at least 2 prison officials were killed.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A15)

2002        Apr 22, Colombia rebels kidnapped a governor and ex-defense minister during a peace march.
    (WSJ, 4/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 30, A US grand jury indicted Colombia’s rebel FARC army and 6 of its members on charges of murdering 3 Americans.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A10)

2002        May 1, Government soldiers from Colombia’s Caqueta state were pulled from a bus at a FARC roadblock. Their bodies were reported found on May 12.
    (SFC, 5/13/02, p.A6)

2002        May 3, In Colombia 2 days of fighting left as many as 60 people dead in the region around Bojaya after FARC fired mortars into a Bojaya church. The death toll was soon raised to 119 including 40 children.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A11)(SFC, 5/7/02, p.A11)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/13/02, p.A6)

2002        May 10, Colombia’s Gen. Gustavo Socha was removed from his job as head of anti-narcotic efforts for the National Police after $2 million in US funds was discovered missing from a special police administrative account.
    (SFC, 5/11/02, p.A12)

2002        May 14, In Colombia leftist rebels attacked army-backed right-wing paramilitaries at Alto de Minas and left at least 80 people dead 180 miles NW of Bogota.
    (WSJ, 5/17/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A13)

2002        May 18, It was reported that the US-funded Plan Colombia had caused widespread crop damage in Ecuador. The coca leaf fumigation affected some 10,000 Ecuadorians along the Colombia border where the RoundupUltra herbicide was spread by Colombian airplanes.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A11)

2002        May 21, In Medellin, Colombia, fighting between security forces and guerrillas left at least 9 people dead including 2 children.
    (SFC, 5/22/02, p.A15)

2002        May 23, Pedro Carmona (60), CEO of Industrias Venoco CA and Venezuela‘s recent 2-day president, escaped house arrest and sought refuge in the Colombian Embassy.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5)

2002        May 25, In Colombia presidential elections were held. Alvaro Uribe received 53% of the vote, over 20 more than rival Horacio Serpa.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/27/02, p.A1)

2002        May 31, Colombia’s Pres. Pastrana suspended talks with the ELN.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A11)

2002        Jun 3, In Chigorodo, Colombia, 9 people were killed. Police suspected leftist rebels. At least 49 people were killed in weekend fighting outside a former rebel-held zone in the south.
    (WSJ, 6/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 5, Colombia ratified the Rome Statute, the treaty that created an Int’l. Criminal Court.
    (SFC, 6/6/02, p.A10)

2002        Jun 6, In Colombia a bomb exploded at the La Churreria restaurant in Bogota and 1 woman was killed.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.A18)

2002        Jun 8, Colombian police in Cali arrested John Fredy Jimenez, the alleged hired assassin who gunned down Roman Catholic Archbishop Isaias Duarte as he left a wedding March 16.
    (AP, 6/9/02)

2002        Jun 14, Colombia's first female defense minister said Friday she will strengthen the army and seek more military aid from the United States and other nations to fight leftist rebels. Protests began in Arequipa over the sale of 2 state utilities to a Belgian company.
    (AP, 6/14/02)(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A7)

2002        Jun 17, In Colombia troops took control of Arequipa to support a new government ban on public protests.
    (SFC, 6/18/02, p.A7)

2002        Jun 18, In Colombia workers at the state oil company declared a two-day strike to protest the assassination of one of their union officials, who have allegedly been threatened by a right-wing paramilitary group.
    (AP, 6/18/02)

2002        Jun 20, Colombian President-elect Alvaro Uribe pressed President Bush for more help in fighting drugs, while Bush cautioned him to respect human rights as he combats leftist rebels who rely largely on drug trafficking for their income.
    (AP, 6/21/02)

2002        Jun 22, The mayors in the western Colombian state of Antioquia resigned en masse after receiving threats from FARC rebels that they would be killed if they did not quit.
    (AP, 6/22/02)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A22)

2002        Jun 27, In Colombia more than 100 government officials defied rebel death threats, withdrawing their resignations and agreeing to go back to work. Authorities confirmed that Rigo Calvo, mayor of La Sierra, was abducted.
    (AP, 6/27/02)(SFC, 6/28/02, p.A12)

2002        Jun 28, In Bogota, Colombia, a Catholic priest, critical of leftist rebels, was gunned down in front of a church where he had just performed mass.
    (AP, 6/28/02)

2002        Jul 11, In Colombia authorities confirmed that the mayors of 28 cities and towns resigned this week after leftist rebels threatened to kill mayors if they didn't step down.
    (AP, 7/11/02)

2002        Jul 12, A Colombia army spokesman said clashes across Colombia this week left at least 52 rebels and government soldiers dead.
    (AP, 7/12/02)

2002        Jul 18, In Colombia rebels attacked a central Colombian town and clashed with police in an hours long battle, leaving four civilians and four rebels dead and destroying dozens of houses and government buildings.
    (AP, 7/18/02)

2002        Jul 20, Omar Bernal, rebel commander of the 63rd front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, surrendered Saturday to soldiers in southern Colombia, saying he had lost faith in the decades-old guerrilla uprising.
    (AP, 7/20/02)

2002        Jul 23, In Colombia a bomb exploded in front of a Medellin restaurant where politicians and journalists traditionally gather, killing a former congressman and injuring nine other people.
    (AP, 7/23/02)

2002        Jul 24, A truck bomb exploded in San Juan de Rioseco, Colombia, and 2 police officers were killed.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A13)

2002        Jul 25, Some 5,000 women gathered from all over Colombia, traveling hours by bus, all with one message: They wanted an end to 38 years of civil war.
    (AP, 7/25/02)

2002        Jul 29, In Colombia a small bomb exploded outside a hardware store in downtown Bogota, killing a 17-year-old girl and injuring 10 other people.
    (AP, 7/29/02)

2002        Aug 1, In Colombia a helicopter crashed while on an army medical evacuation mission in a rebel zone killing six people. Also a 14-year-old girl died and five other people were wounded when suspected rebels threw a grenade at a bakery in the village of Venecia, 40 miles south of Bogota.
    (AP, 8/2/02)

2002        Aug 7, In Colombia a remote-controlled mortar attack killed 21 people during the inauguration of Pres. Alvaro Uribe. 69 people were wounded.
    (AP, 8/8/02)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A1)(www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=2519)

2002        Aug 8, In Colombia President Alvaro Uribe pressed ahead with Plan Meteor to equip 1 million citizens with radios to report on rebel activity.
    (AP, 8/9/02)(SFC, 8/9/02, p.A20)

2002        Aug 9, In Colombia fighting among outlaw groups for control of a gold mine and cocaine crops in the mountainous north killed 50 fighters. 4 policemen were killed in a rebel ambush in central Colombia in the town of Paz de Ariporo. Army soldiers killed two rebels in the southern town of San Vicente del Caguan.
    (AP, 8/9/02)
2002        Aug 9, In central Colombia hundreds of soldiers attacked the Metro Block right-wing paramilitary force, killing and capturing dozens of fighters outside Segovia. Paramilitary commander Rodrigo later said that an army soldier executed 24 paramilitary men along a roadside near Segovia.
    (AP, 8/10/02)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A16)(AP, 8/18/02)

2002        Aug 12, In Colombia Pres. Alvaro Uribe, declared a limited state of emergency to fight what the government described as a "regime of terror" following an upsurge of violence that has left 100 people dead since he took office.
    (AP, 8/12/02)

2002        Aug 19, In Colombia rebels kidnapped over 2 dozen tourists inside Ensenada Utria national park. The ELN was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 23, In southern Colombia a bus veered off a mountain road in Papagayo after one of its tires burst, plunging 1,000 feet and killing at least 12 people.
    (AP, 8/24/02)

2002        Aug 27, In northern Colombia government forces clashed with rebels, killing eight guerrillas. The eight were among 14 people killed in scattered fighting across the insurgency-plagued nation.
    (AP, 8/27/02)

2002        Aug, The US resumed aerial spraying to eradicate coca growing in Colombia and hoped to destroy some 300,000 acres of coca growth. The US state Dept. said the spraying does not endanger people or the environment.
    (SFC, 9/4/02, p.A13)(SFC, 9/6/02, p.A18)

2002        Sep 4, Colombian authorities reported the break up of an international kidnapping ring organized by the nation's second-largest rebel group to fund its insurgency. The leader of the ring was captured in July, and authorities have arrested his successor and other rebels within the last couple of days, said Gen. Reynaldo Castellanos. The crime network was run out of Bogota by members of the National Liberation Army. It included leftist groups from Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico that kidnapped people and stole cars, among other crimes.
    (AP, 9/5/02)

2002        Sep 5, In Colombia gunmen on motorcycles killed Fernando Mancilla, the new chief of secret police for Antioquia province, as he drove his car in Medellin.
    (AP, 9/6/02)(SFC, 9/6/02, p.A17)

2002        Sep 9, The US State Department cleared the way for giving $41.6 million in arms and equipment to Colombia, certifying that the country's military has met human rights requirements in three areas.
    (AP, 9/9/02)

2002        Sep 10, Colombia stepped up its emergency powers to battle growing insurgency violence, announcing it can detain people without warrants, restrict travel and impose curfews.
    (AP, 9/10/02)

2002        Sep 19, In Colombia Army troops killed 21 guerrillas on 23 fronts and freed 2 kidnapped civilians. A 3rd hostage died in the fighting.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A12)

2002        Sep 19- 2002 Sep 20, The Colombian air force bombarded two rebel camps in northwest Colombia, killing an estimated 200 insurgents.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

2002        Sep 26, In Colombia prosecutors accused 71 police officers, including a former top anti-drug official, of taking more than $2 million in U.S. aid.
    (AP, 9/26/02)

2002        Oct 6, In Colombia Jose Arroyave, a regional commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), was among 7 rebels killed in a military offensive.
    (AP, 10/7/02)

2002        Oct 8, In Colombia heavily armed police in tanks and on foot raided one of Medellin's most dangerous neighborhoods in an effort to regain control from leftist rebels and their rivals, the right-wing paramilitaries.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Oct 16, In Colombia more than 1,000 police and soldiers backed by helicopter gunships stormed Comuna 13, a violence-plagued neighborhood in Medellin, exchanging heavy fire with leftist rebels. Authorities said at least nine people were killed, including a 16-year-old boy. In 2009 Diego Fernando Murillo, a Colombian warlord awaiting sentencing in New York City after pleading guilty to drug-trafficking charges, said former army chief Gen. Mario Montoya mounted the joint operation with his illegal, far-right militia.
    (AP, 10/16/02)(SFC, 10/17/02, p.A16)(www.colombiajournal.org/colombia137.htm)(AP, 3/3/09)

2002        Oct 18, In Columbia FARC rebels shot and killed Luis Antonio Motta (42), the mayor, and two town councilmen of Campoalegre, after earlier telling them to resign or face execution.
    (AP, 10/20/02)

2002        Oct 21, In Colombia Air Force planes bombed guerrillas on their way to attack a western town, killing 70 of them.
    (AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Oct 22, In Colombia a bomb exploded outside police headquarters in Bogotá, killing two people and wounding nearly a dozen more.
    (AP, 10/22/02)
2002        Oct 22, The Colombian navy seized 2.75 tons of cocaine when officials intercepted a speedboat on the high seas.
    (AP, 10/22/02)

2002        Oct 26, In Colombia 5 civilians were killed by rebels near Bogotá.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2002        Oct 28, In Colombia a car bomb set in front of a school killed 2 police officers and wounded 11 others, just hours before President Alvaro Uribe visited Arauca.
    (AP, 10/28/02)

2002        Oct 29, In Colombia suspected rebels killed seven people, including a teenage girl, in scattered attacks over two days.
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2002        Oct 31, The US enacted the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) as a replacement for the similar Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA). It granted duty-free access to a wide range of exports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

2002        Nov 7, In Concordia, Colombia, some 500 men and women sacked the buildings of the local government offices, political offices, and state phone operations in response to the murder of mayoral candidate Eugenio Escalante (47) by the AUC.
    (SFC, 11/19/02, p.A12)

2002        Nov 9, In Colombia a teenager (17) hurled a grenade at a bar in Medellin, killing two people and injuring 18 others.
    (AP, 11/10/02)

2002        Nov 11, Jorge Enrique Jimenez, one of Latin America's leading bishops, was kidnapped along with Rev. Desiderio Orejuela as they went to hold a religious service in central Colombia.
    (AP, 11/11/02)
2002        Nov 11, Colombian soldiers killed 4 members of a right-wing paramilitary group and seven leftist rebels during fighting in separate incidents.
    (AP, 11/12/02)

2002        Nov 15, In Colombia Bishop Jorge Enrique Jimenez and Rev. Desiderio Orjuela were freed by army troops in a gun battle that left one rebel captor dead and 2 captured.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 24, The Central Colombian Pipeline, known by its Spanish acronym Ocensa, had to be shut down after an attack near the town of Aguazul.
    (AP, 11/25/02)

2002        Nov 29, In Colombia the AUC, the largest right-wing paramilitary group, announced that it would begin a unilateral cease-fire Dec 1.
    (AP, 11/29/02)

2002        Dec 1, Colombia's largest right-wing paramilitary group began a unilateral cease-fire in its long-running battle against leftist rebels.
    (AP, 12/1/03)

2002        Dec 4,  Jesus Antonio Nunez, mayor of the western Colombian town of Ambalema, was assassinated, apparently after going to a meeting with the country's main rebel group. He was the 13th mayor killed this year.
    (AP, 12/5/02)

2002        Dec 8, The Colombian air force bombed a rebel camp and claimed about 40 guerrillas were killed.
    (AP, 12/8/02)

2002        Dec 9, In Bogotá, Colombia, a car bomb exploded near a police command post, during lunch hour, injuring at least 58 passers-by.
    (AP, 12/9/02)

2002        Dec 10, The Colombian army reported that at least 8 right-wing militia members were killed by leftist guerrillas near Tierradentro. A local clinic reported at least 28 militia members dead along with 2 rebels.
    (SFC, 12/11/02, p.A13)

2002        Dec 13, In Colombia 2 bombs exploded in Bogotá, one targeting a senator in his office and another hitting a luxury residential hotel where lawmakers stay. At least 16 people were wounded in the bombings.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

2002        Dec 20, Colombia's senate extended a measure that gives the government emergency powers in its battle against outlawed armed groups. Suspected ELN rebels opened fire on a police station and set off a car bomb in an attack in eastern Colombia that left four people dead and 17 wounded.
    (AP, 12/21/02)

2002        Dec 22, Suspected Colombian rebels blew up a bus carrying workers to a U.S.-run oil field, killing two and wounding 11.
    (AP, 12/23/02)

2002        Dec 24, Suspected members of Colombia's largest paramilitary group (AUC) killed two police officers and wounded another in southwest Colombia.
    (AP, 12/25/02)

2002        Dec 31, In Colombia at least 12 people, including eight civilians, were killed in attacks by suspected rebels around the country.
    (AP, 1/1/03)

2002        Robin Kirk authored “More Terrible Than Death," an account of the violence in Colombia.
    (WSJ, 1/16/03, p.D8)

2002        The Colombia coffee federation, set up in 1927, began opening local coffee shops under the Valdez name. Juan Valdez, an idealized coffee farmer, and his mule Conchita became the public face of Colombian coffee in the 1960s.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.37)

2003        Jan 7, In Colombia rebels ambushed a police convoy near the capital, killing at least 8 officers and wounding 5 in a bold, daylight attack.
    (AP, 1/7/03)

2003        Jan 9, In northeast Colombia rebels detonated a car bomb that killed 4 people in a 2nd attack in 2 days.
    (WSJ, 1/10/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 16, In Colombia a car bomb exploded outside the attorney general's office in Medellin, killing three people and wounding at least 19. Gunmen entered the tiny village of Dos Quebradas and killed a dozen people, leaving surviving villagers terrified and waiting for government forces to arrive. At least 16 people were killed by FARC rebels in villages around San Carlos.
    (AP, 1/16/03)(AP, 1/18/03)(AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Jan 18, In southern Colombia FARC guerrillas blew up every home in the hamlet of La Union.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Jan 19, Colombian AUC gunmen kidnapped three Americans (Robert Y. Pelton, Mark Wedeven and Megan A. Smaker) just north of the Colombian border in Panama. The writer and 2 hikers were released Jan 23.
    (AP, 1/22/03)(SFC, 1/24/03, p.A14)

2003        Jan 20, In northern Colombia FARC rebels ambushed a pickup truck carrying policemen, killing 6 officers and their civilian driver in a hail of gunfire and grenades.
    (AP, 1/20/03)
2003        Jan 20, An Organization of American States report accused Nicaragua of negligence for authorizing a deal that allowed 3,000 Kalashnikov rifles meant for Panama to go to a Colombian paramilitary militia.
    (AP, 1/21/03)

2003        Jan 21, Colombian rebels in Arauca state kidnapped an American photographer and a British reporter, the first time foreign journalists were abducted in Colombia's four-decade-long civil war. Scott Dalton and Ruth Morris were freed Feb 1.
    (AP, 2/1/03)(AP, 1/21/04)

2003        Feb 7, In Bogotá, Colombia, a car bomb tore through the El Nogal social club, killing 36 people, wounding 162. FARC rebels were blamed.
    (AP, 2/8/03)(SFC, 2/8/03, p.A12)(AP, 2/7/04)

2003        Feb 11, The private plane carrying Colombian Minister of Social Welfare, Juan Luis Londono, was found crashed in the mountains north of the town of Cajamarca, 85 miles west of Bogotá. It had disappeared 5 days earlier.
    (AP, 2/11/03)

2003        Feb 13, In southern Colombia a U.S. government plane carrying 5 people crashed short of an airport in rebel territory, and those on board may have been spirited away by leftist rebels. 2 days later an American and a Colombian were executed at close range.
    (AP, 2/13/03)(AP, 2/15/03)

2003        Feb 14, In Colombia a massive explosion rocked the southern city of Neiva as police searched a house for explosives. 15 people died and about 30 were wounded.
    (AP, 2/14/03)

2003          Feb 18, In Colombia heavy fighting left at least 29 leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary dead.
    (WSJ, 2/19/03, p.A1)

2003          Feb 26, A Colombian army Black Hawk helicopter carrying 23 crewmembers and elite troops crashed in the northern mountains. All aboard were feared dead.
    (AP, 2/27/03)

2003          Mar 5, In northeastern Colombia a bomb set off by suspected rebels ripped through a shopping center in Cucuta, killing 7 people, injuring at least 20 and setting the complex on fire.
    (AP, 3/5/03)

2003        Mar 18, In Colombia gunmen killed Luis Eduardo Alfonso Parada (27), print and radio journalist, outside his office in the eastern state of Arauca. Alfonso had reported on alleged corruption in Arauca and said he was receiving death threats. On Dec 30, 2009, prosecutors ordered the preventative detention of Jose Ruben Pena Tobon, a paramilitary commander of the right-wing paramilitary bloc that killed Alfonso.   
    (AP, 3/19/03)(AP, 12/30/09)

2003        Mar 19, Mudslides in a city in Colombia's mountainous coffee-growing region left at least 11 people dead and destroyed dozens of houses.
    (AP, 3/20/03)

2003        Mar 25, A light plane carrying 3 Americans crashed in southern Colombia while searching for 3 other Americans captured by rebels last month.
    (AP, 3/26/03)

2003        Mar 27, In Colombia FARC land mines killed 11 soldiers near Aracataca, the birthplace of Nobel laureate Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Apr 3, The Colombia government said it is handing over about 14,000 acres of farmland seized from drug traffickers to poor farmers, marking Pres. Alvaro Uribe's first effort at agrarian reform. Efforts to cancel the property rights of drug traffickers were to be stepped up along with the transfer of some 750,000 acres of their property to peasants.
    (AP, 4/3/03)(WSJ, 4/4/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 7, Juan Emeterio Rivas, Colombia radio journalist  for station Calor Estereo, was shot and killed by gunmen after he told his police body guards to take time off. Rivas' body and that of an engineering student were discovered in a rural area outside Barrancabermeja. Julio Cesar Ardila, the mayor of Barrancabermeja, was later charged with ordering the murder. He was among three men convicted in the murder of Jose Emeterio Rivas. In 2009 Ardila was sentenced to 28 years in prison for ordering the murder.
    (AP, 4/7/03)(AP, 7/12/03)(AP, 1/22/09)

2003        Apr 10, In Colombia the body of Eudaldo Diaz, mayor of the Sucre state town of El Roble, was found tortured and killed. Former Sucre Gov. Salvador Arana was convicted in 2009 of masterminding the murder. He is serving a 40-year prison term. In 2011 fugitive Colombian paramilitary warlord Rodrigo Mercado was convicted in absentia of kidnapping and killing Diaz.
    (AP, 9/19/11)(http://tinyurl.com/3o3844w)

2003        Apr 19, In Colombian rebels kidnapped eight people on Mucura Island.
    (AP, 4/20/03)

2003        Apr 20, In Colombia the army said it killed 16 members of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) in eastern Antioquia state.
    (AP, 4/20/03)

2003        Apr 23, Colombia and Venezuela agreed Wednesday to build a $120 million pipeline to deliver natural gas to northeastern Colombia and western Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/23/03)

2003        Apr 26, A Colombian school teacher was found shot to death, days after she was kidnapped, allegedly by leftist rebels who sought to force her father to kill an enemy fighter.
    (AP, 4/26/03)

2003        Apr 28, In Colombia Rafael Rojas, a 20-year veteran of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the commander of the group's 46th Front, surrendered and urged his former comrades to do the same.
    (AP, 4/28/03)

2003        Apr 29, In Colombia the high court has stripped President Alvaro Uribe of the emergency powers he assumed last year to battle leftist rebels.
    (AP, 4/30/03)

2003        May 5, In Colombia rebels killed Guillermo Gaviria, a state governor, Gilberto Echeverri, a former defense minister and 8 other hostages as army troops tried to rescue them; three hostages survived. In 2008 a court sentenced 9 rebel leaders in absentia to 40 years in prison for the killings.
    (SFC, 5/6/03, p.A3)(AP, 4/9/08)

2003        May 10, In Colombia rebels in overnight attacks bombed a reservoir and energy towers, killing 3 security guards and cutting water to Cali and power to Buenaventura.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

2003        May 22, In Colombia Government troops killed at least 29 rebels in a two-day battle in eastern Colombia.
    (AP, 5/22/03)

2003        May 24, In Colombia Capt. Leonardo Moore disappeared while driving from Bogota to the southern city of Cali. He was freed in 2007 following a skirmish with ELN rebels.
    (AP, 2/9/07)

2003        May 27, In Colombia police arrested Saul Nieto, known by the nom de guerre "Ezequiel." He was in charge of a group of urban fighters of the National Liberation Army, or ELN, in Medellin. 10 other rebels were also detained.
    (AP, 5/28/03)

2003        Jun 14, A Colombian air force commander said leftist rebel camps were bombarded and that an estimated 67 insurgents were killed in southern Meta and Cauca state.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 16, In Colombia Pres. Alvaro Uribe helped deploy the nation's latest weapon in a nearly 40-year civil war, sending 10,000 peasant soldiers back to their villages to confront rebels and paramilitary fighters.
    (AP, 6/17/03)

2003        Jun 19, Thousands of Colombians marched on the presidential palace to defend their jobs against what they described as a drive to turn the country's public services into multinational corporations.
    (AP, 6/19/03)

2003        Jun 24, In central Colombia the bullet-riddled bodies of industrialist Helmut Bickenbach (68) and his wife Doris Gil (65), Miss Columbia (1957), were found by an army patrol lying in a ditch, with their hands bound. They had been kidnapped 6 months earlier.
    (AP, 6/25/03)

2003        Jul 15, The Colombian government and right-wing paramilitary fighters agreed to begin peace talks.
    (AP, 7/16/03)

2003        Jul 16, Salvatore Mancuso, head of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, said the largest paramilitary group agreed to lay down weapons because of the government's success in retaking control of wide swaths of land from leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

2003        Aug 8, In eastern Colombia suspected rebels set off a car bomb near the Saravena airport, killing five civilians, including two children.
    (AP, 8/8/03)

2003        Aug 22, Suspected FARC rebels killed Carlos Benavidez (25), a journalist and wounded another, after the vehicle in which the reporters were traveling failed to stop at a roadblock in southern Colombia.
    (AP, 8/24/03)

2003        Aug 24, In central Colombia a rebel bomb exploded as passengers were disembarking from a boat, killing six people, including the woman carrying the device.
    (AP, 8/24/03)

2003        Sep 4, British and Colombian authorities said they had seized nearly $7 billion in securities in London from an international drug and money-laundering ring. Authorities arrested 14 alleged members of the ring, 10 in England, two in Colombia and two in Ecuador.
    (AP, 9/4/03)

2003        Sep 6, In central Colombia soldiers killed at least 25 suspected rebels and paramilitary fighters in three military operations.
    (AP, 9/6/03)

2003        Sep 7, Fighting in northeast Colombia killed seven army soldiers and at least eight rebels.
    (AP, 9/8/03)

2003        Sep 10, In northeast Colombia a bomb strapped to a horse exploded in a plaza in a small town, killing at least eight people, including a toddler, and injuring 20 others.
    (AP, 9/10/03)

2003        Sep 12, In Colombia 4 Israelis, 2 Britons, a German and a Spaniard were kidnapped near archaeological ruins high in the Sierra Nevada, about 465 miles north of  Bogota. 2 of the tourists were freed Nov 24. The other 4 were released Dec 22. In 2004 the German government billed Reinhilt Weigel $17,630 to cover the cost of a helicopter used to bring her part of the way home, after she was released by rebels. In 2009 she lost her appeal.
    (AP, 9/15/03)(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.A1)(AP, 12/23/03)(SFC, 5/29/09, p.A2)

2003        Sep 15, The Colombian army reported that its forces in Operation Scorpion killed at least 17 suspected members of a rebel special forces unit.
    (AP, 9/15/03)

2003        Sep 18, A human rights group estimated that 11,000 children are fighting in Colombia's civil war.
    (SFC, 9/19/03, p.A15)

2003        Sep 21, A US DynCorp plane crashed while fumigating cocaine-producing crops in volatile northern Colombia, killing the American pilot: "preliminary information indicates the aircraft was struck by hostile ground fire." The military contractor said it was the 5th shot down by rebels.
    (AP, 9/22/03)(WSJ, 9/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 28, In Colombia a remote-controlled bomb on a motorcycle exploded as revelers left a disco in a Florencia, killing at least 13 people and wounding 48 others.
    (AP, 9/29/04)

2003        Sep 30, In Colombia assassins riding a motorbike killed Jose Castillo, a candidate for mayor in Soledad, marking the 15th candidate killed as elections approach.
    (AP, 9/30/03)

2003        Oct 6, In southeastern Colombia FARC guerrillas assassinated two town mayors, Orlando Hoyos and Jaime Zambrano, after they met with rebels in a mountain hideout.
    (AP, 10/8/03)

2003        Oct 8, In Colombia a car bomb exploded in a black-market shopping district in downtown Bogota, killing at least six people and wounding 12.
    (AP, 10/8/03)

2003        Oct 10, Near Genova, Colombia, suspected leftist guerrillas gunned down two candidates for upcoming state and mayoral elections. Police found the bodies of Jairo Gomez, a mayoral contender in the city of Genova, and Julio Cesar Castennanos, the next day.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2003        Oct 12, In Colombia government forces battled rebels and right-wing paramilitaries in several locations in heavy fighting that killed 27 gunmen and two soldiers.
    (AP, 10/13/03)

2003        Oct 16, In northern Colombia suspected paramilitary gunmen shot and killed Esperanza Amaris (40),  a women's rights activist.
    (AP, 10/17/03)

2003        Oct 19, Colombian military killed Edgar Gustavo Navarro, the No. 2 leader of FARC, along with 10 others. The guerrilla commander was accused of kidnapping 3 US military contractors and carrying out a string of assassinations and bombings.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2003        Oct 21, In Colombia police and soldiers rounded up at least 29 politicians, ahead of local elections, with suspected ties to leftist guerrillas in pre-dawn raids across Arauca state.
    (AP, 10/21/03)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A1)

2003        Oct 22, In Colombia a bomb attached to a motorcycle exploded damaging the state prosecutor's offices outside Medellin.
    (AP, 10/22/03)

2003        Oct 25, In Colombia voting began on a referendum proposed by Pres. Uribe that aimed to cut government spending, reduce the size of Congress and fight political corruption. Guerrillas attacked an army base, ambushed police and launched other attacks, killing 13 people. The referendum was seen as a test of President Alvaro Uribe's support.
    (AP, 10/25/03)

2003        Oct 26, Colombians elected state and municipal leaders despite the bloody campaign period in which dozens of candidates were killed. Bogota residents elected Eduardo Garzon, a former Communist union leader, as their mayor in municipal elections. The victory was seen as a further headache for hardline Pres. Alvaro Uribe, coming a day after he suffered a defeat in a sweeping referendum.
     (AP, 10/27/03)(Econ, 11/1/03, p.35)

2003        Nov 2, Colombian troops killed Luis Alexis Castellanos Garzon a FARC regional rebel commander, the fifth guerrilla leader slain in less than a month.
    (AP, 11/4/03)

2003        Nov 8, In Colombia Arcangel Clavijo, a member of the Liberal Party, was shot and killed in a nightclub near Cali.
    (AP, 11/9/03)

2003        Nov 9, Martha Lucia Ramirez, Colombia's first woman defense minister, resigned and she refused to take questions from reporters.
    (AP, 11/10/03)

2003        Nov 11, Colombia's housing and environment minister stepped down, becoming the 3rd member of President Alvaro Uribe's Cabinet forced out in a week.
    (AP, 11/11/03)
2003        Nov 11, The commander of the Colombian National Police and five other senior police officers resigned following evidence that the lawmen in Medellin dined in the most exclusive restaurants, bought expensive jewelry and staged lavish parties, all on government money.
    (AP, 11/12/03)
2003        Nov 11, In Colombia a radio talk show host was shot dead outside her home in the coastal city of Santa Marta.
    (AP, 11/11/03)

2003        Nov 12, In Colombia Gen. Jorge Enrique Mora, commander of the armed forces, became the latest senior official to quit his post. President Alvaro Uribe chose an old friend, Jorge Alberto Uribe, as the new defense minister.
    (AP, 11/13/03)

2003        Nov 14, In Colombia some 800 members of the Cacique Nutibara block of the AUC paramilitary said they would lay down their arms on Nov 25.
    (SFC, 11/15/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 15, In Colombia suspected FARC rebels threw grenades at two crowded bars in Bogota’s "Zona Rosa," or Pink Zone nightclub district, injuring at least 42 people. In 2004 Arturo Montano (26) was convicted of terrorism by Bogota's 5th Penal Court for the attacks.
    (AP, 11/16/03)(AP, 10/13/04)

2003        Nov 21, In Colombia Rev. Jose Rubin Rodriguez, a Catholic priest who was missing for a week, was found shot to death. The army captured a suspected rebel who it says coordinated the kidnapping of eight foreign backpackers two months ago.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

2003        Nov 25, In Colombia 800 fighters of a feared right-wing militia piled their weapons and ammunition on the floor in a disarmament ceremony touted by the government as a first step toward ending four decades of war. The army recovered a body believed to be that of a Japanese businessman abducted more than three years ago.
    (AP, 11/25/03)
2003        Nov 25, In Colombia Abelardo Forero (91), a journalist and politician who tried to soothe a nation wracked by violence, died. In 1978, Forero launched a television show, "The Past in the Present," that brought to life Colombia's tumultuous history. The award-wining program ran for 15 years.
    (AP, 11/26/03)

2003        Dec 7, A group of 160 Colombian paramilitary fighters handed over their weapons, becoming the second faction of outlawed right-wing militias to do so in less than two weeks.
    (AP, 12/8/03)

2003        Dec 15, In northern Colombia rebel leaders said they will release four Israelis and a Briton during the next several days, after holding the foreigners hostage for three months.
    (AP, 12/16/03)

2003        Dec 19, Colombia's attorney general charged the crew of a military helicopter with involuntary manslaughter for killing 17 civilians with a bomb during a 1998 clash with rebels.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

2003        Dec 22, Colombian rebels freed four Israelis and a Briton held hostage for 101 days.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2003        Dec 23, In Colombia a bus explosion that killed at least four people and injured more than 30 others was called an accident.
    (AP, 12/24/03)

2003        Dec 30, In northern Colombia leftist rebels attacked Pozo Azul, a village in Bolivar state controlled by right-wing paramilitaries, killed 39 militia fighters and a villager.
    (AP, 12/31/03)

2003        Colombia’s Pres. Uribe launched the “Patriot Plan“ to clear FARC rebels from the mountains around Bogota.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.36)

2003        The Kankuamo Indians of northern Colombia, numbering about 6,000, lost 56 members to paramilitaries, FARC and criminals.
    (Econ, 9/18/04, p.44)

2004        Jan 1, In Colombia Luis Eduardo Garzon took the helm as the first leftist mayor of Bogota.
    (AP, 1/2/04)

2004        Jan 3, Ecuadorian authorities captured Ricardo Ovidio Palmera Pineda, aka Simon Trinidad, one of the 7 members who make up the ruling secretariat of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC. He was arrested at dawn in a medical clinic in Ecuador.
    (AP, 1/3/04)

2004        Jan 7, In Colombia FARC rebels killed 8 peasant farmers because they refused to sell them their coca crops.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2004        Jan 9, In Colombia a FARC rebel, aka Jeremias, suspected of killing a Japanese hostage last year died in a shootout with the army outside Bogota.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2004        Jan 10, Panamanian officials arrested Arcangel de Jesus Henao Montoya, a top leader of the Colombian Norte de Valle drug cartel, in the southern city of Torti and took him to Panama City. He was soon handed over to US officials.
    (AP, 1/11/04)(SFC, 1/15/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 12, In northwest Colombia suspected FARC rebels using a grenade launcher and guns killed at least five paramilitary fighters inside a bar in Anza.
    (AP, 1/13/04)

2004        Jan 29, In Colombia gunmen shot and killed  Marta Lucia Hernandez, the director of one of Colombia's most famous national parks. It was the second high-profile attack in the coastal city of Santa Marta this week.
    (AP, 1/30/04)

2004        Feb 21, Colombian troops clashed with leftist rebels and outlawed paramilitaries in separate offensives, killing 38 fighters. Ten soldiers were also killed.
    (AP, 2/23/04)

2004        Feb 22, At least 66 people died in weekend clashes among Colombian troops, leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary forces.
    (AP, 2/23/04)

2004        Feb, Marc Gonsalves, Tom Howes and Keith Stansell were captured by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), when their surveillance plane went down in a rebel stronghold in the country's south.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2004        Mar 9, Colombian troops killed at least 12 leftist guerrillas and captured 40 others in separate offensives across the country.
    (AP, 3/10/04)

2004        Mar 16, In Colombia Luis Hipolito Ospina, a senior member of the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, was arrested in Bogota.
    (AP, 3/17/04)

2004        Mar 19, In southwest Colombia soldiers searching for rebels accidentally ambushed a police unit, killing seven police officers and four civilian prisoners. Investigators looked into all possibilities, including whether the platoon, the police unit, or both, were involved in criminal activities
    (AP, 3/21/04)(AP, 4/9/04)

2004        Mar 24, In Colombia warplanes preparing to bomb a paramilitary camp abandoned their mission after members of the outlawed Central Bolivar Bloc (BCB) used villagers as human shields. A soldier and 14 paramilitary gunmen were killed in subsequent firefights.
    (AP, 3/26/04)

2004        Mar 25, In Colombia attackers shot and killed three retired police officers, at least two of whom were suspected of having links to drug traffickers.
    (AP, 3/26/04)

2004        Apr 1, A Colombian man, Carlos Gamarra-Murillo (53), was arrested for allegedly trying to buy $4 million in machine guns, grenade launchers and other weapons for a leftist rebel group. The suspect wanted to pay in cocaine and cash.
    (AP, 4/2/04)
2004        Apr 1, In Colombia gunmen riding a motorcycle killed Carlos Bernal, a regional leader of Colombia's main left-leaning political party.
    (AP, 4/2/04)

2004        Apr 10, In Colombia a patrol, searching for rebels of the FARC, gunned down a peasant family carrying a sick baby to hospital. Three youths, aged 14 to 17, and the six-month-old were among the dead.
    (AP, 4/13/04)

2004        Apr 12, In Colombia government soldiers accidentally killed three fellow troops after mistaking them for outlawed paramilitary gunmen near Puerto Gaitan.
    (AP, 4/13/04)

2004        Apr 14, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe launched a campaign to persuade Congress to amend the constitution to allow him to run for a second term in 2006.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 15, Colombian police seized dozens of estates and homes belonging to reputed drug kingpin Diego Montoya.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 19, The annual environmental Goldman Prizes were awarded in SF. Winners included Libia R. Grueso Castelblanco of Colombia for her work in securing territorial rights for rural communities.
    (SFC, 4/19/04, p.B5)

2004        Apr 28, In Colombia a construction crew's backhoe tumbled down a hillside onto a school bus on the highway below, killing 21 children and two adults and injuring 36 others.
    (AP, 4/29/04)

2004        Apr, In Colombia Jesus Ignacio Roldan killed Carlos Castano, right-wing paramilitary leader, near the town of Valencia. In 2006 Roldan says he killed Castano on the order of Castano's older brother, Vicente Castano. [see Sep 1, 2006]
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2004        May 2, In Colombia 2 small bombs exploded outside the Ministry of Social Affairs in Bogota, injuring nine people and shattering windows.
    (AP, 5/2/04)

2004        May 4, In Bogota Famed Colombian painter Fernando Botero opened a new exhibition that graphically depicts the bloodshed of his nation's war and the cruel crime of kidnapping.
    (AP, 5/4/04)

2004        May 13, Colombia's outlawed right-wing paramilitary groups agreed to move into a special zone as they negotiate eventual demobilization.
    (AP, 5/13/04)

2004        May 18, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru opened negotiations in Cartagena for a free trade accord with the United States as anti-riot police clashed with protesters who say the pact would lead to job losses in the South American nations.
    (AP, 5/18/04)
2004        May 18, Colombian troops near La Salina seized 800 bullets soaked in liquid cyanide after clashes with FARC rebels left 2 guerrillas dead.
    (AP, 5/20/04)

2004        May 20, In Colombia 3 bombs exploded in 2 parts of Medellin, killing at least four people and wounding 15. A wave of attacks marked the 40th anniversary of FARC.
    (AP, 5/21/04)(AP, 5/22/04)

2004        May 22, A bomb planted by suspected rebels exploded in a crowded discotheque in northwest Colombia, killing at least six people and wounding 82.
    (AP, 5/23/04)

2004        May 28, In Colombia Carlos Mauricio Garcia, also known as "Rodrigo" or "Double Zero," was shot in the head five times by assassins as he left a Santa Marta supermarket. The former right-wing paramilitary leader objected to the militia's involvement in drug trafficking.
    (AP, 5/30/04)

2004        Jun 4, In Colombia Francisco Galan, jailed leader of the ELN, was granted a 1-day parole to address the Senate. He denounced the problem of landmines and called for an end to the country’s violence.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.36)

2004        Jun 15, In Colombia suspected leftist rebels raided a ranch near La Gabarra in one of the biggest cocaine-producing regions, tied up 34 coca pickers with the hammocks they had been sleeping in, and gunned them all down.
    (AP, 6/16/04)(Econ, 6/19/04, p.38)

2004        Jun, Chiquita Brands Int’l., a Cincinnati-based banana company, sold its Colombian banana operations.
    (SFC, 3/15/07, p.A5)

2004        Jul 10, In northwest Colombia suspected leftist guerrillas shot and killed seven rural peasants in an attack on a small village.
    (AP, 7/12/04)

2004        Jul 23, In northwest Colombia police seized 4 1/2 tons of cocaine with an estimated street value of $90 million.
    (AP, 7/23/04)

2004        Jul 25, Colombia's ELN rebel group kidnapped Misael Vaca Ramirez, the Catholic Bishop of Yopal, but planned to set him free bearing a political message for the government.
    (AP, 7/26/04)

2004        Jul 28, In Colombia Marxist guerrillas freed a Roman Catholic bishop. 3 top commanders of right-wing death squads spoke before Congress under safe-conduct passes and professed commitments to peace talks.
    (AP, 7/28/04)(SFC, 7/29/04, p.A13)

2004        Jul 30, In Colombia Maria Elena Rios (25) was shot to death in the head and back in a hillside slum of Medellin. An internal army investigation absolved Capt. Jhon Jairo Cano and four soldiers of any wrongdoing. The investigation was reopened in 2007 along with 130 other investigations of killings of civilians presented as deaths of leftist rebels in action, as the US Congress refuses to ratify a bilateral trade pact over concerns about human rights in Colombia.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2004            Aug 3, A car bomb planted by suspected Colombian rebels ripped apart three passing police vehicles, killing nine officers.
    (AP, 8/4/03)

2004        Aug 11, In northeast Colombia suspected rebel gunmen lined up and killed nine coca pickers on a remote ranch.
    (AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Aug 13, In Colombia 3 outlawed paramilitary factions agreed to disarm immediately.
    (AP, 8/13/04)

2004        Aug 26, In Colombia a bomb exploded in front of a beauty salon in Bogotá as a police car drove by, killing two officers and wounding two other people.
    (AP, 8/27/04)

2004        Aug 27, In eastern Colombia rebels killed a mayor and a former town council member after abducting them at a roadblock.
    (AP, 8/28/04)

2004        Sep 4, A gunfight broke out in a church in a cocaine-producing region of southern Colombia, leaving at least three people dead and 14 wounded.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 6, Colombia’s attorney general's office ordered the arrest of a military officer and two soldiers in connection with the killing of three union officials last month.
    (AP, 9/6/04)

2004        Sep 14, More than 35,000 Colombian Indians marched in a violence-wracked region to protest attacks against Indians and a free-trade pact pursued by the US.
    (AP, 9/14/04)

2004        Sep 17, Backed by 4,000 police officers, the Colombian government seized control of the nation's largest pharmacy chain, saying its creation and expansion had been funded by cocaine trafficking.
    (AP, 9/17/04)

2004        Sep 26, Colombia's army killed at least 13 right-wing fighters during sustained combat with a renegade paramilitary group that has refused to participate in government peace talks.
    (AP, 9/27/04)

2004        Oct 3, In southwest Colombia suspected drug dealers opened fire on a rival gang at a ranch, killing at least 10 people, including a toddler and a pregnant woman.
    (AP, 10/4/04)

2004        Oct 24, Colombia blew up its remaining 6,800 stockpiled land mines, winning the praise of Jordan's visiting Queen Noor who said the move took courage given that the nation is still fighting an internal conflict.
    (AP, 10/25/04)

2004        Nov 12, In southern Colombia suspected Marxist rebels gunned down Mario Canal (43), a state attorney, who had been prosecuting captured guerrilla commanders.
    (AP, 11/13/04)

2004        Nov 22, Pres. Bush traveled to Colombia following the summit in Chile.
    (WSJ, 11/22/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 22, In southern Colombia army troops killed Humberto Valbuena, head of the Teofilo Forero unit of FARC blamed for a string of high-profile attacks and kidnappings.
    (AP, 11/23/04)   

2004        Dec 4, Colombian drug kingpin Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela was flown to the US, becoming the most powerful Colombian trafficker ever extradited to face US justice.
    (AP, 12/4/04)

2004        Dec 11, Ramiro Velez, regional leader of the National Liberation Army, or ELN, the smaller of Colombia's two rebel groups, was arrested during an operation in Chachaui. He is suspected of masterminding the May 30, 1999, kidnapping of an entire church congregation from a Roman Catholic church in Cali.
    (AP, 12/12/04)(SFC, 12/13/04, p.A3)

2004        Dec 13, Rodrigo Granda, the principle international spokesperson for the most powerful revolutionary guerrilla group in Latin America, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), was kidnapped in broad daylight (4pm) in the center of Caracas.
    (www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=10216)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.36)

2004        Dec 16, A Colombian court convicted three IRA-linked men of training Colombian rebels in terrorist tactics and sentenced them to up to 17 1/2 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/16/04)

2004        Dec 17, Colombian authorities revealed that they had lost track in June of three IRA-linked men, convicted this week of training Marxist rebels in terrorist tactics.
    (AP, 12/18/04)

2004        Dec 24, A church official said Marxist rebels in western Colombia had killed Javier Francisco Montoya, a Catholic priest who disappeared earlier this month on a pastoral mission in a rebel-controlled jungle region.
    (AP, 12/24/04)

2004        Dec 24, Marxist FARC rebels abducted at least eight Colombian tourists celebrating Christmas at a lakeside spa in the northwest.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2004        Dec 28, In Colombia police captured a reputed leader of the Norte del Valle drug cartel.
    (AP, 12/28/04)

2004        Dec 31, Ricardo Palmera (54) became the first leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, to be sent to face prosecution in a U.S. federal court.
    (AP, 1/1/05)
2004        Dec 31, In Colombia suspected Marxist rebels massacred 16 peasants, including women and children, in a remote area in lawless Arauca province.
    (AP, 1/1/05)

2004        Steven Dudley authored “Walking Ghosts: Murder and Guerrilla Politics in Colombia," a history of the FARC.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.71)

2005        Jan 1, Colombia was forecast for 3.7% annual GDP growth with a population at 46 million and GDP per head at $2,130.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.93)

2005        Jan 11, Gunmen on a motorbike in northern Colombia killed Julio Hernando Palacios, a radio journalist known for his tough talk against corruption.
    (AP, 1/11/05)

2005        Jan 13, A Black Hawk helicopter crashed during a counternarcotics mission in the jungles of southwest Colombia, killing all 20 soldiers aboard.
    (AP, 1/13/05)

2005        Jan 14, A mentally disturbed soldier killed five of his fellow troopers during a shooting spree at an army base in southwest Colombia.
    (AP, 1/14/05)
2005        Jan 14, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said that diplomatic and commercial relations with Colombia would be put on hold until it apologizes for paying bounty hunters to abduct rebel leader Rodrigo Granda from inside Venezuela.
    (AP, 1/14/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.36)

2005        Jan 18, More than 900 right-wing paramilitary fighters surrendered their weapons, but a leading international rights group criticized the demobilization process and said the Colombian government is letting war criminals off the hook.
    (AP, 1/19/05)

2005        Jan 28, Colombia and Venezuela announced a settlement in a bitter dispute over the capture of a Colombian rebel on Venezuelan soil.
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Jan 29, In Colombia government troops discovered one of the biggest FARC rebel munitions factories in the jungles of southern Guaviare state.
    (AP, 2/2/05)

2005        Jan 30, In Colombia a 126-member unit of the United Self-Defense Forces (AUC) disbanded in Ciudad Bolivar, 155 miles northeast of Bogota, bringing to at least 4,700 the number of fighters who have demobilized in the past two years.
    (AP, 1/30/05)

2005        Feb 1, In southwest Colombia leftist rebels attacked a Colombian Marine post with homemade rockets, killing at least 14 soldiers and wounding about 25.
    (AP, 2/1/05)

2005        Feb 2, Marxist rebels in southern Colombia ambushed an army convoy with explosives and gunfire, killing 8 soldiers and wounding 4 others.
    (AP, 2/3/05)

2005        Feb 8, In northwest Colombia Marxist rebels killed at least 17 soldiers during clashes, the military's heaviest battle toll in two years. At least 11 guerrillas also died in the fighting.
    (AP, 2/9/05)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.36)

2005        Feb 13, Floods and landslides in Colombia and Venezuela over the past few days cut a trail of destruction through small Andean towns and killed at least 64 people.
    (AP, 2/13/05)(WSJ, 2/14/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 18, Colombia’s army chief said troops had killed between 70 and 80 Marxist guerrillas over the past 3 weeks in a region where the rebels operate cocaine production factories.
    (AP, 2/19/05)

2005        Feb 21, In Colombia deadly weekend attacks left 9 people dead as rebels blacked out towns, shut down a highway, blew up a hotel and shattered notions that the nation's main insurgent group was on its knees.
    (AP, 2/21/05)
2005        Feb 21, In Colombia 8 civilians including 3 young children and a teenage girl were massacred near Apartado. A former mayor and a priest later blamed government troops for the massacre. UN officials later called for an investigation.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

2005        Feb 22, In Colombia government soldiers killed eight rebels over the past 2 days and discovered a large cache of weapons in dense southern jungles.
    (AP, 2/22/05)

2005        Feb 23, Colombia's Supreme Court authorized the extradition to the US of Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, who along with his brother Gilberto helped found the Cali drug cartel. In central Colombia a leftist rebel deserter killed 7 of his comrades before fleeing his clandestine camp.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2005        Feb 25, President Alvaro Uribe on authorized the extradition to the US of a female commander with Colombia's largest rebel group who was allegedly a chief of finances for the armed organization.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Feb, Sabino Mobile, an Italian tourist visiting Colombia with his family, was kidnapped and murdered by paramilitary gunmen. Police later arrested 9 people, including right-wing paramilitary leader Ruben Oliverio Vera Roldan.
    (AP, 3/2/05)

2005        Mar 9, Colombia extradited to the United States a top member of the South American country's main rebel group, a woman known by the nom de guerre of Sonia and accused of running the insurgents' drug trafficking business.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

2005        Mar 11, In Colombia Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, co-founder of the Cali drug cartel, was sent in handcuffs on a plane to the US to face trial for drug trafficking and related charges. The cartel at its peak ruled the world's cocaine industry.
    (AP, 3/11/05)

2005        Mar 23, In southern Colombia Communist rebels ambushed a military convoy, killing 10 soldiers in a hail of gunfire and explosions.
    (AP, 3/23/05)

2005        Mar 26, A twin-engine commercial Czech-built Let-410 airplane, crashed while taking off from the tiny Colombian island of Old Providence, killing 8 people, including a 3-year-old boy, and injuring six other passengers.
    (AP, 3/26/05)

2005        Mar 29, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe sought international help to end 40 years of civil war in his country, telling the leaders of Venezuela, Brazil and Spain that the violence is too fierce to confront without their aid.
    (AP, 3/29/05)

2005        Apr 6, Colombia's president met top Chinese leaders during a visit to boost trade, seek financing for an oil pipeline and to promote sales of Colombian coal to fuel China's booming economy.
    (AP, 4/6/05)
2005        Apr 6, Marxist rebels ambushed a Colombian military convoy on Wednesday, killing 17 soldiers, the latest in a spate of bloody attacks that have undermined government claims the rebels are being defeated.
    (AP, 4/6/05)

2005        Apr 17, In Colombia FARC rebels with homemade rockets attacked Toribio, the same town they bombarded three days earlier, killing at least one police officer.
    (AP, 4/18/05)

2005        Apr 22, In Colombia FARC guerrillas hit the village of Jambalo with mortars and gunfire in combat that began overnight and ended at dawn. Clashes have spread across a 14-mile-long strip along the western face of the Central Cordillera of the Andes.
    (AP, 4/23/05)

2005        Apr 29, In Colombia government troops consolidated their grip on Tacuejo, a mountain town retaken from leftist rebels, and the town's Indian residents slowly began to return despite fears of more violence.
    (AP, 4/29/05)

2005        May 5, Two American soldiers accused of arms trafficking emerged from jail and were handed over to US officials, but a top Colombian official tried to delay their deportation, saying a treaty granting them immunity might be invalid.
    (AP, 5/5/05)(WSJ, 5/5/05, p.A1)

2005        May 12, It was reported that Colombia’s Pres. Alvaro Uribe is creating a political party to formally unite his followers, who until now have been known simply as "Uribistas." The plan is being resisted by the opposition and even some of his supporters, who worry about a political party based on one man's hardline ideals.
    (AP, 5/12/05)
2005        May 12, Alberto Santofimio, Colombia's former justice minister, was arrested in connection with the 1989 assassination of Luis Carlos Galan, leading presidential candidate and anti-corruption crusader killed at a campaign rally.
    (AP, 5/12/05)
2005        May 12, More than 13.5 tons of cocaine stored in underground chambers was seized near Colombia's southwest coast.
    (AP, 5/13/05)

2005        May 13, John Jairo Velasquez, the man who directed hit teams for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, said that Alberto Santofimio Botero, a former top politician, was behind the 1989 assassination of Colombia’s leading presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan.
    (AP, 5/13/05)

2005        May 19, Colombian rebels ambushed a police convoy and fought government forces along the border with Ecuador in separate attacks, killing at least 13 police.
    (AP, 5/20/05)

2005        May 24, In Colombia suspected leftist guerrillas carrying assault rifles swept into a southern town and attacked government offices, killing six town councilors and five others.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        May 27, In Colombia Diego Fernando Murillo, a right-wing (AUC) paramilitary leader accused of killing a state congressman, surrendered after a four-day, nationwide manhunt.
    (AP, 5/27/05)

2005        Jun 10, Torrential rains in northwestern Colombia unleashed mudslides on an impoverished mountainside neighborhood in Colombia's coffee-growing region, killing at least 6 people.
    (AP, 6/10/05)

2005        Jun 14, Colombia unveiled its own version of a deck of cards for its most wanted insurgent leaders. Army officials planned to distribute 5,000 of the decks to soldiers battling the rebels across the country.
    (AP, 6/14/05)

2005        Jun 15, Diego Murillo, a brutal paramilitary warlord who made a fortune in Colombia's drug trade, demobilized more than 400 of his AUC fighters at a ceremony under a peace deal critics say could let him get away with murder.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 22, Colombia’s Congress passed a bill granting reduced punishments to right-wing warlords who disarm, a key step in Pres. Uribe's strategy to wind down a decades-long conflict.
    (AP, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 25, In Colombia leftist rebels killed at least 25 soldiers in two clashes.
    (AP, 6/26/05)

2005        Jun 27, Colombia's main leftist rebel group offered to swap three kidnapped American defense contractors for two guerrilla leaders jailed in the United States, but the US government immediately rejected the proposal.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jun 28, Colombia began a 2-day operation in which 12 members of Colombia's navy were arrested in raids that uncovered drug-making chemicals and documents linking them to cocaine smuggling groups.
    (AP, 6/29/05)

2005        Jul 14, In Colombia commandos acting on a tip seized Jose Aldemar Rendon, as he was jogging outside Medellin. Rendon was a suspected leader of the Norte del Valle cartel drug cartel believed to have trafficked half the cocaine sold in the United States in the 1990s. In Maria la Baja the local paramilitary group disbanded and handed over its weapons under a peace agreement with the government.
    (AP, 7/15/05)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.41)

2005        Jul 23, The Colombian government offered to buy farmers' illegal crops of coca, in the latest effort to stem illegal drug production in this South American nation. Pres. Alvaro Uribe said in a speech that farmers would have to sign a document promising to never again cultivate illegal crops in order to get the money. The government would destroy the purchased crop.
    (AP, 7/24/05)

2005        Jul 30, Leaders of a Colombian right-wing paramilitary faction, believed to be one of the most heavily involved in drug trafficking, demobilized their troops and said they wanted to form a political party. Nearly 700 fighters in the "Southern Liberators" unit of the paramilitary United Self-Defense Forces turned in their weapons at a ceremony in Tamiango.
    (AP, 7/30/05)

2005        Aug 1, In Cristales, Colombia, more than 2,000 outlawed paramilitary fighters, from the "Heroes of Granada" faction of the AUC, laid down their arms in return for amnesty. Commander Diego Murillo, an accused drug lord indicted on trafficking charges in the US, stood by and watched. In 2008 Murillo (47) was extradited to the US and pleaded guilty to drug-smuggling charges.
    (AP, 8/1/05)(WSJ, 6/18/08, p.A2)
2005        Aug 1, In northern Colombia a roadside bomb exploded as a police convoy traveled down a rural highway, killing at least 15 officers.
    (AP, 8/2/05)

2005        Aug 5, It was reported that 3 men linked to the Irish Republican Army, who were convicted of training rebels in Colombia, have returned surreptitiously to Ireland, eight months after going on the run. Colombia demanded their extradition.
    (AP, 8/5/05)

2005        Aug 12, A small boat overloaded with 113 illegal immigrants capsized and sank in rough waters off Colombia's Pacific coast. An Ecuadoran fishing boat found 9 survivors 2 days later. In Nov. Ecuadoran police arrested a married couple for being part of a gang of 11 human traffickers who charged as much as $12,000 per person for passage to the US.
    (AP, 8/18/05)(AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Aug 15, In northeast Colombia suspected rebels killed two Catholic priests, ambushing their car with gunfire and explosives as they drove down a country road.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

2005        Aug 18, In rural Colombia gunmen dragged a Catholic priest out of a classroom and shot him to death, bringing to 3 the number of clergy killed there this week.
    (AP, 8/19/05)

2005        Aug 19, Eleven Colombian soldiers were ordered arrested in the killing of an Indian tribal leader who was dragged from his home and later found shot to death.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2005        Aug 20, In Colombia a leftist rebel group acknowledged that its fighters killed two Catholic priests earlier this week, but said the killing was a mistake and promised to punish those responsible.
    (AP, 8/21/05)

2005        Aug 24, In northwest Colombia suspected leftist guerrillas killed at least 14 peasant farmers who were cultivating coca near Puerto Valdivia.
    (AP, 8/25/05)

2005        Sep 5, Suspected rebels dynamited six energy pylons, leaving more than 2.3 million people in southwestern Colombia without electricity.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 7, In Colombia leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary fighters battled in La Esmeralda village, leaving 15 people dead, including two children, in a fight over territory and the cocaine trade.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 12, In Colombia Porfirio Ramirez (42) and his son, Linsen Ramirez (22), hijacked  a Colombian airline. The father in a wheelchair dodged a checkpoint and smuggled grenades onto a plane. All passengers and crew were eventually freed unharmed. The elder hijacker said he hijacked the plane to bring attention to a case in which he was partially paralyzed by a police bullet during a raid on his house some 14 years ago and had unsuccessfully sought government compensation.
    (AP, 9/13/05)

2005        Sep 13, Julio Cesar Turbay (89), former Colombian President (1978-1982), died. He negotiated the release in 1980 of dozens of diplomats held hostage by leftist rebels for 61 days.
    (AP, 9/13/05)

2005        Sep 14, The US Coast Guard, acting on Colombian intelligence, intercepted a ship towing an unmanned submarine-like vessel that held more than 2 tons of cocaine. Separately, 2.5 tons of cocaine were discovered hidden in the oil tanks of a ship docked in the Colombian Pacific port of Buenaventura.
    (AP, 9/15/05)

2005        Sep 15, Colombian authorities seized $4.5 million worth of counterfeit American currency during a raid on a clandestine printing workshop in south Bogota. The network had been sending the money to Ecuador and Venezuela, where the U.S. dollar is widely accepted as legal tender.
    (AP, 9/15/05)

2005        Sep 19, Colombian troops raided a sprawling clandestine drug laboratory run by a paramilitary group that was capable of producing 10 tons of cocaine a month. In a separate operation, the military seized six tons of marijuana allegedly belonging to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, the country's main leftist rebel group.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 22, In Colombia suspected rebels killed 10 police officers driving down a remote highway outside La Cruz, ambushing their truck with gunfire and homemade gas cylinder bombs.
    (AP, 9/22/05)
2005        Sep 22, Alberto Giraldo (70), the journalist who spent five years in jail for his role in the Cali cocaine cartel's funding of former Colombian President Ernesto Samper's election campaign, died. Viviana Leon, his 2nd wife, said that before his death Giraldo wrote a book, yet to be published, detailing how Cali cartel bosses Miguel and Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela donated $5 million to Samper's successful 1994 run for the presidency.
    (AP, 9/22/05)

2005        Sep 23, Colombia's 2nd-largest rebel group, the ELN, accepted an offer from Venezuela to host peace talks between the guerrillas and the Colombian government.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Sep 27, In Colombia government spraying of coca plant killer was reported to be driving growers and traffickers out of their usual territory into national parks where spraying is banned. Here they are burning thousands of acres of virgin rain forest and poisoning rivers with chemicals.
    (AP, 9/27/05)

2005        Sep 28, In Colombia a man in a wheelchair who hijacked an airliner two weeks ago was ordered released from jail on a court technicality, a decision that sent officials scrambling to issue a new arrest warrant. Porfirio Ramirez and his 17-year-old son Linsen armed with hand grenades, seized the Aires airliner with 24 people aboard on Sept. 12, surrendering five hours later at a Bogota airport without injuring anyone. A judge ordered the release saying that prosecutors had presented insufficient evidence at a hearing to keep holding the man.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Oct 2, In western Colombia leftist FARC rebels attacked a police station in an isolated jungle town, killing at least five police officers.
    (AP, 10/3/05)
2005        Oct 2, The US ambassador urged Colombia to spray weed killer inside the country's spectacular nature parks to destroy cocaine-producing crops, insisting the chemicals will not cause widespread damage to the reserves' ecosystems.
    (AP, 10/2/05)
2005        Oct 2-2005 Oct 3, In Colombia suspected leftist rebels (FARC) killed at least 13 coca harvesters near Vistahermosa as part of a struggle with far-right paramilitary gangs for control of the lucrative cocaine trade.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 3, In Colombia a bomb packed inside a pickup truck and apparently meant to target government forces killed 3 members of a family, including two children, when it exploded as they passed by in Florida County, a FARC stronghold.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 4, In Colombia a judge ordered the re-arrest of a man in a wheelchair who hijacked a Colombian airliner, but said he could remain under house arrest due to his failing health.
    (AP, 10/4/05)
2005        Oct 4, Colombia granted political asylum to former Ecuadorian President Lucio Gutierrez, who has said he faces treason charges in his homeland.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 6, In Colombia right-wing paramilitary groups suspended their demobilization process with the government to protest President Alvaro Uribe's decision to jail a paramilitary leader who is wanted in New York on drug trafficking charges.
    (AP, 10/6/05)
2005        Oct 6, In Colombia an intense rainstorm triggered a landslide that buried part of Bello, a shantytown on the outskirts of the northwestern city of Medellin, killing at least 26 people, many of them children.
    (AP, 10/7/05)

2005        Oct 10, Clashes broke between Colombian police and Indians protesting a planned free trade accord with the US, leaving one Indian dead and at least 15 wounded.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 11, Colombia's navy seized $188 million worth of cocaine, believed to have belonged to rebels, that was hidden in underground chambers next to a river deep in southwestern jungles.
    (AP, 10/11/05)

2005        Oct 12, Tens of thousands of trade union workers and Indians took to the streets of Colombia's main cities to protest a proposed free trade pact with the US, accusing President Alvaro Uribe of selling out the country.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 12, In Costa Rica the InterAmerican Human Rights court, announced that it has ordered Colombia to pay damages in the 1997 massacre of dozens of Mapiripan villagers by right-wing paramilitary fighters.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 19, Colombia's highest court approved a law allowing presidents to run for second terms.
    (AP, 10/19/05)

2005        Oct 21, US and Colombian authorities shut down a drug trafficking and money laundering operation that exported about $1 million worth of cocaine every week to the United States, Europe and Asia.
    (AP, 10/22/05)

2005        Oct 23, In Colombia suspected rebels launched homemade bombs at a police station and nearby homes in a southwest town near the border with Ecuador, killing 7 people.
    (AP, 10/24/05)

2005        Oct 25, President Alvaro Uribe accepted the resignation of Colombia's secret police chief and fired the agency's No. 2 amid reports of bitter infighting between the two.
    (AP, 10/25/05)

2005        Oct 26-2005 Oct 27, Intense fighting between rebels and paramilitary groups for control of the cocaine trade in the jungles of western Colombia left at least 20 outlawed fighters dead.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Oct 29, Colombian authorities captured Jhon Cano, an alleged top leader of the powerful Norte del Valle cocaine cartel, who is wanted by a New York court for drug trafficking and money laundering.
    (AP, 10/30/05)
2005        Oct 29, Hurricane Beta battered the mountainous Caribbean island of Providencia, Colombia, ripping roofs off wooden homes and forcing people to seek shelter in brick shelters on high ground.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Nov 5, In Colombia police seized more than 2 tons of cocaine hidden on a beach on the Caribbean coast and arrested five suspected traffickers who were apparently preparing to load the drugs aboard a speedboat bound for Central America or Mexico.
    (AP, 11/6/05)

2005        Nov 11, Colombia's highest court approved a law that clears the way for popular President Alvaro Uribe to run for a second term next year.
    (AP, 11/11/05)
2005        Nov 11, In Colombia a man in a wheelchair who hijacked a Colombian airliner using hand grenades was sentenced to eight years of house arrest.
    (AP, 11/11/05)

2005        Nov 14, Hundreds of Colombian television actors and workers marched through the streets to protest a proposed free trade deal with the US that they claim could hurt the local TV industry.
    (AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Nov 16, Two dozen Colombian rebels laid down their arms in the 1st group demobilization ceremony of leftist guerrillas since Pres. Alvaro Uribe took office 3 years ago.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 18, In Colombia Indians who have seized control of 18 large farms vowed to stage protests across the country after land reform talks with President Alvaro Uribe ended without any agreements.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Nov 20, A helicopter carrying a Colombian congressman and five others crashed Sunday in a storm in the mountains north of Bogota, killing all aboard. Conservative Party congressman Roberto Camacho, Cundinamarca state deputy Efren Bejerano and former Cundinamarca deputy governor Adolfo Leon were among those killed.
    (AP, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 23, In Colombia soldiers near Villa Hermosa captured Arcesio Lamus, leader of the Bolshevik Front of the National Liberation Army, suspected of carrying out more than a dozen kidnappings and other terrorist attacks over the past two decades.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Nov 24, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe met with Venezuela's Hugo Chavez to try to help bridge differences in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/24/05)
2005        Nov 24, In southwestern Colombia the Galeras volcano became active at dawn and dumped heaps of ash on the city of Pasto, 12 miles away.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Nov 27, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe formally announced that he will run for a second term in next year's elections, saying he needed four more years to accomplish his goals of restoring security to the country and spurring economic growth.
    (AP, 11/27/05)

2005        Nov 29, Spain announced it plans to sell planes and helicopters to Colombia.
    (WSJ, 11/30/05, p.A1)

2005        Nov, Colombia announced a 5-fold increase in its aid budget for its “desplazados," refugees uprooted by internal strife, to over $400 million a year.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.38)

2005        Dec 2, In Colombia officials said several hundred members of a right-wing paramilitary militia that held sway for years over much of Colombia's coffee-growing region have agreed to lay down their arms in exchange for a government amnesty.
    (AP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 12, About 2,000 right-wing paramilitary fighters (AUC), including a warlord considered a major drug trafficker by the US, turned in weapons and helicopter gunships in one of Colombia's largest disarmament ceremonies in years.
    (AP, 12/12/05)

2005        Dec 13, A US Navy helicopter with 3 crew members crashed somewhere off the coast of Colombia.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Dec 14, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe accepted an EU plan to pull troops from rebel territories to revive peace talks.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 16, Exploratory peace talks between Colombia and its second-largest rebel group began in Cuba with help from the Nobel Prize-winning author Gabriel Garcia Marquez and facilitators from Spain, Norway and Switzerland.
    (AP, 12/16/05)

2005        Dec 17, Hundreds of fighters from three rebel armies united to attack the village of San Marino in western Colombia. The bold assault that killed at least five police officers.
    (AP, 12/18/05)

2005        Dec 25, In Bogota, Colombia, Jordan Paez (6) fell into a coverless manhole and was killed. A record 10,000 manhole covers were stolen there in 2005.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2005        Dec 27, Leftist rebels ambushed a group of soldiers who were protecting civilians in southern Colombia, killing 28.
    (AP, 12/28/05)

2005        Colombia’s Congress increased the maximum sentence to violators of its ban on abortion to 4½ years in prison. An estimated 400,000 illegal abortions were performed annually.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.46)
2005        In Colombia some 16,350 landowners held 62.6% of all farmland. Drug traffickers and paramilitaries had seized huge tracts of rural land in the 1980s and 1990s to launder their profits.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.51)

2006        Jan 5, In Colombia local TV reported that 2 soldiers had been arrested for giving weapons to leftist rebels, their main battlefield enemy, in exchange for cocaine. 14 FARC guerrillas and two soldiers were killed in clashes in a coca-growing area on the edge Sierra Macarena National Park in southern Colombia.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 16, Colombia's president ordered an investigation into allegations that outlawed paramilitary groups have infiltrated congressional campaigns using illegal drug money.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 18, In Colombia some 3,000 armed troops were deployed to the Sierra Macarena National Park, one of Colombia's most pristine national parks, as part of an operation to clear the rebel-controlled region of coca plants and the laboratories used to make cocaine.
    (AP, 1/18/06)

2006        Jan 21, In Colombia a video, released by Colombian guerrillas, showed 12 kidnapped lawmakers pleading with their government to work with Venezuela's leftist President Hugo Chavez to help obtain their release.
    (AP, 1/21/06)

2006        Jan 26, Colombian authorities led dozens of simultaneous raids across five cities in collaboration with US officials and dismantled a false passport ring with links to al-Qaida and Hamas militants.
    (AP, 1/27/06)

2006        Jan 31, In Colombia thousands of right-wing paramilitary fighters accused of drug trafficking by the US turned over more than 1,000 weapons in one of the largest disarmament ceremonies to date.
    (AP, 1/31/06)

2006        Feb 1, Colombia's attorney general charged seven soldiers in the shooting deaths of five members of a peasant family, including a 6-month-old baby.
    (AP, 2/1/06)

2006        Feb 7, Ramon Isaza (65), a founder of Colombia's anti-rebel paramilitary movement, laid down his weapon, ending nearly three decades of outlawed, jungle warfare. Isaza was joined by 990 fighters from his Medio Magdalena Bloc of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, or AUC, handing over 754 weapons, 15 vehicles and abundant munitions.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 13, Testimony presented in an annual UN human rights report said Colombian security forces had killed civilians and covered it up by dressing the bodies as Marxist guerrillas.
    (Reuters, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 15, In southern Colombia hundreds of paramilitary fighters handed in their weapons and renounced violence in a ceremony. Rebels attacked a crew that was removing coca plants from one of Colombia's national parks and killed at least six police guards.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb 21, The commander of Colombia's army, Gen. Reinaldo Castellanos, resigned amid a scandal in which 21 soldiers were allegedly beaten, branded or sexually assaulted by their superiors.
    (AP, 2/21/06)

2006        Feb 24, Colombia suspended arrest warrants for leaders of the National Liberation Army, the South American nation's second-largest rebel group, as part of preliminary peace talks in Cuba.
    (AP, 2/24/06)
2006        Feb 24, In northwest Colombia Pedro Juan Moreno, a leading senatorial candidate and former adviser to President Alvaro Uribe, was killed along with three other people in a helicopter crash in a mountainous rainforest region.
    (AP, 2/25/06)

2006        Feb 25, In southern Colombia leftist rebels killed 9 people in an attack on a passenger bus that defied a guerrilla-imposed traffic ban.
    (AP, 2/26/06)

2006        Feb 27, In southern Colombia rebels burst into a hotel where local government officials were meeting and killed eight town councilors.
    (AP, 2/27/06)
2006        Feb 27, The US and Colombia reached a free trade agreement after nearly 2 years of negotiations. The pact needed approval by the legislatures of both countries.
    (WSJ, 2/28/06, p.A6)

2006        Mar 7, In Colombia the 70-member La Gaitana company of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), handed over 63 weapons and a small aircraft during a ceremony near Alvarado, a town 50 miles west of Bogota. Various of the men who posed as guerrillas later testified that they were not insurgents but rather thieves, indigents and unemployed who were recruited by a jailed former FARC fighter and paid at least $250 each for participating.
    (AP, 3/7/06)(AP, 2/10/12)

2006        Mar 9, The Colombian navy seized a 60-foot long submarine that likely was used to haul tons of cocaine out to sea for shipment to the United States.
    (AP, 3/10/06)

2006        Mar 12, In Colombia supporters of President Alvaro Uribe dominated the congressional elections in which candidates defined themselves by their views of the Colombian leader. Voters in Sucre re-elected Alvaro Garcia to the Senate and Erik Morris to the chamber of Representatives. Both men and another senator from Sucre were later charged with financing right-wing paramilitary groups.
    (AP, 3/13/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.40)

2006        Mar 18, A mudslide swept down on a scouting expedition in central Colombia, killing nine young hikers and leaving two others missing. The scouts had just been bathing and practicing knots when they were carried away.
    (AP, 3/19/06)

2006        Mar 22, The US government announced charges against 50 leftist Colombian guerrilla leaders in connection with shipments of $25 billion in cocaine to the US and other countries.
    (SFC, 3/23/06, p.A9)

2006        Apr 4, In Colombia authorities announced the arrests of 7 active and retired police and army officers working for one of Colombia's largest cocaine cartels, who used commercial cargo planes to ship drugs to the US.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 6, In Colombia bombs exploded on two buses in a working class district of Bogota, injuring two dozen passengers, including three children with burns over half their body.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Apr 10, Mexican soldiers seized 128 suitcases packed with 5.6 metric tons of cocaine worth more than $100 million from a commercial plane arriving from Venezuela. Smugglers had purchased the DC-9 plane with laundered funds transferred through US banks Wachovia Corp. and Bank of America. In 2010 court papers said a gang under Walid Makled operated the DC-9 and flew the cocaine from Simon Bolivar International to Campeche, Mexico. Makled was arrested Aug 19, 2010 in Colombia in the border city of Cucuta. In Nov 2010 Colombia denied an extradition request for Makled by the US, saying that the suspect will be sent back to face charges in his home country.
    (AP, 4/12/06)(SFC, 6/30/10, p.D1)(AP, 11/17/10)

2006        Apr 11, Colombia’s attorney general said the bodies of more than 30 people had been found in a series of mass graves in a violent area of Northern Santander province, home to drug traffickers, far-right paramilitaries and leftist guerrillas. Most of the villagers blamed a bloc of far-right paramilitaries that operated there until its demobilization in 2004.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 12, Authorities said Colombia's biggest right-wing paramilitary group has disbanded as part of an ongoing peace process, but some renegade factions continued to operate.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 13, In western Colombia mudslides roared down on settlements, killing at least 10 people, leaving dozens missing and blocking a key highway to the Pacific coast.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

2006        Apr 20, In northeastern Colombia leftist rebels ambushed a military convoy, killing 16 soldiers and secret police officers in the deadliest attack on security forces this year.
    (AP, 4/21/06)

2006        Apr 22, In Colombia Pedro Gil Trujillo, a city council member in Rivera, was arrested while giving a live radio interview by telephone for allegedly masterminding a guerrilla attack that killed nine of his colleagues on Feb 27.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        Apr 27, Liliana Gaviria (52), sister of the former Colombian president Cesar Gaviria (1990-1994), died in a botched kidnapping in the province of Risaralda, 110 miles west of Bogota. She was real estate agent and owner of a transport company. On Feb 26, 2010, Beatriz Villalba (25) was arrested after being under observation for four months. She had been conducting spying operations for the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia in Bogota. Prosecutors alleged that Villalba was in charge of buying a building and modifying a vehicle used in the abduction and transportation of Liliana Gaviria Trujillo. Gaviria's bodyguard was shot dead during the kidnapping in Pereira.
    (AP, 4/28/06)(AP, 2/26/10)

2006        Apr 28, Representatives of the Colombian government and that nation's second largest rebel group wrapped up four days of talks in Cuba without resolution, but agreed to meet again after their country's May 28 elections.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        May 2, In Colombia the entire municipal council of Villavieja resigned and fled to Neiva in Huila province, fearing for their lives amid a spate of political killings.
    (AP, 5/3/06)

2006        May 10, Colombia's top court voted to legalize abortion in specific cases, easing a complete ban on the procedure in this majority Roman Catholic nation.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

2006        May 12, Gen. Oscar Naranjo, the head of Colombia's judicial police, said he was shocked to learn his brother, Juan David Naranjo (29), is suspected of involvement in a major European drug trafficking ring.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 16, In Colombia farmers and members of indigenous tribes clashed with police during protests against a free-trade agreement with the US and the re-election of President Alvaro Uribe, and protest leaders said an Indian farmer was killed.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 22, Colombia's Interior Minister Sabas Pretelt said the peace process with far-right paramilitary gunmen was back on track, following days of tensions caused by a court ruling that tossed out part of a peace pact. In Jamundi 10 police officers in a US-trained unit were ambushed and killed in a ferocious attack by a platoon of 28 soldiers who unleashed a barrage of some 150 bullets and seven grenades. The attack stunned Colombians and severely embarrassed President Alvaro Uribe. An 11th man, an informant who led the police squad to the scene promising they would find a large stash of cocaine, was also found dead. When investigators removed his ski mask, they found a bullet hole in his head. In 2008 a judge gave a 54-year prison term to a cashiered army lieutenant colonel who was convicted of ordering the massacre of the anti-drug police. He also slapped near-maximum sentences of 52 years on the unit's second-in-command, and 50 years each on the other 13 soldiers involved. Senior police believed former Lt. Col. Byron Carvajal and his troops had been protecting a drug lord.
    (AP, 5/22/06)(AP, 6/17/06)(AP, 5/8/08)

2006        May 27, It was reported that Colombia could become a net importer of oil by 2010.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.34)

2006        May 28, President Alvaro Uribe won Colombia's presidential elections with 62% of the vote. The turnout was 45% of those eligible. Uribe became the first incumbent to win re-election in Colombia in more than a century, beating his nearest rival by more than 40 percentage points with pledges to continue fighting crime and reducing poverty.
    (AP, 5/28/06)(AP, 5/29/06)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.34)

2006        May, In Colombia brothers Arley Vallejo Cardona and Yon Garcia Cardona disappeared in Medellin. On July 31, 2009, a court sentenced 15 Colombian soldiers to as much as 30 years in prison for the slaying of the two brothers falsely identified as guerrillas.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2006        Jun 14, Gunmen killed seven coca pickers in southwestern Colombia in an attack police blamed on leftist rebels.
    (AP, 6/14/06)
2006        Jun 14, Four Andean nations (Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru) agreed to chart new trade plans with the United States without Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jun 20, The UN said production of the coca plant used to make cocaine had increased by 8% in Colombia, to 330 square miles.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 29, After a two-year search among more than 300,000 candidates nationwide, Colombia unveiled the new Juan Valdez, Carlos Castaneda (39), as the country's iconic coffee ambassador to the world.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Jul 10, The government of Colombia announced that it was nominating Ernesto Samper as ambassador to France. This sparked outrage among many Colombians and allies in Washington in the war on drugs. In a statement, Pres. Uribe said Samper had declined the France ambassadorship so as not to harm Colombia's national interests.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 11, Andres Pastrana, Colombia's ambassador to the United States, resigned in anger over President Alvaro Uribe's selection of Ernesto Samper, a disgraced former Colombian leader (1994-1998) as ambassador to France.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 18, The UN said fighting between the army and leftist guerrillas in western Colombia has forced hundreds of civilians from their homes and trapped others in their villages.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 24, In Colombia 13 doctors were abducted by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC. They were on a 10-day mission to remote communities and Indian tribes in Putumayo province.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

2006        Jul 31, In Colombia suspected rebels ambushed an army patrol, exploded a car bomb in Bogota and another bomb in the southwest, killing at least 18 people in a wave of attacks a week before the presidential inauguration.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 2, In southern Colombia a land mine planted by leftist rebels killed six coca eradicators and injured seven others.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 4, In Colombia leftist rebels were blamed for two attacks, a car bomb that killed four officers outside a Cali police station and an attack that killed two soldiers in a western province.
    (AP, 8/4/06)

2006        Aug 7, Colombia’s President Alvaro Uribe inaugurated an unprecedented second term, promising to seek an elusive peace with leftist rebels while maintaining the hardline security policies credited with a sharp drop in murder and kidnappings.
    (AP, 8/7/06)

2006        Aug 9, Masked gunmen killed five Indians in Colombia even as UN officials marked World Indigenous Day with a call for illegal combat groups to keep Indians out of the country's armed conflict. Colombian rebels kidnapped two engineers and a helicopter pilot who were part of a seismographic oil exploration crew in Choco state. The National Liberation Army (ELN) was believed to be responsible.
    (AP, 8/10/06)

2006        Aug 10, Hector Orlando Martinez Quinto (38) was captured in Costa Rica. He was accused of participating in a 2002 rebel (FARQ) attack that killed 119 civilians in Boyaya, in one of the worst tragedies in Colombia's four-decade-old guerrilla war.
    (AP, 8/11/06)
2006        Aug 10, In Chile a drug trafficking network working on behalf of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was dismantled. Police seized almost a half-ton of cocaine and arrested 12 people.
    (AP, 8/12/06)

2006        Aug 15, In Colombia the last major paramilitary leader to enter into a peace deal with the government handed in his weapon, even as the future of that fragile accord was called into doubt by other ex-militia leaders. Freddy Rendon Herrera and 745 fighters from the Elmer Cardenas bloc handed in 447 rifles in a disarmament ceremony in Unguia, a village 370 miles northwest of Bogota.
    (AP, 8/15/06)

2006        Aug 16, Colombian police arrested 14 top paramilitary leaders for violating the terms of a peace accord that has led to the demobilization of 30,000 right-wing fighters. Anti-narcotics police said they chemically fumigated the Sierra Macarena national park last week, clearing its entire 11,370 acres of coca. The spraying destroyed coca capable of producing 17.5 tons of high-grade cocaine and was likely a major blow to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC.
    (AP, 8/16/06)(AP, 8/17/06)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.28)

2006        Aug, In Colombia the telenovela “Sin Tetas no hay Paraiso" (Without Breasts There's No Paradise) premiered. It was based on a best-selling, true-to-life novel by the same name and became very popular.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 1, In Colombia Jesus Ignacio Roldan led special prosecutors and investigators to the alleged grave of Carlos Castano, former right-wing paramilitary leader, near the town of Valencia. Roldan says he killed Castano in April 2004 on the order of Castano's older brother, Vicente Castano.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 18, In Colombia federal prosecutor Mario Iguaran delivered a televised apology for a scandal surrounding psychic Armando Marti. In 2005 he had hired Marti, a self-described clairvoyant, to help his staff deal with a crushing caseload and to improve relations. The operation was code-named “Mission Perseus of Zeus" and it granted Marti unfettered access to the institution, as much as $1,800 a month, and a government-issued armored car.
    (SFC, 9/20/06, p.A8)

2006        Oct 12, In Colombia hundreds of Bari Indians, most clad in loincloths and carrying bows and arrows, came down from the hills in their first march ever to demand that the state-owned oil company stop drilling on sacred land abutting their reservation.
    (AP, 10/12/06)

2006        Oct 19, In Colombia a car bomb left by a person dressed in a military uniform exploded in the parking lot of a military university in Bogota, wounding at least 23 people, as a top general was at a conference nearby.
    (AP, 10/19/06)

2006        Oct 26, The Colombian government and the country's second-largest rebel group (ELN) agreed in Havana, Cuba, to launch a formal peace process.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Oct 29, Leaders of Colombia's second-largest rebel group (ELN) agreed to help de-mine several rural southern districts, marking their first concrete action since agreeing to a peace process last week with the Colombian government.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 26, Spanish police arrested Orlando Sabogal Zuluaga (40), a leading member of one of Colombia's most feared drug-trafficking cartels, in a shopping center on the outskirts of Madrid.
    (AP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 1, In Colombia the peasant-based FARC killed 16 police officers and a civilian at a remote outpost in an attack that appeared to be part of a coordinated national offensive.
    (AP, 11/2/06)(WSJ, 11/2/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 2, In Colombia a jeep carrying explosives blew up south of Bogota, killing two passengers and probably preempting a leftist rebel attack.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 9, Colombia's Supreme Court ordered three legislators arrested for their alleged ties to the country's far-right paramilitaries.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 22, Authorities in Italy, Spain, the United States and several South American countries arrested 76 people as part of a major drug crackdown in which a restaurant linked to one of Colombia's most feared warlords was seized.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Nov 23, The imprisoned leaders of Colombia's right-wing militias called for the creation of a truth commission where they can confess their actions in the brutal civil war.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 30, In northeastern Colombia the Gabriel Galvis unit of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) attacked an army patrol, killing 17 soldiers and injuring four. An air force training helicopter crashed in central Colombia, killing all five aboard.
    (AP, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 6, Far-right paramilitary groups pulled out of a peace process with the Colombian government following a decision by President Alvaro Uribe's administration to transfer jailed militia leaders to a maximum security prison.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 9, Freddy Munoz (36), a Colombian journalist, was charged with rebellion and terrorism for a series of bombings in 2002, a move his news channel said was in response to his reporting on human rights violations. Munoz worked for the news channel Telesur, which is majority owned by the Venezuelan government of President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

2006        Dec 15, Ecuador recalled its ambassador to Colombia, protesting Bogota's decision to resume aerial coca fumigation along the shared border.
    (AP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 19, Salvatore Mancuso, one of Colombia's most feared paramilitary warlords, testified before a special tribunal. His confession was meant to sharply reduce his jail time for hundreds of murders and forcing tens of thousands from their land during a decade-long reign of terror.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2006        Dec 23, In southern Colombia leftist rebels ambushed an army patrol and killed 14 soldiers from a unit that rushed to the area after being warned of a possible guerrilla takeover of a remote hamlet.
    (AP, 12/23/06)

2006        Dec 24, In southern Colombia government troops retook control of an area where leftist rebels ambushed and killed 15 soldiers.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 27, Colombia's second-largest rebel group (ELN) released two police officers taken hostage earlier this month, a move that could revive slow-moving peace talks with the government. Gunmen shot and killed Jaime Andres Angarita (33), a paramilitary leader, as he was dining at a restaurant in the western city of Medellin. Angarita was considered the right-hand man of warlord Salvatore Mancuso, the architect of a 2003 peace deal with the government that has led to the demobilization of 31,000 militia fighters.
    (AP, 12/27/06)(AP, 12/28/06)

2006        In Colombia 60 trade union members were murdered this year. From 1991 to 2006 there were some 2,000 unsolved killings of trade unionists.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, p.39)
2006        In Colombia Astrid Hurtado, confidential US informant was convicted of money laundering, sentenced to 7½ years in prison and fined the equivalent of $1.6 million. In 2013 Hurtado (52) sued the US for abandoning her and sought $15 million in damages.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2007        Jan 9, Freddy Munoz, a reporter for a state-controlled television network in Venezuela, was released from a Colombian jail, 52 days after his arrest on accusations of plotting bomb attacks with leftist rebels.
    (AP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 15, In Colombia Eugenio Montoya Sanchez (37), believed by authorities to be a leader of the Norte del Valle drug cartel, was captured following a shootout, ending a years-long hunt for a man wanted by American officials for allegedly smuggling tons of cocaine into the US. 2 cold-storage tanks owned by a Nestle supplier outside the town of San Vicente de Caguan were blown up in an attack also attributed to the FARC. Salvatore Mancuso became the 1st senior paramilitary leader to make a voluntary confession of his involvement in kidnappings and mass murders. Sanchez was later extradited to the US and in 2009 pleaded guilty to drug trafficking. He was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 1/16/07)(AP, 1/19/07)(Econ, 1/20/07, p.48)(SFC, 4/29/09, p.A4)

2007        Jan 16, Colombian police found about $19 million belonging to a drug trafficking group buried under a house in the southwestern city of Cali. On Jan 12 police found $16 million hidden in a modest house in Cali.
    (AP, 1/16/07)

2007        Jan 17, In southern Colombia a pickup truck carrying 660 pounds of explosives destroyed a dairy plant owned by Swiss food giant Nestle SA, an attack police attributed to leftist rebels.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Jan 30, Colombia’s Supreme Court opened preliminary investigations into four more politicians for alleged ties to illegal right-wing militias after it was revealed they signed a 2001 letter of understanding with the paramilitary groups.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 1, In Colombia President Alvaro Uribe ordered the seizure of assets belonging to demobilized paramilitary leaders after the killing of a woman who was leading a campaign to reclaim land stolen by the illegal militias.   
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 3, Police said they found $19 million in cash under the floorboards of a house in Cali. The loot likely belonged to Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia, among a dozen alleged top drug kingpins whom US authorities targeted for arrest using a $5 million reward for information. In  the northeast an explosion tore through a makeshift coal mine, killing 32 miners.
    (AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 6, An underground explosion in a central Colombia coal mine killed eight workers, just days after a similar blast in the nation's northeast killed 32 miners.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 7, Colombia's top court ruled that gay couples, who have lived together for more than 2 years, should have the same rights to shared assets as heterosexual couples. The decision by the Constitutional Court marked the first recognition of gay couples' rights in Colombia.
    (AP, 2/9/07)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.34)

2007        Feb 8, Cuba deported reputed drug kingpin Luis Hernando Gomez Bustamante to Colombia, which plans to extradite him to the United States to face trafficking and money laundering charges.
    (AP, 2/9/07)

2007        Feb 15, Five Colombian congressmen, including the brother of the foreign minister, were arrested in a widening scandal linking the country's political class and far-right militias drew closer to the president.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 19, Maria Consuelo Araujo, Colombia’s foreign minister, resigned as a growing scandal linking the political establishment and far-right paramilitaries claimed its first member of President Alvaro Uribe's Cabinet. 4 days earlier her brother, a senator, was jailed on charges of colluding with the paramilitaries and the kidnapping of a potential political rival. 2 clowns were shot and killed by an unidentified gunman during their performance of Circo del Sol de Cali, a traveling circus, in the eastern town of Cucuta.
    (AP, 2/19/07)(Reuters, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 21, A land mine killed five Colombian soldiers after a patrol chasing leftist rebels stumbled in to a mine field.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 22, In Colombia Jorge Noguera, a former director of the secret police under President Alvaro Uribe, was arrested and charged in connection with the murders of labor leaders and academics while collaborating with far-right militias responsible for some of Colombia's worst massacres. In Cali, Colombia, confused hit men on the lookout for two men in a white sedan gun down the wrong people. Then they spot their intended targets, in the same traffic jam 20 yards away. And killed them, too. It was all caught on a traffic camera.
    (AP, 2/23/07)(AP, 2/24/07)

2007        Mar 1, In Colombia a car bomb exploded in the southern city of Neiva, injuring 8 people in an apparent assassination attempt of the town's pro-government mayor by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

2007        Mar 2, In Colombia prosecutors ordered the arrest of Alvaro Araujo Noguera, a prominent political boss, for alleged involvement in a kidnapping at the heart of a scandal tying the country’s political elite to right-wing paramilitary groups.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

2007        Mar 3, In Colombia 4 police officers and a civilian were killed as officers moved a powerful bomb allegedly planted by leftist rebels as part of an attempt to kill a city mayor.
    (AP, 3/3/07)

2007        Mar 10, In Colombia the US Embassy confirmed that American and Colombian soldiers had conducted a joint operation in the southern stronghold of leftist rebels who are holding three US military contractors, captured in Feb, 2004.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 11, In Colombia about 150 protesters attacked riot police with rocks and metal barriers and ripped down lampposts Bogota, just moments after President Bush landed for a six-hour visit. Bush put fighting poverty at the top of his agenda in Colombia and promised more aid and a trade deal for Pres. Uribe.
    (AP, 3/11/07)(WSJ, 3/12/07, p.A1)

2007        Mar 12, Interpol launched an international call for the arrest of Alvaro Araujo Noguera (74), former Colombian congressman and father of Colombia’s former Foreign Minister Maria Consuelo Araujo. He was believed to have fled to Venezuela after being accused of colluding with right-wing paramilitaries to kidnap a political rival.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 13, In Colombia Trino Luna, the governor of Magdalena province, surrendered to federal prosecutors, becoming the first opposition politician arrested as part of the widening scandal over links between the country's political elite and far-right militias.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 14, Chiquita Brands Int’l., a Cincinnati-based banana company, agreed to pay a $25 million fine after admitting that it paid a Colombian terrorist group (AUC) for protection in a volatile farming region. Chiquita sold it Colombian banana operations in June, 2004.
    (SFC, 3/15/07, p.A5)(WSJ, 8/2/07, p.A1)

2007        Mar 15, A UN report said Colombian security forces killed civilians in several states last year and falsely labeled many as leftist rebels slain in combat.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 23, In Colombia Jorge Noguera, Pres. Alvaro Uribe's former spy chief, was freed from jail after a judge ruled his imprisonment for alleged links to far-right militias was illegal on procedural grounds.
    (AP, 3/23/07)

2007        Mar 29, Robert Marshall Vignola (50) of Hamden, Conn., an American entrepreneur who introduced foreign men to "young, sexy, exotic and beautiful Latin Women" via the Internet, was killed in the western city of Cali by gunmen on a motorcycle.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

2007        Apr 3, Colombian authorities captured Ever Veloza, a fugitive right-wing warlord accused in massacres and of running a murderous criminal band involved in drug trafficking and extortion. He was arrested in the banana-growing Uraba region on the Caribbean coast. Veloza already faces charges in the April 11, 2001, massacre of 26 peasants in the southwestern town of Naya.
    (AP, 4/3/07)
2007        Apr 3, Interpol issued an international arrest warrant for three Israelis accused of training private armies of Colombian drug cartels and right-wing death squads. Yair Klein, Melnik Ferri and Tzedaka Abraham were being sought on charges of criminal conspiracy and instruction in terrorism.
    (AP, 4/3/07)

2007        Apr 5, A bus carrying passengers on the start of the Easter holiday crashed in northern Colombia, igniting a blaze that killed 27 people, including six children.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 12, Tens of thousands of people marched through the streets of Cali to protest the bombing of the city's police barracks, blamed on Colombia's largest leftist rebel group.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 16, A top rebel leader of Colombia's second-largest guerrilla group (ELN) said the group is ready to "immediately" begin talks to reach a cease-fire with the country's government.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2007        Apr 18, In Colombia thousands of people were evacuated after a long-dormant volcano erupted, provoking avalanches and floods that swept away houses and bridges. The Nevado del Huila volcano's eruptions were its first on record since Colombia was colonized by the Spanish 500 years ago.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 26, Colombia's electrical grid collapsed, causing a nationwide blackout that briefly halted stock trading, trapped people in elevators and left authorities struggling to determine the cause.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 29, Colombia's navy made the largest drug seizure in the nation's history as it uncovered up to 27 tons of cocaine buried along the Pacific coast.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        Apr, In Colombia the soldiers in Antelope Company's Third Platoon killed Leonardo Montes, a civilian and brother to one of the platoon’s soldiers, and registered the murder as a guerrilla kill. The brother’s pleas failed to prevent the killing. The platoon hadn't registered a guerrilla kill in months, and without results, they feared they wouldn't be let off base for Mother's Day. 5 soldiers faced a criminal probe in the murder, joining some 480 soldiers under investigation for about 1,000 extrajudicial killings during the presidency of Alvaro Uribe.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2007        May 5, Colombian officials reported that forensic teams have unearthed 211 bodies buried in dozens of mass graves near La Hormiga in southern Colombia in the past 10 months, a legacy of fierce fighting in this coca-rich land.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 10, In southwestern Colombia A roadside bomb planted by leftist rebels killed 10 soldiers on patrol, the deadliest attack on security forces this year.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 14, In Colombia judicial authorities ordered the arrest of 20 politicians and business leaders, including five congressmen, on criminal conspiracy charges for signing a 2001 pact with illegal right-wing militias. In the biggest shake-up in years of the security forces, Colombia's police chief and the head of police intelligence were forced to retire as the government alleged that police illegally tapped calls of opposition political figures, journalists and members of the government for the past two years.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 16, In northern Colombia Diana Patricia Pena (36) was abducted by armed men with her husband, Roland Erik Larson (68), at their farm. Pena soon escaped but  Larson was still missing.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 17, A Colombian warlord, accused of spearheading civilian massacres, claimed that some US companies who buy Colombia's bananas had made regular payments to his illegal right-wing militias.
    (AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 18, President Alvaro Uribe lashed out at US lawmakers for treating Colombia like a "pariah" by refusing to pass a trade agreement amid a scandal linking his government to murderous right-wing paramilitaries.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 23, Colombia announced capital controls on some foreign investments to try to curb the soaring peso, which has made greater gains against the dollar this year than any other currency.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        Jun 4, In Colombia Rodrigo Granda, the highest-ranking jailed member of the country's main guerrilla group, was freed by the government as part of a wider prisoner release intended to help secure the freedom of 60 hostages, including three Americans, held by the guerrillas. There is no explanation for why these particular captives are to be freed. Police officer Guillermo Solorzano was seized by the FARC.
    (AP, 6/4/07)(AP, 12/23/10)

2007        Jun 6, Colombia’s Pres. Uribe arrived in Washington DC for his 2nd lobbying trip in a month. A US congressional sub-committee had voted to cut aid by 10% and shift it from military to social programs.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, p.44)

2007        Jun 10, In southern Colombia 2 drunken soldiers shot and killed six civilians, including a nine-year old boy, after arguing with guests at a party.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 14, Colombia’s Congress passed a bill to give established gay couples full rights to health insurance, inheritance and social security. This would make it the first Latin American country to provide such rights.
    (AP, 6/15/07)

2007        Jun 18, In Colombia 11 kidnapped former state lawmakers held hostage for five years were killed after a military attack on the jungle camp where they were being kept. The Web site of the left-wing news agency ANNCOL carried the statement on June 28.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun 20, Otto Roberto Herrera Garcia, a man accused of turning Guatemala into a corridor for US-bound cocaine, was arrested in Bogota, two years after escaping from a Mexican prison. He offered agents $700,000 each in bribes to let him go when he was seized.
    (AP, 6/22/07)

2007        Jun 22, In Colombia a wave of bombings in Bogota wounded 23 people. Marines defused another two bombs the next day. Authorities blamed the bombings on rebels seeking revenge for the killing of a regional guerrilla commander.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jun 26, Colombia’s navy captured Edwin Alexander Torres, an alleged rebel suspected of masterminding a wave of recent bombings that killed 3 people and wounded dozens in Bogota.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 5, Over a million people marched in Bogota, Colombia, to protest kidnappings and the recent killing of abducted politicians.
    (SFC, 7/6/07, p.A10)

2007        Jul 25, Human Rights Watch said the escalating use of land mines by Colombian rebels is killing and mutilating hundreds annually, making this nation the world leader in mine victims.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Aug 5, Colombia's navy seized a 65-foot submarine that likely was used to haul tons of cocaine on part of its journey to the United States. The blue-colored, diesel-powered vessel had sophisticated communications systems and was capable of carrying up to 11 tons of cocaine.
    (AP, 8/7/07)

2007        Aug 7,     Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia (44), an alleged Colombian drug kingpin wanted by the United States, was arrested in a luxury condominium on the outskirts of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    (AP, 8/7/07)

2007        Aug 8, In southwest Colombia families confirmed that two military officers kidnapped four months ago by leftist rebels have died in captivity. Army Sgts. Alexander Cardona and Jesus Sol were taken hostage by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), while on patrol near their homes.
    (AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 23, More than 800 Colombian refugees crossed over the border to Ecuador from the violence-ravaged department of Narino. The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 27, In Colombia the Bogota stock exchange launched the sale of up to 20% of state-owned Ecopetrol’s shares.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.31)

2007        Aug 30, Hundreds of Colombian peasants returned home from Ecuador after the government promised to protect them from leftist rebels trying to sabotage a coca eradication campaign.
    (AP, 8/30/07)

2007        Aug 31, Colombia's Alvaro Uribe and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agreed to allow a representative of Colombia's largest guerrilla group to travel to Caracas for talks aimed at freeing dozens of rebel-held hostages, including three U.S. defense contractors.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Sep 1, In Venezuela more than two dozen Colombian prisoners arrested three years ago in an alleged plot against President Hugo Chavez were freed in a goodwill gesture he hopes will help facilitate a prisoner exchange in Colombia.
    (AP, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 2, In western Colombia 10 soldiers were killed in a clash with leftist FARC rebels. Five more were missing.
    (AP, 9/2/07)

2007        Sep 8, In Colombia the Red Cross said it has recovered all 11 bodies presumed to be lawmakers who were killed in a shootout while held hostage by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 9/8/07)

2007        Sep 10, In Colombia soldiers swarmed onto a farm and captured Diego Montoya, one of the world's most wanted drug traffickers hiding in bushes in his underwear. He led the Norte del Valle cartel and was captured along with an uncle and three other cartel members. He was extradited to the US in 2008 and in 2009 was sentenced to 45 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/11/07)(Reuters, 10/22/09)

2007        Oct 2, Colombia's navy seized 2 tons of cocaine, most destined for the United States, in small packages labeled with the British flag from a truck on the country's Caribbean coast.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 5, Colombia’s Constitutional Court ruled that gays may add their partners to health insurance plans.
    (SSFC, 10/7/07, p.A5)

2007        Oct 10, In Colombia police clashed with hundreds of protesters who blocked roads and burned trucks in demonstrations called by unions, farmers and indigenous groups who accuse the government of ties to right-wing militias.
    (AP, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 8, In Colombia a plane carrying 15 soldiers and three civilians disappeared. The wreckage was spotted Oct 11 high in the Andes and the armed forces chief said there was no chance of survivors.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 13, In Colombia a landslide triggered by local residents digging for rumored deposits of gold in an abandoned mine near Suarez killed at least 21 people and injured another 26.
    (AP, 10/14/07)

2007        Nov 8, John Walters, the White House drug czar, said American-backed counter-narcotic programs in Colombia and Mexico are disrupting the flow of cocaine into the United States, driving up prices 44 percent on US streets this year.
    (AP, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 17, In Iran officials at Niloofar Publications, which published the first edition of a novel by Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez, known in the West as "Memories of My Melancholy Whores," confirmed they have been forbidden to put out a second edition. The Persian translation was titled "Memories of My Melancholy Sweethearts."
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 21, Colombia's government said it was canceling Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez's mediation role with leftist rebels in a possible hostage swap, dealing a blow to efforts to free three kidnapped US contractors and a former presidential candidate.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 30, Colombian officials released newly obtained videos of rebel-held hostages, among them three US defense contractors and a former presidential candidate, the first images in years providing evidence the captives may be alive.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 12, In Colombia 3 young highway bandits set fire to a bus during a botched robbery near Bogota, burning to death 10 people including 2 assailants and the bus driver. The 3rd assailant (23) was arrested.
    (AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 15, Jean Oviedo (37), a US woman, was shot and killed as she vacationed with her Colombian husband in Bucaramanga, Colombia, in a robbery that netted $200 and a laptop computer.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 25, In Colombia an elite anti-kidnapping force in Neiva rescued a 9-year old boy, who was snatched seven months ago by leftist rebels. Captors had demanded a $50,000 ransom for his safe return, an amount his family was unable to pay.
    (AP, 12/27/07)

2007        Dec 27, Bayron Jimenez Castaneda (44), suspected Colombian cocaine trafficker, was arrested in Orlando, Florida, for the kidnapping of an undercover US agent. Three other suspects in the kidnapping of a US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent on Dec. 14, 2005 remain at large. Traffickers initially demanded a $2 million ransom, but released him after half a day when they realized he was a US government agent.
    (AP, 12/28/07)

2007        Dec 29, A series of explosions ripped through an army base in the Colombian city of Medellin, killing at least two people and forcing nearby residents to flee. The first of at least six large blasts was apparently triggered by a grenade that detonated inside a weapons arsenal.
    (AP, 12/29/07)

2007        Dec 31, A Venezuelan-led mission to rescue three hostages, including a 3-year old boy, from leftist rebels in Colombia's jungles fell apart as the guerrillas accused Colombia's military of sabotaging the promised handoff.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 7, Colombia’s army captured Carlos Marin Guarin, who uses the nom de guerre "Pablito," a senior commander of the ELN, Colombia’s second largest rebel group.
    (AP, 1/9/08)

2008        Jan 10, Helicopters sent by Venezuela's president picked up two hostages freed by Colombian rebels in the jungle and flew the women across the border. Clara Rojas was an aide to Colombian presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt in February 2002 when the two were kidnapped on the campaign trail. Rojas gave birth in captivity to a boy fathered by one of the guerrillas. Betancourt is still being held. The other freed hostage, former congresswoman Consuelo Gonzalez de Perdomo, had been abducted in September 2001. FARC, in a statement published on a pro-rebel Web site, said the unilateral release demonstrated the group's "unquestionable willingness" to engage the government in talks over the release of remaining hostages. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia is thought to still hold more than 700 others.
    (AP, 1/11/08)(Econ, 1/19/08, p.39)

2008        Jan 17, In southwestern Colombia the Galeras volcano erupted violently, spewing ash miles into the sky and prompting the evacuation of several thousand people living nearby.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 28, A US District judge in Washington, DC, sentenced Ricardo Palmera, a Colombian rebel leader, to 60 years in prison. Palmera admitted serving as FARC’s chief negotiator during discussions over the release of 3 American hostages captured in 2003.
    (SFC, 1/29/08, p.A4)

2008        Jan 30, Wilber Varela, one of Colombia's most-wanted drug lords, was found slain in Merida, Venezuela. Varela's war with his rival within the Norte del Valle cartel, Diego Montoya, plagued the city of Cali and much of southwestern Colombia, killing more than 1,000 people in several years.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 4, Hundreds of thousands of Colombians wearing white T-shirts marched in their homeland and abroad to demand that FARC, the country's largest rebel group, stop kidnapping people and release those it holds. Marchers used Facebook, a social networking website, to help organize the event.
    (AP, 2/4/08)(Econ, 2/9/08, p.41)

2008        Feb 13, In Colombia a delegation of visiting US union leaders expressed alarm at what its members called a steady erosion of labor rights in the world's deadliest country for organized labor.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 18, In Colombia a cashiered army lieutenant colonel and 14 soldiers were convicted of murdering 10 elite counternarcotics police agents in an ambush that showed how deeply drug corruption threatens Colombia's security forces.
    (AP, 2/18/08)

2008        Feb 27, Two Venezuelan helicopters left for Colombia on a mission to pick up four hostages held by rebels for more than six years. Rebels turned over four ex-lawmakers to representatives from Venezuela in the same region where they released two others on Jan 10.
    (AP, 2/27/08)(AP, 2/28/08)

2008        Mar 1, Colombia's defense minister said security forces killed Raul Reyes (59), a leading commander of the FARC rebel group, in combat and air strikes in neighboring Ecuador. Reyes was the nom de guerre of Luis Edgar Devia. 23 other rebels were also killed and a laptop computer was seized with documents indicating a close relationship between the rebels and Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez. Colombia later acknowledged that an Ecuadorean was killed during the raid. It was later reported that a computer memory stick was acquired in the raid that held the names, aliases and identity numbers of 9,387 rebels, including some photos.
    (AP, 3/1/08)(AP, 3/5/08)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.43)(AP, 3/24/08)(AP, 9/25/08)

2008        Mar 2, Venezuela and Ecuador ordered troops to their borders with Colombia, sharply raising tensions after Colombia killed a top rebel leader on Ecuadorean soil. Ecuadorean troops recovered the seminude bodies of 15 rebels in their jungle camp. Soldiers also found three wounded women at the camp, a Mexican philosophy student injured by shrapnel and two Colombians, who were evacuated by helicopter to be treated.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 3, Ecuador's president said that his government was in "very advanced" talks with Colombian rebels to free 12 hostages, including former presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt and three US contractors, but was thwarted by Colombia’s military raid. Venezuela and Ecuador expelled Colombia’s diplomats and cracked down on trade across the border.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 5, The Washington-based OAS declared Colombia’s attack on rebels in Ecuador a violation of Ecuador's sovereignty and called for OAS Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza to lead a delegation to both countries to ease tensions. But the resolution stopped short of explicitly condemning the assault. Pres. Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 6, In Colombia Pedro Pablo Montoya, a guerrilla known as Rojas, came to government troops with the severed right hand of FARC rebel leader Ivan Rios (46), a laptop computer and ID, saying he had killed his boss three days earlier. Rojas handed himself over to the soldiers. The US State Department had a bounty of $5 million for Rios' capture. In 2011 Rojas was sentenced to 40 years for his role in a 1999 attack on the northwestern town of Narino, in which 9 police and 7 civilians were killed. A march protesting the Colombian government and paramilitary death squads drew tens of thousands of people and 6 organizers were killed.
    (AP, 3/7/08)(AP, 3/14/08)(AP, 11/10/11)
2008        Mar 6, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega announced that he is breaking off relations with Colombia because of his country's opposition to the Colombian raid on a guerrilla base in Ecuador.
    (AP, 3/6/08)
2008        Mar 6, Viktor Bout, a suspected Russian arms dealer, was arrested at a five-star hotel in downtown Bangkok on allegations that he supplied Colombian rebels with arms and explosives. He had been accused of flouting UN embargoes and was wanted by Interpol.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, At a summit in the Dominican Republic the presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador agreed to end a bitter dispute triggered by a Colombian cross-border raid with testy handshakes and an apology.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 8, In Colombia a stadium brawl at a soccer rivalry game left about 80 people wounded in the city of Cali, 18 of them with stab wounds.
    (AP, 3/9/08)

2008        Mar 26, Manuel "Sureshot" Marulanda (78), co-founder and commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), died of a heart attack. On May 24 President Alvaro Uribe announced he is willing to offer rebels who free hostages "conditional liberty" and passage abroad. Marulanda, whose real name is Pedro Antonio Marin, and had led the peasant-based FARC since its founding in 1964. Alfonso Cano (Guillermo Leon Saenz), the FARC’s chief ideologue, was expected to replace Marulanda.
    (AP, 5/25/08)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.42)(AP, 3/26/09)

2008        Apr 4, Interpol issued a "red notice" for the capture of Colombian rebel leader Rodrigo Granda, wanted in connection with the 2004 high-profile kidnapping and killing of Cecilia Cubas (31), the daughter of former Paraguay Pres. Raul Cubas.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 8, A Colombian court sentenced nine rebel leaders to 40 years in prison for killing a state governor, a former defense minister and eight others during a botched hostage-rescue operation in 2003. Six Colombian soldiers were killed after they walked into a mine field while pursuing a column of leftist guerrillas.
    (AP, 4/8/08)(AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 15, Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting thousands of people to leave their homes.
    (AP, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 19, Alfonso Lopez Trujillo (b.1935), Vatican enforcer and former archbishop of Medellin, died. In 1995, as head of the Pontifical council for the Family, he published a “Lexicon of Ambiguous and Debatable Terms."
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_L%C3%B3pez_Trujillo)

2008        Apr 22, In Colombia former Sen. Mario Uribe, a 2nd cousin and close political ally of President Alvaro Uribe wanted for allegedly backing illegal militias, surrendered to police after Costa Rica denied him political asylum. Charges included seeking support from right-wing paramilitary gunmen in 2002 and buying land that was illegally obtained by them.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.55)

2008        Apr 29, Colombia police killed Victor Manuel Mejia in a raid at his ranch hideout. The government initially said it was his brother Miguel Angel. Both were wanted for extradition to the United States, with US$5 million rewards for their capture. In 2009 Miguel Angel Mejia was extradited to the US on drug trafficking charges.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(SFC, 3/5/09, p.A2)

2008        May 2, Colombian police captured Miguel Angel Mejia, the second of two drug-trafficking twins who were among the country's main cocaine shippers.
    (AP, 5/2/08)

2008        May 7, Colombia extradited Carlos Mario Jimenez, one of the country's most feared paramilitary warlords, to the US to face drug trafficking charges.
    (AP, 5/7/08)

2008        May 9, A newly disclosed set of documents that Colombia's government says were recovered on March 1 from a slain rebel's computers indicate senior Venezuelan officials tried to help arm Colombia's main guerrilla army. The price of crude rose above US$126 a barrel for the first time as investors questioned whether a Wall Street Journal report regarding the documents could lead to a confrontation between Washington and Venezuela.
    (AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 13, Colombia extradited 14 top paramilitary warlords, many of them wanted on drug-trafficking charges, to the United States, saying they failed to comply with the peace pact under which they demobilized. They included Ramiro Vanoy Murillo and Francisco Javier Zuluaga. In October Murillo (60) and Zuluaga (38) pleaded guilty to cocaine conspiracy charges and faced at least 2 decades in prison.
    (AP, 5/13/08)(SFC, 10/10/08, p.A4)

2008        May 14, Colombian police seized US$25 million (euro16 million) in properties from a paramilitary warlord extradited to the U.S. on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 18, In Colombia Eldaneyis Mosquera, also known as "Karina," a wanted leader of Latin America's largest guerrilla army, handed herself over to Colombian authorities.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 23, In Brazil 12 South American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up the Union of South American Nations. UNASUR was expected to replace the South American Community, declared in 2004, and unite the Mercosur and Andean Community free trade areas. Members included Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNASUR_Constitutive_Treaty)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.41)

2008        May 24, In Colombia a moderate earthquake shook Bogota, killing at least six people and injuring more than 10.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        Jun 1, In Colombia a mudslide following rains buried several dozen homes in a poor district of Medellin and at least 23 people were killed.
    (AP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 6, Colombia's presidential spokesman said Colombia and Ecuador are restoring diplomatic ties at the charge d'affaires level following mediation by former US Pres. Carter.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 7, Canada said it had wrapped up free trade negotiations with Colombia and reached agreement on related labor and environmental issues.
    (Reuters, 6/7/08)

2008        Jun 8, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez urged Colombian rebels to lay down their weapons, unilaterally free dozens of hostages and end a decades-long armed struggle.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 19, Colombia's chief prosecutor ordered the arrest of a cashiered navy rear admiral on charges he helped drug traffickers. Rear Adm. Gabriel Arango was fired in August over accusations that traffickers paid him for information on the movements of drug patrols off Colombia's Caribbean coast.
    (AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun, Colombia’s government created the 25,000 acre Orito Ingi-Ande Medicinal Plants Sanctuary to protect plants, which the native Cofan people depend on for medicinal and spiritual purposes.
    (SFC, 7/8/08, p.A6)

2008        Jul 2, Colombian spies tricked leftist rebels into handing over presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt (kidnapped in 2002), three US military contractors (captured in 2003), and 10 other hostages in a helicopter rescue so successful that not a single shot was fired. In 2009 Keith Stansell, Thomas Howes and Marc Gonsalves authored "Out of Captivity," a memoir of their 5 ½ year captivity by Colombia's leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/2/08)(AP, 2/26/09)

2008        Jul 4, Colombia's military found more than a ton of explosives in a house in a rural area outside the capital.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

2008        Jul 7, In Colombia a rose-laden US cargo plane headed for Miami crashed before dawn near Bogota, killing a father and son in their home on the ground. It was the second time in six weeks that a Boeing 747 flown by Ypsilanti, Michigan-based Kalitta Air has crashed.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 11, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Colombia's Alvaro Uribe mended relations after months of sniping that threatened trade and unleashed a diplomatic crisis.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 17, Six prominent members of Colombia’s largest rebel group FARC met this day with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega according to Nicaragua’s La Prensa newspaper. The members of the guerrilla organization arrived in Nicaragua in a Cessna airplane from Venezuela. Both Ortega and Venezuela denied the newspaper report.

2008        Jul 19, In Bogota the presidents of Brazil and Colombia vowed to boost trade and investment between their nations ahead of crucial world trade talks next week.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 20, Well over a million Colombians, clad in white and shouting "No more kidnapping," marked their independence day with marches and concerts demanding freedom for hostages still held by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 25, In Colombia police arrested Sen. Carlos Garcia, the head of one of Colombia's main governing parties, for alleged ties with far-right paramilitaries.
    (AP, 7/26/08)

2008        Jul 26, In Spain Maria Remedios Garcia Albert (57) was arrested in San Lorenzo de el Escorial on suspicion of belonging to Colombia's FARC rebel group.
    (AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Aug 12, Spanish officials said local police acting on a tip-off from US authorities have seized 1.4 tons of cocaine and arrested eight South American suspects, 6 from Colombia and 2 from Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/12/08)

2008        Aug 14, A bomb exploded during a crowded street fair in northwestern Colombia, killing seven people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 8/15/08)

2008        Aug 22, Brazil extradited Colombian drug lord Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia to the United States to face racketeering charges.
    (AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Sep 1, In Colombia a car bomb has exploded in front of the palace of justice in Cali, killing at least four people and injuring 20 others.
    (AP, 9/1/08)

2008        Sep 4, Spanish police arrested Vallejo-Guarin (47), a suspected Colombian drug trafficker, listed among the most wanted by the US Drug Enforcement Administration.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Oct 1, US officials said they have seized almost two tons of cocaine from a Panama-flagged cargo ship in international waters off Puerto Rico. The cocaine was hidden on a ship, which was loaded with coal and had launched from Colombia.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 19, In Colombia Vladimir Vanoy (32), the son of a warlord extradited to the US on drug charges, was murdered by unidentified assailants at the gate to his condominium outside Bogota. Earlier this month a Miami judge sentenced Ramiro Vanoy to 24 years in prison on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 23, Colombia's director of domestic intelligence resigned after her agency was caught spying on a prominent political opponent of President Alvaro Uribe. At least six small explosive devices left in trash cans detonated in Bogota, wounding 18 people and frightening residents.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 24, Colombia's army chief fired three colonels in the case of 11 men who disappeared from Soacha, a poor district just south of Bogota. They were found dead in August and September, months after their abduction in a war zone hundreds of miles away.  The young men appeared to have been kidnapped and murdered to inflate the body count of dead guerrillas. On Oct 29 President Alvaro Uribe's government fired 25 soldiers, including three generals and four colonels, over the killings of the 11 civilians.
    (AP, 10/24/08)(AP, 10/29/08)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.47)

2008        Oct 26, In Colombia former congressman Oscar Tulio Lizcano (62) walked to freedom in a western  along with the young guerrilla commander, who had been his jailer, after eight years of captivity in the hands of leftist Colombian rebels.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2008        Oct 28, Amnesty International urged the United States and other nations to halt military aid to Colombia until it stems a rise in killings of noncombatants by security forces and heeds other UN prescriptions for ending its long-running internal conflict.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Nov 4, Gen. Mario Montoya, the commander of Colombia's army, resigned abruptly in a widening scandal over the killing of scores of civilians, allegedly spurred by promotion-seeking officers to inflate rebel body counts.
    (AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 12, In Colombia the investment company Proyecciones DRFE (Dinero Rapido Facil Efectivo - Easy Money, Fast Cash) collapsed in Narino state leaving investors in the pyramid scheme with losses estimated at some $270 million. Investors took to the streets on rumors that owner Carlos Alfredo Suarez had fled the country. At least 2 people died in ensuing riots. A week later Panama extradited David Murcia Guzman, the president of DMG Group, suspected of running the country's biggest pyramid scheme. On Mar 13, 2009, the government announced it had recovered just $20.5 million, which would be distributed equally among some 214,000 investors, who would receive about $96 each. On Dec 16 Murcia was sentenced to 30 years and 8 months in prison for a money-laundering conviction and was fined $12.5 million. He is expected to be extradited to the US soon on money-laundering conspiracy charges.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7740032.stm)(SFC, 11/15/08, p.A9)(Econ, 11/22/08, p.49)(SFC, 3/14/09, p.A2)(SFC, 10/14/09, p.A2)(AP, 12/16/09)

2008        Nov 20, In southwestern Colombia the Nevado del Huila volcano erupted and loosed avalanches of mud and ash that injured nine, destroyed bridges and trapped people in their towns. At least 10 people died in landslides triggered by the eruption.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/29/08, p.B6)

2008        Nov 21, Canada and Colombia signed a free trade agreement, hoping to boost investment and trade flows at a time of global economic instability.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 28, Tens of thousands of Colombians marched to demand leftist rebels free hostages they have held for as long as a decade or more.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

2008        Dec 5, In northeast Colombia suspected leftist rebels attacked a small police convoy with explosives and automatic weapons, killing eight police officers and wounding one. Police blamed the attack on the National Liberation Army (ELN), which operates in the oil-producing region bordering Venezuela.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 12, Colombia extradited Diego Montoya, one of its most notorious drug trafficking suspects, to the United States to stand trial. Colombian authorities said he sent tons of cocaine to the United States and is responsible for at least 1,500 killings in a two-decade career.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2009        Jan 8, In Spain Leonidas Vargas (60), a convicted Colombian drug baron with links to two major smuggling cartels, was shot dead in a Madrid hospital.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 15, Togo agreed to extradite to the US Solano Cortez Jorge, an alleged druglord from Colombia, who was arrested trying to smuggle hundreds of pounds (kilograms) of cocaine through this West African nation last year.
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 23, Colombia's national police chief said that fugitive drug boss Daniel Rendon, the country's leading drug lord, has offered assassins a bounty of $1,000 for each police officer they kill. The defense minister said another 10 Colombian soldiers have been fired for negligence in connection with the killings of civilians to inflate guerrilla casualty figures. A major was the highest ranking of the 10 cashiered soldiers from the Popa Battalion in the northern city of Valledupar.
    (AP, 1/23/09)

2009        Feb 1, Colombia's battered FARC rebels freed three police officers and a soldier held hostage for more than a year, handing them over to the International Red Cross. A car bomb exploded near a police post in the city of Cali, killing at least one person and injuring at least 18 others after officers were lured to the scene by a bogus fire alarm.
    (AP, 2/2/09)

2009        Feb 3, In Colombia leftist rebels freed their fifth hostage in three days. Ex-governor Alan Jara (51), held for 7½ years, said that President Alvaro Uribe and the guerrillas are equally to blame for the country's still-festering conflict.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 17, Colombia's main leftist rebel group said that it "executed" eight Indians in the country's remote southwest, accusing them of acting as paid informants for Colombia's military. The communique posted on a Web site sympathetic to the rebels followed widespread but unconfirmed reports that as many as 27 Awa Indians had been killed.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 26, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe said he's no longer allowing wiretapping by the scandal-ridden domestic intelligence agency. The announcement followed allegations that the spy agency, or DAS, has continued illegal wiretapping of prominent journalists, Supreme Court justices and opposition politicians. By the end of April 33 people were dismissed from Colombia’s Dept. of Administrative Security in the wiretapping scandal.
    (AP, 2/26/09)(SFC, 4/29/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 5, A Colombian warlord who has cooperated closely with prosecutors was extradited to the United States despite human rights groups' objections that sending him away could leave hundreds of murders unsolved. Heberth Veloza (41), alias "HH," has admitted to personally killing more than 100 people and acknowledged that fighters under his command killed hundreds more.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 6, Colombia’s anti-narcotics police seized 5.7 tons of cocaine and cocaine base in a jungle laboratory reportedly run by the Black Eagles, the largest of a new generation of paramilitary groups.
    (SFC, 3/7/09, p.A4)

2009        Mar 17, In Colombia Erik Roland Larsson (69), a partially paralyzed Swede, was released by leftist rebels after nearly two years of captivity. He was the last known foreign hostage held in Colombia by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AP, 3/18/09)

2009        Mar 18, Colombia extradited former Maj. Julio Cesar Parga Rivas to the US on drug trafficking charges.
    (AP, 3/18/09)

2009        Mar 23, In southeastern Colombia a mortar attack by leftist rebels killed 4 soldiers from an elite counter-guerrilla unit and left 6 others missing in the cocaine-producing jungle area of Guaviare state known as Cano Flauta.
    (AP, 3/24/09)(SFC, 3/25/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 27, In Honda, Colombia, Arcebio Alvarez (59), a farmer and widower, was arrested on charges of incest and sexual abuse. He was accused of incest for allegedly fathering eight children with his daughter. He denied being the woman's biological father.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Mar 30, Banking officials meeting in Colombia said Argentina and China have tentatively agreed to swap $10 billion worth of their currencies to enable South America's second-largest economy to avoid using dollars in trade between the nations.
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 12, In Colombia a caravan of some 500 motorcycles completed a three-week ride dedicated to hostages held by FARC rebels, but fell short of securing the release of captives. At least 22 Colombian soldiers and police were held by the FARC as political bargaining chips.
    (AP, 4/12/09)

2009        Apr 15, Colombia's most wanted drug lord was captured in a jungle raid involving hundreds of police officers. Daniel Rendon Herrera (43), a far-right warlord known as "Don Mario," was taken in shackles to the capital to await possible extradition to the United States.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        May 8, In Colombia Jorge Noguera, former director of the civilian intelligence service, DAS, was charged with conspiracy and murder. He was accused of colluding with paramilitaries and helping to plan the murders of opposition figures.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.43)

2009        May 11, Colombian authorities arrested a senator closely allied with President Alvaro Uribe for alleged collusion with illegal far-right militias. Sen. Zulema Jattin (39) had been under Supreme Court investigation for allegedly benefitting politically from ties with militia boss Rodrigo Tovar. Jattin called her arrest a "kidnapping" by the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 5/11/09)

2009        May 19, Colombian lawmakers approved a proposal for voters to decide in a referendum whether to change the constitution and let President Alvaro Uribe seek a third term.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 26, Wilmer Ignacio Guerrero Ibanez (40), a suspected trafficker accused of smuggling cocaine through Venezuela was deported to Colombia, where officials took him into custody at an international bridge linking the countries.
    (AP, 5/27/09)

2009        May 30, In Colombia 3 computers were seized in the Bogota home of a Adela Perez (36), a suspected FARC operative. One computer, finally decrypted in July, contained an hour-long video that appeared to confirm that Colombia's largest rebel army gave money to the 2006 election campaign of President Rafael Correa of Ecuador.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Jun 19, The UN said Colombia's coca crop shrank by nearly a fifth last year while cultivation of the bush that is the basis of cocaine rose for a third straight year in Peru and Bolivia, the world's two other coca-producing nations.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Colombia rebels killed at least seven members of a police counterinsurgency unit in an ambush in the country's southwest.
    (AP, 6/23/09)

2009        Jul 12, Colombia’s President Alvaro Uribe delivered reparations totaling nearly $1 million to 279 victims of Colombia's long-running conflict.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 16, Colombian authorities extradited to the United States Gerardo Aguilar (50), alias "Cesar," a FARC rebel "jailer" captured in last year's July 2 rescue of three US military contractors and ex-presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt. He faced drug-trafficking charges, kidnapping and other charges on an indictment in Washington, D.C. federal court.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Jul 25, In Colombia at least 16 suspected FARC guerrillas and one soldier have been killed in clashes over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 27, In Colombia three soldiers and two civilians were killed in a rifle and grenade attack on a boat carrying coca eradication workers on the San Juan river in Choco state. Six people were wounded and six more were missing.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 27, Sweden said it was demanding an explanation as to why Swedish-made anti-tank rocket launchers, sold to Venezuela years ago, were obtained by Colombia's main rebel group. Three launchers were recovered in October in a FARC arms cache belonging to a rebel commander known as "Jhon 40" and Colombia only recently asked Sweden to confirm whether they had been sold to Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 28, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez recalled his ambassador from Bogota and threatened to halt Colombian imports after the neighboring country said anti-tank weapons found in a rebel arms cache came from Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2009        Jul 31, In Colombia at least eight former officials of the domestic intelligence agency surrendered to face criminal charges for allegedly spying illegally on opponents of President Alvaro Uribe including judges, journalists and human rights workers.
    (AP, 8/1/09)

2009        Aug 5, In Colombia David Murcia Guzman, a Colombian businessman, was convicted in a notorious pyramid scheme that authorities say bilked investors out of more than $2.4 billion. Guzman was convicted of money laundering and illegal wealth accumulation through the company he founded, DMG Group Holdings SA. A New York court has sought his extradition. Murcia was extradited to the US on Jan 5, 2009.
    (AP, 8/5/09)(AP, 1/5/10)

2009        Aug 8, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said he's returning his ambassador to Colombia, moving to resolve rising diplomatic tensions after weapons sold to Venezuela were found in a rebel cache.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 10, Leaders of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUL), a 12-member group inspired by Brazil, met in Quito, Ecuador, in an attempt to further integration. Colombia’s Pres. Uribe did not attend, in part because Ecuador broke of ties with Colombia last year.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.31)

2009        Aug 22, Colombian authorities said police have captured Jose Armando Cadena Cabrera, a guerrilla suspected of killing a US military contractor and a Colombian soldier after their surveillance plane crashed in the jungle in 2003.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 26, In Colombia hooded men in uniforms without insignias shot and killed 12 members of the Awa indigenous group, including five children, on a reserve in a region plagued by the cocaine trade.
    (AP, 8/26/09)

2009        Aug, Colombia’s Supreme Court suspended further extraditions of paramilitary leaders arguing that the gravity of the drug charges they face in the US pales in comparison with the mass murders and other enormities that they are accused of in Colombia.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.46)

2009        Sep 4, Thousands of opponents of Hugo Chavez marched against the Venezuelan president across Latin America, accusing him of everything from authoritarianism to international meddling. The protests, coordinated through Twitter and Facebook, drew more than 5,000 people in Bogota, and thousands more in the capitals of Venezuela and Honduras. Smaller demonstrations were held in other Latin American capitals, as well as New York and Madrid.
    (AP, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 5, In Colombia a grenade exploded in a crowd celebrating a national soccer team win in Medellin, killing one person and wounding at least 30. Police thought a reveler may have accidentally detonated the grenade by mishandling it.
    (AP, 9/6/09)

2009        Sep 8, Colombia’s President Alvaro Uribe signed legislation calling for a national referendum on amending the constitution to allow him to seek re-election for a second time.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Sep 9, Colombian customs agents said they seized $11.3 million in cash from a shipping container in the nation's largest cargo port. Ret. Gen. Francisco Pedraza was captured at the installations of the IV Brigade in Medellin, Antioquia. He is being investigated for homicide, forced displacement and terrorism as part of an investigation into the 2001 massacre of at least 26 people in Naya, Cauca state.
    (AP, 9/9/09)(AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 10, Colombia’s police said they have seized $55 million in properties and assets from drug traffickers in a 2 day operation in five cities in Antioquia state and six cities in Cundinamarca state. The assets included shares in a popular soccer team.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 11, In Colombia two bombs being carried by donkeys exploded, killing two coca-eradication workers and wounding six soldiers in Norte de Santander state.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 13, Costa Rican authorities detained 54 US-bound migrants from Africa and Nepal after their boat arrived on the country's coast. Authorities also took into custody three suspected Colombian smugglers who were traveling with them.
    (AP, 9/13/09)

2009        Sep 18, Colombia’s spy chief, Felipe Munoz Gomez, said the domestic spy department will be dismantled and a new agency will be set up to focus on intelligence and counterintelligence work involving national security. This followed a recent wiretapping scandal.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 19, Colombia extradited Nancy Conde Rubio (37), a captured leftist rebel who unwittingly helped officials rescue 15 hostages, including three American military contractors. She was bundled aboard a plane to Florida to face charges of terrorism in a US federal court. Colombia also sent back another woman and eight men to face charges in the US related to drug trafficking.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 24, The Colombian military discovered a mass grave holding 16 rebels believed killed in combat, including a nephew of a top guerrilla commander. the FARC fighters were believed killed during fighting in July and included a nephew of the rebel band's No. 2 leader, Jorge Briceno.
    (AP, 9/25/09)

2009        Sep 25, In Colombia the chief prosecutor's office said it has unearthed the remains of 17 peasants tortured and killed at a ranch that belonged to the since-slain, far-right militia leader Carlos Castano in Colombia's northwest. The peasants were believed slain 10 to 12 years ago by men under the command of Jesus Ignacio Roldan, alias "Monoleche," a Castano lieutenant who later participated in the 2004 murder of the right-wing militia leader.
    (AP, 9/25/09)

2009        Sep 30, Colombian authorities said a gunman on horseback killed German Herrera (41), a town councilman in Castillo, and wounded an 11-year-old boy. Herrera had been threatened by leftist FARC rebels active in the area. The national councilman's federation said nine town councilmen have been killed in Colombia this year, compared to 13 in all of 2008.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 7, In Colombia machine gun-firing rebels on motorbikes attacked a prison, springing ELN guerrilla rebel chief Gustavo Anibal Giraldo. One guard was killed and another suffered multiple gunshot wounds in the daring midday raid, which ended with Giraldo fleeing on the back of a motorcycle. Giraldo was charged with kidnapping two journalists in 2003 on assignment for the Los Angeles Times. Giraldo was also charged in a US indictment unsealed in December with the 15-month kidnapping of a US helicopter mechanic.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 22, Venezuela deported Luis Cediel to the US. The Colombian man had links to a pyramid scheme that bilked Colombians out of hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (SFC, 10/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Oct 11, In Venezuela 12 men were kidnapped from a field where they were playing soccer. On Oct 25 the bodies of 10 of the men, most of them Colombians, were found with multiple spots in western Tachira state. A single survivor, Manuel Cortez (19) of Colombia, was shot in the neck.
    (AP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct 27, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said two Colombian spies have been captured and will go on trail for conducting espionage within his country. Colombia's security agency denied sending any agents into Venezuela.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 30, In Colombia the US ambassador and three Colombian ministers signed a pact in a private, low-key ceremony, to expand Washington's military's presence, a deal that Venezuela's Hugo Chavez has called a threat to the region's security.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Nov 8, Colombia said it will appeal to the UN Security Council and the OAS after Hugo Chavez, the fiery leftist president of neighboring Venezuela, ordered his army to prepare for war in order to assure peace.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 9, In Colombia at least nine soldiers were killed and four wounded in combat with leftist rebels in a mountainous western region.
    (AP, 11/10/09)

2009        Nov 10, Colombian authorities said they have seized $19 million in forged US currency so far this year, five times the amount confiscated last year. A statement from the Presidency's press office said 16 people have been arrested in Colombia and the US in connection with the seizures and seven illegal counterfeiting print shops have been dismantled.
    (AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 14, Colombia’s government 4 soldiers from Venezuela's National Guard captured in Colombian territory will be repatriated in a bid to ease tensions between the South American neighbors. The Colombian navy intercepted the men Nov 13 in El Aceitico along the border.
    (AP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 15, In Colombia DAS intelligence agency director Felipe Munoz said Ivan Danilo Alarcon, wanted for rebellion and drug trafficking, was detained by intelligence agents near a university in the city of Cali. Alarcon, who posed as a human rights activist, cried out that he was being kidnapped and 100 people surrounded and detained the agents for over an hour, threatened them with death and took their weapons and armored vests. They freed Alarcon from handcuffs, and he fled.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 19, Venezuelan authorities captured Magally Moreno (39), a former Colombian official, wanted for collaborating with outlawed right-wing paramilitary fighters. Moreno was wanted by Colombian authorities on charges of aggravated homicide and Interpol had called for her arrest.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Dec 21, In Colombia at least 10 men in military uniforms abducted Gov. Luis Francisco Cuellar (69) from his home in Florencia, capital of the southern state of Caqueta, killing a police guard and blasting open the governor's door with explosives. FARC was believed to be responsible. Cuellar’s body, still clad in pajamas, was found lying at the top of a steep hill on Florencia's outskirts the next morning. President Alvaro Uribe soberly told Colombians that kidnappers had slit the throat of the southern governor.
    (AP, 12/22/09)(AP, 12/23/09)

2010        Jan 1, In Colombia a New year’s Eve dessert, distributed to the homeless in Bogota’s El Calvario neighborhood, contained ground glass and poison that caused one death and sickened 44 others. Air and ground assaults on two rebel camps killed 18 insurgents and captured 13, 112 miles south of Bogota. An attack by guerrillas a few hours earlier killed a soldier and a teenage girl at a boardinghouse 164 miles southwest of Bogota.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 14, Colombia extradited William Suarez (42), a suspect in the nation's most notorious pyramid scheme, to face trial in the United States. Suarez was the principal partner of his brother-in-law David Murcia, creator of the company DMG, which offered investors interest rates far above what banks offer, but was actually a pyramid scheme that bilked Colombians out of millions of dollars.
    (AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 27, Panama's national police force killed three guerrillas from a Colombian rebel group in a confrontation along the sparsely populated frontier between the two countries. Two others were captured while and one escaped.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Feb 24, In Colombia Mario Uribe (60), a former senator and second cousin to President Alvaro Uribe, was arrested by authorities on charges of colluding with far-right death squads. Mario Uribe was imprisoned for four months in 2008 on charges of colluding with paramilitaries, but he was released in August of the same year after Colombia's No. 2 prosecutor said there was insufficient evidence to hold him.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 26, In Colombia a Constitutional Court ruling blocked a referendum on whether Alvaro Uribe should be allowed to seek a third consecutive term. The high court ruled, in a 7-2 decision that is not subject to appeal, that a law passed by Congress to set up the referendum was unconstitutional.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

2010        Mar 14, In Colombia candidates from parties allied with outgoing President Alvaro Uribe dominated elections to replace a Congress tarnished by lawmakers' links to far-right criminal bands. Voters made the Party of National Integration (PIN), new party accused of ties to far-right criminal bands, Colombia's fourth-strongest party. Former Foreign Minister Noemi Sanin (60) defeated Colombian President Alvaro Uribe's hand-picked successor for the Conservative Party's presidential nomination in a close primary.
    (AP, 3/15/10)(AP, 3/16/10)(AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 19, In Colombia Clodomiro Castilla (50), a reporter and announcer at La Voz de Monteria radio, was gunned down on his front porch. Castilla, a father of four, had reported on far-right drug-funded militias known as paramilitaries and their friendly ties to the area's business elite.
    (AP, 3/21/10)

2010        Mar 21, In Colombia 4 gunmen entered the town of San Juan in Cordoba province and opened fire without warning killing 7 people including 3 children.

2010        Mar 23, Colombian forces rescued 5 subcontractors of Occidental Petroleum, who were kidnapped near the Venezuelan last week by suspected leftist guerrillas.
    (SFC, 3/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 24, In Colombia a car bomb ripped open cars and storefronts in the administrative center of the Pacific port of Buenaventura, left 9 people dead and 56 wounded. The FARC was suspected.
    (AP, 3/25/10)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.38)

2010        Mar 25, In Colombia a package bomb killed a 12-year-old boy who may have been given it to take to a police station after school in the coca-growing southwest.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 28, Colombian rebels handed over Pvt. Josue Calvo (23) to the International Red Cross in their first release of a captive in more than a year. The insurgents are promising to soon free a second soldier they've held for far longer.
    (AP, 3/28/10)(SFC, 3/29/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 1, Colombia's largest rebel group, FARC, turned over the remains of police Maj. Julian Guevara, who died while being held captive. This was the guerrillas' latest gesture aimed at prodding the government into negotiating a prisoner exchange. Guevara was captured by the FARC in November 1998 and he died in January 2006 while still a prisoner.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 6, In central Colombia Hector Jose Buitrago (71), a veteran paramilitary leader and reputed founder of a bloody right-wing militia faction, was arrested after more than a decade on the lam.
    (AP, 4/8/10)
2010        Apr 6, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said that eight Colombians have been arrested as suspected spies and charged that several carried identification indicating they are members of neighboring Colombia's military. He said the suspects, who were detained more than a week ago, had computers and satellite telephones and were using cameras to take photographs of Venezuela's power plants.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 9, Antanas Mockus, Colombian presidential candidate and popular former mayor of Bogota, revealed that he has been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Mockus said he is in the earlier stages of the degenerative disease and it would not affect his ability to be president.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 12, In Argentina Luis Caicedo Velandia was arrested as he walked near a Buenos Aires shopping mall and placed under extremely high security. the suspected Colombian drug trafficker, who operated under the radar for years in Argentina, was later described as a ringleader capable of giving direct orders to Colombia's most-wanted cocaine kingpins and with close ties to Mexico's feared Sinaloa cartel.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Apr 16, Brazil arrested Nestor Caro Chapparro, said to be one of Colombia's top four drug traffickers. The US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency has accused Chapparro of smuggling more than 5,000 kg of cocaine from Brazil to the US in the late 1990s.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 20, Colombian Gen. Fernando Joya and five other members of the military died in a helicopter collision at a base in the nation's southwest.
    (AP, 4/21/10)

2010        Apr 25, Colombian police said they have captured Danit Doria Castillo, a leading figure in a drug trafficking, right-wing militia group.
    (AP, 4/25/10)

2010        Apr 29, Colombian authorities detained Congressman Luis Carlos Restrepo Orozco on allegations of receiving drug money.
    (AP, 4/29/10)

2010        May 4, In Mexico two Colombians were arrested at Mexico City's international airport as they allegedly prepared to board a flight to Panama trying to smuggle out more than $350,000 in cash in various currencies.
    (AP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 18, In Colombia Rogelio Martinez (51) gunmen intercepted a mototaxi and shot  him at least three times near his residence in San Onofre, Sucre province. Martinez lived with 52 displaced families locked in a dispute with a paramilitary group over a 556-hectare (1,374-acre) farm called "La Alemania."
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 23, In Colombia leftist rebels killed nine marines and wounded two in a firefight. The marines were attacked when they entered a rebel camp in Solano, a municipality in the southern state of Caqueta.
    (AP, 5/24/10)

2010        May 24, In Colombia a retired police major said that President Alvaro Uribe's younger brother, Santiago Uribe, commanded a right-wing death squad in the early 1990s from the family's cattle ranch. He estimated the militia killed at least 50 people.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 30, Colombia held presidential elections. Juan Manuel Santos (58), who helped craft the wildly popular security policies of outgoing President Alvaro Uribe, won 47 percent of the vote to top a field of nine candidates. Antanas Mockus (58), the son of Lithuanian immigrants who stressed clean government and promised a tax increase, got 22 percent. A former two-time mayor of the Colombian capital, he catapulted into contention in pre-election polls only to falter at the ballot box. A run-off was set for June 20. Insurgents killed 10 policemen and soldiers on election day.
    (AP, 5/30/10)(AP, 5/31/10)(Econ, 6/5/10, p.43)(Econ, 6/26/10, p.39)

2010        Jun 13, Colombian soldiers freed two high-ranking police officers and an army sergeant who were among the longest-held rebel captives during a raid in the nation's southern jungle. The rescue operation freed police Gen. Luis Mendieta and Col. Enrique Murillo, both captured by leftist FARC, guerrillas in a November 1998 siege of the eastern provincial capital of Mitu. Sgt. Arbey Delgado and Lt. Col. William Donato were taken in August of the same year during a rebel attack on an anti-drug outpost in the southern jungle town of Miraflores. Donato was found the next day.
    (AP, 6/13/10)(AP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 16, In Colombia a gas explosion at the San Fernando coal mine in Antioquia province,  left at least 34 people dead, with dozens of miners still trapped.
    (AP, 6/17/10)(AP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 16, Ruben Dario Granda, the brother of a top Colombian guerrilla leader, arrived in Managua, where president Daniel Ortega had granted him political asylum earlier this month. Granda is the brother of Rodrigo Granda, known as the "foreign minister" of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 20, In Colombia polls showed a huge lead for former Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos (58). Santos won 69% of the vote, the largest margin in modern Colombian history.
    (AP, 6/20/10)(AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 29, A Colombian court handed down the first prison sentences to leaders of the illegal far-right militias that demobilized under a peace pact with President Alvaro Uribe's government. Edward Cobos, better known as "Diego Vecino," and Uber Banquez, alias "Juancho Dique," each received the maximum of eight years in prison dictated by the Justice and Peace law under which they surrendered. A Colombian court said Luis Caicedo Velandia, arrested in April in Argentina, has agreed to be extradited to the US on drug-trafficking and money-laundering charges.
    (AP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jun 30, In Colombia former hostage Ingrid Betancourt filed a request with Colombia's Defense Ministry to pay her $6.8 million for damages she suffered during six years in rebel captivity. She sought the payment for herself, her two children, mother and sister. Betancourt later said that despite seeking damages, she has no intention of suing Colombia for the money.
    (AP, 7/10/10)(AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 8, The curator of the Nieman Foundation at Harvard, which has offered mid-career Nieman fellowships since 1938, said that a consular official at the US Embassy in Bogota told him that Colombian journalist Hollman Morris has been ruled permanently ineligible for a visa under the "Terrorist activities" section of the USA Patriot Act. Hollman has been highly critical of ties between illegal far-right militias and allies of outgoing President Alvaro Uribe.
    (AP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jul 10, In Colombia 3 soldiers were killed after entering a minefield in the northeastern province of Arauca.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 11, In Colombia 10 soldiers were killed after entering a minefield in the northeastern province of Arauca. Pres. Uribe said 12 rebels, part of the security cordon for rebel leader Alfonso Cano, were killed in the southwestern mountains.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 22, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez broke diplomatic relations with neighboring Colombia, accusing the close US ally of fabricating reports that Colombian rebels find safe haven inside Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/23/10)

2010        Aug 2, In Colombia Orlando Sigifredo Ibarra Sarmiento, an Ecuadoran businessman (37), was seized in the border city of Ipiales. In 2012 a deserter from a guerrilla army led the hostage to freedom.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2010        Aug 3, British oil giant BP said it will sell its Colombian business for a total of 1.9 billion dollars (1.4 billion euros) to national oil company Ecopetrol and Talisman of Canada.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 10, The leaders of Colombia and Venezuela re-established diplomatic relations, saying they are starting to repair confidence undermined by years of recriminations between the two countries. The announcement came after a four-hour meeting between Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez and Colombia's new leader, Juan Manuel Santos.
    (AP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, In Colombia a car bomb exploded outside a major radio station and banks in Bogota, shattering windows and injuring at least nine people. No deaths were reported.
    (AP, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 16, A Boeing 737 jetliner with 131 passengers aboard crashed on landing and broke into three pieces at Colombia’s at San Andres Island in the Caribbean. The region's governor said it was a miracle that only one person died. On Sep 1 a girl (11) died from her injuries raising the death toll to two.
    (AP, 8/16/10)(AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Aug 17, Colombia’s Constitutional Court ruled that last year's agreement giving the US military access to more Colombian bases is unconstitutional because it wasn't approved by legislators.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 19, Venezuelan Walid Makled Garcia (43), a prominent drug trafficking suspect who has been branded a major kingpin by the US government, was arrested in Colombia. He was implicated in Venezuela in two killings.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Sep 1, In southern Colombia suspected leftist rebels killed 14 police officers and wounded seven in an ambush of a five-truck convoy.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 2, In Colombia two separate mine blasts over the last 24 hours killed four soldiers and wounded six more.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 10, In Colombia leftist rebels firing homemade mortars killed at least eight police officers and wounded four in a pre-dawn attack on a police barracks near the country's border with Ecuador.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 14, Colombian authorities reported the arrest of Javier Caceres (52), a veteran lawmaker and former president of Congress, on criminal conspiracy charges for alleged collusion with far-right militias.
    (AP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 19, Colombia's military killed at least 27 rebels in an air raid and ensuing ground assault near the border with Ecuador. The dead included FARC commander Sixto Cabana and Domingo Biojo (55), who had spent half his life in the FARC. The next day Colombia's national police chief said three informants will divide a reward of up to $500,000 for leading authorities to the rebel camp.
    (AP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/20/10)(SFC, 9/21/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 22, Colombian government forces staged a bombing raid in the eastern La Macarena mountains that killed Victor Julio Suarez (aka Mono Jojoy), the senior commander of FARC. 20 guerrillas died in the attack. Computer hard drives and memory sticks were seized that later revealed data on gold mines under FARC control.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.42)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.36) 

2010        Sep 23, Colombia's military killed Jorge Briceno (57), the field marshal and No. 2 commander of FARC, the country's main leftist rebel group in the country's eastern plains. Briceno died in an operation in the rebel stronghold of La Macarena that began the previous night and involved special forces, air force and police intelligence.
    (AP, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 27, Colombia's inspector general ousted Sen. Piedad Cordoba (55), an outspoken opposition senator, barring her from public service for 18 years for allegedly "promoting and collaborating" with Latin America's last remaining rebel army.
    (AP, 9/27/10)
2010        Sep 27, In Colombia a mudslide swept over people changing from one bus to another because an earlier slide was blocking a mountain road, and at least 20 people were buried.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 4, Colombia's defense minister Rodrigo Rivera said authorities have seized $29 million and 17 million euros in cash in a home in a poor district south of the capital, Bogota. Rivera said the money belonged to drug traffickers including Daniel "El Loco" Barrera. Authorities were offering a $2.7 million reward for Barrera's capture.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 12, At the United Nations Colombia, Germany, India, Portugal and South Africa were elected to join the big guns on the UN Security Council for two years, starting in January.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/csm/20101012/ts_csm/331624)(Reuters, 10/13/10)

2010        Nov 2, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez and his Colombian counterpart Juan Manuel Santos signed a string of accords seeking to improve relations despite ideological differences and recent bitter disputes.
    (AP, 11/2/10)(AFP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 7, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said on Cuban television that Colombia will extradite Walid Makled, known as "The Turk," a businessman accused of being a major drug kingpin back to his native Venezuela to face justice. Makled has said in a television interview that he poured $2 million into a 2007 Chavez political campaign and in return got a concession at Venezuela's Puerto Cabello, his alleged shipping point for drugs.
    (Reuters, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 20, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos said a top FARC rebel leader who oversees major cocaine production may have been killed in the bombing of a guerrilla camp in the country's southern jungles. Fabian Ramirez's pistols, rucksack and computers were found at the scene of a pre-dawn bombing. At least six bodies were found.
    (AP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, Yair Klein, an Israeli wanted in Colombia for training militias that killed hundreds of people, returned home after he was released from a Moscow jail. Klein has denied working with Colombia's cocaine cartels and said he only instructed paramilitaries in defense tactics.
    (AP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 25, Colombian prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for retired Gen. Miguel Maza Marquez (73), a former domestic security chief, who they say participated in the Aug 18, 1989, assassination of presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan.
    (AP, 11/25/10)

2010        Dec 4, The Colombian Red Cross said the toll from weeks of heavy rains across Colombia has risen to 174 people dead and over 1.5 million homeless.
    (AFP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 5, Colombian officials said a landslide following weeks of drenching rains has buried more than 50 homes in the northwest. Rescue workers soon recovered 47 bodies. As many as 80 people remained missing and feared dead.
    (AP, 12/5/10)(AP, 12/6/10)(AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 20, In Colombia another mudslide caused by weeks of rains destroyed 52 makeshift mountainside homes. Two people were missing.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 23, In southwestern Colombia a landslide caused by weeks of rains buried 4-5 houses killing at least 12 people. The government and Red Cross said the year's heavy rains have killed at least 312 people in the country.
    (AP, 12/24/10)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.40)

2010        Dec 24, Colombia’s police and air force began an anti-drug operation in Meta state.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 25, In Colombia a 120 helicopter-borne commandos raided the camp of drug lord Pedro Oliverio Guerrero, head of the so-called Popular Revolutionary Anti-Terrorist Army of Colombia. Officials on Dec 29 confirmed that they had found the body of Guerrero, also know as "The Knife," near Puerto Alvira in Meta province. 2 police officers also died in the operation.
    (AP, 12/30/10)(SFC, 12/30/10, p.A5)

2011        Jan 3, Colombian authorities said that they have accused an army major and four other soldiers of killing three civilians and then falsely presenting their bodies as those of guerrillas slain in combat. Maj. Juan Carlos Del Rio Crespo and four other troops were charged in the 2002 killings of three members of the Agudelo family in Antioquia state.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 12, Colombian police assisted by US drug agents captured Julio Enrique Ayala Munoz, the chief go-between linking the country's cocaine suppliers and Mexico's Sinaloa cartel. Munoz was wanted for extradition to New York on drug trafficking-related charges.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 26, In northern Colombia an explosion at coal mine killed at least five workers and trapped 16 more.
    (AP, 1/26/11)
2011        Jan 26, Venezuela's top security official and Colombia's defense minister signed an accord to strengthen cooperation in the fight against drug trafficking along the extensive border separating the South American neighbors.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, Colombia asked Israel to extradite former Israeli army Lt. Col. Yair Klein, who was convicted by a Colombian court and sentenced in absentia to nearly 11 years in prison for training drug lords' assassins in the late 1980s.
    (AP, 1/27/11)
2011        Jan 27, In Colombia priests Rafael Reatiga and Richard Piffano were found shot to death dead in a car in southern Bogota. In 2012 prosecutors said the priests had paid 15 million pesos or about $8,500 to be shot after at least one of them was diagnosed with AIDS. Two of the four assassins were later arrested.
    (AP, 2/14/12)(http://tinyurl.com/7749qkj)

2011        Jan 29, In Costa Rica raids  were carried out in San Jose and in the Pacific coast city of Puntarenas. Five Colombians and a Costa Rican national were arrested. The Security Ministry says in a June 30 statement that a Colombian-run network paid fishermen to haul cocaine to Guatemala and Mexico.
    (AP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 4, US federal authorities said they are charging 23 people with moving drugs and illicit money through the Caribbean on behalf of a major Colombian drug cartel. 21 of the suspects have been arrested so far in Colombia, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, New York, Miami and the US Virgin Islands.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 9, In Colombia Marcos Baquero (35), a town councilman taken hostage in June 2009, was released by FARC rebels, the first of five captives they promised to free this week. He was the 15th captive released by the FARC since early 2008 in what was widely seen as good-faith gestures seeking a peace dialogue.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 11, Colombian rebels released to the International Red Cross two more captives, a young marine they captured eight months ago and a town councilman (48) seized in 2009.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 13, Colombian rebels released a fourth captive, police patrolman Carlos Ocampo (340) held since December, but a planned handover of two others did not occur. The government said police Maj. Guillermo Solorzano (35), who was captured in June 2007, and army Cpl. 1st Class Salin Antonio San Miguel Valderrana (27), captive since May 2008, were not at the location designated for the helicopter retrieval by the International Red Cross.
    (AP, 2/14/11)
2011        Feb 13, Colombian soldiers for the first time seized a fully submersible drug-smuggling submarine capable of reaching the coast of Mexico. The 99-foot-long (30-m) fiberglass boat, powered by two diesel engines, could carry a crew of six in an air-conditioned interior.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 16, Colombian rebels released to the International Red Cross the last two captives of a batch of six after a confusing weekend delay that bred ill will. FARC freed a 35-year-old police major seized in 2007 and an army corporal captured in 2008.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb, In Colombia ELN guerrillas kidnapped 11 men in Casanare, who were building the new Bicentenario pipeline.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.46)

2011        Mar 1, In Colombia over a dozen attackers firing assault rifles killed four police officers and two other people in robbing a cash shipment that had just arrived by helicopter in the southwestern city of Caloto. Presumed rebels killed a soldier and a civilian motorcycle rider in an attack on a military checkpoint just minutes before a convoy carrying US and UN officials passed by in the Uraba region of Antioquia.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Two Colombian air force helicopters crashed during a training exercise, killing four Colombian soldiers and a Mexican lieutenant participating in the operation.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Colombia suspected leftist rebels released 22 of 23 Colombian contractors abducted a day earlier while doing exploratory work in a remote jungle region for the Canadian oil company Talisman.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 14, Colombian troops killed Olidem Romel Solarte Ceron (39), alias "Oliver Solarte," in a joint forces operation near San Miguel, a town bordering Ecuador. The top FARC rebel had supplied Mexican traffickers with cocaine and managed finances and arms dealings for the guerrillas' powerful Southern Bloc.
    (AP, 3/15/11)

2011        Mar 17, Colombia’s Chief Prosecutor's Office said it has convicted Vicente Castano, head of Colombia's paramilitary umbrella group. He was sentenced to 40 years in prison for the 2004 slaying of his brother.
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        Apr 3, In Colombia Walid Makled, the reputed Venezuelan drug kingpin who Colombia has decided to extradite back home rather than to the US, said in a TV interview that he has videos proving Venezuela's ruling elite is deeply involved in cocaine trafficking.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 11, Venezuela deported two suspected Colombian rebels, sending a positive message to other nations that want President Hugo Chavez to ensure suspected terrorists do not find haven in Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 13, Colombia's interior minister approved the extradition to Venezuela of Walid Makled, a reputed drug kingpin who has publicly accused his home country's ruling elite of deep involvement in cocaine trafficking. It will take at least five days to extradite Makled, in order to give him a chance to appeal the decision.
    (AP, 4/13/11)
2011        Apr 13, In Colombia a river swollen with heavy rains swept a passenger bus off a highway in the mountainous northwest, killing at least 16 people and leaving 4 others missing.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 20, Israeli police arrested two Israelis in connection with a seizure of over $60 million worth of cocaine smuggled into Israel aboard a Colombian vessel.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        Apr 23, Venezuela detained Joaquin Perez Becerra as he arrived in Caracas on an airline flight from Frankfurt, Germany. He was described him as an alleged member of the international front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AP, 4/24/11)

2011        Apr 26, In Colombia 5 police officers were killed and two wounded when suspected leftist rebels attacked two police posts in different regions.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 28, Authorities in Colombia arrested Sen. Ivan Moreno, the brother of Bogota Mayor Samuel Moreno, on corruption charges for his alleged role in a bid-rigging scandal involving road construction.
    (AP, 4/28/11)
2011        Apr 28, In Peru the leaders of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru agreed to launch the Pacific Alliance in the declaration of Lima.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Alliance)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.39)

2011        May 3, Colombia's solicitor general suspended Bogota's Mayor Samuel Moreno from office for three months for alleged negligence in overseeing public contracts.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 9, Colombia extradited Walid Makled to Venezuela to face drug smuggling and murder charges.
    (SFC, 5/10/11, p.A2)

2011        May 12, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos singed a law creating incentives for soccer clubs to become limited companies and attract new investors and to report to the finance ministry’s money-laundering unit.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.38)

2011        May 17, In Colombia 8 miners were trapped at the Loma Gorda coal mine.
    (SFC, 5/18/11, p.A2)

2011        May 24, In Colombia‘s Congress approved legislation to of offer compensation to some 4 million people who have suffered in its armed conflicts. A Colombian judge issued an arrest order for the former head of the secret police over her alleged involvement in a domestic spying scandal. Former domestic intelligence chief Maria del Pilar Hurtado, who says she is innocent. She has been living in exile in Panama since November 2010 and that country has said it will maintain her asylum.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.46)(AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 26, Colombia's government said it has identified the remains of almost 10,000 people buried in unmarked graves across the country. An official said at least that many more bodies are still to be identified.
    (AP, 5/26/11)

2011        May 30, In Venezuela Guillermo Torres (56), aka "Julian Conrado," a top commander for the FARC rebels, was captured in a collaboration between Colombia and Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 4, Colombia's army said it has killed Alirio Rojas Bocanegra, the security chief for Guillermo Leon Saenz, the head of the country's main rebel group. Saenz took over the top job in 2008.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 7, Colombian authorities said 4 police officers were killed and 16 injured in an alleged rebel attack in the southwestern province of Cauca.
    (SFC, 6/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 22, In Colombia women of Barbacoas announced that they would deny their partners sex until authorities began paving a 35-mile (57-km) road linking the town of 35,000 people with the provincial capital of Pasto. Army engineers began work on Oct 11 and the sex strike was declared over.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Jun 28, Colombia extradited Phanor Arizabaleta (73) to the US. He has been charged with drug trafficking by a court in Washington, DC. Arizabaleta was alleged to have been a key figure in the now-defunct Cali cartel. Colombia's Supreme Court also approved the extradition of Ramon Quintero Sanclemente (52) to face money laundering and drug charges in Florida.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 29, In Colombia guerrillas erected a road block between Medellin and the Caribbean coast. When police arrived they detonated a bomb killing a police chief.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.34)

2011        Jun, In Colombia 3 Chinese staff of the Emerald Energy, a British subsidiary of China’s Sinochem, were kidnapped along with their translator by FARC guerrillas from the Ombu field in Caqueta. The company had refused to pay $10 per barrel in extortion.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.44) 

2011        Jul 8, In Colombia President Juan Manuel Santos asked for forgiveness from victims and survivors of a 2000 massacre by right-wing paramilitaries that is considered one of the bloodiest chapters in Colombia's long internal conflict. A report from the National Commission of Reparation and Reconciliation says at least 60 people were killed in the town of El Salado in northern Bolivar province between Feb 16 and Feb 21, 2000.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 9, In Colombia nearly simultaneous attacks in three towns killed three people and wounded more than 20. President Manuel Santos blamed the FARC rebel group.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 30, A Colombian judge ordered the arrest of Bernardo Moreno (51), former President Alvaro Uribe's chief of staff, for alleged involvement in spying on judges, journalists and politicians by the domestic security agency.
    (AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Aug 8, In Colombia Muhammad Nazarruddin (32), the ex-treasurer of Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's party, was reported arrested in Cartagena after weeks on the run over corruption allegations. Nazaruddin has been on the run since May when anti-graft investigators linked him to a bribery scandal involving contracts on a 23-million-dollar athletes' village for the Southeast Asian Games scheduled in November.
    (AFP, 8/9/11)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.51)

2011        Aug 10, A Colombian court ordered a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church to pay $220,000 in restitution to two youths who were sexually abused by one of its priests in 2007. The Rev. Luis Enrique Duque was already serving an 18-year prison sentence for the crime.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Colombia suspected FARC rebels ambushed and killed five police officers and wounded two in the southwestern coastal town of Tumaco.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Sep 2, Officials announced a joint US-Colombian operation against a major trafficker, in which police arrested 30 people and seized 21 small planes that were ferrying cocaine to Central America. Most of the planes were seized this past week in Guatemala and Honduras. Officials also announced a $2.7 million reward for trafficker Daniel "Loco" Barrera.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 5, Authorities in Panama arrested 80 Panamanians and Colombians breaking up a major cocaine trafficking organization that moved drugs from Colombia to Panama and then north to Mexico and the United States.
    (AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 7, In Colombia a leftist congressman presented video testimony from a jailed far-right militia chief who accuses former President Alvaro Uribe of sponsoring his illegal armed group in the mid-1990s. In the video Pablo Hernan Sierra says he organized a militia that operated from the Guacharacas ranch owned by Uribe's family in the northwestern state of Antioquia in 1996 when Uribe was the state's governor.
    (AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 14, Colombia's Supreme Court convicted Jorge Noguera (47), a former director of the country's domestic intelligence agency, for colluding with illegal far-right militias and sentenced him to 25 years in prison. He was chief of the Administrative Department of Security (DAS) under then-President Alvaro Uribe from 2002 to 2005.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 19, In Colombia Samuel Moreno (51), the suspended mayor of Bogota, was charged with crimes including embezzlement and extortion in the awarding of public contracts. If convicted he could be sentenced to at least six years in prison.
    (AP, 9/19/11)
2011        Sep 19, Venezuela deported six suspected drug traffickers wanted in Colombia and the United States. They also included US citizen Lionel Scott Harris (67), who is suspected of smuggling drugs, and five Colombians wanted on drug-related charges.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 20, Colombian police seized 301 properties, including houses, vehicles and estates, that belonged to alleged front men for Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman (56), the head of Mexico's powerful Sinaloa drug cartel. The assets were valued at $250 million.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Oct 11, Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas, on a Latin American swing to drum up support for his bid to gain UN state recognition, failed to secure support from Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos. Abbas continued on to Venezuela to meet with Pres. Chavez.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 12, The US Congress approved free trade agreements with South Korea, Colombia and Panama, ending a four-year drought in the forming of new trade partnerships and giving the White House and Capitol Hill the opportunity to show they can work together to stimulate the economy and put people back to work.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 21, In southwest Colombia 10 soldiers were reported killed and six wounded in an overnight attack, the deadliest guerrilla attack on security forces in more than a year.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 21, Pres. Obama signed free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama and South Korea.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/78rfnuz)

2011        Oct 22, In northeast Colombia 10 government soldiers were killed in an attack blamed on leftist rebels, the second such loss in less than three days.
    (AP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 30, In Colombia voters elected former leftist rebel and anti-corruption crusader Gustavo Petro (51) as mayor of Bogota, the first time an ex-guerrilla has won the country’s second most important elected office.
    (AP, 10/31/11)

2011        Oct 31, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos dissolved the scandal-plagued DAS domestic intelligence agency, saying its employees will be transferred to other state offices.
    (AP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 2, An Argentine court convicted Colombian model Angie Sanclemente (31) of trafficking cocaine from Argentina to Europe. She was sentenced to six years and eight months in prison. Her Argentine boyfriend, Nicolas Gualco, and his uncle were given the same sentence following the guilty verdicts.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 4, In Colombia Alfonso Cano (63), FARC leader from Bogota's middle class, was felled by three bullets. Cano, born as Guillermo Leon Saenz, was killed in a remote area of the southwestern state of Cauca along with three other rebels, two men and a woman, hours after his hideout in forested hills was bombed. Troops recovered seven computers and 39 thumb drives belonging to Cano as well as a stash of cash.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 5, The ruling junta of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) designated Timoleon Jimenez (52) as its new chief. The announcement was made public 10 days later. The US government has offered a $5 million reward for Jimenez, and Colombia's government is offering another $2.6 million for his capture.
    (AP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 5, In northwest Colombia a landslide caused by heavy rains left at least 29 people dead and 20-40 more missing in the city of Manizales, Caldas state.
    (AP, 11/5/11)(AP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 10, In Colombia tens of thousands of students marched in Bogota in an ongoing struggle over the future of higher education. The government was offering reforms, known as Law 30, which would ad $3.5 billion for higher education over a decade.
    (SFC, 11/11/11, p.A4)

2011        Nov 16, Student leaders in Colombia called off a monthlong boycott of classes at public universities after the government met their demand to withdraw educational reform legislation.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 21, Colombia’s National Police Director Oscar Naranjo said 14 members of a gang led by Daniel Barrera (aka Loco), one of the country's most wanted drug trafficking suspects, were detained over the weekend in Bogota, Barranquilla and Cartagena.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 26, Colombia's main rebel group executed four captives, held hostage for between 12 and 13 years, during combat between guerrillas and soldiers searching for the men. Sgt. Luis Alberto Erazo (48), held by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) for nearly 12 years, survived.
    (AP, 11/26/11)

2011        Dec 2, In Colombia flooding over the last 3 months has caused 114 deaths with another 21 people missing.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.42)

2011        Dec 6, In Colombia Samuel Moreno (51), a former mayor of Bogota, was charged with receiving illegal kickbacks for public works contracts.
    (AP, 12/6/11)
2011        Dec 6, Tens of thousands marched across Colombia to repudiate last month's execution of soldiers and police by leftist rebels, who had held them for more than a decade as political bargaining chips.
    (AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 7, In Colombia a hillside loosened by heavy rains collapsed on a bus, killing five adults and a boy. Rains since Sept. 1 have caused at least 140 deaths.
    (AP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 9, In Venezuela officials said floods and mudslides unleashed by torrential rains have caused at least eight deaths. Neighboring Colombia has also been coping with floods and President Juan Manuel Santos, touring flooded areas south of Bogota, promised assistance to those whose houses have been damaged.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 12, Colombia extradited Ramon Quintero, a top Norte del Valle cartel trafficker, to the United States. His organization was accused of exporting more than 50 metric tons of cocaine a year to the US and Europe.
    (AP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 14, Colombia's government and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime released a new study that said more than 3,000 square miles (800,000 hectares) of Colombia's woodlands have been cleared since 1981 in the planting and destruction of drug crops. According to the UN, Colombia had 240 square miles (62,000 hectares) of coca under cultivation last year.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 15, A Colombian judge sentenced three construction moguls to more than seven years in prison each for embezzlement in a kickback scandal that also involved Bogota’s ex-mayor Samuel Moreno. Each of the four was also fined $5 million.
    (AP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 20, Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos approved details of a plan to pay compensation to an estimated 4 million victims of the country's long-running civil conflict. Santos signed five decrees laying out regulations under the so-called Victims Law. The Congress approved the law in May, and Santos signed it in June.
    (AP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 23, Colombian crime boss Jose Lopez Montero (40), alias "Caracho", surrendered in the city of Villavicencio. A total of 283 other members of his group also turned themselves in over the last 2 days. More than 200 members of the crime ring were soon freed because there were no charges pending against them.
    (AP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/26/11)
2011        Dec 23, In Colombia a fuel pipeline exploded in the central province of Risaralda, killing at least 7 people, injuring 45 others and destroying homes.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 26, In Colombia officials in Medellin inaugurated a giant, $6.7 million outdoor escalator for residents of one of its poorest neighborhoods. It provided the 12,000 residents of Comuna 13 a free ride up and down their steep hillside.
    (AP, 12/26/11)

2011        Dec 27, Colombian FARC rebels announced plans to release six hostages who have been held captive for more than a decade. They included police officers Jorge Trujillo, Jorge Romero and Jose Libardo Forero, who were kidnapped in southern Colombia on July 11, 1999.
    (AP, 12/27/11)

2011        Dec 28, Colombian authorities said seven soldiers have been charged in the killing of a comrade who had deserted. In 2006 the troops reported they had killed a rebel in combat near the northern town of Majagual. Investigators determined the victim wasn't a rebel but rather a soldier who had deserted from the same infantry unit.
    (AP, 12/29/11)

2011        Dec 30, In southern Colombia a bomb exploded at a police station in Orito, killing the wife and son of a police officer and injuring at least six other people.
    (AP, 12/31/11)

2012        Jan 1, Colombian police in Chaco state killed crime boss Juan de Dios Usaga. Police have said Usaga led a major crime ring involved in drug trafficking and was once a right-wing paramilitary fighter. Pamphlets soon appeared calling on the region's residents to protest the killing of Usaga.
    (AP, 1/5/12)

2012        Jan 5, In Colombia a criminal band called the Urabenos began a 2-day shut down of a northern swathe of the country in retaliation for the Jan 1 death of their leader, Juan de Dios Usaga.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.37)

2012        Jan 21, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos said that Manuel Marulanda, the late leader and co-founder of FARC, the country's main leftist rebel group, had owned 57 ranches in two states alone. Marulanda had lived a simple life and died a natural death in 2008.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Feb 1, In Colombia a bomb exploded outside a police station in the Pacific port city of Tumaco just as lunch hour ended, killing 9 people and wounding 76. Tumaco is in Narino state, which borders Ecuador, and is laced with dozens of rivers popular with drug traffickers, who include the FARC.
    (AP, 2/2/12)(AP, 2/2/12) 

2012        Feb 2, In Colombia assailants in pickup trucks fired homemade mortars at a police station in Villa Rica, killing at least six people and wounding more than 20. Among the dead were police post's commander, a 3-year-old girl and a 19-year-old woman.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 4, In Venezuela the Colombian far-tight paramilitary warlord known as "Martin Llanos" (aka Hector Buitrago) was captured along with his brother, Nelson Buitrago (aka Caballo), in the eastern town of El Tigre.
    (AP, 2/7/12)

2012        Feb 9, Colombia’s chief prosecutor's office obtained an arrest warrant for Luis Carlos Restrepo, ex-President Alvaro Uribe's peace commissioner, for allegedly choreographing the March 2006 bogus surrender of a column of leftist guerrillas. Restrepo departed Colombia on Jan. 8 and his whereabouts was unknown.
    (AP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 26, Colombia's main rebel group said it is abandoning the practice of kidnapping and will soon free its last remaining "prisoners of war," 10 security force members held for as long as 14 years.
    (AP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 28, A Colombian high court unseated Viviane Morales, the country's chief prosecutor, on the grounds that she was improperly elected. Her marriage to an ex-congressman tied to drug lords had cast a shadow over her tenure.
    (AP, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 28, In Colombia 7 oil workers were seized in Arauca, on the border with Venezuela. The FARC and the ELN were active in the area.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.48)

2012        Mar 7, In Colombia an accident at a small coal mine, named "El Desespero" (Desperation), killed at least four miners and five others were still missing.
    (AP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 13, In Colombia oil tankers carrying oil from the Ombu field in Caqueta came under fire from guerrillas leaving 2 civilians dead.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.44) 

2012        Mar 14, Colombia's ambassador to Peru resigned after prosecutors ordered his arrest for alleged criminal association with far-right militias. Jorge Visbal (59) is wanted for criminal conspiracy for activities from 1998-2004, when he was president of Colombia's National Ranchers Federation, the chief prosecutor's office said in a communique.
    (AP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 17, In Colombia 11 government soldiers were killed in Arauca state in an attack blamed on the FARC.
    (AP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 21, Colombian troops killed 39 FARC rebels, most of them in a bombardment of a guerrilla camp in northeastern Arauca state. Other rebels were reported killed in the past two days in operations in Arauca and other parts of the country. 12 alleged rebels were also captured during the military operations.
    (AP, 3/21/12)
2012        Mar 21, Colombian police captured FARC midlevel leader William Alberto Asprilla (62) in neighboring Venezuela. He was said to be wanted for his role in the kidnapping and killing of three Americans in 1999. Asprilla, also known as "Marquetaliano," was detained while on the road between Caracas and the nearby port of La Guaira with the alleged cooperation of Venezuelan authorities.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 26, Colombia's military killed 36 rebels in a pre-dawn bombing of a guerrilla camp in the Meta state municipality of Vista Hermosa, a traditional stronghold of the FARC.
    (AP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 29, In Colombia a 10-year-old ethnic Wayuu girl gave birth via Caesarean section. Under Colombian law, any sexual relations with a child age 14 or younger is a crime punishable by at least 9 years in prison. Under Colombia's 1991 constitution the Wayuu have jurisdiction.
    (AP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 2, Colombia's main rebel group (FARC) freed what it says were its last 10 military and police captives, a goodwill gesture that President Juan Manuel Santos praised but called insufficient to merit a peace dialogue.
    (AP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 7, In Colombia six government soldiers were killed in an attack that it blamed on the country's main rebel movement, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Return fire by troops killed three guerrillas and wounded two.
    (AP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 13, Colombia's Jose Antonio Ocampo withdrew from the race to lead the World Bank, endorsing Nigerian Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala's challenge against the favored US candidate.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)
2012        Apr 13, Pres. Obama arrived in Cartagena, Colombia, for meetings with 33 other regional leaders for the Summit of the Americas this weekend. 11 US Secret Service agents, sent to provide security for President Obama, were reported to have visited prostitutes in Cartagena. At least 20 women were in hotel rooms with US agents and military personnel just before President Barack Obama arrived for the summit.
    (AP, 4/14/12)(AP, 4/17/12)(SFC, 4/19/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 14, In Colombia the Summit of the Americas for 33 Western Hemisphere leaders opened with the United States and Canada standing firm, but alone, against everyone else's insistence that Cuba join future summits.
    (AP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 15, Pres. Obama and Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos said at a joint news conference that the US-Colombia free trade deal will go into effect May 15. Obama returned from Colombia to his familiar agenda of righting the US economy and winning a second term, wrapping up 3 days of Latin American summitry that yielded mixed results and were clouded by a Secret Service scandal. The 6th Summit of the Americas ended without a joint declaration due to divisions over Cuba and Argentine claims to the Falkland Islands.
    (AP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 28, In Colombia French journalist Romeo Langlois (35) went missing along with five Colombian security force members following combat with leftist FARC rebels that claimed the lives of three soldiers and a police officer. Langlois was freed on May 30.
    (AP, 4/29/12)(AP, 5/31/12)

2012        May 10, Colombian authorities said 7 antinarcotics police were killed in North Santander province by suspected FARC guerrillas.
    (SFC, 5/11/12, p.A3)

2012        May 14, Colombia’s free trade agreement with the US went into effect. It was initially signed in 2006 under George Bush and Alvaro Uribe.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.44)

2012        May 15, In Colombia a midday bombing killed two bodyguards of an archconservative former interior minister and injured at least 39 people in a busy commercial district of Bogota.
    (AP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 21, In Colombia 12 soldiers were killed in an ambush by alleged FARC rebels near the Venezuelan border.
    (SFC, 5/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 6, Colombia’s military bombed a FARC rebel camp in Antioquia state. 8 rebels were reported killed.
    (SFC, 6/7/12, p.A2)
2012        Jun 6, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru formally established their Pacific Alliance (Alianza de Pacifico). The goal was free trade and economic integration with a clear orientation toward Asia.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Alliance)

2012        Jun 13, Colombia’s bank began issuing new coins in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 pesos, all featuring pictures of native animals. The bimetallic 1,000-peso (US$0.55) coin depicts a loggerhead sea turtle.

2012        Jun 20, Colombia’s Congress approved a government-sponsored constitutional reform of the judicial system. It stripped the Supreme Court of the power to investigate allegations of crimes committed by legislators. Pres. Santos called Congress back into session on June 27th urging it to reverse its vote.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, p.37)
2012        Jun 20, In Colombia 4 people were killed and 11 injured in an attack on a bus in Narino province. Authorities blamed FARC rebels.
    (SFC, 6/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 3, In Colombia retired police general Mauricio Santoyo surrendered himself to US agents and was flown to the US to face drug trafficking charges. He allegedly received some $5 million for betraying counter-narcotics operation dating from 2002-2008.
    (SFC, 7/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 19, In Colombia farmer Mauricio Largo was killed as Nasa Indians and other locals clashed with police in the southwestern Cauca region. Residents, tired of being caught in a 48-year conflict, demanded that the military and leftist rebels leave the area.
    (SFC, 7/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 1, In Colombia unions and greens held marches across the country demanding stricter environmental safeguards regarding mining.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.34)

2012        Sep 3, In Colombia Griselda Blanco (69), a convicted drug trafficker who was once known as the "Godmother" and the "Queen of Cocaine," was shot to death by an unidentified gunman at a butcher shop in Medellin.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 4, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos announced an accord with the peasant-based FARC to seek "a definitive peace." The pact, signed Aug. 27 after six months of secret exploratory talks in Cuba, called for talks to begin in Norway the first half of October, then return to Havana.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 6, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos rejected a proposal by the FARC rebel movement to observe a cease-fire during peace talks that are to begin next month in Norway.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 18, Daniel Barrera, one of Colombia's most wanted drug traffickers, was captured in neighboring Venezuela with the help of Caracas as well as British and US intelligence agencies. He had a $5 million bounty on his head from the United States and $2.7 million from Colombia's government.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 20, In Colombia a judge revoked the 2008 acquittal of Angelo Caceres, alias “El Piloso," and ordered his arrest. Caceres was accused in 2006 as a co-author of the 1999 killing of 3 Americans. His whereabouts were not known.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 14, In Colombia a FARC bomb killed a man and his 3-year-old son.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.35)

2012        Oct 17, Colombian government and rebel negotiators met for their first set of talks outside Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 30, Colombia's most-wanted reputed drug trafficker, Henry de Jesus Lopez (41), aka "Mi Sangre," was arrested outside a restaurant in suburban Buenos Aires after Colombian police spent months chasing him around South America.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Oct 31, In Colombia a suitcase bomb exploded near a town square where 5,000 children were celebrating Halloween, killing two suspected FARC bombers and injuring 37 people, including two boys who were hospitalized in critical condition.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 14, Venezuelan authorities deported Daniel Barrera, a prominent drug-trafficking suspect, to Colombia, nearly two months after his capture at a payphone in an operation aided by Colombian and US authorities.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 19, Colombia's main rebel group announced a unilateral cease-fire as it began much-anticipated peace talks, but the Bogota government responded that it would continue military operations.
    (AP, 11/19/12)
2012        Nov 19, The International Court of Justice ruled that a group of tiny islands in the western Caribbean belongs to Colombia, but also granted Nicaragua control of a large swath of the surrounding sea and seabed that could hold oil reserves. The ICJ awarded Nicaragua fishing and oil rights in waters that Colombians have considered theirs since 1928.
    (AP, 11/20/12)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)
2012        Nov 19, In Cuba the rebel former seminarian known as Ivan Marquez and government representative Humberto de la Calle, a sage veteran of Colombian politics, sat down in Havana to negotiate in earnest an end Colombia's stubborn five-decade-old conflict. Their talks were inaugurated in Norway last month.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 21, Colombia's main leftist rebel group released at midnight four Chinese oil workers in the same southern jungles where it kidnapped them on June 8, 2011. They had been engaged in oil exploration work.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 27, Colombia withdrew from a 1948 treaty th bound it to the UN in response to the Nov 19 by the ICJ granting Nicaragua control of a large swath of sea. During the 1948 Conference of American States, nations in the region signed the "Bogota Pact," which required signatories to find peaceful solutions to conflicts.
    (SFC, 11/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 2, Colombia’s military killed at least FARC fighters in the pre-dawn attack near the town of Ricuarte, Narino state.
    (AP, 12/3/12)

2012        Dec 27, In Colombia Lorena Henao, the sister of Orlando Henao (d.1998), founder of the Northern Valley drug cartel, was shot to death by gunmen on the outskirts Armenia. 4 suspects were arrested in the attack.
    (SFC, 12/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 31, In Colombia 5 men and 4 women were shot to death on a farm outside Medellin. Rival drug traffickers were believed to be involved.
    (SFC, 1/1/13, p.A2)

2012        Colombia reduced its area under coca cultivation by 25% this year.
    (SFC, 8/9/13, p.A2)
2012        In Colombia coffee production dropped to 7.7m bags compared to 12.6 m 60kg bags in 2007 due to “coffee rust" fungus or roya.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.32)

2013        Jan 2, Colombia's chief prosecutor's office opened a preliminary criminal investigation into former President Alvaro Uribe over allegations he sponsored a killer far-right militia as a regional governor in the 1990s.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 18, In northern Colombia leftist ELN rebels kidnapped five gold prospectors doing exploratory drilling for Braeval Mining Corp., a Canadian company.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 25, A Colombia judge convicted Jaime Blanco, a former contractor for US-based Drummond Coal, of murder for being the mastermind of the killing of two union leaders on March 12, 2001. Blanco was sentenced to nearly 38 years in prison.
    (SFC, 2/7/13, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/d6szsex)

2013        Feb 7, In Colombia over 5,000 workers at the Cerrejon coal mine went on strike. Negotiations began on Feb 26.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.38)

2013        Feb 22, Pope Benedict XVI, who steps down Feb. 28, named Monsignor Ettore Balestrero ambassador, or nunzio, to Colombia. Balestrero was head of the Holy See's delegation to the Council of Europe's Moneyval committee, which evaluated the Vatican's anti-money laundering and anti-terror financing measures.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 25, In Colombia thousands of coffee workers began blocking roads in 10 provinces over falling incomes from leaf rust and falling coffee prices.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.38)

2013        Mar, Bogota, the capital of Colombia, began compensating its 15,000 waste pickers for their services, paying 82,860 pesos ($44) per ton of garbage collected.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.65)

2013        Apr 4, In Colombia Victor Manuel Carranza (77), aka the “Emerald King," died of cancer.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.98)

2013        Apr 9, In Colombia tens of thousands marched in Bogota to show their supoort for peace talks with FARC guerrillas.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.42)

2013        Apr 15, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to six activists for their efforts to protect the world ecosystem. They included Nohra Padilla (50) of Colombia, who began organizing waste pickers in Bogota in 1990 into the Bogota Recyclers’ Assoc.; Rossano Ercolini (57) of Italy for setting up a trash collection and conservation system; Kimberly Wasserman (36) of Chicago her grassroots campaign to close polluting coal-fired power plants; Aleta Baun (50) of Indonesia for organizing villages on west Timor against mining companies clearing forests for marble; Azzam Alwash (54) of Iraq for his efforts to restore Mesopotamian marshland; Jonathan Deal of South Africa for his efforts against hydraulic fracturing in Karoo.
    (SFC, 4/15/13, p.A10)

2013        May 1, In Colombia gunmen attacked but failed to hurt magazine editor Ricardo Calderon, head of the investigative unit of Semana newsmagazine.
    (SSFC, 5/5/13, p.A4)

2013        May 17, An Organization of American States (OAS) study was released calling for a serious discussion on legalizing marijuana. The study was presented by outgoing OAS Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza in Bogota.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 22, In Colombia at least 10 soldiers were  killed in an attack with homemade explosives by the ELN in Norte de Santander state.
    (SFC, 5/23/13, p.A2)

2013        May 26, Colombia and the FARC rebel group announced an agreement on land reform.
    (SFC, 5/27/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 4, Brazilian police said they have dismantled an international drug trafficking ring that for almost two years sent cocaine from Colombia and Bolivia to Portugal hidden in crates containing frozen fish.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 20, In Colombia American DEA agent James Watson (43) died in a robbery attempt as he got into a Bogota taxi. On June 25 police said 5 men were arrested in the case. On July 1, 2014, seven Colombian taxi drivers were extradited to stand trial in Virginia for the murder of Watson.
    (AP, 6/21/13)(SFC, 6/26/13, p.A2)(SFC, 7/2/14, p.A2)
2013        Jun 20, In Colombia the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC) caught a US soldier, identified as Kevin Scott Sutay, in a jungle region in the south of the country. They reported his capture on July 19 and described him as a mine clearance expert from New York who has served in Afghanistan. Sutay was reported released on Oct 27.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)(AFP, 10/28/13)

2013        Jul 5, Colombia’s state-controlled oil company Ecopetrol said two explosions over the last 24 hours have shut down the 80,000 barrel-per-day Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline. A military source describing them as attacks carried out by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 6, In Colombia Roberto Pannunzi, a suspected Italian mafia boss, was arrested and deported to Italy. He was described as Europe's most wanted drug trafficker and the world's biggest cocaine importer.
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 10, Colombia expressed concern after revelations the United States had spied on the Andean nation, its closest military ally in Latin America, and called for an explanation.
    (Reuters, 7/10/13)

2013        Jul 20, In Colombia 19 soldiers were killed in two clashes blamed on the Marxist FARC guerrillas, the heaviest casualties the armed forces have suffered since the government began peace talks late last year.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Aug 24, In Colombia FARC guerrillas killed 14 soldiers in an ambush in Arauca state. 2 guerrilas were left dead.
    (AP, 8/24/13)(AFP, 8/25/13)

2013        Aug 28, Colombia extradited Diego Perez Henao to the US on charges of cocaine trafficking. He was captured in Venezuela last year posing as a ranch foreman.
    (SFC, 8/29/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 30, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos ordered troops to provide security in Bogota and patrol the nation’s highways after violent protests in support of striking farmworkers left two dead in Bogota.
    (AFP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 1, Dominican Rep. officials uncovered an underground lab for processing cocaine near Saban Toro. 2 Colombians faced drug charges.
    (SFC, 9/3/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 2, Sixteen members of Colombia's Cabinet presented their resignations to President Juan Manuel Santos o pave the way for changes he may want to make after a protest in the farming sector turned violent last week.
    (Reuters, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 6, In Colombia alleged drug don, Claudio Baez, was arrested as he headed to a football match in Barranquilla.
    (AFP, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 9, Chilean press reported that the US has spied on communications from Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay from the island of Ascension according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A6)

2013        Sep 16, Nicaragua’s government petitioned the Int’l. Court of Justice to define the maritime border between Nicaragua and Colombia and to include an eastward extension of its continental shelf deep into the Caribbean. Colombia has refused to recognize a November ruling by the court and called Nicaragua’s claims excessive.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 30, Canadian oil company Pacific Rubiales said it is acquiring Colombia’s Petrominerales for around 1.6 billion Canadian dollars ($1.55 billion).
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 5, In northern Colombia  a twin-engine turboprop plane crashed  while on a US counter-drug mission, killing 3 American contractors and a Panamanian aboard. It had been tracking a suspected smuggling vessel over the western Caribbean when it lost radio contact.
    (AP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 7, Colombia imposed temporary tariffs and quotas on imports of potatoes, onions, beans, tomatoes, powdered milk, fresh cheese, milk and whey to help alleviate protests by farmers over expensive fertilizers and free trade deals.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.44)
2013        Oct 7, Colombia's state oil company Ecopetrol said its second most important oil pipeline, the Cano Limon-Covenas, has been temporarily shut down after three bomb attacks. Security forces attributed the attacks to leftist guerrillas.
    (Reuters, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Colombia a 22-story apartment building collapsed in Medellin. 11 people were reported missing. The building was evacuated after cracks appeared a day earlier.
    (SFC, 10/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 19, Colombia’s army said government troops have captured six rebels including Freddy Chona Payare, a member of the security team of the leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AFP, 10/19/13)

2013        Nov 3, Colombia police said US and Colombian anti-drugs agents cooperated in a massive bust in the southern Caribbean that led to the confiscation of 1,450 kilos of cocaine. Four Venezuelans and a Colombian were detained in the case.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 28, The Colombian government and leftist FARC rebels resumed peace talks amid differences over coca cultivation, blamed by political leaders for drug-linked violence and killings.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, Colombia's FARC rebels acknowledged that they collected taxes from coca cultivators but rejected accusations of "narco-terrorism."
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 7, In Colombia 8 people were killed in a bombing blamed on FARC rebels currently engaged in peace talks with the government. 6 soldiers and 2 civilians died when a vehicle loaded with explosives blew up in the small town of Inza.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 9, In Colombia Gustavo Petro (53), the leftist mayor of Bogota, was removed from his post for the mismanagement of garbage collection and banned from holding office for 15 years, a blow to the nation's left as peace talks continue with Marxist FARC rebels.
    (Reuters, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 15, Colombia's FARC rebels begin a 30-day unilateral ceasefire as peace talks continue with the government to try to end Latin America's longest insurgency.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 28, In Colombia the bodies of 5 men were found at the mouth of the Atrato River. Police believed the men had traveled from a Caribbean island in an attempt to reach Central America.
    (SFC, 12/30/13, p.A2)

2014        Jan 19, Colombia’s army said at least 9 Marxist FARC rebels have been killed in a clash in Tame even as peace talks were being held between the two sides in Cuba.
    (AFP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 27, In Colombia a fire at a prison in Barranquilla killed at least 10 inmates.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan, Colombia’s government began exploratory talks with the rebel National Liberation Army.
    (SFC, 6/11/14, p.A2)
2014        Jan, Colombia halted coal exports from a port operated by Drummond, an American miner. Environmentalists in 2013 had photographed an incident in 2013 in which 500 tons of coal were dumped into the Bay of Santa Maria to stop a barge from sinking. Drummond operations generated $66 million a month in royalties and taxes to the government. Exports were resumed in March, 2014.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.61)

2014        Feb 17, In Colombia 5 policemen were killed by FARC guerrillas.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.32)

2014        Mar 9, Colombia held congressional elections. Voters showed lukewarm support for peace talks with guerrillas by giving the country's president a majority in Congress, but also electing his conservative rival, ex-president Alvaro Uribe, to the senate.
    (AFP, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 27, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos said Venezuela’s government has accepted the political opposition’s conditions for dialogue.
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 29, German magazine Der Spiegel reported that the US National Security Agency kept more than 300 reports on Chancellor Angela Merkel in a special databank about scores of foreign heads of state. Other leaders listed in the databank include the heads of Peru, Somalia, Guatemala, Colombia and Belarus.
    (AP, 3/29/14)

2014        Apr 9, In Colombia Alejandro Correa (22) died after an unidentified person threw acid over 90% of his body. More than 900 such attacks have been documented in Colombia since 2004.
    (SSFC, 4/13/14, p.A4)

2014        Apr 17, Gabriel Garcia Marquez (b.1927), Colombian author, died in Mexico City. His beguiling stories of love and longing brought Latin America to life for millions of readers and put magical realism on the literary map. His "One Hundred Years of Solitude," a dream-like, dynastic epic helped him win the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982.
    (Reuters, 4/18/14)

2014        Apr 23, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel said he would heed a court order to reinstate ousted Bogota Mayor Gustavo Petro. The mayor had been removed from office in March for alleged administrative missteps. 
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 28, It was reported that small farmers in Colombia have launched a nationwide strike less than a month before the presidential election. They accused the government of failing to adhere to agreements reached after a violent work stoppage last year.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        Apr 30, In Colombia an illegal gold mine in Santander de Quilichao in southwestern Cauca province collapsed just before midnight. 10 bodies were soon pulled from the rubble and six were still believed to be buried.
    (AP, 5/4/14)

2014        May 2, Colombia's constitutional court ruled that applying a decision by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that granted Nicaragua a disputed area of Caribbean waters could not take effect without a treaty between the countries.
    (Reuters, 5/2/14)

2014        May 16, Colombia's government and main rebel group (FARC) announced an agreement to jointly combat illicit drugs in the South American country, which was long the world's leading cocaine producer.
    (AP, 5/17/14)

2014        May 18, In Colombia 32 children were killed when an overcrowded bus they were traveling in caught fire in Fundacion.
    (AP, 5/19/14)

2014        May 25, Colombia held presidential elections. Former Finance Minister Oscar Ivan Zuluaga finished first in the opening round with 29%, but failed to win the majority of votes needed to avoid a runoff ballot in three weeks against incumbent President Juan Manuel Santos.
    (AP, 5/26/14)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.30)

2014        Jun 7, Colombia's leftist FARC rebels declared a ceasefire for a three-week period covering a tight presidential election race on June 15. FARC accused opposition candidate Oscar Ivan Zuluaga of making inflammatory statements and trying to foment more war.
    (Reuters, 6/7/14)

2014        Jun 15, Colombian voters went to the polls in a runoff between President Juan Manuel Santos (62) and right wing rival Oscar Ivan Zuluaga (55). President Juan Manuel Santos won re-election with almost 51% of the vote. Zuluaga trailed with 45%.
    (AP, 6/15/14)(Reuters, 6/16/14)

2014        Jul 29, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos met with Japan's PM Shinzo Abe, calling for accelerated bilateral trade talks and more investment by the Asian economic powerhouse.
    (AFP, 7/30/14)

2014        Aug 7, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos took the oath for his 2nd term and promised to redouble his efforts to end the nation’s half-century war with FARC.
    (SSFC, 8/10/14, p.A4)

2014        Aug 11, Venezuela began nightly closures of its border with Colombia in an effort to plug smuggling, estimated to cost the government several billions a year. Some 17,000 troops were deployed to enforce the blockade.
    (Econ, 8/16/14, p.28)

2014        Aug 14, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos said he is endorsing the legalization of marijuana for medical and therapeutic use.
    (SFC, 8/15/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 26, In Colombia John Jairo Velasquez (52), better known by his nickname "Popeye," was paroled this evening despite protests from relatives of his many alleged victims. He has confessed to hundreds of murders as head of drug kingpin Pablo Escobar's army of assassins. He spent 22 years behind bars for plotting the 1989 murder of former presidential candidate, Luis Carlos Galan.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Oct 2, Prosecutors in Colombia said they have detained 33 soldiers suspected of killing farmworker John Jeiber Mina Guaza last week.
    (AP, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 24, The US Justice Department said Alexander Beltran Herrera (38), a former commander of Colombia's leftist FARC rebels, was jailed for 27 years for his role in the 2003 kidnap of three US citizens held captive for five years.
    (AFP, 10/25/14)

2014        Oct 25, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos unveiled new details of a $400 million development strategy for the Pacific coast, including a pldege of $12 million to provide drinking water for every resident of Buenaventura.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.39)

2014        Nov 7, Venezuelan authorities said Leiva Padilla Mendoza, the purported leader of a Colombian paramilitary group who they allege masterminded the October slaying of socialist Venezuelan lawmaker Robert Serra, has been captured in Cartagena, Colombia.
    (AP, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 9, Colombia's FARC rebels captured soldiers Paulo Cesar Rivera and Jonathan Andres Diaz, in the eastern department of Arauca during a military operation.
    (Reuters, 11/25/14)

2014        Nov 13, Colombia police arrested Peru's No. 1 fugitive. Businessman Rodolfo Orellana was accused of amassing a fortune through money laundering of over $200 million.
    (AP, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 16, In western Colombia Gen. Ruben Dario Alzate was surveying a rural energy project along the remote Atrato River when he and two others were snatched by armed men. The surprise capture by leftist rebels prompted President Juan Manuel Santos to suspend two-year-old peace talks.
    (AP, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 17, In Colombia an 11-year-old girl was in critical condition after doctors removed from her stomach 104 cocaine-filled capsules her father made her swallow to smuggle drugs to Europe.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 21, Navarrete Beltran, an accused member of the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, was extradited to the US to face charges of hostage-taking and terrorism targeting Americans.
    (AP, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov 25, Colombia's FARC rebels freed two captured soldiers partially meeting a condition to resume peace talks that the government has suspended until the guerrillas release hostages seized over the last two weeks, including an army general.
    (Reuters, 11/25/14)

2014        Nov 30, Colombia's largest rebel group (FARC) freed Gen. Ruben Alzate and his two companions whose capture led President Juan Manuel Santos to suspend peace talks.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 19, In Colombia a clash between the army and FARC rebels left 5 soldiers dead and five wounded. On Dec 26 FARC released captured soldier Carlos Becerra Ojeda (19).
    (AFP, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 20, Leftist rebels in Colombia began a unilateral ceasefire hailed as a key step in peace negotiations -- but uncertainty marred the truce.
    (AFP, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 24, In northern Colombia a small passenger plane crashed, killing all six passengers and the pilot, who had warned air traffic control of a mechanical fault moments before.
    (Reuters, 12/25/14)

2014        In Colombia some 600 people were killed in guerrilla conflicts. FARC guerrillas were estimated at around 7,000 fighters.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.30)

2015        Jan 31, Panama expelled a former Colombian intelligence chief, Maria del Pilar Hurtado, to face charges at home of illegally intercepting phone calls from opposition Colombian lawmakers.
    (Reuters, 1/31/15)

2015        Feb 5, It was reported that protection rackets in Colombia have ballooned into an estimated $1 billion-a-year industry.
    (SFC, 2/5/15, p.A4)

2015        Feb 18, In Virginia two Colombians were sentenced to prison for the 2013 kidnapping and murder of US Drug Enforcement Administration Special Agent James Watson in Bogota. Edwin Gerardo Figueroa Sepulveda (39) and Wilson Daniel Peralta-Bocachica (31) were among seven Colombians in a robbery-and-kidnapping ring extradited to the United States in July 2014 to face charges stemming from Watson's killing.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 27, Colombia's Supreme Court convicted the country's former intelligence chief Maria del Pilar Hurtado and a presidential chief of staff Bernardo Moreno of spying on judges, journalists and politicians during the presidency of Alvaro Uribe.
    (AFP, 2/28/15)

2015        Mar 7, Colombia's government and Marxist FARC rebels announced in Cuba that they had reached a deal on demining, a stride forward on a key issue to negotiate peace after decades of conflict. Over 11,000 Colombians have been killed or wounded by mines in the last quarter-century.
    (AFP, 3/8/15)(Econ., 3/28/15, p.40)

2015        Mar 10, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos said air raids on Marxist FARC rebels will stop for a month. Santos also announced the creation of a peace commission made up of politicians from the right and left, former guerrillas, religious figures, business people and indigenous leaders.
    (AP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, In Colombia five police and two civilians were injured after a bomb exploded in Bogota. Leftist ELN guerrillas were suspected.
    (Reuters, 3/12/15)

2015        Mar 19, The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a French-based research arm of the World Health Organization, reclassified the herbicide glyphosate as a result of what it said is convincing evidence the chemical produces cancer in lab animals and more limited findings it causes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. The glyphosate-containing herbicide Roundup has been a mainstay of industrial agriculture. This raised more questions for an aerial spraying program in Colombia that is the cornerstone of the US-backed war on drugs.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 31, In Colombia a truck lost its brakes and smashed into at least four cars, killing 10 people and injuring 14 more on the highway linking Bogota with Villavicencio.
    (AP, 4/1/15)

2015        Apr 15, In Colombia 11 soldiers were killed and 20 injured in an apparent overnight attack by leftist FARC guerrillas, a possible violation of the rebels' pledge of a unilateral cease-fire that could jeopardize the future of peace talks.
    (AP, 4/15/15)(AP, 4/17/15)

2015        Apr 18, In Colombia 2 suspected members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) died in an operation to destroy an explosives factory in the Vistahermosa region.
    (AFP, 4/19/15)

2015        May 9, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos said he is halting the use of an herbicide that has been a key part of US-financed efforts to wipe out cocaine crops following a WHO decision to classify glyphosate as a carcinogen.
    (SSFC, 5/10/15, p.A3)
2015        May 9, Two Colombian soldiers were killed in clashes with leftist ELN rebels in the northeastern town of Cubara. The soldiers were trying to dismantle oil infrastructure that the ELN is building in the area.
    (AFP, 5/10/15)

2015        May 13, In Colombia an accident at El Tunel mine in the northwestern town of Riosucio was likely triggered by an explosion or power outage that disabled pumps used to extract water and supply oxygen to crews. 6 bodies were soon recovered from the flooded gold mine, with 9 people still missing.
    (AP, 5/15/15)(AFP, 5/16/15)

2015        May 18, In Colombia a deadly flood and mudslide swept through the mountain town of Salgar leaving at least 62 people dead. As many as 100 remained missing.
    (AP, 5/19/15)

2015        May 21, Colombia’s military raided a FARC guerrilla camp in Cauca province killing 26 fighters. Jairo Martinez, a member of the FARC's peace delegation in Havana, was among those killed.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.A5)(AFP, 5/27/15)
2015        May 22, In Colombia the FARC guerrilla group called off a unilateral cease-fire in response to a government raid in Cauca province a day earlier.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.A5)

2015        May 25, The Colombian government and FARC guerrillas resumed peace talks in Havana amid heightened tensions following air strikes that killed dozens of rebels.
    (AFP, 5/25/15)

2015        Jun 4, Colombia and FARC rebels agreed on the terms of an 11-member Truth Commission as peace talks continued in Havana.
    (Econ, 7/4/15, p.28)

2015        Jun 11, Colombia's FARC rebels attacked an energy pylon in southern Caqueta province, leaving 500,000 people without electricity amid stumbling peace talks.
    (Reuters, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 12, Colombia’s government said FARC rebels killed two police officers and a civilian in the country's southwest.
    (Reuters, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 20, Colombia said it has sent a letter of protest to neighboring Venezuela after the government of President Nicolas Maduro decreed maritime borders in a disputed area of the Atlantic Ocean.
    (Reuters, 6/20/15)
2015        Jun 20, In Colombia a twin-engine Cessna crashed into the thick jungle shortly after taking flight from Quibdo. The pilot was killed but Maria Nelly Murillo and her one-year-old son survived and were rescued four days later.
    (AP, 6/25/15)

2015        Jun 22, Colombia's FARC rebels reportedly killed 4 soldiers and wounded six others in an attack in the northeast of the country, as the Marxist group steps up attacks amid unraveling peace talks. 10,000 barrels of oil spilled into the Mira River, leaving some 150,000 people without drinking water following a rebel attack on a pipeline. On June 26 President Juan Manuel Santos called this the worst environmental disaster in Colombia's history. An army helicopter was downed in the northern department of Norte de Santander and 8 troops were killed. The National Liberation Army (ELN) later claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)(AP, 6/26/15)(AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jul 7, Cuba and Norway called for restraint in Colombia as they helped facilitate peace negotiations in Havana between Colombia and FARC rebels.
    (AP, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 8, Colombia's largest guerrilla army declared a month-long, unilateral cease-fire as of July 20.
    (AP, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 25, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos ordered a halt to air strikes against FARC rebels, giving a major boost to stop-start peace talks.
    (AFP, 7/26/15)

2015        Jul 31, In Colombia 11 military personnel were killed when their Airbus CN235 transport plane suffered motor failure and crashed in the northern province of Cesar, killing all on board.
    (Reuters, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 3, In Colombia Genaro Garcia, a community leader and activist for those forced to flee their homes by the five-decade guerrilla war, was gunned down in Tumaco. On August 24 FARC guerrillas admitted to the killing and said it would punish all commanders and fighters involved.
    (AFP, 8/24/15)

2015        Aug 8, Spain's Guardia Civil police force said they have arrested 34 suspected members of a gang based in Colombia that smuggled drugs between the two countries.
    (AFP, 8/8/15)

2015        Aug 19, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro ordered a 72-hour closure of a major border crossing with Colombia in western Tachira state after three soldiers were attacked while looking for smugglers.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 20, Colombia's Marxist rebels indefinitely extended a month-old ceasefire as peace talks resumed in Havana, with the government still pledging not to conduct air raids on rebel camps.
    (Reuters, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 21, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro indefinitely closed his country's border with Colombia and declared a state of emergency in part of the frontier region, following an earlier attack that wounded four people.
    (AFP, 8/21/15)

2015        Aug 23, In Venezuela Gov. Jose Gregorio Vielma Mora of Tachira state said that 791 Colombians living in Venezuela illegally had been handed over to Colombian authorities as a result of a now five-day crackdown against smugglers and criminal gangs operating along the 1,400 mile (2,200 km) border.
    (AP, 8/24/15)

2015        Aug 24, Venezuela announced a 60-day extension of its partial closure of the border with Colombia.
    (SFC, 8/25/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 7, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro said he has ordered more of his country's vast border with Colombia closed amid a diplomatic crisis over deportations and smuggling.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 10, US authorities charged three Colombian nationals with helping to run a global money laundering network that processed billions of dollars in drug trafficking profits through bank accounts in China and Hong Kong.
    (Reuters, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 11, In Colombia 2 people died when a plane carrying crew members from a film starring Tom Cruise crashed in San Pedro de los Milagros. The film was based on the life of American pilot Barry Seal, who worked for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, who was killed in Medellin in 1993.
    (AFP, 9/12/15)

2015        Sep 12, The foreign ministers of Colombia and Venezuela agreed to renew diplomatic contacts that had been interrupted by an ongoing border crisis between the two neighbors.
    (AFP, 9/12/15)

2015        Sep 23, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announced a surprise trip to Cuba for a key meeting with government negotiators and the rebels' top military commander. A joint statement said they have overcome the last significant obstacle to a peace deal by settling on a formula to punish belligerents for human rights abuses.
    (AP, 9/23/15)(SFC, 9/24/15, p.A5)

2015        Sep 25, In Colombia American tourist John Mariani (65) was shot to death during an apparent robbery attempt after leaving his hotel in a wealthy enclave of Medellin.
    (AP, 9/26/15)

2015        Oct 2, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos congratulated his armed forces for killing cocaine warlord Victor Navarro (36), aka Megateo, for whom the US had been offering a $5 million bounty. Megateo had been first reported killed in August.
    (AP, 10/2/15)(AFP, 10/2/15)

2015        Oct 8, Colombia's Supreme Court ordered a Roman Catholic diocese to pay $220,000 to the families of two children molested by a priest. It would be the first time the church has paid a financial penalty in Colombia for abuse committed by one of its priests. Father Luis Enrique Duque was serving time for abusing two boys aged 7 and 8 in 2007 in a town northwest of Bogota.
    (AP, 10/8/15)   

2015        Oct 25, Colombians went to the polls to elect provincial governors and hundreds of local officials who will have a crucial role in implementing any peace agreement reached with leftist FARC rebels.
    (AFP, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 26, In Colombia a rebel National Liberation Army (ELN) ambush on poll workers killed 12 members of the security forces in the Andean highlands. Two soldiers remained missing.
    (AP, 10/27/15)(SFC, 10/28/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 28, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos offered to declare a bilateral ceasefire with the FARC guerrillas from January 1, which would mark a major breakthrough in peace talks.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)

2015        Nov 6, President Juan Manuel Santos apologized for Colombia's actions during a 1985 army raid on the Supreme Court in which nearly 100 people were killed after the building was taken hostage by guerrillas.
    (AP, 11/6/15)

2015        Nov 12, Colombia's justice minister said the country plans to legalize the cultivation and sale of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Colombian courts had already decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana for personal use. The new rules will allow for commercial production.
    (AP, 11/12/15)

2015        Nov 13, Colombia said it plans to legalize medical marijuana in a further shift in drug policy after suspending aerial fumigation of illicit crops. Current law allows possession of up to 20 grams of marijuana or 20 marijuana plants for personal use.
    (Reuters, 11/14/15)

2015        Nov 26, It was reported that the United Arab Emirates has secretly dispatched hundreds of Colombian mercenaries to the conflict in Yemen. 450 Latin American troops also included Panamanian, Salvadoran and Chilean soldiers.
    (SFC, 11/26/15, p.A8)

2015        Dec 11, Spanish police said they have seized 40 pallets made out of 1.4 tons of compressed cocaine that was made to look like wood that arrived on a shipping container from Colombia. Authorities arrested 12 people in Spain, Dubai and Britain as part of the operation, including two Colombian experts in using chemicals to process cocaine into different formats.
    (AFP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 12, Spanish police arrested Hector Albeidis Arboleda Buitrago, a suspected former combatant in the Colombian rebel force FARC, who they say carried out more than 500 forced abortions on female guerrillas.
    (AP, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec 14, The Colombian government and leftist FARC rebels said they have reached a deal on reparations for war victims and could be near a pact on the terms of confinement for ex-combatants who would be tried in special tribunals once a definitive peace agreement is reached.
    (Reuters, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 19, Polish police seized a record amount of cocaine worth around $27 million that arrived via Belgium in a shipment of bananas from Colombia.
    (AP, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec 20, In Nevada Colombian contestant Ariadna Gutierrez Arevalo was already wearing this year's Miss Universe crown when host Steve Harvey returned to announce on live television that he had mistakenly read from a cue card, and that Pia Alonzo Wurtzbach, the contestant from the Philippines, was actually this year's winner.
    (AP, 12/21/15)(SFC, 12/22/15, p.E6)

2015        Dec 25, Colombia's top security official said authorities have captured eight members of the National Liberation Army (ELN) and rescued a minor who also belonged to the guerrilla group.
    (AP, 12/25/15)

2016        Jan 21, Colombia said it has freed 16 FARC guerrillas pardoned in peace negotiations with the leftist rebels, as the two sides move toward a deal to end their half-century conflict.
    (AFP, 1/21/16)
2016        Jan 21, Colombia arrested two men for drug trafficking out of Cartagena to supply New York City-based dealers. They reportedly ran a major heroin and cocaine smuggling operation to New York aboard the Royal Spanish Navy’s official training ship, paying thousands of dollars in bribes to midshipmen on the vessel.
    (Reuters, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 30, Colombia announced that more than 2,000 pregnant women have been infected with Zika, amid growing concern about the spread of the virus suspected of causing irreversible brain damage in newborns.
    (AFP, 1/30/16)

2016        Feb 4, US President Barack Obama announced a $450 million plan to fund Colombia's peace process, shaking up a controversial military aid program that defined relations for 15 years.
    (AFP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 8, In Colombia an attack early today on a military brigade was blamed on the leftist National Liberation Army (ELN). President Juan Manuel Santos vowed to step up the fight against the second-biggest rebel group, despite claims it was ready to join in a peace drive to end decades of conflict.
    (AFP, 2/8/16)

2016        Feb 16, In Colombia Sen. Carlos Ferro resigned as deputy Interior minister as soon as a video, in which he discusses sexual encounters with other men, went viral. Ferro denied any wrongdoing or abuse of his political position.
    (AP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 17, Colombia's national police chief resigned, a day after the investigator general said he would investigate whether he was involved in the creation of a male prostitution ring that allegedly served lawmakers and was aided by police officials. Gen. Rodolfo Palomino resigned over allegations of misconduct that included a subaltern's accusation that the chief, high-ranking officers and even members of congress abused their positions to demand sexual favors with young cadets.
    (Reuters, 2/17/16)(AP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 18, Colombia suspended permits for rebel leaders negotiating a peace deal in Cuba to visit guerrilla camps after top commanders showed up with weapons in a town's main plaza in what the government said was a flagrant violation of the ground rules for such missions.
    (AP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 19, The Colombian military killed 7 ELN leftist guerrillas and captured an eighth in an operation near the Venezuelan border.
    (AFP, 2/20/16)

2016        Feb 23, Ericson Vargas Cardona, the one-time leader of La Oficina de Envigado, a Colombia-based drug trafficking organization, was sentenced in Manhattan federal court to 25 years in prison after pleading guilty to criminal charges last year.
    (AP, 2/23/16)

2016        Mar 4, In Colombia Ruben Dario Avila (alias Lorenzo), the top leader of the powerful Clan Usuga gang, was killed when police launched a raid on a ranch in Arboletes, Antioquia province.
    (AFP, 3/5/16)

2016        Mar 23, Colombia’s government and the FARC rebel group missed their self-imposed deadline to sign a peace agreement. The main sticking points were how to demobilize the FARC’s 6,500 fighters and how the deal would be ratified.
    (Econ, 4/16/16, p.28)

2016        Mar 30, The Colombian government said it will announce the start of peace negotiations with the country's second-biggest guerrilla group, the left-wing ELN, broadening the push to end a half-century conflict.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)

2016        Apr 2, In Colombia tens of thousands of people protested in more than 20 cities across the country against President Juan Manuel Santos and his government's peace process with the FARC guerrillas.
    (AFP, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 28, Colombia became the fourth South American country to allow same-sex marriage when the constitutional court definitively legalized it.
    (AFP, 4/29/16)

2016        Apr 30, Colombian officials in Medellin arrested top Peruvian crime lord Gerson Galvez, also known as Caracol (Snail), dangerous enough to be compared to Mexico's Joaquin "Chapo" Guzman. Galvez was extradited to Peru within 24 hours.
    (AFP, 5/1/16)(SFC, 5/3/16, p.A2)

2016        May 1, In South Africa 33 lions arrived at the Emoya Big Cat Sanctuary after being flown from Colombia and Peru, where they were freed after the use of wild animals was outlawed. 24 of the lions were rescued during surprise raids on Peruvian circuses, while nine were "voluntarily surrendered" by a Colombian circus.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hma9hg2)(SFC, 5/2/16, p.A2)

2016        May 4, Colombian authorities in Bogota arrested Nidal Waked (46), a prominent Panama businessman sought by the United States, and dismantled an empire of businesses that the US says were part of a top worldwide money-laundering organization for drug traffickers.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 5, Colombia authorized the use of all military force, including air strikes, against the country's three biggest criminal gangs in a major escalation against "organized armed groups."
    (AFP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 15, Colombian authorities reported the biggest cocaine seizure in the history of a country long plagued by traffic in the drug. 50 commandos backed by helicopters seized about 8 tons of cocaine on a banana plantation in the northwestern department of Antioquia.
    (AP, 5/16/16)

2016        May 21, In Colombia Spanish journalist Salud Hernandez (59) disappeared while reporting a story in Norte de Santander province. She was known for opinion columns highly critical of Colombia's insurgent groups.
    (Reuters, 5/23/16)

2016        May 27, In Colombia rebels identifying themselves as members of the National Liberation Army, or ELN, handed Salud Hernandez-Mora over to a delegation led by Ramon Catholic clergy in the volatile Catatumbo region. Hours later, two other journalists from Colombian network RCN were also freed by the rebels.
    (AP, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, The European Union said it has committed to provide Colombia with a package of 575 million euros ($645 million) to help the nation recover from a half century of civil war.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 18, Colombian authorities said that farmer Jaime Ivan Martinez (44), being investigated for the disappearance of a woman, has confessed to killing 20 people, including the missing person.
    (AP, 6/18/16)   

2016        Jun 22, The Colombian government and leftist FARC rebels announced that they have reached a deal on a bilateral cease-fire that would be the last major step toward ending one of the world's longest wars.
    (AP, 6/22/16)

2016        Jun 23, In Cuba FARC leader Timoleón Jiménez signed a cease-fire pact with Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos, seen as a final step before sealing a permanent peace and disarmament deal in coming months.
    (CSM, 6/25/16)

2016        Jun 30, Colombian, Italian and US police seized 11 tons of cocaine and arrested 33 people today and over the last few days from a mafia-linked ring which refined the drug in the jungles of Colombia and smuggled it out in containers of tropical fruits.
    (Reuters, 6/30/16)

2016        Jul 25, Colombia’s Health Ministry said the number of cases of the virus have been falling steadily to as few as 600 per week compared to more than 10 times that amount at the outbreak's peak in February.
    (AP, 7/25/16)

2016        Aug 13, Thousands of Venezuelans were welcomed to Colombia by a military band early today as the two countries' borders were officially reopened after being closed by Venezuela a year ago.
    (Reuters, 8/14/16)

2016        Aug 24, Colombia's government and Marxist FARC rebels reached a final peace deal in Havana to end a five-decade war which once took the resource-rich country to the brink of collapse. It will now go to a plebiscite vote on October 2.
    (Reuters, 8/25/16)

2016        Aug 26, In Colombia a judge ordered the arrest of the top ELN leaders for crimes that include their role in the destruction of oil pipelines. ELN rebels have yet to meet the government's precondition for peace talks of releasing all of their hostages and stop all kidnapping.
    (AFP, 8/27/16)

2016        Aug 29, In Colombia a ceasefire between the FARC and the government went into effect, ending 52 years of warfare.
    (AFP, 8/29/16)

2016        Sep 17, Colombia's Marxist FARC rebels said they will continue their fight for social justice under a peace deal with the government at the opening of the group's final congress as an armed group.
    (Reuters, 9/17/16)

2016        Sep 26, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos and Marxist rebel leader Timochenko signed an agreement ending a half-century war that killed a quarter of a million people and made their nation a byword for violence.
    (Reuters, 9/26/16)

2016        Sep 30, Authorities in Colombia said a nationwide police raid has nabbed 238 suspected narcotics dealers and hitmen and dismantled 15 criminal gangs suspected of enlisting minors and homeless people to sell illegal drugs.
    (AFP, 9/30/16)

2016        Oct 1, Hurricane Matthew drenched coastal Colombia and moved on a course that threatened Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba.
    (SSFC, 10/2/16, p.A6)

2016        Oct 2, Colombians voted in a referendum on whether to ratify a historic peace accord to end a 52-year war between the state and the communist FARC rebels. With more than 99.9 percent of votes counted Colombians voted 50.21 percent to 49.78 percent against the accord.
    (AFP, 10/2/16)(AP, 10/3/16)

2016        Oct 7, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to help end the long-running conflict in his country. The Colombian government and FARC rebels said they have agreed to discuss "adjustments" to a contested peace deal and continue a bilateral ceasefire.
    (AP, 10/7/16)(AFP, 10/7/16)

2016        Nov 12, Colombia’s government and FARC leaders came up with a revised agreement for the rebels to disarm.
    (Econ, 11/19/16, p.30)

2016        Nov 13, In Colombia two fighters of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) died in a clash with the army. Rebels later cast doubt on whether fighting had taken place.
    (AFP, 11/19/16)

2016        Nov 17, Argentina extradited suspected Colombian drug boss Henry Lopez Londono (45) to the United States to face cocaine trafficking charges. The leader of the "Urabenos" gang was arrested on the outskirts of Buenos Aires in 2012.
    (AP, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 24, Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos signed, for the second time in under two months, a historic peace accord with leftist rebels. The accord will be sent to congress where a solid pro-peace majority is expected to easily ratify it in the coming days. After that, the FARC's 8,000-some fighters will begin concentrating in rural areas where they will turn over their weapons to United Nations-sponsored monitors over the next six months.
    (AP, 11/24/16)

2016        Nov 28, In Colombia a plane carrying Brazil’s Chapecoense team soccer team crashed killing 71 people. Six survivors suffered severe trauma injuries. 21 journalists were among the 77 people onboard the British Aerospace 146. The Bolivian plane ran out of fuel moments before slamming into the Andes mountains.
    (AP, 11/29/16)(AP, 11/30/16)(SFC, 12/2/16, p.A2)

2016        Nov 30, Colombia’s lower house voted unanimously in favor of a revised peace deal with the FARC rebels.
    (AFP, 12/1/16)

2016        Dec 1, The Bolivian Civil Aviation Authority indefinitely suspended permission for LaMia airline to operate following the deadly crash of one its charter planes in Colombia.
    (AP, 12/1/16)

2016        Dec 10, In Sweden Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos accepted the Nobel Peace Prize, saying it helped his country achieve the "impossible dream" of ending a half-century-long civil war.
    (AP, 12/10/16)

2016        Dec 13, Colombia's FARC rebels said they have expelled five commanders for refusing to demobilize and join a peace process with the government aimed at ending more than five decades of war.
    (Reuters, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 16, At the Vatican Pope Francis brought Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos and his main political opponent right-wing predecessor, Alvaro Uribe,  together to discuss the country's rebel peace deal.
    (AP, 12/16/16)

2016        Dec 28, Colombia's Congress passed a law granting amnesty to Marxist FARC rebels as part of the country's peace deal.
    (AFP, 12/29/16)

2016        Dec 31, Colombia's National Liberation Army, which has been fighting the government for more than five decades, freed businessman Octavio Figueroa. He had been held since March.
    (AFP, 12/31/16)

2016        The Colombian film "The Embrace of the Serpent" starred Antonio Bolivar Salvador (d.2020) and was directed by Ciro Guerra. It was nominated for an Academy Sward for best foreign film.
    (https://tinyurl.com/cgn6qfp)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.78)
2016        Colombia’s cocaine output reached an all-time high of 710 tons this year.
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.28)
2016        The population of Colombia was about 48 million.
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.23)

2017        Jan 27, Colombian rebel leader Pastor Alape warned that criminal gangs are attempting to take over coca-growing regions being abandoned by the guerrillas to expand cultivation of the plant used to make cocaine.
    (AP, 1/27/17)

2017        Jan 29, An American Airlines flight arrived in Miami from Bogota, Colombia. It was flagged for maintenance and sent to Tulsa where seven bricks of cocaine were found in the nose gear.
    (SFC, 1/31/17, p.A5)

2017        Jan 31, Colombian FARC rebels gathered in demobilization zones to start a historic disarmament process to end Latin America's last major armed conflict.
    (AFP, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 3, Colombia’s police said they have arrested a teenager nicknamed “Frijolito" (17) accused of carrying out more than 30 killings. He was picked up last week after a four-month manhunt.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gnc4u8q)(SSFC, 2/5/17, p.A4)

2017        Feb 7, Colombia opens peace talks with its last active rebel group, the ELN, seeking to replicate its historic accord with the FARC guerrillas and deliver "complete peace" after 53 years of war.
    (AFP, 2/7/17)

2017        Feb 8, Colombia's chief prosecutor said that suspicions of illegal campaign contributions to President Juan Manuel Santos are based on testimony of a rancher Otto Bula, connected to the leader's opponents, who has been jailed for allegedly channeling bribes on behalf of the Brazilian Odebrecht construction firm.
    (AP, 2/8/17)

2017        Feb 19, In Colombia a bombing in Bogota killed a police officer and seriously wounded several others. ELN rebels later claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 2/27/17)

2017        Feb 28, Chinese authorities said that Ismael Arciniegas (72), a retired Colombian journalist, was killed by lethal injection after a last-ditch diplomatic effort by Colombia to save his life failed. He was arrested in 2010 trying to smuggle four kg of cocaine into China in exchange for $5,000.
    (AP, 2/28/17)

2017        Mar 1, Colombia's FARC rebels begin disarming under a historic peace deal, beginning the delicate transition from guerrilla army to political party after more than half a century at war.
    (AFP, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 3, Colombia’s human rights watchdog said a total of 120 civil leaders have been killed in Colombia in the past 14 months.
    (AFP, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 4, Spanish police arrested 24 members of a Colombian drug ring seeking to establish a network for the wholesale distribution of cocaine.
    (AP, 3/4/17)

2017        Mar 8, The UN warned that fighting in Colombia in recent weeks has displaced some 913 families in areas formerly dominated by leftist rebels in four provinces along the Pacific Ocean.
    (SFC, 3/9/17, p.A2)

2017        Mar 14, The former campaign manager for Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos acknowledged for the first time that Odebrecht, a scandal-tarred Brazilian construction company, illegally paid costs related to Santos’ 2010 campaign.
    (AP, 3/14/17)

2017        Mar 20, Some 60 Venezuelan soldiers crossed the border into Colombia and raised their national flag in a camp they set up. They withdrew on March 23 after Pres. Juan Manuel Santos called his Venezuelan counterpart Nicolas Maduro to protest.
    (AP, 3/24/17)

2017        Mar 31, In southern Colombia mudslides late today claimed at least 16 lives and injured some 65 people following recent torrential rains. The mudslides were caused by the rise of the Mocoa River and three tributaries. On April 7 Colombian officials formally abandoned the search for survivors as the death toll stood at 314.
    (AFP, 4/1/17)(AP, 4/2/17)(AFP, 4/5/17)(AP, 4/8/17)

2017        Apr 8, In Colombia a soldier was killed late today by an explosive device attributed to a dissident wing of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The 1st Front of the FARC is heavily involved in drug trafficking and illegal mining and has opposed a peace accord reached last year with the FARC.
    (AP, 4/9/17)

2017        Apr 19, In Colombia at least 11 people were killed after intense overnight rains provoked several landslides in Manizales. About 20 people remained missing in the mountainous, coffee-growing region.
    (AP, 4/19/17)

2017        Apr, Colombia’s constitutional court ruled that Venezuelan sex workers are entitled to work visas.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.28)
2017        Apr, In Colombia Arsen Voskanyan, a Russian-Armenian citizen held hostage for six months by the ELN, was killed while trying to escape. The admission was made public in September and risked throwing current peace talks with the government into jeopardy.
    (Reuters, 9/3/17)
2017        Apr, In Colombia two FARC guerrillas and five relatives of FARC members were murdered in four separate incidents.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.28)

2017        May 3, In Colombia UN official Arley Lopez, a member of a team working on a project to substitute illegal crops with legal ones, was kidnapped by dissident former FARC rebels who have rejected the peace process. On July 5 the government announced that Lopez has been released.
    (Reuters, 5/4/17)(Reuters, 7/5/17)

2017        May 17, In Colombia two explosions at a shipyard in Cartagena killed four people and injured 22.
    (SFC, 5/18/17, p.A2)

2017        May, Colombian criminal gangs killed 11 officers this month, mostly in gang-dominated regions. The Gulf Clan has distributed leaflets that call for killing police. Police intelligence officials say the gang members are offering would-be assassins up to $600 per death — nearly triple the nation's monthly minimum wage.
    (AP, 5/27/17)

2017        Jun 7, Greek authorities said Colombian organized crime rings were behind a string of heists involving costly medical diagnostic equipment stolen from hospitals in Greece and another 11 European countries. Police said three suspects are being sought in Colombia in connection with four thefts in Greece last month.
    (AP, 6/7/17)

2017        Jun 15, Colombia's Marxist FARC rebels pledged to honor its commitment to completely disarm by June 20 after a UN monitoring mission said it had received fewer weapons than expected.
    (AFP, 6/15/17)

2017        Jun 17, In Colombia a homemade bomb placed rocked a busy mall in Bogota filled with Father's Day shoppers, killing three people, including a French woman (25), and wounding nine others.
    (AP, 6/18/17)

2017        Jun 23, Colombia's FARC rebels completed their historic disarmament.
    (AFP, 6/23/17)
2017        Jun 23, In central Colombia an explosion at an illegal coal mine killed at least eight people, as rescuers scrambled to find five others still missing.
    (AFP, 6/24/17)

2017        Jun 25, In north-central Colombia the El Almirante tourist boat sank in the Penol-Guatape reservoir, killing at least nine people.   
    (AP, 6/26/17)(SFC, 6/27/17, p.A3)(AP, 6/29/17)

2017        Jun 26, The UN certified that all FARC individual firearms and weapons, except for a small number needed to safeguard the soon-to-disband camps, have been collected.
    (AP, 6/27/17)

2017        Jul 28, In central Colombia six people were killed after an explosion at an illegal gold mine in the Buritica municipality, Antioquia province.
    (Reuters, 7/29/17)

2017        Aug 15, In Colombia UN observers removed the last of more than 8,000 guns once carried by FARC guerrillas.
    (SFC, 8/1617, p.A2)

2017        Aug 24, Colombia’s Caracol Television said President Nicolas Maduro's socialist government has pulled its channel from Venezuela's airwaves, slamming the move as a crackdown on media. The signal for RCN was also pulled.
    (Reuters, 8/24/17)(SSFC, 8/27/17, p.A5)

2017        Aug 27, Colombia's leftist FARC rebel group debuted its political party at a conference, a key step in its transition into a civilian organization after more than 50 years of war. A six-day meeting in Bogota of FARC members is expected to conclude September 1 with a platform that the party, still officially un-named, will campaign on in elections next year.
    (Reuters, 8/27/17)

2017        Aug 31, Colombian security forces killed Roberto Vargas, one of its most-wanted drug fugitives, along with a dozen gunmen as they watched a soccer match. He was the alleged No. 2 leader of the Golf clan, a ruthless criminal network that arose from disbanded right-wing paramilitary groups to become the nation's largest drug-trafficking organization.
    (AP, 9/1/17)

2017        Sep 1, In Colombia thousands members and supporters of FARC gathered in the central square of Bogota to hail the launch of its new political party.
    (Econ, 9/9/17, p.32)

2017        Sep 4, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos confirmed that the government has agreed to a bilateral ceasefire with the ELN rebel group that will last 102 days after months of talks in the Ecuadoran capital Quito.
    (Reuters, 9/4/17)(AFP, 9/4/17)

2017        Sep 6, Pope Francis arrived in Colombia with a message of unity for a nation deeply divided by a peace deal that ended a five-decade war with Marxist FARC rebels but left many victims of the bloodshed wary of the national healing process.
    (Reuters, 9/6/17)

2017        Sep 10, In Colombia Pope Francis wrapped up his visit with a deeply personal final day honoring St. Peter Claver, a 17th century fellow Jesuit, who ministered to thousands of African slaves who passed through Cartagena during Spanish colonial times.
    (AP, 9/10/17)

2017        Sep 13, US President Donald Trump threatened to decertify Colombia as a partner in the war against drugs unless the South American nation reverses a record surge in cocaine production.
    (AP, 9/14/17)

2017        May 27, Charles Chen Yidan, Chinese tech entrepreneur, announced the launch of the Yidan Prize with the mission to create a better world through education. The first two winners, announced in September, included Carol Dweck of Stanford and Vicky Colbert of the Fundacion Escuela Nueva in Colombia.
    (http://www.yidanprize.org/en/tp-the-founder.php)(SFC, 9/20/17 p.D3)

2017        Oct 1, Colombia and the Marxist ELN rebels began a ceasefire aimed at generating goodwill during complicated talks to end a half-century war that has killed hundreds of thousands.
    (Reuters, 10/1/17)

2017        Nov 15, Colombia’s Senate backed a law to regulate transitional justice under the country's peace deal with Marxist FARC rebels, including special tribunals that will try guerrilla leaders for war crimes.
    (Reuters, 11/16/17)

2017        Nov 17, Colombian authorities said Venezuelan opposition leader Antonio Ledezma (62), who was detained in 2015 on allegations of coup-plotting but had been under house arrest in Caracas, has fled over the border to Colombia.
    (Reuters, 11/17/17)

2017        Dec 12, California and Washington state joined five nations (Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia and Chile) on the Pacific coast of the Americas to agree to step up the use of a price on carbon dioxide emissions as a central economic policy to slow climate change.
    (Reuters, 12/12/17)

2017        Dec 30, Colombia said it has shipped around 55 tons of ham to Venezuela after protests broke out over shortages of the traditional holiday staple.
    (AFP, 12/30/17)

2017        In Colombia 84 human rights activists were killed this year. The UN said they were targeted by drug traffickers, right wing death squads and smaller rebel groups following the 2016 peace deal with the Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (SSFC, 3/18/18, p.A4)

2018        Jan 10, Colombia's Marxist ELN rebels resumed attacks on oil installations and the armed forces, just hours after the expiration of a ceasefire with the government that had reduced the intensity of the conflict. Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announced that he had suspended peace talks with National Liberation Army (ELN) rebels in response to what he said were guerrilla attacks earlier today.
    (Reuters, 1/10/18)(AFP, 1/10/18)

2018        Jan 25, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos said his country will not recognize the validity or the result of forthcoming presidential elections in neighboring Venezuela, adding he expected other countries would share the view that the vote is illegitimate.
    (Reuters, 1/25/18)

2018        Jan 27, In Colombia at least three police officers were killed and 14 wounded by an early morning bomb attack outside a police station in Barranquilla. Crime gangs were blamed and one person was taken into custody.
    (Reuters, 1/27/18)

2018        Jan 28, In Colombia unidentified assailants attacked a police station with explosives in the city of Barranquilla. Four police officers and a civilian were injured in the latest attack.
    (AP, 1/28/18)

2018        Jan 29, Colombia's defense minister said ELN rebels are responsible for three bomb attacks against police stations that killed seven and wounded dozens more over the weekend.
    (Reuters, 1/29/18)

2018        Feb 3, Colombia's government opened its first shelter for Venezuelans who are pouring across the border in ever-larger numbers to escape their nation's economic crisis.
    (AP, 2/3/18)

2018        Feb 7, Colombia's ELN rebel group said it would hold a three-day national blockade beginning over the weekend to protest the government's suspension of peace negotiations, and urged Colombians to avoid travel.
    (Reuters, 2/7/18)
2018        Feb 7, London-based Aon Securities said the World Bank has launched a $1.4 billion catastrophe bond covering Latin American earthquakes, the largest earthquake catastrophe bond on record. The multi-tranche bond would provide earthquake relief for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
    (Reuters, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 9, Colombia's former FARC rebel group, now a political party, temporarily suspended its presidential and legislative election campaigns due to security concerns after angry protests disrupted their campaign stops. Official figures showed that 51 FARC members have been killed since the peace deal was signed in late 2016.
    (Reuters, 2/9/18)

2018        Feb 18, The UN Commission on Human Rights and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees said violence by criminal gangs battling over drug trafficking areas has displaced more than 800 people in northwestern Colombia.
    (Reuters, 2/19/18)

2018        Feb 24, Colombia extradited suspected drug chief Washington Edison Prado to the US. Prado has been accused of shipping more than 250 tons of cocaine to the US.
    (SFC, 2/26/18, p.A2)

2018        Feb 27, At least five Colombian soldiers were killed and more than 10 wounded early in a bomb attack by the Marxist ELN rebels near the border with Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 2/27/18)

2018        Mar 11, Colombians went to the polls to elect a new Congress with a resurgent right, bitterly opposed to a peace deal that allows leftist former rebels to participate, expected to poll strongly.
    (AFP, 3/11/18)

2018        Mar 12, Police in Colombia arrested Raul Gutierrez, a Cuban man suspected of plotting to kill American diplomats in the name of the Islamic State.
    (AP, 3/15/18)

2018        Mar 20, In Colombia an attack by guerrilla faction once linked to the FARC left three soldiers dead in Esmeraldas province.
    (SFC, 3/22/18, p.A2)
2018        Mar 20, The United States said it would provide $2.5 million for food and medicine to help Venezuelans fleeing their economically crippled country to neighboring Colombia.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 23, Meeting in Colombia the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) reported that mankind's voracious consumption of biodiversity has unleashed the first mass species die-off since the demise of the dinosaurs. Scientists issued four regional reports on how well animal and plants are doing in the Americas; Europe and Central Asia; Africa; and the Asia-Pacific area, concluding that Earth is losing plants, animals and clean water at a dramatic rate.
    (AFP, 3/23/18)(AP, 3/23/18)

2018        Mar 26, In Ecuador three journalists working for El Comercio were kidnapped and transported to Colombia by a holdout faction of the FARC. On April 13 Pres. Lenin Moreno confirmed that the three journalists had been killed. On June 21 their bodies were found in a restless border region of Colombia.
    (SFC, 3/28/18, p.A2)(SFC, 4/14/18, p.A2)(AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Apr 20, Bolivian Foreign Minister Fernando Huanacuni said that Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru had decided to temporarily leave the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), given differences over choosing the secretary general of the group. UNASUR was promoted by late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Surinam, Uruguay and Venezuela remained in the bloc.
    (AP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 23, The Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to seven recipients at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House. The honors went to: LeeAnne Walter for exposing the 2015 water crisis in Flint, Mich.; Manny Calonzo of the Philippines for helping to persuade the government to ban lead paint; Makoma Lekalakala and Liz McDaid of South Africa for exposing a secret government deal with Russia that would have increased their country's nuclear power production; Francia Marquez of Colombia whose work helped end water pollution form illegal gold mining in her hometown; Claire Nouvian of France for her public awareness campaign against a supermarket chain that relied on deep-sea bottom trawling for catching fish; and Khanh Nguy Thi of Vietnam for her work to stop the expansion of coal-fired power plants and helping her country chart a plan for sustainable energy independence.
    (SFC, 4/23/18, p.C3)

2018        May 25, Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos said that his country's entry into the NATO military alliance's global partnership program will take place next week in Brussels.
    (AP, 5/26/18)
2018        May 25, Colombia's chief prosecutor's office said that Jhon Jairo Velasquez, a former hit man for the late drug lord Pablo Escobar, has been re-arrested in Medellin. Velasquez, known by his nickname Popeye, was paroled in 2014 after confessing to hundreds of murders and spending 22 years in jail for plotting the assassination of a former Colombian presidential candidate.
    (AP, 5/26/18)

2018        May 27, Colombia held presidential elections. Conservative front-runner Ivan Duque has vowed to rewrite an accord he sees as too lenient on the FARC. His main challenger Gustavo Petro, a leftist former Bogota mayor, backed the deal. A runoff on June 17 was likely.
    (AFP, 5/27/18)

2018        Jun 15, The Colombian government and the ELN guerrilla group ended their fifth round of peace talks in Havana without reaching an agreement for a bilateral ceasefire, but vowed to continue their dialogue.
    (AFP, 6/15/18)

2018        Jun 17, Colombians voted in a deeply divisive presidential runoff with one candidate wanting to alter a fragile peace deal and the other promising to overhaul the economic model. Ivan Duque (41), a conservative protege of powerful ex-president Alvaro Uribe, defeated former guerrilla fighter Gustavo Petro.
    (Reuters, 6/17/18)(AP, 6/17/18)(SFC, 6/18/18, p.A4)

2018        Jun 21, In Colombia the bodies of three kidnapped Ecuadorean press workers were found killed in a restless border region. The journalists of Ecuador's El Comerico newspaper were kidnapped in Ecuador on March 26 and murdered in Colombia.
    (AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Jul 4, Colombia's ombudsman said a human rights activist has been killed every three days since January 2016 despite the peace accord signed with FARC rebels.
    (AFP, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 6, Thousands of Colombians gathered in cities across the country this evening to demand an end to a wave of activist killings that threatens to undermine a fragile peace process.
    (AP, 7/6/18)

2018        Jul 10, The UN said at least 16,000 people have been displaced from their homes by armed conflict in the border region between Colombia and Venezuela.
    (AFP, 7/11/18)

2018        Aug 10, Colombia's state-run oil company Ecopetrol SA halted pumping on its Cano Limon-Covenas pipeline because of a bomb attack late today. The pipeline has been attacked nearly 60 times this year by the National Liberation Army (ELN), the country's remaining active guerrilla group.
    (Reuters, 8/11/18)

2018        Aug 16, It was reported that Venezuela's opposition-run supreme court in exile in Colombia has sentenced President Nicolas Maduro to 18 years in prison over the infamous Odebrecht corruption scandal, a move dismissed by the regime.
    (AFP, 8/16/18)

2018        Aug 26, Colombians voted on seven anti-corruption measures in a referendum, including a reduction in lawmakers' salaries and term limits for public posts, as graft scandals continue to spark outrage. Colombians failed to approve the rules that hardened punishment for corrupt officials.
    (Reuters, 8/26/18)(AFP, 8/26/18)

2018        Aug 31, Colombian authorities said that two former rebel leaders of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) have abandoned their camps, raising fears they could abandon a fragile peace process that ended five decades of internal conflict.
    (AP, 8/31/18)
2018        Aug 31, Colombian prosecutors said that they have traced payments made by a local Chiquita affiliate to a paramilitary group that operated in Colombia's volatile Uraba region from 1996 to 2004. Some of the money was allegedly used to buy hundreds of machine guns. 13 Chiquita Brands International employees were charged with aiding a right-wing death squad that murdered hundreds of people.
    (AP, 8/31/18)

2018        Aug, In Colombia three victims associations delivered 2,000 documented cases of sexual abuse during five decades of civil war to the Special Peace Tribunal (JEP).
    (Reuters, 9/20/18)

2018        Sep 5, In Colombia one engineer of Canadian miner Continental Gold died and another was wounded after they were shot at while traveling near the company's Buritica mine.
    (Reuters, 9/20/18)

2018        Sep 7, In Colombia ELN guerrillas abducted a girl (15) from her home in Orupa, in the jungle region of Choco.
    (AFP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 13, Colombian drug kingpin Victor Hugo Cuellar-Silva was extradited from Colombia to the US to face federal trafficking charges. Prosecutors said he was a high-ranking member of the drug ring headed by Mexican fugitive Angel Humberto Chavez-Gastelum, one of the most-wanted drug traffickers in the world.
    (AP, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 19, A new UN report indicated that Colombian coca cultivation increased 17 percent in 2017.
    (SFC, 9/20/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 20, In Colombia three geologists of Canadian miner Continental Gold were killed in the northern Antioquia province in an armed attack attributed to dissident members of the former FARC rebel group. More than 1,200 former FARC fighters did not lay down their arms and instead founded new groups dedicated largely to drug trafficking and illegal mining.
    (AP, 9/20/18)

2018        Sep 24, ELN Marxist rebels in Colombia said they will not suspend their insurgency until President Ivan Duque names a new team of peace negotiators to restart Cuban-hosted talks.
    (AP, 9/24/18)

2018        Oct 18, The US Treasury Department designated Pedro Luis Zuleta Noscue as a drug kingpin. The Colombian man with ties to the South American country's largest rebel group allegedly controls a narcotics trafficking corridor in northern Colombia.
    (AP, 10/18/18)

2018        Nov 2, The World Bank reported that it will cost Colombia upward of $1 billion to tend to the surge of Venezuelan migrants fleeing their nation's economic and humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 11/3/18)

2018        Nov 23, Two Colombian soldiers were killed and another two wounded along the country's border with Venezuela in a bomb attack blamed by the military on rebels from the National Liberation Army.
    (AFP, 11/23/18)

2018        Dec 3, UN official Michel Forst called on the Colombian government to step up measures to protect human rights defenders following an upsurge in the number murdered since the signing of a peace agreement with former FARC guerrillas.
    (AFP, 12/4/18)

2018        Dec 7, Former Colombian President Belisario Betancur (95) died in Bogota. He had attempted to broker peace with leftist rebels during his 1982-1986 administration.
    (Reuters, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 17, Colombia's armed forces rescued Melissa Martinez Garcia (34), a relative of late Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez who won the 1982 Nobel Prize for literature. She was seized at the end of August by a group of armed men who intercepted her vehicle near the northern city of Santa Marta. They demanded a ransom of $5 million for her release.
    (Reuters, 12/17/18)
2018        Dec 17, Colombia's ELN Marxist guerrilla group announced a Christmas ceasefire as peace talks with the country's government have been on hold since August.
    (AFP, 12/17/18)
2018        Dec 17, In Colombia six men were shot dead by unidentified gunmen in a rural area of Mapiripan, southeastern Meta province, an area known for cocaine trafficking.
    (Reuters, 12/18/18)

2018        Dec 21, In Colombia Walter Arizala, a former leftist rebel who terrorized residents of southern Colombia after abandoning the country's peace process to plunge headlong into drug trafficking, was killed during an operation after a months-long, US-backed manhunt that followed the kidnapping and murder of three Ecuadorian press workers in the turbulent border area.
    (AP, 12/22/18)

2018        Dec 29, Colombian Foreign Minister Carlos Holmes Trujillo said in a video message that there was intelligence indicating "credible" plans to target the right-wing Pres. Ivan Duque, who took office in August. He said three Venezuelans were arrested in recent days with "weapons of war".
    (Reuters, 12/30/18)

2019        Jan 4, Colombia's government said it has asked Venezuela to verify whether certain members of the ELN rebel group are living in the country and to detain them under Interpol red notices if they are.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)

2019        Jan 11, Thousands of Colombians staged protests in several cities to demand the resignation of the country's chief prosecutor. Nestor Humberto Martinez is a key US ally in the war on drugs, but his critics at home say he has withheld information that links local politicians and business groups with Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht.
    (AP, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 17, In Colombia at least eight people were killed and another 10 injured in a car bombing at a police academy in Bogota. Jose Aldemar Rojas (59) rammed a 1993 Nissan loaded with 175 pounds of pentolite through a checkpoint  The death toll from the bombing soon rose to 21. Authorities blamed Jose Aldemar Rojas (56), a longtime member of the National Liberation Army (ELN).
    (AP, 1/17/19)(AP, 1/18/19)(SFC, 1/18/19, p.A2)

2019        Jan 18, Colombian authorities arrested Ricardo Carvajal for his alleged role in the previous days car bombing. They said he showed up on intercepted phone calls boasting of having participated in the attack. Pres. Ivan Duque pressed Cuba to arrest 10 peace negotiators from the National Liberation Army (ELN) for the car bombing that left 21 dead and dozens more wounded.
    (AP, 1/18/19)(SFC, 1/19/19, p.A2)(AP, 1/20/19)

2019        Jan 20, Thousands of Colombians dressed in white poured into the streets to repudiate terrorism after the Jan. 17 car bombing at a Bogota police academy killed 21 people and left dozens more wounded.
    (AP, 1/20/19)

2019        Feb 2, Colombia's armed forces clashed with FARC dissident rebels, killing 10 from the group that split from the 2016 peace process.
    (AFP, 2/3/19)

2019        Feb 8, Colombia's migration office said it has canceled over 300 daily entrance passes for Venezuelan politicians and their families who support Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 2/8/19)

2019        Feb 13, President Donald Trump hosted his Colombian counterpart Ivan Duque at the White House to discuss their campaign to pressure Venezuela's far left president, Nicolas Maduro, from power.
    (AFP, 2/13/19)

2019        Feb 23, A convoy of trucks carrying humanitarian aid for Venezuela left warehouses in Colombia headed for the nearby border crossing, despite President Nicolas Maduro's insistence they would not be allowed to cross. Opposition leader Juan Guaido said a first aid shipment has entered Venezuela from Brazil. Three members of the Venezuelan national guard deserted their posts early today. Venezuelan troops blocking a border bridge with Colombia fired tear gas to repel dozens of opposition lawmakers and activists walking toward the frontier to receive humanitarian aid from the Colombian side. At least two protesters were killed near the Brazilian border. Two aid trucks went up in flames. Some 60 members of security forces defected into Colombia, but the National Guard at the frontier crossings held firm.
    (Reuters, 2/23/19)(AP, 2/23/19)(Reuters, 2/24/19)

2019        Feb 26, Colombian immigration officials said over 320 mostly low-ranking soldiers fled Venezuela in a span of four days.
    (AP, 2/26/19)

2019        Feb 27, Human Rights Watch denounced the government of Colombia for appointing at least nine officers to key army positions despite credible evidence of implicating them in serious human rights violations during the country's long civil conflict.
    (SFC, 2/28/19, p.A5)

2019        Mar 1, Colombian authorities announced that Carlos Bermeo, a prosecutor with the special peace tribunal, was detained along with a senator and two other suspects for taking a $500,000 bribe in exchange for swaying a controversial ruling over the extradition of Seuxis Hernandez, a rebel peace negotiator, to the US on drug charges.
    (SSFC, 3/3/19, p.A4)

2019        Mar 8, Colombia said it will allow Venezuelans to cross the border using expired passports in view of the difficulty of renewing travel documents in the neighboring country in the midst of its economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 9, In Colombia 14 people were killed in a DC-3 plane crash in Meta province.
    (AP, 3/10/19)

2019        Mar 19, In Colombia former Southampton and Portsmouth midfielder Jhon Viafara (40) was arrested near Cali on a US drug warrant. A month ago, former national team defender Diego Leon Osorio was convicted for distributing narcotics.
    (AP, 3/20/19)

2019        Mar 22, In Chile a group of South American presidents formed Prosur, a new regional bloc to replace Unasur, founded in 2008. The new bloc included Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru.
    (SSFC, 3/24/19, p.A4)

2019        Mar 31, Police in Colombia's second-largest city said they have arrested Thomas Renno of California for allegedly offering cash over Facebook to girls as young as 13 in exchange for sexual acts.
    (AP, 3/31/19)

2019        Apr 12, In Colombia a bombing damaged a section of the Trasandino pipeline. State-run company Ecopetrol soon began investigating crude spillage from the Cano Limon pipeline to determine if it was also caused by an attack.
    (Reuters, 4/13/19)

2019        Apr 26, A special peace tribunal in Colombia for the first time ordered the arrest of Hernan Velasquez, a former FARC rebel, for failing to contribute to reconciliation efforts mandated by the country's peace deal.
    (AP, 4/27/19)

2019        May 10, In Colombia four people died and 29 were injured, including 17 children, following an explosion at a factory where gunpowder is handled in Bogota.
    (AFP, 5/11/19)

2019        May 17, In Colombia Jesus Santrich (52), aka Seuxis Paucias Hernandez, a former left-wing guerrilla leader wanted by the US for drug trafficking, was arrested on his release from prison on an arrest warrant related to the drug-trafficking investigation. He was suspected of participating in the trafficking of 10 tons of cocaine to the US between June 2017 and April 2018, crucially after the peace accord was signed in December 2016.
    (AFP, 5/18/19)

2019        May 30, Colombia's Supreme Court ordered the "immediate release" of Jesus Santrich (52), a former rebel leader accused of drug trafficking, and shot down revisions to the country's peace accord in a double blow for President Ivan Duque.
    (AP, 5/30/19)

2019        Jun 5, The head of Colombia's army, Gen. Nicacio Martínez, was promoted amid an outcry over an order he issued that has stirred fears of a return to serious human rights violations.
    (AP, 6/5/19)

2019        Jun 7, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro announced a partial opening of the country's border with Colombia, which his government closed in February as opposition leaders prepared an ultimately failed effort to bring aid into the country.
    (Reuters, 6/8/19)

2019        Jun 20, It was reported that Marxist rebels and right-wing paramilitaries in Colombia are recruiting Venezuelan migrants to strengthen their ranks.
    (Reuters, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 27, The Organization of American States (OAS) began two days of meetings in Medellin, Colombia. Latin American leaders planned to seek to increase pressure on Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and further isolate the embattled leader.
    (Reuters, 6/27/19)

2019        Jun 28, In Colombia members of the Organization of American States (OAS) ended two days of meetings without a clear plan for increasing pressure on embattled Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, despite a majority vote to recognize a representative from the country's opposition. Specialists affiliated with the OAS said Venezuelans fleeing their nation's crisis should be granted refugee status.
    (Reuters, 6/28/19)(SSFC, 6/30/19, p.A4)

2019        Jun 29, Venezuela's government deported 59 Colombian citizens who had been "arbitrarily" detained there almost three years ago.
    (Reuters, 6/29/19)

2019        Jul 12, United Nations Security Council ambassadors got a firsthand look at the challenges of peace nearly three years into Colombia's historic accord with leftist rebels as they visited with Pres. Ivan Duque, politicians and former rebels at a time of mounting concern.
    (AP, 7/12/19)

2019        Aug 2, The UN said illegal coca plantations in Colombia reduced slightly in 2018 but the country remains the world's biggest producer of the primary ingredient in cocaine production.
    (AFP, 8/2/19)

2019        Aug 11, Two Colombian air force members were killed when a cable hanging from a helicopter snapped while they were performing a mid-air stunt at the Medellin Flower Fair.
    (SFC, 8/13/19, p.A2)

2019        Aug 22, Interpol issued a red notice for Seuxis Paucias Hernandez, a fugitive Colombian lawmaker and former FARC rebel commander who the United States wants extradited for alleged conspiracy to export 10 tons of cocaine. Colombian President Ivan Duque has said Hernandez may have fled to neighboring Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)

2019        Aug 29, In Colombia a group of former rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) said in a video posted overnight that it will launch a new offensive, threatening to resume their five decades of armed conflict in the South American nation. Colombia's peace tribunal soon ordered the arrest of Luciano Marin and top allies, who appeared in the video.
    (Reuters, 8/29/19)(SFC, 8/31/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 6, In Colombia leaders of several South American nations gathered in Leticia to boost protection for the Amazon region. Their meeting ended with little concrete action. Since the start of the year some 95,500 fires have hit Brazil, up 59% from a year earlier.
    (SFC, 9/7/19, p.A4)

2019        Sep 10, Colombia threatened to denounce Cuba at the UN unless it immediately turns over two guerrilla commanders believed to be living on the communist island.
    (AP, 9/10/19)

2019        Sep 21, Colombia's Pres. Ivan Duque compared Nicolás Maduro to Serbian war criminal Slobodan Milosevic as he went on a diplomatic offensive to corral the Venezuelan socialist, warning that he would be making a "stupid" mistake if he were to attack his US-backed neighbor.
    (AP, 9/22/19)

2019        Sep 26, In Colombia Luis Antonio Quintero (49), the top leader and founder of the Los Pelusos crime gang, was killed in an operation led by the national police. Quintero, known by his alias Pacora, was a former leftist rebel who commanded some 440 gang members.
    (Reuters, 9/27/19)

2019        Sep 30, Authorities in Colombia doubled down on their claim that guerrilla troops are operating in Venezuela with the support of President Nicolás Maduro a week after similar allegations presented at the United Nations were marred by erroneous photographs.
    (AP, 9/30/19)

2019        Nov 21, In Colombia more than 250,000 people marched to express growing discontent with President Ivan Duque's government. Three people were killed in events following marches across the country.
    (Reuters, 11/22/19)

2019        Nov 22, In Colombia three police officers were killed in a bomb blast late today at a police station in the town of Santander de Quilichao, Cauca province, after thousands gathered for renewed protests and sporadic looting erupted in the capital Bogota. Pres. Ivan Duque ordered a curfew in Bogota to contain ongoing clashes.
    (Reuters, 11/22/19)(SSFC, 11/24/19, p.A4)

2019        Dec 4, Colombian unions and student groups held a third national strike amid fraught talks between protest leaders and the government over President Ivan Duque's social and economic policies.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)

2019        In Colombia 107 human rights defenders were killed this year despite a peace accord aimed at improving conditions in poor, rural areas. The first two weeks of 2020 saw at least ten more activists killed.
    (SFC, 1/15/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 27, Venezuelan special police detained a fugitive Colombian former senator who had illegally crossed the border. Aida Merlano, a former Conservative senator who was imprisoned last year for vote buying, made her theatrical escape in October.
    (Reuters, 1/28/20)

2020        Feb 6, In Colombia inmate Jhon Jairo Velasquez Vasquez, aka Popeye, died. He had worked for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar and said he participated in some 300 murders.
    (Reuters, 2/6/20)

2020        Feb 10, Defense Minister Carlos Holmes Trujillo said Colombia hopes this year to eradicate 130,000 hectares (321,237 acres) of coca, the base ingredient in cocaine.
    (Reuters, 2/10/20)

2020        Feb 14, It was reported that the Howard G. buffett Foundation has committed to spending $200 million over the next few years to transform the impoverished community of Tibu, Colombia, into a model of comprehensive state building.
    (SFC, 2/14/20, p.A3)

2020        Feb 24, Colombia said it will create a special military unit to protect its national parks and step up operations against illegal armed groups who burn vegetation to clear space to plant coca.
    (Reuters, 2/24/20)

2020        Mar 5, Colombia announced its first case of the new coronavirus.
    (AP, 4/30/20)
2020        Mar 5, In Colombia Astrid Conde, a former rebel soldier, was gunned down while walking her German shepherd in a park near her home in a rough Bogota neighborhood. 23 ex-combatants have been killed thus far in 2020.
    (AP, 4/30/20)

2020        Mar 14, Colombia's Pres. Ivan Duque closed the country's borders to foreigners, including some 55,000 a day, mostly shoppers, who came from Venezuela.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.24)

2020        Mar 17, In Florida Colombian brothers Pedro Nel Rincon-Castillo (53) and Omar Rincon-Castillo (50) were sentenced to about 20 years and 17-1/2 years, respectively, on cocaine-trafficking charges by a federal judge in Fort Lauderdale.
    (AP, 3/18/20)

2020        Mar 21, In Colombia a prison riot in Bogota left 24 inmates dead. On Nov. 24 Human Rights Watch reported that most of the prisoners killed were shot to death intentionally.
    (SFC, 11/25/20, p.A4)

2020        Mar 22, It was reported that Colombian authorities were trying to quell riots in several jails across the country amid fears that the coronavirus could spread in overcrowded conditions. 23 prisoners died and another 83 were injured in a riot and attempted escape attempt at the La Modelo jail in Bogota. Colombia has confirmed 231 cases of coronavirus.
    (Bloomberg, 3/22/20)(SFC, 3/23/20, p.A2)

2020        Mar 24, It was reported that death squads in Colombia are taking advantage of coronavirus lockdowns to murder rural activists. The virus has now claimed three lives in Colombia amid 277 confirmed cases.
    (The Guardian, 3/24/20)

2020        Mar 26, Cliver Alcalá, a retired Venezuelan army general indicted alongside Nicolás Maduro, surrendered in Colombia and was flown with US Drug Enforcement Administration agents to New York for arraignment.
    (AP, 3/27/20)

2020        Mar 30, The National Liberation Army (ELN), the largest active guerrilla group in Colombia, said it will observe a unilateral cease-fire for one month from April 1 in an effort to help stem the spread of coronavirus. Colombia has reported 702 cases and 10 deaths of COVID-19. By the end of the month the ELN said they would not extend the ceasefire and would return to violence.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)(Econ., 6/20/20, p.50)

2020        Apr 7, Colombia extended a nationwide quarantine due to the coronavirus until April 27.
    (Reuters, 4/7/20)

2020        Apr 17, It was reported that Bogota, Colombia, has joined Panama this week in instituting a gender-based virus protection measure designed to limit the number of people in the streets. Men can leave the house for essentials on odd-numbered days and women on even-numbered days. Exceptions were made for people in critical industries.
    (SFC, 4/17/20, p.A5)

2020        Apr 22,  The UN in a report said there was evidence of rising violence against women in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia, and a doubling in the number of femicides in Argentina during the coronavirus-related quarantine.
    (NBC News, 4/27/20)

2020        May 6, Colombia's president said mandatory quarantine will be extended by a further two weeks.
    (Reuters, 5/6/20)

2020        May 7, It was reported that a coronavirus outbreak has infected more than 30% of inmates at the prison in Villavicencio, in central Colombia. The prison currently has nearly double the 899 inmates it is meant to hold.
    (AP, 5/7/20)

2020        May 21, It was reported that Jorge Rodrigo Tovar (30), the son of a notorious death squad leader, has been appointed to run the Colombian government’s programs for victims of the country’s long civil war, prompting fury among survivors.
    (The Guardian, 5/21/20)

2020        May 31, Authorities in Bogota, Colombia, began locking down an area of nearly 1.5 million people as coronavirus cases continued to rise.
    (AP, 5/31/20)

2020        Jun 6, Colombia has had 33,466 confirmed coronavirus cases and 1,099 deaths.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.26)

2020        Jun 25, In Colombia seven soldiers were charged in the rape of an indigenous girl (13). All seven pleaded guilty.
    (SFC, 6/27/20, p.A2)

2020        Jul 7, Colombia's leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) rebels asked the government late today to "agree a bilateral 90-day ceasefire" in response to a call from the United Nations to reduce violence and conflicts during the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AFP, 7/8/20)

2020        Jul 15, In Colombia Mario Paciolla (33), a UN volunteer from Naples, was found dead at his home in San Vicente de Caguán, a town in the southern jungle long used as a strategic rearguard for rebel groups and drug traffickers.
    (The Guardian, 7/23/20)

2020        Aug 11, Mark Grenon, self-styled archbishop in a Florida-based church, was arrested in Colombia along with one of his sons. Grenon had marketed "Miracle Mineral Solution" (MMS), a form of toxic bleach associated with seven deaths in the US. In recent years advocates of MMS have established a significant presence in Latin America.
    (Business Insider, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 15, In Colombia eight people, all aged between 17 and 26, were killed in a massacre at a barbecue in the small town of Samaniego late today. Two other killings in Nariño province in the past seven days left at least four others dead. Colombia has seen 33 massacres this year and 45 human rights defenders have been killed in the same period.
    (The Guardian, 8/17/20)

2020        Aug 30, Coronavirus cases in Colombia surpassed 600,000 as deaths from the virus approach 19,400, ahead of the end to more than five months of lockdown.
    (Reuters, 8/30/20)
2020        Aug 30, The Trump administration blocked the scheduled removal of former Colombian paramilitary boss Salvatore Mancuso to Italy and now intends to deport him to his South American homeland, where he’s been found responsible for hundreds of war crimes.
    (AP, 8/30/20)

2020        Aug, In Colombia illegal groups carried out 15 massacres this month, mainly of people they suspected of sympathizing with rivals.
    (Econ., 9/19/20, p.33)

2020        Sep 9, In Colombia Javier Ordonez, a taxi driver and father of two, was arrested in Bogota for drinking alcohol in the street. Officers pinned him to the ground and he went unconscious as police took him to the nearest police station. He died hours later.
    (Econ., 9/19/20, p.33)

2020        Sep 10, Violent demonstrations in Bogota, Colombia, continued into a 2nd day over the death of Javier Ordonez, a man police officers shocked with a stun gun for more than two minutes after they stopped him for allegedly violating social distancing rules by drinking publicly after 9 p.m. The violence left at least seven people dead. Mayor Claudia Lopez said 46 of the city's streets had been totally destroyed. 60 police precincts were also damaged. In 2021 an independent investigation backed by the mayor of Bogotá’s office and the United Nations said police were responsible for the deaths of 11 protesters.
    (AP, 9/11/20)(SFC, 9/11/20, p.A2)(SSFC, 9/13/20, p.A3)(The Guardian, 12/13/21)

2020        Sep 20, In western Colombia six men were shot and killed at an improvised cockfighting arena in Munchique. Another four were killed in a similar attack in Narino province. Local feuds between criminal groups struggling for territorial control in rural Colombia have left more than 230 people dead this year.
    (SFC, 9/24/20, p.A4)

2020        Sep 26, Coronavirus cases in Colombia, which is nearly a month into a national reopening after a long quarantine, surpassed 800,000, a day after deaths from COVID-19 climbed above 25,000. The country has 806,038 confirmed cases of the virus according to the health ministry, with 25,296 reported deaths.
    (AP, 9/26/20)

2020        Oct 10, In Colombia a judge ruled that former Pres. Alvaro Uribe be freed from house arrest while he is investigated for possible witness tampering.
    (SSFC, 10/11/20, p.A2)
2020        Oct 10, Coronavirus cases in Colombia topped 900,000, as deaths from COVID-19 closed in on 27,700.
    (Reuters, 10/10/20)

2020        Oct 14, The UN envoy for Colombia called for improved protection for former combatants who continue to be killed “in alarming numbers." He complained of rising violence and massacres by other groups that have cropped up since the 2016 peace accord and said the latest killings bring the total number of former combatants killed so far this year to 50, including two women.
    (AP, 10/14/20)

2020        Oct 28, President Ivan Duque said Colombia will extend a so-called selective quarantine until the end of November.
    (Reuters, 10/29/20)

2000        Nov 19, Colombia's army began Operation Berlin and continued to Jan 5, 2021. The army’s target was the Arturo Ruíz mobile column of the FARC guerrilla group. It was later reported that 78 rebels were killed during the operation, 28 of them children.
    (AP, 6/26/21)

2020        Dec 18, President Ivan Duque said Colombia said it has inked deals with pharmaceutical companies Pfizer and AstraZeneca to provide 20 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines. Daily confirmed cases reached 13,277. Colombia has nearly 1.5 million confirmed cases.
    (AP, 12/19/20)

2020        Wade Davis, a Canadian writer, authored "Magdalena: A River of Dreams." Here Davis describes his travels on the thousand-mile length of the Colombian river, which now faces partial ecological death due to sewage.
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.69)
2020        In Colombia 120 community leaders were murdered this year according to the UN’s High Commissioner for Human Rights, up from 107 a year earlier.
    (AP, 1/13/20)

2021        Jan 5, President Ivan Duque said Colombia's food and drug regulator authorized emergency use of Pfizer Inc and BioNTech SE's COVID-19 vaccine.
    (Reuters, 1/5/21)

2021        Jan 13, It was reported that Colombian pop superstar Shakira has become the latest artist to sell the rights to her catalogue of 145 songs to London-listed Hipgnosis Songs Fund, as the coronavirus crisis crushes concert earnings.
    (Reuters, 1/13/20)

2021        Jan 28, Colombia's "special jurisdiction for peace" (JEP) indicted eight FARC leaders for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The ruling disclosed details of how the FARC kept some 21,396 hostages they took from 1990 to 2016.
    (Econ., 2/6/21, p.25)

2021        Feb 2, In Colombia Yordan Eduardo Guetio, a champion of the rights of the indigenous Nasa people, was stopped by men in military fatigues on the outskirts of Corinto while riding a motorcycle with his father. The father was released but Yordan was shot dead. Yordan belonged to the FENSUAGRO agricultural union, which has seen more than 35 members killed since the signing of the 2016 peace agreement.
    (https://tinyurl.com/7at3rxj4)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.34)

2021        Feb 8, President Ivan Duque said Colombia will provide temporary protective status to undocumented Venezuelan migrants. Colombia offered residency rights for 10 years to nearly one million Venezuelan migrants.
    (AP, 2/8/21)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.34)   

2021        Feb 10, It was reported that the hippo population at Hacienda Napoles Park in Colombia, once the private estate of drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, now numbered between 65 and 80. Escobar had imported 3 female hippos and one male decades ago. Scientists now warned that the hippos pose a major threat to the areas biodiversity.
    (SFC, 2/10/21, p.A3)

2021        Feb 23, The annual UN report on the human rights situation in Colombia found that violence is “intensifying" in some rural areas where state presence is weak and armed groups are fighting for territorial control following the 2016 demobilization of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebel group.
    (AP, 2/23/21)

2021        Feb 24, The Colombian justice ministry authorized the extradition of Elkin Javier López Torres, who goes by the Spanish aliases La Silla and Doble Rueda, respectively The Chair or Double Wheels, both references to his wheelchair. López Torres is of particular interest in Florida because his cartel lords over territory in La Guajira, a dry scrub area that was used for training camps as part of a failed coup in Venezuela last May.
    (Miami Herald, 2/25/21)

2021        Feb, In Colombia a special peace tribunal, known as the JEP, found that at least 6,402 people were killed as the "false positives." False positives were innocent people extrajudicially killed by members of the Colombian army, and then falsely labelled as enemy combatants. The vast majority of the “false positive" killings took place between 2002 and 2008, when the government of then-president Álvaro Uribe was waging war against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). In August Gen Mario Montoya faced murder charges after he was alleged to have overseen the abduction and execution of up to 104 civilians – including five children – who were falsely described as rebels to boost statistics, in a scandal known in Colombia as the “false positives".
    (The Guardian, 8/4/21)

2021        Mar 1, Colombia became the first country in the Americas to receive a shipment of coronavirus vaccines from the United Nations-backed COVAX initiative.
    (AP, 3/1/21)

2021        Mar 3, Colombia said it will grant legal status to all Venezuelan migrants who fled there since 2016 to escape their country’s economic collapse and political crisis.

2021        Mar 12, Colombia confirmed its first death from the P1, or Brazilian, variant of coronavirus. The victim who died in January was older and had various comorbidities.
    (Reuters, 3/13/21)

2021        May 3, In Colombia, tens of thousands of people protested against pandemic-induced poverty and inequality. The protests began on April 28, and by today at least 18 civilians and one police officer, Jesús Solano, had died.
    (NY Times, 5/3/21)

2021        May 5, Mass anti-government protests unfolded across Colombia, topping off a week of unrest that has left at least 24 people dea.
    (The Guardian, 5/6/21)

2021        May 17, In Venezuela Seuxis Hernandez Solarte (aka Jesus Santrich), former Colombian FARC leader, was killed along with five others in a shooting. Solarte was a member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia until August 2019 and was the FARC's delegate in the Colombian peace process in Havana.

2021        May 21, It was reported that a judge in Colombia has sentenced three Venezuelan men to six years in prison for helping organize the so-called Operation Gideon, an ill-conceived plot to remove Pres. Nicolas Maduro involving former American Green Berets.
    (SFC, 5/21/21, p.A5)

2021        May 28, Colombia's Pres. Ivan Duque announced the deployment of military forces to the city of Cali. At least 13 people died in Cali, the epicenter of demonstrations across the country. The next day Mayor Jorge Ivan Ospina said many of those deaths may have been linked to protests. More than 40 people have been killed and 2,200 civilians and police injured since the protests started on April 28.
    (Reuters, 5/29/21)(SSFC, 5/30/21, p.A6)

2021        May 30, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet called for investigations into the deaths of anti-government protesters in Cali, Colombia, following violent clashes between protesters and the military.
    (AP, 5/30/21)

2021        Jun 9, Human Rights Watch accused police officers in Colombia of responsibility for the deaths of 20 people and other violent actions against protesters during recent civil unrest, including sexual abuse, beatings and arbitrary detentions.
    (Reuters, 6/9/21)

2021        Jul 26, Romanian authorities confiscated 503 kg (1,109 pounds) of cocaine that was discovered in a fruit and vegetable warehouse near Bucharest. The cocaine had arrived in a transport of approximately 20 tons of bananas from Colombia.
    (AP, 7/29/21)

2021        Sep 7, Colombian lawmakers passed a tax bill late today to raise $4 billion annually, the final step in long-running efforts by the government of President Ivan Duque to get a fiscal reform through Congress.
    (Reuters, 9/8/21)

2021        Sep 20, Nicaragua accused Colombia before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) of not respecting a 2012 ruling on their maritime boundaries in the western Caribbean by that same court.
    (Reuters, 9/20/21)

2021        Sep 22, Lawyers for Colombia dismissed Nicaragua's claims before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), insisting that Bogota did respect a 2012 ruling on their maritime boundaries in the western Caribbean by the same court.
    (Reuters, 9/22/21)

2021        Sep 27, In Colombia at least ten members of a group of FARC rebel dissidents were killed in an armed forces bombing in Guainia province, a top area for the cultivation of coca.
    (Reuters, 9/27/21)

2021        Sep 28, Thousands of Colombian protesters returned to the streets of major cities to once again demand that Congress approve union-backed social policies to benefit the poorest.
    (Reuters, 9/28/21)

2021        Sep 29, The commander of Colombia's armed forces said about 1,900 fighters belonging to rebel and crime groups are operating from Venezuela, where they plan attacks and participate in drug trafficking.
    (Reuters, 9/30/21)

2021        Oct 1, In Colombia an influx of thousands of mostly Haitian migrants seeking transport northward toward the United States is pushing locals in the beach town of Necocli out of housing, residents said, as landlords favor migrants able to pay in dollars.
    (Reuters, 10/1/21)

2021        Oct 4, Spanish court officials and lawyers said an administrative court has ordered tax authorities to reimburse Colombian singer Shakira, while a separate criminal lawsuit she faces over a 14.5 million euros ($16.8 million) tax dispute continues.
    (Reuters, 10/4/21)

2021        Oct 11, The UN children's agency UNICEF said some 19,000 migrant children have crossed the dangerous Darien Gap on the border between Panama and Colombia so far this year. At least five children have been found dead in the jungle.
    (Reuters, 10/11/21)

2021        Oct 14, The UN said that the deteriorating security situation in Colombia represents a "considerable challenge" to the country's 2016 peace accords.
    (AP, 10/14/21)

2021        Oct 20, Colombia's Congress approved the 350.4 trillion peso ($93 billion) spending package proposed by the government for its 2022 budget, the second consecutive year it has approved a record sum.
    (Reuters, 10/20/21)

2021        Oct 22, Colombia's police chief said Jamaica will extradite a former Colombian military member implicated in the assassination of former Haiti President Jovenel Moise to Port-au-Prince.
    (Reuters, 10/22/21)
2021        Oct 22, The US State Department announced a reward of up to $10 million for information leading to the arrest or conviction of Colombian businessman Alvaro Pulido over money laundering charges in connection with an alleged Venezuela bribery scheme.
    (Reuters, 10/22/21)

2021        Oct 23, Dairo Antonio Usuga, known as Otoniel, was caught by Colombia's armed forces during an operation in a rural area of the Uraba region, Antioquia province. Otoniel had reportedly trafficked between 180 tons and 200 tons of cocaine a year with the Clan del Golfo, and was responsible for the deaths of more than 200 members of Colombia's security forces.
    (Reuters, 10/24/21)

2021        Oct 26, Colombia said some 42,600 hectares (105,267 acres) of rainforest were destroyed in its Amazon region across three of the country's provinces in the first half of 2021. The figure represents a 34% decrease in deforestation across the provinces.
    (Reuters, 10/26/21)

2021        Nov 3, Colombia’s top cop said authorities are focused on breaking up the Clan del Golfo gang - whose network extends to 28 countries around the world - after the capture of the group's leader late last month.
    (Reuters, 11/3/21)

2021        Nov 21, Colombia and Ecuador agreed to the bilateral reopening of their shared border from the start of December after it was closed amid the coronavirus pandemic, and pledged to work together to combat drug trafficking.
    (Reuters, 11/21/21)

2021        Nov 23, Colombia's armed forces seized 10 tons of cocaine, the largest shipment so far this year, and destroyed two drug labs in an anti-narcotics mission in the southeast of the country.
    (Reuters, 11/24/21)

2021        Nov 29, The Colombian, Chilean and Peruvian stock exchanges approved a merger into a regional holding company, creating Latin America's second biggest bourse.
    (Reuters, 11/30/21)

2021        Nov 30, The United States revoked its designation of the Colombian group the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) as a foreign terrorist organization five years after it reached a peace deal with the Colombian government.
    (Reuters, 11/30/21)

2021        Dec 14, In Colombia a bombing at an airport in the northern city of Cucuta left three people dead.
    (Reuters, 12/28/21)

2021        Dec 28, Colombia’s police said they have captured five people during raids in the Andean country’s second city Medellin and surrounding areas in connection with the Dec. 14 bombing at an airport in the northern city of Cucuta that left three people dead.
    (Reuters, 12/28/21)

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