Timeline Congo-Brazzaville
Republic of Congo

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 The Republic of Congo, (aka French Congo or Middle Congo) next to the former Zaire (Congo). An independent member of the French Community.
 (WSJ, 6/6/97, p.A11)(WUD, 1994, p.309)

1889-1910    The Congo (called the French Congo and later the Middle Congo) was administered primarily by French companies that held concessions to exploit the area's rubber and ivory resources.

1905        Sep 14, Pierre de Brazza (b.1852), Franco-Italian explorer, died and was buried in Algeria. He was born in Italy and later naturalized French. Brazza single-handedly opened up for France entry along the right bank of the Congo that eventually led to French colonies in West Africa. In 2006 his remains were exhumed and moved to a mausoleum in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of Congo.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Savorgnan_de_Brazza)

1905-1906      Scandals broke out over the decimation of the African population (Middle Congo) through forced labor and porterage.

1907        France restricted the role of the concessionaires.

1910        The Congo became a colony in French Equatorial Africa.

1928        Renewed forced labor (in Middle Congo) and other abuses sparked an African revolt.

1940-1945    The Free French forces made the Congo a bastion of their struggle against the Germans and the Vichy regime during World War II.

1946        The Middle Congo region was granted a territorial assembly and representation in the French parliament.

1958        Nov 28, Chad, Gabon and Middle Congo, became autonomous republics within the French community. The Middle Congo province of French Equatorial Africa voted to proclaim itself independent as the Congo Republic (Brazzaville).
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1960        Jul 12, Pres. de Gaulle granted independence to all French colonies in Africa.
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A1)(WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)(MC, 7/12/02)

1960        Aug 15, Congo (formerly Congo/Brazzaville) declared Independence from France.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1963-1966    Pascal Lissouba served as Prime Minister (1963-66) under President Alphonse Massamba-Dbat.

1964        The Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa, UDEAC from its name in French, was established by the Brazzaville Treaty. Members included Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.
    (AP, 9/29/13)

1966        The Brazzaville Treaty became effective after it was ratified by the five member countries: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.

1968        Sep 4, In the Republic of Congo, Brazzaville, an army coup deposed Pres. Masemba-Debat.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)

1976         The Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC) was established and included six members of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

1977        Mar 18, Marien Ngouabi, the military president of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), was assassinated.
    (AP, 3/18/07)

1979        Feb 8, In the Republic of the Congo Denis Sassou Nguesso (b.1943), a member of the Mbochi minority, began 13 years of rule as a Marxist dictator.
    (WSJ, 12/31/98, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_Sassou-Nguesso)

1981        Republic of Congo Pres. Denis Sassou Nguesso signed a friendship treaty with the USSR, while maintaining the Congos strong economic ties with France.

1990        By this year the Republic of Congo was totally bankrupt. The French oil company Elf Aquitaine dominated oil production. The country was Africas 4th largest producer of crude oil.
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.D8)

1991        Republic of Congos reform minded citizens convened a national conference and Denis Sassou Nguesso was stripped of most of his power and national elections were organized.
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.D8)

1992        Aug 31, Pascal Lissouba (b.1931) became president of the Republic of Congo.

1992        Republic of Congos Sassou-Nguesso relinquished power after an elections loss to Pascal Lissouba. He maintained a private militia known as the Cobras in his northern domain.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.A12)

1993        Rory Nugent wrote Drums Along the Congo: On the Trail of Mokele-Mbembe, the Last Living Dinosaur. It was an account of his trip to the Republic of Congo.
    (WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A12)

1993        Republic of Congos Pres. Lissouba signed a $150 million oil agreement with Occidental Petroleum. He was convicted in 2001 in absentia for selling oil at low prices and in part for personal gain.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A6)

1997        Jun 5, Republic of Congo government troops began an attack on the residence of Denis Sassou-Nguesso. He was able to flee and rally his forces for a counterattack.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 8, In the Republic of Congo a private militia of 5,000 loyal to former leader Denis Sassou-Nguesso fought to gain control of Brazzaville. Soldiers loyal to Pres. Pascal Lissouba were arming the citizens and looting homes.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)

1997        Jun 11, The leaders of the militias ravaging Brazzaville, Congo, called for a cease-fire, but fighting continued unabated.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1997        Jun 23, The travel adventure book No Mercy: A Journey to the Heart of the Congo by Redmond OHanlon was about his journey to the Republic of the Congo. It was compared to the 1993 adventure book by Rory Nugent.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.5)(WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 25, In the Republic of Congo a truce ended in a ferocious battle for the Brazzaville airport. Former president Nguesso appeared to have begun an assault on the airport.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A10)

1997        Sep 24, In the Republic of Congo it was reported that the Cobras, the private militia of former military dictator Genl. Denis Sassou-Nguesso, had taken control of more than three-quarters of the country.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 1, Congos Pres. Kabila ordered troops into the Congo Republic after 2 days of cross border shelling that killed as many as 31 in Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 9, The UN reported that both sides in the Republic of Congo have signed a cease-fire pact. Genl. Sassou Nguesse signed the document that his opponents, Pres. Pascal Lissouba and prime minister Bernard Kolelas, agreed to sign last month.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.D5)

1997        Oct 12, In the Republic of Congo Angolan troops backed the rebels in an offensive around southern cities. Rebels surrounded Brazzaville and Genl. Jean-Marie Tiaffou urged government troops to surrender. There were reports that Angolas UNITA rebels were backing Pres. Lissouba.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 14, In the Republic of Congo Pres. Lissouba fled the presidential palace in Brazzaville. Premier Bernard Kolelas fled the Republic of Congo when militia fighters loyal to Sassou-Nguesso toppled President Pascal Lissouba.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/05)

1997        Oct 15, In the Republic of Congo rebel forces loyal to the former Marxist dictator Denis Sassou-Nguesso, backed by as many as 1000 troops from Angola, gained full control of Brazzaville, the capital and Pointe Noire, the 2nd largest city.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A13)(SFC, 12/12/97, p.B4)

1997        Oct 25, In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Gen. Dennis Sassou-Nguesso was sworn in as president, with the stated aim of achieving "national reconciliation" in the former French colony.
    (SFEC, 10/26/97, p.A22)(AFP, 5/14/19)

1997-2007    In the Republic of Congo some 12,000 people were killed during this period mostly from 4 major conflicts. Some 860,000 people were displaced and 27,000 women raped.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.38)

1998        Oct 16, In the Republic of Congo a court indicted 100 members of the recently ousted government on charges of assassination, torture, rape, fraud and theft.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 27, In the Congo Republic troops from Angola, allied to Pres. Sassou-Nguesso, killed dozens of people in a weekend attack on Nkayi. Government troops were called "Cobras," while the rebels were called "Ninjas."  The rebels were aligned with former Prime Minister Bernard Kolelas, a member of the ethnic majority.
    (WSJ, 12/30/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/31/98, p.A10)

1998        Alain Mabanckou authored his first novel Bleu, Blanc Rouge. Mabanckou left Congo-Brazzaville in 1989 to study law in France, but within a decade quit as a corporate lawyer.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.81)

1999        Apr, The two Congos on opposite shores jointly signed a repatriation agreement with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and people who were prepared to return did so during the week of May 5-14, 1999. 353 returnees disappeared and were widely believed to have been murdered.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y44ztgjf)(AFP, 5/14/19)

1999        Jun 21, Fighting broke out in the Republic of Congo near the main port of Pointe-Noire. 140 people were reported killed by the end of the week.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.D2)

2000        In the Republic of Congo a Brazzaville court sentenced former premier Bernard Kolelas to death for crimes ranging from torture to the rape of prisoners during a 5-month-long civil war in 1997.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2001        Jan 10, In the Republic of Congo 2 freight trains collided near Nvoungouti station and at least 30 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A18)

2001        Dec 2, An outbreak of Ebola virus hit Gabon with the 1st death in Ekata, about 5 miles from the Congo border. Within weeks at least 15 people died. The virus spread to Congo and movement in the area was restricted.
    (SFC, 12/21/01, p.A5)

2001        Dec 6, An intl. team of doctors flew to Congo to investigate the deaths of 17 people with Ebola-like symptoms in Dekese. Ebola was confirmed in Gabon on Dec 9.
    (WSJ, 12/7/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/10/01, p.A3)

2001        Dec 28, In the Republic of Congo a court convicted former Pres. Lissouba on treason and corruption charges.

2002        Feb 6, In the Republic of Congo a new death from Ebola raised fears that it had spread from Gabon.
    (WSJ, 2/7/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 10, In the Republic of Congo Pres. Dennis Sassou-Nguesso won elections with 89% of the vote. Turnout was nearly 75%.
    (SFC, 3/14/02, p.A8)

2002        Mar 29, In the Republic of Congo rebels launched a new wave of attacks.
    (SFC, 6/18/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 14, In the Republic of Congo rebels launched their first attack on Brazzaville since restarting this West African nation's civil war in late March. Government troops hunted down rebels who staged a surprise attack on the city. More than 100 rebels and 17 government soldiers were killed. The rebels called themselves Ninjas and were led by renegade pastor Frederic Bitsangou (Frederic Ntoumi).
    (AP, 6/14/02)(SFC, 6/15/02, p.A8)(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 15, In the Republic of Congo it was reported that 5 people had died from an outbreak of ebola, the 2nd outbreak in the region this year.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.C10)

2002        Jun 28, In the Rep. of Congo officials reported that supporters of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso won a majority in the nation's new parliament after a runoff vote held last week.
    (AP, 6/28/02)

2002        Aug 14, Republic of Congo President Denis Sassou-Nguesso promised to fight corruption as he was sworn after winning this central African nation's first elections since back-to-back civil wars.
    (AP, 8/14/02)

2002        French president Jacques Chirac received three million euros ($4 million) from Ivory Coast's Laurent Gbagbo to finance his electoral campaign. This was made public in 2011 by Robert Bourgi, a lawyer with a network of African contacts who advised Chirac before changing camps in 2005 to aid French President Nicolas Sarkozy. Bourgi also named Senegal's Abdoulaye Wade, Burkina Faso's Blaise Compaore, and Congo-Brazzaville's Denis Sassou Nguesso and Gabon's Omar Bongo as contributors. Bourgi later said he was mistaken concerning (Senegal's president) Abdoulaye Wade and his son" Karim Wade.
    (AFP, 9/12/11)(AP, 9/26/11)

2003        Feb 12, The Republic of Congo reported that an Ebola outbreak was suspected in the recent deaths of 48 people.
    (SFC, 2/13/03, p.A7)

2003        Feb 6, Medical experts headed to northern Republic of Congo to investigate a feared outbreak of Ebola after 16 suspicious deaths.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003        Mar 12, It was reported that the Ebola outbreak in the Republic of Congo was decimating the gorilla population with up to 800 lost at the Lossi sanctuary.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 6, In the Congo Republic 9 people have died in a suspected outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus in a remote forest region where 120 were killed by the disease earlier this year.
    (Reuters, 11/7/03)

2003        Dec 17, The fifth outbreak in two years of the deadly Ebola virus in the Republic of Congo has so far killed 29 people.
    (AP, 12/17/03)

2003        In Congo-Brazzaville Frederic Ntoumi, head of an estimated 5,000 Ninja fighters agreed to make peace with the government. Plans to disarm his men were repeatedly delayed.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.42)

2004        Mar 21, In the Republic of Congo a train derailed 90 miles south of Brazzaville, killing 31 people and injuring scores of others.
    (AP, 3/23/04)

2004        Jul 9, A UN-backed body barred the Republic of Congo from the legitimate world diamond trade, accusing it of blatantly sending millions of dollars in smuggled gems onto the global market.
    (AP, 7/10/04)

2005        Feb 5, In the Republic of Congo leaders of seven Central African countries signed a landmark treaty to work together to help save the world's second-largest rain forest.
    (AP, 2/6/05)

2005        May 18, Authorities in the Republic of Congo quarantined two districts hit by the deadly Ebola virus to ensure the highly contagious disease does not spread.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        Aug 17, Top Republic of Congo officials were acquitted of genocide and war crimes charges stemming from the disappearance of 350 refugees who had returned home during a cease-fire in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 8/17/05)

2005        Sep 10, In the Republic of Congo a plane crashed north of Brazzaville, killing 13 people.
    (AP, 9/10/05)

2006        Jan 24, A government spokesman said Sudan has withdrawn from the competition to lead the African Union amid criticism of its human rights record. Diplomats said the presidency would go to the Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Jan 29, Republic of Congo President Denis Sassou-Nguesso launched his role as a top African peace mediator, meeting with the prime minister of civil war-divided Ivory Coast days after taking over as African Union head.
    (AP, 1/29/06)

2006        Jun 10, In Brazzaville, the Congo Republic, ministers from across Africa approved a draft democracy charter, laying down guidelines on elections and good governance in the world's poorest continent.
    (Reuters, 6/10/06)

2007        Jun 24, Congo held a first round of elections. The Congolese Labor Party won 22 of the 44 seats up for grabs. President Denis Sassou Nguesso's party won the first phase of the two-round legislative elections held amid chaos and charges of widespread fraud.
    (AFP, 6/30/07)

2007        Aug 10, Congo's ruling coalition in Brazzaville was declared the winner of legislative elections, despite opposition charges of electoral fraud.
    (AFP, 8/10/07)

2007        Sep 10, Congolese authorities blocked Frederic Bintsamou, an ex-rebel chief, from entering Brazzaville to take up duties as a deputy minister under a peace deal, but promised they were still adhering to the "principle" of his inclusion in the government.
    (AFP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 12, The Republic of Congo, the smaller, oil-rich western neighbor of the Democratic Republic of Congo, numbered about 3.7 million inhabitants.
    (AFP, 9/12/07)

2007        Oct 15, Brazils President Luiz Ignacio Lula Da Silva arrived in the Congolese capital Brazzaville for a one-day visit, the first by a Brazilian leader to the African country.
    (AFP, 10/16/07)

2007        Nov 15, Congo and the London Club of private creditors reached a deal to cancel 80% of the central African country's estimated 2.5-billion-dollar debt.
    (AFP, 11/15/07)

2007        The population of Congo-Brazzaville stood at about 4 million.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.38)

2008        Mar 10, Leaders of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) converged on Kinshasa for a summit focusing on the situation in Chad in the wake of a failed rebel assault.
    (AFP, 3/10/08)

2008        Nov 17, The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) said a ton of ivory items and 57 suspects were netted in a four-month operation billed Africa's largest-ever crackdown on wildlife crime. Operation Baba also seized cheetah, leopard, serval cat and python skins as well as hippo teeth at several markets, airports and border crossings in Congo Brazzaville, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)

2009        Jan 30, In Libreville, Gabon, leaders of the six Central African states (Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, CAR, Congo, Equatorial Guinea), began meeting to discuss closer economic ties, including the creation of a new regional airline. The Economic and Monetary Union of Central Africa, known as CEMAC, planned discussions on such issues as monetary reform and the free movement of citizens.
    (AFP, 1/30/09)

2009        Mar 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Brazzaville and Kinshasa. During the Kinshasa trip, given over in large part to regional political issues, Areva signed an agreement with the government allowing the company to prospect for and mine uranium.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Apr 29, A Boeing 737 on a test flight from Brazzaville crashed southeast of Kinshasa, killing 7 people.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 5, A French judge decided to investigate three African heads of state for money laundering and other alleged crimes linked to their wealth in France. The probe follows a complaint by Transparency International France, an association that tracks corruption, against Gabon's Omar Bongo, Republic of Congo's Denis Sassou-Nguesso and Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        Jul 12, The Republic of Congo held elections. Pres. Denis Sassou-Nguesso was re-elected with 78.6% of the vote.
    (SFC, 7/16/09, p.A2)

2009        Jul 17, The Republic of Congo's top opposition politician, Mathias Dzon, filed for an annulment of the incumbent president's re-election and claimed there had been vote-rigging and intimidation.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Aug 26, In the Republic of Congo 7 people, including five Russian crew members, were killed when a cargo plane crashed on the outskirts of Brazzaville.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)

2009        Sep 18, Paul Gilles Nanda (52), a Cameroonian employee of the Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC), was jailed in the Republic Congo. He had compiled a document to disclose bad management at the bank with evidence to back it up. The Austrian daily Oberosterreichische Nachrichten revealed at the end of August that the BDEAC had lost 11 billion CFA francs during an affair in which international financier Bernard Madoff stole billions of dollars from thousands of investors.
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

2009        Nov 28, South Africa seized a shipment of spare parts for North Korean tanks destined for the Republic of Congo. South Africas government confirmed the seizure on Feb 26, 2010.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Jun 19, A plane carrying a group of Australian mining executives disappeared en route from Cameroon to Congo-Brazzaville. All 11 on board were killed wiping out the entire board of the Sundance Resources company including mining tycoon Ken Talbot. The wreckage was found June 21 in the Congo jungle.
    (AFP, 6/20/10)(AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 21, In the Congo Republic at least 76 people were killed and 745 injured after a train accident in the southern part of the country.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)

2010        Nov 9, The WHO said a polio outbreak in the Congo Republic affected 201 people and caused 104 deaths in the last two weeks. The government in Brazzaville has declared an emergency and announced plans to vaccinate the entire population.
    (SFC, 11/10/10, p.A2)
2010        Nov 9, France's highest court authorized a probe into the assets of three African heads of state, after two rights groups' alleged that the leaders laundered money through French villas, cars and bank accounts. The probe will target Gabon's late leader Omar Bongo, the Republic of Congo's President Denis Sassou-Nguesso and President Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2011        Mar 21, In the Republic of Congo at least 16 people were killed when an Antonov 32 cargo plane crashed in the Mvoumvou area of Pointe-Noire.
    (SFC, 3/22/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 29, The leaders of Congo and Guinea agreed to boost the current "low level" of bilateral exchange, in a statement marking a visit by President Alpha Conde to Brazzaville. The leaders agreed to hold a second session in 2012 of a joint commission that last met in 1978, in a bid to "revive" ties.
    (AFP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jul 10, In the Republic of Congo 7 people died as security forces failed to control a stampede outside the Felix Eboue stadium in Brazzaville, the venue for the 8th Pan-African Music Festival (Fespam).
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Sep, The Way-C, an African handheld tablet to rival the iPad and similar western inventions, was first presented to the public in the Congo Republic by its inventor Verone Mankou (26). It was assembled in China and went on sale in Brazzaville on Jan 30, 2012.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2011        Nov 7, The Republic of Congo launched a vast tree-planting program to guard against the twin scourges of deforestation and soil degradation that plague many African states.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 15, In the Republic of Congo Alexandre Kossiarev, a native of Belarus, was killed when an MI-8, a Russian-designed helicopter, crashed in the country's north.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Dec 30, The Republic of Congo said it has banned 69 Chinese fishing boats from its waters for illicit activities.
    (AP, 12/30/11)

2012        Mar 4, In the Republic of Congo blasts rocked Brazzaville after a weapons depot caught fire, killing over 200 people, wounding over 1300 and forcing 2,000 to flee their homes. Small detonations continued the next day. The death toll was later set at 223. In May 23 people were charged and detained in connection with a blast.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)(AFP, 3/5/12)(AP, 3/7/12)(AFP, 3/11/12)(AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        Apr 1, Nigerian Aliko Dangote, Africa's richest man, donated 500,000 dollars to victims of last month's munitions blasts in Brazzaville, Congo, which killed at least 282 people.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Jul 15, The Republic of Congo held elections for a new parliament. The Congolese Labour Party of President Denis Sassou Nguesso retained its dominance in the first round of legislative elections in results announced on July 20. The PCT took 57 of the 69 seats that were won outright in the first-round vote. The other places in the 135-seat parliament will be decided in a second round scheduled for August 5.
    (AP, 7/15/12)(AFP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 16, In the Republic of Congo a police helicopter crash killed two Ukrainian pilots.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Jul, Republic of Congos President Denis Sassou-Nguesso approved limits on the sale and consumption of tobacco. The government decided to announce the decision on World No Tobacco Day, May 31, 2013.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2012        Sep 4, Congo and China signed accords worth 975 million euros as part of a project to rebuild parts of the capital Brazzaville devastated by a deadly munitions depot blast in early March.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Nov 30, In the Republic of Congo An Ilyushin-76 cargo plane owned by a private Congolese company crashed near the Brazzaville airport. At least 25 people killed from the crash, including six Ukrainian crew members.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2013        May 31, The Republic of Congo announced limits on the sale and consumption of tobacco. President Denis Sassou-Nguesso approved the limits last July, but the government decided to announce the decision on World No Tobacco Day, May 31, 2013.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Sep 9, In the Republic of Congo a court convicted and sentenced six people for contributing to an arms depot fire, which set off a deadly string of explosions in 2012, killing close to 300 people.
    (AP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 24, In the Republic of Congo a rail crash killed 3 people and injured 28 others, when a passenger train hit one laden with oil tankers.
    (AFP, 9/24/13)

2013        Oct 13, A detachment of Angolan troops crossed into neighboring Congo Republic and detained a group of Congolese soldiers. The incident highlights tensions around Angola's oil-rich Cabinda enclave, which is separated from the rest of Angola and surrounded by Congo Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. 55 soldiers of the Republic of Congo were released on Oct 18.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)(AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Dec 16, Heavy gunfire rocked the capital of the Republic of Congo, soon after Congolese security forces encircled the home of Col. Marcel Tsourou recently charged with complicity in a military arms depot fire and explosion that claimed 200 lives.
    (AP, 12/16/13)

2014        Jan 27, European news channel Euronews said it will launch Africa's first multi-language news channel in the middle of next year in partnership with the state television of the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville).
    (AFP, 1/27/14)

2014        Feb 25, In the Republic of Congo a former minister under ousted president Francois Bozize, Patrice Edouard Ngaissona -- who calls himself the coordinator of the mostly Christian "anti-balaka" (anti-machete) militia, was arrested along with two aides and transferred to Brazzaville.
    (AP, 2/27/14)

2014        Mar, In the Central African Rep. a dozen civilians went missing at Boali after a clash between local anti-Balaka militias drawn mainly from the Christian population and troops of an African Union mission known as MISCA. Two years after the trouble, a mass grave was found near a former MISCA base at Boali. The remains of 12 people were found in the grave in February 2016 and all were eventually identified as individuals detained by Congolese MISCA troops. In 2018 three Congolese soldiers were freed after serving most of their three years sentences for mass murder.
    (AFP, 8/7/18)

2014        Apr 29, CongoDRC officials said nearly 40,000 Congolese citizens have been deported over the last two weeks from neighboring Republic of Congo because they did not have immigration papers.
    (SFC, 4/30/14, p.A2)

2014        May 10, In the Congo Republic Udjani Mangbama, DR Congo militia boss, was among 11 people killed in an area near Owando, 500 km north of Brazzaville.
    (AFP, 5/11/14)

2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 23, Representatives of the Muslim and Christian factions battling in Central African Republic signed a cease-fire agreement in neighboring Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 7/23/14)

2015        May 1, The Republic of Congo said it has banned women from being fully veiled in public to allow easy identification to prevent extremist violence. The Republic of Congo has a population of some 800,000 registered Muslims, about 10% of the population. The government said it will also ban non-residents from sleeping in mosques in order to encourage refugees to register with police,
    (AP, 5/2/15)

2015        Oct 10, Tens of thousands of supporters of Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso took to the streets of the capital Brazzaville to back his controversial bid to change the constitution in order to remain in power.
    (AFP, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 20, Authorities in the Republic of Congo banned demonstrations in the country after the opposition called a protest over the president's bid to extend his three-decade stay in power. At least 3 people were shot dead during anti-government protests in Brazzaville. A 4th person was killed a day earlier in in Pointe-Noire.
    (Reuters, 10/20/15)(AP, 10/21/15)

2015        Oct 25, The Republic of Congo voted on whether to amend the constitution to enable one of Africa's longest-serving leaders, President Denis Sassou Nguesso, to seek a third term, extending his 31-year grip on power. More than 92 percent of voters supported the change and turnout stood at 72 percent.
    (AFP, 10/2515)(AP, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 27, Congolese opposition leaders called for "civil disobedience" to pressure the government into withdrawing a planned constitutional amendment enabling President Denis Sassou Nguesso to extend his three-decade rule.
    (AFP, 10/27/15)

2015        Nov, In France exiled Rep. of Congo General Ferdinand Mbaou was shot in the back as he was leaving his home in Bessancourt north of Paris. In 2018 two former French secret service agents were accused of plotting to assassinate the senior opposition figure.
    (AFP, 10/5/18)

2016        Feb 19, Congolese authorities said they had ordered the arrest of former army chief Jean-Marie Michel Mokoko, who is challenging President Denis Sassou Nguesso, in power for more than 30 years, in elections next month.
    (AFP, 2/19/16)

2016        Mar 19, Congo presidential candidate general Jean-Marie Michel Mokoko said he has received a fresh police summons to report to authorities on the eve of the election, slamming what he termed a bid to torpedo his hopes of standing.
    (AFP, 3/19/16)

2016        Mar 20, The Republic of Congo voted under a nationwide media blackout, in a tense ballot expected to see President Denis Sassou Nguesso (72) prolong his 32-year rule over the oil-rich but impoverished nation. Provisional results showed President Denis Sassou N'Guesso won re-election.
    (AFP, 3/20/16)(AP, 3/22/16)

2016        Mar 23, Congo Republic opposition candidates in elections said that President Denis Sassou Nguesso placed no better than fourth in any major district.
    (Reuters, 3/23/16)

2016        Mar 24, Congo Rep. Interior Minister Raymond Zephirin Mboulou said President Denis Sassou N'Guesso scored a first-round win on March 20, taking 60.4 percent of the vote.
    (AP, 3/24/16)

2016        Apr 4, Thousands fled fighting in Congo's capital Brazzaville as the government blamed heavy clashes in southern opposition bastions on a rebel group known as "The Ninjas". 3 police officers and 2 gunmen were killed in Brazzaville in heavy fighting touched off by President Denis Sassou Nguesso's disputed re-election.
    (AFP, 4/4/16)(Reuters, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 23, Republic of Congo's newly-reelected President Denis Sassou Nguesso named former opposition leader and one-time finance minister Clement Mouamba as his prime minister.
    (AFP, 4/24/16)

2016        May 9, The Republic of Congo called on the EU to recall its ambassador to Brazzaville over EU criticism of President Denis Sassou Nguesso's controversial re-election in March. In its response on May 17, Brussels expressed its unwavering support for EU representative Saskia de Lang.
    (AFP, 5/21/16)

2016        Jun 15, In Congo Rep. General Jean-Marie Michel Mokoko (69), a former army chief and candidate in the presidential election earlier this year, was detained overnight. His supporters said the president is trying to stifle dissent.
    (Reuters, 6/15/16)

2016        Jul 25, Congo Republic opposition leader Paulin Makaya was sentenced to two years in prison for his role in protests against a referendum proposing a third term for President Denis Sassou Nguesso.
    (Reuters, 7/25/16)

2017        Jan 10, A Congolese police source said opposition leader Okombi Salissa (55), who unsuccessfully challenged President Denis Sassou Nguesso (73) at the polls, has been arrested. Salissa has sought to stop Nguesso from returning to power in March.
    (AFP, 1/10/17)

2017        Mar 17, Security forces in Congo Republic said they have killed around 15 rebel fighters during a military operation in the restive Pool region.
    (Reuters, 3/18/17)

2017        Jul 16, Republic of Congo voters went to the polls in legislative elections in the oil-rich African country, the first since violence-marred presidential polls last year which returned Denis Sassou Nguesso to power.
    (AFP, 7/16/17)

2017        Aug 17, Congo Republic's PM Clement Mouamba and his cabinet resigned amid a growing economic crisis. The announcement came days after Pres. Denis Sassou Nguesso said he wanted to form a new government to help alleviate the country's economic problems which have been exacerbated by the steep drop in oil prices.
    (Reuters, 8/17/17)

2017        Sep 7, A study by wildlife trade monitoring network Traffic said weak governance, corruption and shifting trade dynamics are seriously undermining efforts to control ivory trafficking throughout Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon.
    (AFP, 9/7/17)   

2018        Aug 21, The leader behind an insurgency in the Republic of Congo accepted the principle of laying down arms in his first public appearance since he agreed to a ceasefire last December. Frederic Bintsamou, also known as Pastor Ntumi, headed the powerful militia called the Ninjas which launched a revolt in April 2016 in the southern region of Pool, prompting more than 138,000 people to flee their homes.
    (AFP, 8/22/18)

2019        Feb 7, Congo's new President Felix Tshisekedi landed in Brazzaville, the capital of neighboring Republic of the Congo, to start his first international trip since being elected president in late January.
    (AP, 2/7/19)

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Subject = Congo Rep.
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