Timeline Egypt A thru 2010

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ABZU: http://www.etana.org/home

Egypt is about 3 times the size of New Mexico.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The god Sia was invoked to protect the genitals of the dead.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)

145Mil BC-65Mil BC Researchers in 2009 said fossils from this period, unearthed in what later became the Sahara desert, revealed a once-swampy world divided up among a half-dozen species of unusual and perhaps intelligent crocodiles. They lived during the Cretaceous period, when the continents were closer together and the world warmer and wetter. They were given snappy names, such as: BoarCroc, RatCroc, DogCroc, DuckCroc and PancakeCroc.
    (Reuters, 11/19/09)

94Mil BC    In 2001 fossils of a large sauropod were discovered in Egypt near the remote Bahariya oasis. A Univ. of Pennsylvania team named it Paralititan stromeri (tidal giant of Stromer) after a German scientist who had studied the area.
    (SFC, 6/1/01, p.A1)

40Mil BC    The whale species Basilosaurus (king lizard) isis was discovered in 1904. Paleontologists found bones of this creature in the 1830s in Louisiana. Fossils were found by U of Mich. paleontologist P.D. Gingerich in Egypt in 1989. With tiny hind limbs too weak to support its body on land, Gingerich believes it spent its entire life in the ocean. It reached about 40 feet.
     (LSA., p. 36)(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.15,16)
40Mil BC    In 2005 the successful excavation of an unusually complete and well-preserved skeleton of the 40 million-year-old fossil whale Basilosaurus isis was completed in Egypt. The 18 meter (50 feet) skeleton was found in Wadi Hitan in the Western Sahara of Egypt. The first Basilosaurus fossil was found in 1905 but no full skeleton has been discovered until now.
    (MT, 4/05)

80000BC    In 1983 an international expedition of American, Polish and Egyptian anthropologists in the Aswan region unexpectedly came upon the skeleton of a prehistoric man thought to be about 80,000 years old, the oldest human skeleton ever found in Egypt. Early modern humans were present in the Levant between 130,000-80,000 BP.

5200BC-4500BC    In 2008 Egypt’s supreme council of antiquities said a team of US archaeologists had discovered the ruins of a city dating back to this period of the first farmers in the Fayyum oasis.
    (AFP, 1/29/08)

c5100BC    A slate plaque from pre-dynastic Egypt was carved with scenes of battlefield carnage on one side and leaf munching antelope on the other. It was part of an exhibit at the Guggenheim.
    (NYT, 6/7/96, p.B9)

5000BC    In 2008 archeologists reported the discovery of a farming village in Egypt’s Faiyum Oasis, 50 miles south of Cairo, that dated to about this time. Residents grew wheat and barley, and raised sheep, goats and pigs.
    (SFC, 2/13/08, p.A11)
c5000BC    A complex of slabs and stones in southern Egypt that may date this far back was found during field work that ended in 1997. The site included 10 slabs, some 9 feet tall, 30 rock-lined ovals, 9 burial sites for cows, and a "calendar circle" of stones. They were thought to have been constructed by cattle-herders and used for astronomical observations.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A6)
5000 BC    In 2018 Egypt's Antiquities Ministry said a Neolithic site has been discovered in Tell el-Samara, about 140 km (87 miles) north of Cairo. A team found silos containing animal bones and food, indicating human habitation as early as 5,000 BC.
    (AP, 9/2/18)

5000BC-3500BC    The predynastic period of Egypt.

4241BC    The Egyptian calendar was established.
    (WSJ, 1/5/05, p.B1)

3600BC    In 2005 a team working for five years in the area of Kom El-Ahmar, Egypt, known in antiquity as Hierakonpolis, excavated a complex thought to belong to a ruler of the ancient city who reigned around this time. Archaeologists unearthed seven corpses believed to date to the era, as well as an intact figure of a cow's head carved from flint.
    (AP, 4/22/05)

3600BC-3500BC    An Egyptian cemetery of working class inhabitants at Hierankopolis of this time showed evidence of mummification.
    (AM, 9/01, p.13)

3500BC-3100BC    In Egypt the "Knife of Gebel-el-Arak" was made with an ivory handle carved with hunting and battle scenes. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

3300BC-3200BC In 1998 clay tablets were reported from this date from the tomb of an Egyptian king named Scorpion. The tablets had writing that recorded linen and oil deliveries as a tithe to the king. The tomb was in a cemetery at Gebel Tjauti in Suhag province, some 250 miles south of Cairo. Egyptologists John Coleman Darnell and wife Deborah discovered the tableau in 1995.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C5)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A4)

3250BC    King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt. Evidence of wine was found in his tomb and scientists believed it was produced in Jordan and transported by donkey and boat to Egypt.
    (AM, 5/01, p.54)(SFC, 10/27/05, p.A2)

c3100BC    In the protodynastic period of Egypt "Scorpion" ruled and was followed by Narmer. In 2002 Jan Assmann authored "The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs.
    (R4,1998)(SSFC, 4/28/02, p.M4)   
3100BC    Menes, the legendary first pharaoh of Egypt, ruled upper Egypt from Nekhen before he conquered lower Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis.
    (NG, May 1985, p.586)
c3100BC     The upper and lower kingdoms were united to form the 1st Dynasty of Egypt. The fertile Nile Valley and prevailing environmental conditions led to the formation of villages along the river—Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. These villages grew into 'kingdoms' centered around Naqadah (later Hierakonopolis) in the south and Behdet (later Buto) in the delta. According to tradition, the upper and lower kingdoms were united into one centralized government by King Menes around 3100BC. However, modern scholars are unsure whether King Menes was actually several kings, including Narmer and Aha. Menes' reign lasted a substantial 62 years before being killed by a hippopotamus (again according to tradition).  The 1st dynasty lasted until about 2890BC.
    (HNQ, 11/2/00)

3100BC-2770BC    The Archaic Period of Egypt. Narmer united Egypt and hieroglyphic writing developed.
    (eawc, p.1)

3100BC-2700BC    In Egypt the limestone "Stele of the Serpent King" has a bas-relief of a falcon in profile above a nearly abstract curving stroke of a snake. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

c3050BC-2890BC    In Egypt Hor-Aha ruled and was followed by Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qa'a. These rulers comprised the 1st dynasty.

3000BC    The Egyptians used reed brushes on papyrus to write hieroglyphics.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)(K.I.-365D.p.31)

2980BC    Egypt’s tomb of King Den, dated to about this time, was later found to show evidence of mummification.
    (AM, 9/01, p.13)

2890BC-2686    This is the period of Egypt’s 2nd Dynasty. Hotepsekhemwy ruled and was followed by Raneb, Nynetjer, Weneg, Seth-Peribsen and Khasekhemwy.

2772BC    In Egypt the 365 day calendar was introduced.
    (eawc, p.1)

2686BC-2181BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2686BC-2668BC    Sanakhte, the older brother of Djoser, founded Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2686BC-2181BC    Chairs in the early dynasties of Egypt stood on what looked like animals' legs. Low reliefs of Egypt’s Old Kingdom, now in the French Louvre, enumerate an ideal meal to be taken to a tomb.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.E-4)(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2668BC-2649BC    Djoser (Dzoser, Zoser) was the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty. The first step pyramid was designed for Dzoser by Imhotep.

2650BC-2180BC    Egyptian wall paintings included information on beer production. In 2004 Japan’s Kirin Brewery produced a beer dubbed “The Old Kingdom Beer."
    (WSJ, 10/14/04, p.A1)

2649BC-2643BC    Sekhemkhet was the 3rd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2643BC-2637BC    Khaba was the 4th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2637BC-2613BC    Huni was the 5th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.

2620BC-2500BC    A polychrome stele of Egyptian Princess Nefertiabet depicts her dining in a one-shoulder leopard-skin gown. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
2620BC-2500BC    An Egyptian painted limestone statue of a "Seated Scribe" dates to this period. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2601BC    In Egypt Nik’ure, the son of a pharaoh, died and left what was later recognized as the oldest Last Will and Testament. "Being of sound mind and body…" He left his wealth to his wife, 3 children and to another woman.
    (SFEC, 8/6/00, Z1 p.2)

2600BC    The Bent Pyramid was built during the Old Kingdom of the Pharaoh of Sneferu about this time. It is unique in that it has two internal structures. It represents a transitional form of pyramid construction between the Djoser Step Pyramid (2667-2648 B.C.) and the Meidum Pyramid (also about 2600 B.C.).
    (AP, 7/14/19)
c2600BC    Tombs of the priest Kai were built about this time in Egypt. In 1999 they were found in a cemetery west of Cheop's pyramid.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.A18)

2613BC-2589BC    Snefru (Snofru), son of Huni, was the 1st king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty. Snefru’s scribes left a description of 40 ships bearing timber arriving to Egypt from Byblos. On Mar 9,1925, the Egyptian Ministry of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb of King Sneferu.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)(HN, 3/9/98)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2589BC-2566BC    Khufu (Cheops), son of Snefru and Queen Hetepheres, ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. Khufu built the Great Pyramid. It rose about 100 feet. Two more were built for his 2 wives, Henutsen and Meryetes. Laborers reportedly went on strike to get a daily ration of garlic.
    (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 1/3/98, p.A8)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2566BC-2558BC    Djedefre (Radjedef) succeeded his father Khufu and ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (2528BC-2520BC).
    (R4,1998)(Arch, 7/02, p.9)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2558BC-2532BC    Khafre ruled as the 4th king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. His pyramid is the 2nd largest on Egypt’s Giza Plateau. The Sphinx was built under his rule. In 1996 a 4,500 year-old perfectly intact alabaster statue of Pharaoh Khaefre was part of a 1996 show on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.  In 2002 Christine Zivie-Coche authored "Sphinx: History of a Monument."
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(WSJ, 1/10/03, p.W7)

2550BC    In 2006 a scientist proposed that beginning about this time Egyptians started to use cast concrete in their pyramids. His evidence was taken from samples of the Khufu pyramid. The proposal was controversial in that concrete was later used to restore pyramids.
    (SFC, 12/1/06, p.A12)

2532BC-2504BC    Menkaure ruled, son of Khafre, as the 5th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.

2504BC-2500BC    Shepseskaf, son of Menkaure, ruled as the 6th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.

2500BC    A 330-foot-tall Egyptian pyramid was erected about this time and came to be known as the ‘Bent’ pyramid, located outside the village of Dahshur. In 2009 travelers were given access to its inner chambers.
    (SFC, 3/17/09, p.A2)
c2500BC    The tomb of an Egyptian child from about this time was found to contain toys that included miniature pins and balls and a wicket, the first evidence of bowling.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
2500BC    By this time the Sahara desert looked much as it does today.
    (ATC, p.109)

2498BC-2491BC    Userkaf, grandson of Djedefre, ruled as the 1st king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He built a pyramid complex at Saqqara.

2494BC    Pharaoh Khafre, builder of the second largest of the Giza Pyramids, died around this time.
    (AP, 10/18/10)

2491BC-2477BC    Sahure ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He built a pyramid complex at Abusir. He established an Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with Palestine.

2477BC-2467BC    Neferirkare, brother of Sahure, ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.

2467BC-2460BC    Shepseskare ruled in Egypt, according to the Turin King-list, for 7 years. Some seal impressions dated to his reign have been found at Abusir.

2460BC-2453BC    Neferefre ruled as the 5th king of Egypt’s 5th Dynasty.

2453BC-2422BC    Niusserre (Nyuserre) ruled as the 6th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.

2422BC-2414BC    Menkauhor ruled as the 7th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty.

2414BC-2375BC    Djedkare ruled at the end of the 6th dynasty.

2400BC    The earliest reference to circumcision dates back to around 2400 B.C. A bas-relief in the ancient burial ground of Saqqara depicts a series of medical scenes, including a flint-knife circumcision and a surgeon explaining, "The ointment is to make it acceptable," likely referring to some form of topical anaseptic.
    (LiveScience.com, 8/28/12)
c2400BC    In Egypt the bas-reliefs lining the Mastaba of Akhethetep depict the rural life of a prosperous landowner. The chapel is in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2375BC-2345BC    Unas ruled at the end of Egypt’s 6th dynasty.

2355BC-2195BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 6th Dynasty.
    (AM, 7/05, p.14)

c2350BC    Akhethetep, a high ranking official, lived about this time. His mastaba tomb is located in Saqqara, Egypt.
    (AM, 11/04, p.72)

2345BC-2333BC    Teti ruled Egypt as the 1st king of the 6th dynasty. In 2008 archeologists discovered a pyramid in Saqqara dating to about this time. It was said to belong to Queen Sesheshet, the mother of King Teti.
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(AP, 11/11/08)

2345BC-2181BC    In Egypt the "Striding Figure of Meryrahashtef," a 22.5 inch nude statue of a minor 6th dynasty official, was made.
    (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A14)(Arch, 9/02, p.61)

2323BC-2291BC    King Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, the first king of the Sixth Dynasty, ruled Egypt during this period.

2291BC    Userkare ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt between Teti and Pepi. He is believed to be a proponent of the group that killed Teti.

2295BC    Pepi I, son of Teti began ruling about this time as the 3rd king of the 6th dynasty. A pyramid of Queen Ankh-sn-Pepi, wife of Pepi I, was discovered in 2000. The "Pair Statue of Queen Ankh-Nes-Meryre II and her son Pepi II Seated" was part of an Egyptian show on view at the NY Met in 1999.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepi_I_Meryre)    (WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)(SFC, 4/3/00, p.A10)

2283BC-2278BC    Merenre I ruled as the 4th king in Egypt’s 6th dynasty.

2278BC-2184BC    Pepi II ruled in Egypt as the last king of the 6th dynasty and the last significant king of the Old Kingdom.

2183BC    Merenre II followed Pepi II as ruler of Egypt. He ruled for just over a year and was murdered. Nitocris, his sister-wife, took rule.

2183BC-2181BC    Nitocris (Nitiqret), the wife-sister-wife of Merenre, ruled Egypt.

2181-2161      Egypt’s 7th and 8th dynasties ruled during this period. Wadjkare ruled in Egypt’s 7th dynasty and was followed by Qakare. Eusebius has a 7th Dynasty that consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 75 days and an Eighth Dynasty that consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 100 years.

2181-2040    Egypt’s First Intermediate Period. It began with the collapse of the Old Kingdom due to crop failure and low revenues due to pyramid building projects. This seemed to coincide with a period of cooling and drying.
    (eawc, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.114)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2160BC-2140BC    Egypt’s 9th and 10th Dynasties ruled over this period from the capital at Herakleopolis. Pharaohs included Meryibre, Merykare, Kaneferre, and Nebkaure.

2134BC-2117BC    Intef I (Antef I) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2134BC-1991BC    Period of Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2117BC-2069BC    Intef II (Antef II) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2080BC    The beginning of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. [see 2100BC-1700BC]
    (NG, 9/98, p.16)

2069BC-2060BC    Intef III (Antef III) ruled in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty for 8 years.

2060BC-2010BC    Mentuhotep I (Nebhetepre), son of Theban Inteff III, ruled for about 39-51 years in Egypt’s 11th Dynasty.

2040BC-1782BC    In Egypt the period of the Middle Kingdom began with its capital at Thebes. It lasted to 1782BC. About this time "The Plea of the Eloquent Peasant" was written calling for a benevolent ruler.
    (eawc, p.2)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

2010BC-1998BC    Mentuhotep II, son of Mentuhotep I, ruled in the 11th Dynasty of Egypt for about 12 years.

c2000BC    An Egyptian painting on an interior tomb wall depicted 6 men scrubbing, wringing and folding a cloth.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)
2000BC    It was later believed that emeralds were first mined in Egypt about this time.
    (WSJ, 2/7/07, p.A12)
2000BC    About this time the Egyptians domesticated the cat in order to catch snakes. Advances in astronomy enabled the Egyptians to predict the annual flooding of the Nile.
    (eawc, p.2)
2000BC    In Egypt a Red Sea port was active around this time at Wadi el-Jarf, nearly 110 miles south of Suez. An exploration team found its remnants in 2013.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)

2000BC-1790BC    The wooden statue of chancellor Nakhti and carved face of governor Hapidjefai date to Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. They are now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1997BC-1991BC    Mentuhotep III, the last king of the 11th Dynasty of Egypt. He was the son of Imi, a secondary wife of either Mentuhotep II or III. His name is missing from most king’s lists.

1991BC-1962BC    Amenemhet I (Amenemhat I) founded Egypt’s 12th Dynasty of Egypt and ruled for some 30 years. In 2007 Prof. Jahi Issa and Salim Faraji authored “The Origin of the Word Amen: Ancient Knowledge the Bible Has Never Told," in which they argued that the word Amen is derived from a pre-dynastic Egyptian culture found in the Sudan with roots in the ancient name for pharaoh, Amen, spelled in some cases as Amun. 
    (http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/11_13/12.html)(SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A2)

1991BC-1783BC    Egypt, time of the Twelfth Dynasty, the peak of the Middle Kingdom when the Pharaohs won back some of the power which the monarchs of the Old kingdom had enjoyed. It ended with the Middle Kingdom in 1786BC. During the period power was somewhat distributed through the social classes. Religion shifted from a wealth-based system to one based on proper conduct.
    (eawc, p.3)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/11_13/12.html)

1980BC-1971BC    Sesostris I (Senusret I) became co-regent with Amenenhet I.

1971BC-1929BC    Sesostris I (Senusret I) ruled during Egypt’s 12th dynasty.

1929BC-1926BC    Amenemhet II ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt as co-regent with his father Sesostris I.

1926BC-1892BC    Amenemhet II held sole rule during Egypt’s 12th Dynasty.

1900BC-1500BC    During this period a Semitic group of nomads migrated from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They were led by a caravan trader, the Patriarch Abraham, who became the father of the nation of Israel. Ishmael was a son of Abraham had by Hagar. Isaac was a son of Abraham by Sarah. Hebrews trace their lineage through Isaac, Arabs through Ishmael.
    (eawc, p.3)(NW, 11/02, p.55)

c1898BC-1866BC    In Egypt the Sphinx of Tanis was made. It was later moved to Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1897BC-1878BC    Sesostris II (Senusret II), son of Amenenhet II, ruled as co-regent in Egypt’s 12th Dynasty.

c1890BC    Sinuhe, a professional soldier of high rank in Egypt, serving in the army of Amenemhat II was faced with a change in political power and left Egypt. He fled to Byblos, where he was befriended by a local ruler named Ammienshi, who governed the land of Retenu. He later returned to Egypt, now ruled by Senusret.

1878BC-1841BC    Senusret III (Sesostris III) ruled as Egypt’s 5th king in the 12th Dynasty. He built a funerary complex to link himself with Osiris, lord of Abydos. Khakaure was Senwosret’s throne name.

1842BC-1797BC    Amenemhet III ruled as Egypt’s 6th in the 12th Dynasty.

c1800BC    In Egypt walls of limestone were marked with alphabetic inscriptions in the Wadi el-Hol (Gulch of Terror). In 1993 the graffiti markings were discovered by Egyptologist John Coleman Darnell and his wife Deborah and later traced to Semitic people, possibly mercenary soldier scribes or Canaanite workers, living in the area.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)(SFC, 11/23/99, p.B10)

1798BC-1786BC    Amenemhet IV ruled in the 12th Dynasty.

1790BC     Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV sent a major expedition to Punt during the 8th year of his reign. In 2010 scientists used mummies of baboons to identify the region of Punt as either the lowland area of eastern Sudan or  the area where Ethiopia and Eritrea confront each other.
    (SFC, 5/8/10, p.A8)

1785BC-1782BC    Queen Sobeknefru (Nefrusobek) ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.

1782BC-1779BC    Wegaf ruled at the beginning of Egypt’s 13th Dynasty.

1782BC-1650BC    Egypt’s XIII Dynasty was marked by a period of decay, loss of unity, and many short-lived rival Pharaohs. This lasted through the Sixteenth Dynasty. Over 70 kings are listed in this dynasty and their dates are not well known.

1782BC-1570BC    Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period. Also dated from 1640-1540.

c1760BC    Hor ruled in the early part of Egypt’s 13th Dynasty.

1750BC-1540BC    The Hyksos from Syria and Palestine occupied Egypt and introduced the horse and chariot. Taking advantage of the unsettled state of Egypt, Asiatic invaders from Palestine entered Egypt and set themselves up as kings, even adopting Pharaonic titles and customs. The Jewish historian Josephus claims to quote the words of an Egyptian chronicler, Manetho, in describing this period of foreign rule. The Hyksos, whoever they were, had a 'blitz-weapon' - the horse drawn chariot which they had copied from the horse-rearing Mitanni of northern Mesopotamia. And the Mitanni in turn got the horse from Persia, together with the art of riding it. In 2005 Arthur Cotterrell authored “Chariot," a history of the chariot.
    (eawc, p.3)(WSJ, 6/17/05, p.W6)(L.C.-W.P.p.55-56)

1.75k BC - 1.32k BC     Ipepi (Apophis) ruled as a Hyksos 17th Dynasty king of Egypt.

c1747BC    Khendjer, a Hyksos king, ruled in northern Egypt.

1741BC-1730BC Neferhotep I ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

1735BC-1731BC     Sobekhotep I ruled Egypt and was later believed to have been the founder of the 13th Dynasty. His tomb was found in 2013.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

1731BC-1728BC    Sobekhotep II ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

1730BC-1720BC    Sobekhotep IV ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

c1720BC    The Hyksos in northern Egypt dominated the Delta and founded their capital Avaris (Tanis).

1720BC-1715BC    Sobekhotep V ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.

1704BC-1690BC    Ay ruled in Egypt’s 13th Dynasty. He was succeeded by Neferhotep II and Nehesy in the 14th Dynasty.

1696BC-1686BC    Neferhotep, the 22nd king of the 13th Dynasty, ruled Egypt. He was the son of a temple priest in Abydos. In 2005 archeologists unearthed a statue of him. His name means "beautiful and good."
    (AP, 6/5/05)

1674BC    Sheshi, a Hyksos ruler, conquered Memphis (Egypt). Shesi ruled at the beginning of the 15th Dynasty and was succeeded by Yakubher, Khyan, Apepi I, Apepi II, Anather in the 16th Dynasty, Yakobaam, Sobekemsaf II in the 17th Dynasty, and Intef VII. The Hyksos invaded Egypt in horse-drawn chariots.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/history12-17.htm)

1664BC-1559BC Egypt was ruled for a century by the Hyksos, a warrior people from Asia, possibly Semitic in origin, whose summer capital was in the northern Delta area. In 2010 an Austrian archaeological team used radar imaging to determine the extent of the ruins of the one time capital of Egypt's foreign occupiers underneath the green farm fields and modern town of Tel al-Dabaa.
    (AP, 6/20/10)

1663BC-1555BC    The period of Egypt’s 15th Dynasty. In Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties ruled simultaneously.

c1650        Egypt’s 14th Dynasty kings ruled mostly from the Western Nile Delta. Their dates are not well known and they may have been contemporary with the 13th Dynasty.

1640BC-1540BC    Egypt’s 2nd Intermediate Period.

c1633BC    Tao I ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty. In Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties ruled simultaneously.

1600BC    In Egypt a revolution against Hyksos rule began in the south and spread throughout the country.
    (eawc, p.3)

1.575k BC - 1.532k BC Ipepi (Apophis) ruled as a Hyksos 17th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1.574k BC    Tao II ruled in the 17th Dynasty of Egypt.

1573BC-1570BC    Kamose ruled as a Hyksos 17th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1570BC-1546BC    Ahmose, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty.  His sister-wife was Queen Ahmosep-Nefertary. During his reign he defeated the Hyksos led by Apophis. Ahmose engaged the Hyksos at their city of Avaris, and the city of Sharuhen for three years.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.64)(AM, 7/01, p.52)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1570BC-1070BC    Egypt’s New Kingdom Period. Thebes (which encompassed the site known today as Luxor) was the chief city of Egypt. Pharaohs began to abandon royal pyramids in favor of hidden tombs in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. A bust of the Royal scribe Meniou was made in limestone during Egypt’s New Kingdom. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (AM, 7/01, p.58)(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)
1570BC-1070BC    Egyptian wall paintings included information on beer production. In 2004 Japan’s Kirin Brewery produced a beer dubbed “The New Kingdom Beer."
    (WSJ, 10/14/04, p.A1)

1551BC-1524BC    Amenhotep I (Ahmenophis), son of Amasis I (Ahmose), ruled at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.  Inscriptions indicate that he engaged the Nubians in the land of Kush. Some of the southern foes were evidently cave-dwellers (troglodytes), since the inscription goes on to say that 'His majesty captured the Nubian Troglodyte in the midst of his army.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17)(L.C.-W.P.p.66)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1550BC    During the beginning in Egypt’s 18th Dynasty the Opet Festival celebrated the Theban triad of the sun and creator Amun, his consort Mut, and their son Khonsu.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.36)

1550BC-1292BC    The period of Egypt's 18th dynasty. Rocks quarried at Gebel el-Silsila were transported to a nearby port for the construction of temples at Karnak and Kom Ombo. Archeologists in 2019 reported finding the old port. During Egypt' 18th Dynasty private people began building small pointy pyramids above their tombs.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth_Dynasty_of_Egypt)(Arch, 9/02, p.56)(SFC, 3/27/19, p.A2)

1532BC-1522BC    Khamudi (Aseth) ruled as a Hyksos 15th Dynasty king of Egypt.

1524BC-1518BC    Tuthmosis I (Thutmose I) ruled at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.

1518BC-1504BC    In Egypt Tuthmosis II ruled in the 18th Dynasty. Hatshepsut was married to her sickly half-brother when she was about 12.
    (ON, 10/99, p.7)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1504BC-1450BC Tuthmosis III, a son of one of the lesser wives of Tuthmosis I, ruled in the 18th Dynasty. In the 15th cent. BCE Thutmose III led his army from Egypt to Megiddo and outflanked the chariots of the Canaanite forces that had revolted against him. [see 1471BC]
    (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)

1500BC    The Egyptian “Book of the Dead" dates to about this time.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.24)
c1500BC    Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and established a calendar with Egyptian features but based on a seven day week. The later 8-day Sukkot festival commemorates the fall harvest and the wandering of the Hebrews in the Sinai desert after the Exodus. In 1998 Jonathan Kirsch authored "Moses: A Life." Miriam was the sister of Moses and led the celebration following the crossing of the Red Sea. [see 1280BC]
    (K.I.-365D, p.58)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 4/7/00, p.W17)
c1500BC    Egyptian tombs show paintings of apparently Cretan messengers and merchants, called by  the name Keftiu, bearing Cretan goods: and in addition we find the actual tangible goods themselves, deposited with the Egyptian dead.
c1500BC    A boy named Djehuti-Irdis (13) died in Thebes. In 2000 a biopsy confirmed that he died of pneumonia.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A13)
1500BC    In 2009 Spain's scientific research agency (CSIC) announced that a tomb decorated with 3,500-year-old paintings was discovered in Luxor by Jose Manuel Galan, a Spanish Egyptologist. The person was in the service of the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut, the most powerful female pharaoh and who ruled for 21 years from 1479 to 1458 BC.
    (AFP, 3/17/09)

1500BC-1000BC    Nubia was colonized by Egypt.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

1479        Thotmosis II died. He was succeeded by Queen Hatshepsut and his step-son Thotmosis III. Queen Hatshepsut, the only woman to have reigned as a pharaoh, ruled Egypt as 18th Dynasty regent for Thutmose III.  Her name translates as "The Foremost of Noble Ladies." In 1996 Joyce Tyldesley authored "Hatshepsut, The Female Pharaoh."
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(AFP, 4/21/06)(ON, 10/99, p.8)(AP, 6/5/05)

1479BC-1425BC    Thotmosis III ruled as pharaoh of Egypt. His initial reign was under the guidance of his mother, Queen Hatsheppsut.
    (AFP, 4/21/06)   

1471BC     Tuthmosis III of Egypt built rafts on the Lebanese coast, put them on wagons, and transported them to the Euphrates in order to cross the river and defeat the King of Mitanni. This was his eighth campaign in the thirty-third year of his reign. This was well over 250 miles. He died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign. An inscription at Napata in Nubia tells us about this.

c1470BC    The 97-foot obelisk at Karnak, Egypt, was erected as part of a sun dial and cast its shadow on a temple of the sun god Amun Ra.
    (AM, 3/04, p.42)

1461BC    Egyptians erected a 68.5 foot obelisk in Heliopolis. The Romans moved it to Alexandria in 14BC. An earthquake soon after 1300 left it lying prone on the coast.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1458BC    In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, mother of Tuthmosis III, died. Tuthmosis III, in his early thirties, declared war on the Prince of the Syrian city of Kadesh, who had organized a confederacy in Palestine and Syria. Tuthmosis defeated the Syrians following an 8 month siege of Megiddo. In 2007 Egyptian archaeologists said the mummy of an obese woman, who likely suffered from diabetes and liver cancer, has been identified as that of Queen Hatshepsut, Egypt's most powerful female pharaoh. Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt in the 15th century B.C., was known for dressing like a man and wearing a false beard. But when her rule ended, all traces of her mysteriously disappeared, including her mummy. Discovered in 1903 in the Valley of the Kings, the mummy was left on site until 2007, when it was brought to the Cairo Museum for testing.
    (ON, 3/01, p.11)(AFP, 4/21/06)(AP, 6/27/07)

1427BC-1401BC        Amenhotep II (Amenophis II), son of Tuthmose III, ruled in the 18th Dynasty. In the same Giza stele which describes his prowess with a 33-foot oar, there is an account of his skill as a archer. There is no doubt that he did conquer the Asiatic powers of Djahi, Retenu, Mitanni, and 'God's Land'.

1425BC    Tuthmosis III died. During the last two years of his reign he became a coregent again, with his son, Amenhotep II, who would succeed him. When he died he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt.

1401BC-1391BC    Tuthmosis IV, son of Amenhotep II, ruled in Egypt’s 18th Dynasty with his son as co-regent.

c1400BC    The Temple of Hatshepsut was built in Luxor.
    (SFC,11/20/97, p.B2)
1400BC    The tomb of Kha Mirit from this time was later put on display in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1391BC    Amenhotep III (Amenophis III), son of Tuthmose IV, began ruling Egypt about this time and continued to about 1351. His reign marked the culmination of the 18th Dynasty. In 2010 a red-granite top half of his statue was discovered at the site of his funerary temple in the southern city of Luxor.
    (AFP, 10/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenhotep_III)

1350BC    In Egypt a statue of Iset, the daughter of Amenhotep III, dated to about this time. European archaeologists found it in 2014 and said it was the first found that depicts her without her siblings. Archaeologists uncovered the statue next to the funerary temple of Amenhotep III, who was worshipped as a deity after his death.
    (AP, 3/7/14)
1350BC    The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war. Hittite warriors caught the disease from Egyptian prisoners. The king and heir were fatally infected and the empire fell apart.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

1350BC-1336BC    Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) ruled during the 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt. He became concerned about abuses in the Osiris cult. He posited a new monotheistic religion dedicated to the worship of the sun. His wife was Nefertiti, daughter-in-law of Amenophis III and Queen Tiye. He moved the capital from Thebes to El-Amarna. After his death the capital was moved back to Thebes, and his successor, a young boy named Smenkhkare reigned for three years. The city of Amarna later vanished.
    (www.ancientroute.com/IndexPharCh.htm)(NG, 9/98, p.17)(WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A33)

1345BC    Tutankhamen (King Tut), Egypt’s boy king, was born. His wet nurse was named Maia.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(USAT, 1/20/04, p.6D)
1345BC    The Ebers Papyrus indicated the medical use of willow bark. It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)

c1340BC    A bust of Nefertiti was made that later ended up in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T5)

1336BC-1334BC    The period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare.

1334BC-1325BC    Tutankhamen (10), son of Akhenaten, was Pharaoh of Egypt. Aye became regent while Tut was growing up and effectively ruled the country.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

c1330BC    The capital of Amarna was abandoned. In 2004 it was reported that black plague bacteria was found in the remains of fossilized fleas from Amarna.
    (AM, 7/04, p.12)
1330BC    A memorial to the servant who suckled Tutankhamen was reported found by French archeologists in 1997 at the Saqqara necropolis 13 miles south of Cairo. Hieroglyphics and a relief that showed a woman with breast and nipple exposed pay tribute to Maya, "who fed the body of a god."
    (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1323BC    Tutankhamen died about this time at age 19. It was later suspected that the young prince was killed on his way to Egypt under the orders of Ay or Horemhab. Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922. In 2005 a CT scan indicated that Tut was not murdered by a blow to the head, nor was his chest crushed in an accident. His death remained a mystery. In 2005 a researcher reported evidence that analysis of wine jugs found in his tomb indicated that the wine was red. In 2007 his face was made public for the first time. In 2010 scientists reported that a study of his mummy revealed that King Tutankhamun suffered from a cleft palate and club foot, likely forcing him to walk with a cane, and died from complications from a broken leg exacerbated by malaria.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(SFC, 10/27/05, p.A2)(AP, 11/4/07)(AP, 2/16/10)

1323BC-1321BC    King Ay succeeded Tutankhamun. In 1931 a ring was found by Percy Newberry in a Cairo antiquities shop that bore an inscription indicating that Aye and Ankhesenaten were married.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/18_20/18.html)

1321BC    Aye died after three years on Egypt’s throne and the walls of his tomb showed another woman, Tiy, as his wife.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1321BC-1295BC    A soldier named Horemhab succeeded King Ay. Some regard him as the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty while others think he was the founder of the 19th. Horemhab is thought to have prevented the dynastic marriage of Ankhesnamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, to prince Zananza, son of the Hittite king, Suppilliliumas. Documents discovered at the Hittite capital of Boghaz-Koy in Turkey prove beyond doubt that the young queen was writing to Suppililiumas imploring him to send her one of his sons so that she might make him King of Egypt.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.107-110)(NG, May 1985, p.598)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18e.html)

1315BC-1201BC    In 2010 the intricately decorated tomb and coffin of Ken-Amun, the overseer of the royal records during the 19th Dynasty (1315-1201 B.C.), was found near Ismailia, 75 miles (120 kilometers) east of Cairo.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

1295BC-1294BC    Ramesses I, the son of a military commander named Seti, began Egypt’s 19th Dynasty.

1294BC-1279BC    Sethi I (Seti I), son of Rammeses I and the father of Rammeses II, ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. He restored the ancient gods of Egypt, such as Amun-Re, Ptah, Seth, and Osiris. At Abydos he built a splendid temple to Osiris. Sethi claims to have inflicted a victory against the Hittite king, Mursillis II, the successor to Suppililiumas, at the towns of Yenoam and Bethshael. Seti overran Palestine, made peace with the Hittites in Syria, opened mines and quarries, and enlarged the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak. His tomb was discovered in 1817.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17,19)(AM, 7/01, p.56)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18e.html)

1292        Horemheb, the last pharaoh of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty, died about this time and was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horemheb)

1292BC    An Egyptian scribe documented that a couple of construction worker twins went off a beer binge. They left their wives at home to chase available women and didn't show up for work. Their brother-in-law was the chief engineer on the job and did not fire them.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1280BC-1200BC    Moses lived about this time. We cannot be certain when Moses lived except that it was obviously before the Jews settled in Palestine, when they were still wanderers. The general opinion seems to be that it was at some time within the period of Ramesses and his son. The father-in-law of Moses was a Midianite. Moses reportedly died at Mount Nebo.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.123)(MT, Spg. '97, p.11)(WSJ, 5/11/00, p.A24)

1279BC-1213BC     Ramesses II (the Great) ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. Seti I named him co-ruler early in his life. His capital city was Qantir, 75 miles north of Cairo. A detailed map of the city was created in 1998. His colossal statue, removed from Memphis, now greets the visitor when he leaves Cairo's main railway station. There are huge statues of Ramesses in the Luxor temple... and most gigantic of all, the seated colossi at Abu Simbel. He enlarged the Karnak temple on a scale which makes human beings... look and feel like ants. The tomb of Queen Nefertari, wife of Ramses II, Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, was discovered in 1904. Ramesses II built a fortress temple named Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham (the rest house of the mother of vultures).
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty19.html)(L.C.-W.P.p.104,113)(V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-20)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.133)
1279BC-1213BC      In Egypt the vizier Khay worked under the reign of Ramesses II. In 2013 Belgian scientists reported that a 49-foot pyramid in Luxor belonged to Khay. It was built in the courtyard of an earlier tomb, discovered in 2009, which contained fragments of wall paintings dating back to 1479-1427 BC.
    SFC, 2/22/13, p.A6)

1275BC    Pharaoh Ramses II took back the coastal kingdoms of Canaan, Phoenicia and Amarru from their Hittite overlords.
    (ON, 12/11, p.1)
1275BC    Ptahmes, the mayor of Memphis, served about this time as army chief, overseer of the treasury and royal scribe under Seti I and his son and successor, Ramses II. Archeologists in 2010 discovered the tomb of Ptahmes at Saqqara. Foreign expeditions in 1885 had made off with pieces of the tomb, whose location was soon after forgotten. In 2018 scientists said a solidified mass found in a broken jar at the site in 2013-2014 was cheese made from a mixture of cow milk and that of a sheep or goat.
    (AP, 5/30/10)(SFC, 8/18/18, p.A2)

1274BC     Pharaoh Ramses II, in the fifth year of his reign, moved to meet and destroy the forces of the Hittite king, Muwatalli II, grandson of Suppililiumas.  Ramses left his mark on a cliff face by the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) when he marched north from Egypt to battle the Hittites. In the Battle of Kadesh some 70,000-100,000 armed men clashed in fury... The battle lasted two days... and was decisive in that the Hittite advanced no further. The Hittites fought off the invading Egyptians. This reflected the power gained from trading metals abundant in Turkey.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.116-119)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)(ON, 12/11, p.1)

1272BC    Hittite King Muwatalli II died. Ramses II launched his 3rd invasion into the Levant, but was unable to reassert permanent control.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

1270BC    At Abu Simbel, Egypt, Ramses II constructed The Great Temple in his own honor and the Small Temple in honor of his wife Nefertari. Engulfed by sand over the centuries, the temples lay hidden until discovered by a Swiss traveler in 1813. The temples are moved under a 4 year UNESCO project  when in 1964 the rising waters behind the Aswan High Dam threaten to drown them.
    (NG, May 1985, p.591)

1267BC    Hattusili became king of the Hittites after he deposed his nephew Mursili, the son of King Muwatalli. Mursili fled to Egypt and sought asylum from Ramses II.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

1261BC    Egyptian and Hittite diplomats concluded the Treaty of Kadesh, the world’s first known int’l. peace accord.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

c1250BC-1200BC    Under the direction of Moses the Hebrew people returned to Canaan from Egypt after wandering for several years in the Sinai desert and began the conquest of Canaan. The conquest took some hundred years and after victory they parceled the land of Canaan into tribal territories under a government known as an amphictyony.
    (eawc, p.5)

1248BC    Pharaoh Ramses II, about this time, took one of Hittite King Hattusili’s daughters as one of his many wives.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

1213BC    Ramesses II (the Great) Pharaoh during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty, died. In 1976 his mummy was shipped to Paris, where it was treated with radiation and chemicals for protection against bacteriological damage.
    (NG, 9/98, p.16,22,32)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/18_20/19.html)

1213BC-1203BC    Maremptah  (Merenptah), the 13th son of Rammeses, ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. He is mainly attested to by three great inscriptions, including 80 lines on a wall in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, a large stele with 35 readable lines from Athribis in the Delta and the great Victory Stele from his ruined mortuary temple at Thebes, with 28 lines.

1203BC-1200BC    Amenmesse (Ammenemes) about this time led Egypt as the 5th ruler of the 19th Dynasty.

1200BC-1194BC    The period of the 19th Dynasty under Seti II.

1194BC-1188BC    The period of the 19th Dynasty under Siptah.

1187BC-1185BC    Queen Tawosret (Taweseret) ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty.

1186BC-1184BC    The period of the 20th Dynasty under Sethnakhte (Setnakht).

1184BC-1153BC    The period of the 20th Dynasty under Ramses III. After Ramessu III ascended the throne of Egypt, he fought back two major attacks from the northern countries. Ramses III defended his kingdom from foreign invasion in three separate wars, reorganized Egyptian society into classes based on occupation and built a funerary temple based on the Ramesseum. Ramses, son of Setnakht, twice defended Egypt against invasions from Libyan tribes and in his 8th year from a coalition of migrants referred to in records as the "Sea Peoples." The great Battle against the Sea Peoples was captured in a magnificent picture which Ramesses III caused to be sculpted on the walls of his great temple at Medinet Habu in Thebes.

c1182BC    Ramessu III beat back a more formidable attack by northern countries. An inscription describing this war was engraved on the second pylon of the temple of Medinet Habu. The inscription describes how the northerners were disturbed, and proceeded to move eastward and southward, swamping in turn the land of the Hittites, Carchemish, Arvad, Cyprus, Syria, and other places of the same region. The Hittites and North Syrians had been so crippled by them that Ramessu took the opportunity to extend the frontier of Egyptian territory northward... the twofold ravaging of Syria left it weakened and opened the door for the colonization of its coast-lands by the beaten remnant of the invading army.

c1179BC    Ramessu III beat back a Libyan invasion in his fifth year, this invasion was accompanied by war galleys from the northern countries.

c1176BC    "Peoples of the sea" arrived to the Lebanese coast (c1200-1182). They came probably from the Aegean. They toppled the Hittites, destroyed Ugarit on the Syrian coast and swept south to Egypt where Ramesses III stopped them.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)

1175BC    Rameses III built his temple palace at Medinet Habu.
    (eawc, p.5)

1153BC    Ramesses III of Egypt died, and was succeeded by a series of weak ghost-kings.

1153BC-1147BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses IV, son of Ramesses III.

1147BC-1143BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses V, son of Ramesses IV and Queen Ta-Opet. His mummy indicates that he died of smallpox at about age 35.

1143BC-1136BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VI.

1136BC-1129BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VII.

1129BC-1126BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VIII.

1126BC-1108BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses IX.

1108BC-1099BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses X. During his reign workers went on strike for wages not paid.

1094BC-1064BC    The period of Egypt under Ramses XI. He was the last king of the 20th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. Upon his death Hrihor and Smendes divided Egypt between themselves. Hrihor, the high priest of Amon ultimately usurped the sovereignty and become founder of the Twenty-first Dynasty. In Lower Egypt, the Tanite noble Nesubenebded, in Greek Smendes controlled the Delta. 
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.29)(Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1085BC    After 1085 BC, Egypt split between a northern 21st dynasty claiming national recognition reigning from Tanis and a line of Theban generals and high priests of Amun who actually controlled the south from Thebes. Relations between the two authorities were peaceful. The Tanites were driven from power by Libyan warriors who established their own 22nd Dynasty.

1080BC-945BC    High priests ruled Egypt from the capital of Thebes.

1075BC    Wenamun, a priest of Amun, moved from Egypt to Byblos during the rule of Ramesses XI. This was recorded in the Golenischeff papyrus found in 1891CE at El Khibeh in Upper Egypt. It is the personal report of the adventures of an Egyptian messenger to Lebanon. Zakar-Baal was governor of Byblos.

1969BC-945BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty. The capital moved from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.

1069BC-664BC    A black-bronze statue of the falcon-faced god Horus, now in the French Louvre, dates to this time.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1069BC-525BC    Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period.

1064BC-1038BC    Smendes ruled as the 1st king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1034BC-981BC Psusennes I was the 2nd king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

c1000BC    A brightly colored papyrus of this time depicting a Theban housewife's life after death was found by Herbert Winlock at Thebes in 1912.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-8)
1000BC    Bone lesions in the mummified body of the priest of Ammon from a tomb of the Egyptian 21st dynasty, have been recognized as probably caused by tubercle bacilli.
    (WP, 1951, p.5)
1000BC    About this time Kush became independent from Egypt.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167)
1000BC    A clay tablet, described as an Akkadian-language letter, dating to about this time was placed on display in 2011 in Jerusalem. The letter was from the Canaanite King Abdi-Heba to the king of Egypt. It was found in excavations of a site from the First Temple period.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A6)

993BC-984BC Amenope was the 4th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

984BC-978BC Osochor was the 5th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

978BC-959BC Siamun was the 6th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

959BC-945BC Psusennes II was the 7th and last king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

948BC-927BC        The Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak (Sheshonq) founded Egypt’s 22nd Dynasty. He destroyed many Israelite cities, including Rehov, Megiddo and Hazor. Sheshonq I supported Jeroboam against King Solomon's son, Rehoboam.
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A4)(SFC, 4/11/03, p.A9)(Arch, 5/05, p.21)

945BC-712BC    Period of Egypt’s twenty-second dynasty. It is often referred to as the Libyan Bubastite Dynasty. Manetho lists the kings of this Dynasty as being from Bubastis which is located in the eastern delta

924BC-909BC    Osorkon I ruled Egypt as the 2nd king of the 22nd Dynasty.

909BC-894BC    Takelot I ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 22nd Dynasty. His reign saw the beginning of another fragmentation into 2 power bases.

894BC-883BC    Shoshenq II ruled Egypt during the 22nd Dynasty. He is thought to have been co-regent during the period between Osorkon I and Takelot I.

883BC-885BC    Osorkon II ruled Egypt as the 5th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

880BC    There was a very high inundation of the Nile in the 3rd year of the reign of Osorkon II.

841BC-815BC    Takelot II ruled Egypt as the 6th king of the 22nd Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

845BC    During the 15th year of the reign of Egypt’s Takelot II there was warfare in the north and south and great convulsion broke out in the land.

835BC-783BC    Shoshenq III ruled Egypt as the 7th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

800BC    The twenty-fifth dynasty, as noted by Manetho, consisted of three Ethiopic kings. The seat of the empire was originally at Gebel Barkal, or Napata. They subsequently conquered the whole of Egypt. The first monarch of this line was called Sabaco by the Greek writers; the second Sebechos, or Suechos, his son; the third was Tarkos or Taracus.
    (RFH-MDHP, A. Layard, 1853, p.62)

800BC-700BC    Bubastis was the capital of 8th century BC Egypt.
    (AM, 7/04, p.12)

783BC-773BC    Pami (Pemay) ruled Egypt as the 8th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

773BC-735BC    Shoshenq IV ruled Kush as the 9th king of Egypt’s 22nd Dynasty.

750BC-719BC    Piye (Piankhy) ruled Kush (Nubia). In 722 he extended his rule to Egypt. Kashta, ruler of Kush, had begun a campaign against Egypt. With the help of his son, Piankhy, he was successful and Piankhy became pharaoh of Egypt. The Nubian King Piye conquered the weakened and disunited Egypt and became the first of several Nubian Pharaohs who ruled a unified Egyptian and Nubian state for the next century.
    (eawc, p.7)(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

740BC-725BC    Pedubaste I was a 1st king of Egypt’s 23rd Dynasty. Egypt’s rule in this period is not very clear.

735BC-712BC    Osorkon IV ruled Egypt as the 10th and final king of the 22nd Dynasty.

732BC    Tiglath-pileser III, an Assyrian, took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria. The Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar.

725BC-720BC    Tefnakhte I, a prince of western Egypt, ruled as the 1st king of the 24th Dynasty, known as the Sais Dynasty. He attempted to stop an invasion by organizing other Northern Kings with him against invaders from the south. This southern force was comprised of Piankhi’s Nubian forces that wanted to gain control of all of Egypt. The four northern armies under Tefnakht, Osorkon IV of Tanis, Peftjauabastet of Hernopolis, Nimlot, and Input of Leontopolis all enjoyed a relatively easy time in their conquering of the people down to the south, but Piankhi was actually drawing them down. When Tefnakht's forces finally reached Memphis they were massacred and Tefnakht conceded to Piankhi. Tefnakht and the four other leaders were allowed to remain governors of their territories under the new Pharaoh Piankhi.

722BC    Hoshea, the king of Israel, sent messengers to Osorkon in Egypt. He was requesting help against Assyria’s Shalmaneser V. No help was sent. Samaria was captured and the Israelites were taken away to Assyria. The Assyrians conquered Israel and left nothing behind. The Hebrew kingdom of Judah managed to survive. Descendants of the Israelites not exiled by the Assyrians were later known as the Samaritans.
    (eawc, p.7)(WSJ, 10/13/00, p.W15)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

722BC    Piye (Piankhy) marched north from Nubia and began his conquest of Egypt where he founded the 25th Dynasty. He consolidated his rule over Egypt and Kush and became the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty. It has been suggested that he revived pyramid building for royals in Egypt, a tradition that had gone extinct for over eight centuries.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)(Arch, 9/02, p.55)     

720BC-715BC     Wahkare Bakenranef ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 24th Dynasty.

712BC-698BC     Shebaka of Nubia ruled in Egypt. Some consider him the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty.

710BC    Hanunu of Gaza was in the revolt against the king of Assyria which led to the battle of Raphia, the first struggle between Egypt and Assyria. Hanunu, the king of Gaza, fled to Sebako (Shebaka), king of Egypt; but returned and, having made submission, was received with favor.

700BC    A three foot tall bust of Pharaoh Shabako was on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.
     (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

698BC-690BC     Shebitku, nephew of Shebaka, ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 25th Dynasty.

690BC-664BC    The Nubian Pharaoh Taharka, brother of Shebitku, ruled over the upper Nile Nubian-Egyptian state. A sculpture of the Cushite king was discovered in the basement of "God's House Tower," an archeological museum, in England in 2000.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A8)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

671BC    Esarhaddon [of Assyria] recorded a victory over lower Egypt at the cliff face of the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River), between Beirut and Byblos.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)

664BC-610BC    Psammetichus ruled in Egypt as the 1st king of the 26th Dynasty. He did not gain control of Egypt until his 9th year of rule.

664BC-525BC    The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). This is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital.

c662BC    The Assyrian Empire collapsed and Egypt enjoyed about a century of independence.
    (eawc, p.7)

c660BC    Governor Ment (Mentuemhet) served as governor of Upper Egypt, mayor of Thebes, and 4th prophet of Amun.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.E5)

657BC-525BC        Period of Egypt’s Dynasty 26.

655BC    Psammetichus, 26th Dynasty king, gained control of Egypt in his 9th year of rule.

654BC-657BC     Tantamani (Tanwetamani) ruled in Egypt as last Cushite king and the last of the king of the 25th Dynasty.

640BC    In Egypt a burial chamber at the necropolis of Saqqara dating back to this time was uncovered in 2009. The chamber contained 8 sarcophagi.
    (WSJ, 2/12/09, p.A9)

610BC-595BC     Nekau II (Necho), son of Psammetichus I, ruled in Egypt as king of the 26th Dynasty. Under his rule Palestine became an Egyptian possession.

609BC    The biblical king Josiah of Judah was slain on Har (Mt.) Megiddo (root of Armageddon) about this time when he was betrayed by Pharaoh Necho, whom he had approached to stop from going to war on the side of the Assyrians against the Babylonians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.180)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

606BC    In Cairo, Egypt, the Ben Ezra Synagogue was established.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A1)

600BC    Lady Gautseshenu died about this time in southern Egypt. In 2011 a CT scan of her mummy, performed at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, NY, indicated that she was about 16 years old at the time of her death.
    (SFC, 4/29/11, p.A7)

600BC - 500BC    Egyptian King Amasis granted Greek traders and sailors special privileges at the Nile harbor city of Naukratis, allowing them to set up sanctuaries and gods there. This was noted by Herodotus writing a century later.
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.73)

595BC-589BC    Psammetichus II (Psamtik II), son of Nacho II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king. Psamtik II built the temple of Hibis in the al-Khargah oasis, 310 miles south of Cairo. It was built to worship Amun and contained statues of Amun's wife, Mut.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

593BC    The Nubians were defeated by a resurgent Egyptian dynasty after which they moved their capital from Napata to Meroe.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.56)

589BC-570BC    Apries, son of Psamtik II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king.

574BC-570BC    Apries, 26th Dynasty king Egyptian ruler, conducted campaigns against Cyprus and Phoenicia.

570BC    Feb, General Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharaoh of Egypt by his soldiers, defeated Apries and his Aegean mercenaries and forced his retreat.
570BC    Oct, General Amasis (Ahmose II) defeated King Apries a 2nd time and took control of a united Egypt. Apries sought refuge abroad and later turned up at the court of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.

570BC-526BC    Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharaoh by his soldiers, ruled Egypt as the 5th king of the 26th Dynasty. Amasis consolidated Greek merchants to the area of Naukratis. This made for easier control, and created a lucrative income for the crown in the form of taxes. After an attempted invasion by Chaldeans he formed an alliance with the Chaldeans, Croesus of Lydia and Sparta.

567BC    Apries, former ruler of Egypt, marched on Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but once again, Amasis defeated him, this time capturing the former king.

565BC-545BC    The island of Cyprus was under Egyptian control.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.20)

548BC    The Greek Temple of Apollo was destroyed. Amasis, ruler of Egypt, is said to have financed its rebuilding.

546BC    The Persians destroyed Egypt’s alliance with the Chaldeans, Lydia and Sparta by first capturing Lydia then the Chaldeans.

539BC    Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read "the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(eawc, p.8,9)
c539BC    Cyrus the Great founded Persia’s Achaemenian Empire which he expanded into India, Libya and Egypt. Pasargadae was his first capital. Persepolis was the heart of his empire.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.T4)

526BC-525BC    Psammetichus III ruled for a short time as the last king of Egypt’s 26th Dynasty.

525BC    Cambyses, king of Persia, met and defeated the Egyptians in front of their city at Pelusium just a few weeks after the death of Pharaoh Amasis. This marked the beginning of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Psammetichus III tried to revolt against Cambyses and was killed.

525BC-522BC    Cambyses II, son of Cyrus and ruler of Persia, served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Cambyses added to his Persian empire by conquering Egypt. During his rule an army sent to Siwa Oasis was overcome by sandstorm and buried. Herodotus said the army numbered 50,000 men. A Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' speaks of the Cambyses destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety.
    (eawc.edu, p.9)(Arch, 9/00, p.18)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)

522BC    Aug, Cambyses II, son of Cyrus of Persia and the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty, died from a dagger wound in Syrian Ecbatana.

522BC    A revolt broke out in Egypt following the death of Cambyses, but it was put down by a Persian general named Darius, who succeeded Cambyses.
522BC    Darius the Great (558-486), son of Hystaspes, succeeded Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engaged in many large building programs including a system of roads and instituted the first postal system.
    (WUD, 1994, p.367)(eawc.edu, p.9)(ON, 4/04, p.9)

520BC-486BC    Darius, ruler of Persia, occupied Egypt and is considered the 2nd ruler of the 27th Dynasty. During his rule a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea, probably begun by Necho I in the 7th century BC, was repaired and completed.

518BC    Darius visited Egypt and put to death its satrap, Aryandes.

510BC-490BC    In Egypt the temple of Hibis was rebuilt during the reign of Darius.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)

c500BC    In 2004 Egyptian archeologists uncovered the limestone sarcophagus of Badi-Herkhib, the elder brother of a governor of Bahariya, who lived around 500 B.C.
    (AP, 12/12/04)

486BC    Darius (b.550), ruler of Persia, died. His preparations for a 3rd expedition against Greece were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes.

486BC-465BC    Xerxes the Great  (b.519BC), king of Persia, ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 27th Dynasty. His rule extended from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas, to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace. Persia’s great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.49)(eawc, p.11)(http://tinyurl.com/d2gayf)

465BC    Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, was assassinated.

465BC-424BC    Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the 27th Dynasty.
    (WSJ, 4/10/09, p.W13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_I)

460BC    Herodotus turned back in frustration at the first cataract at Aswan. He stated: "Of the source of the Nile no one can give any account."
    (NG, May 1985, p.629)

455BC    Artaxerxes, ruler of Persia, put down a revolt in Egypt.

423BC-404BC    Darius II, son of Artaxerxes, ruled Persia and Egypt.

410BC    Darius II, ruler of Persia, quelled a revolt in Media but lost control of Egypt.

405BC    Persian rule of Egypt ended.
    (eawc, p.9)

404BC-399BC    Amyrtaios (Amyrtaeus), believed to be a Libyan, ruled Egypt following the death of Darius II from Sais as the 1st and only ruler of the 28th Dynasty.
399BC-393BC        Nepherites served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. During his rule he entered into an alliance with Sparta against the Persians.

393BC-380BC    Hakoris (Hakor) served as the 2nd or 3rd ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. There is some confusion because a king named Psammuthis ruled in 393BC. During Hakoris’ reign there was a 3 year war with Persia.

380BC    Nepherites II, son of Hakoris, served as the 4th and final ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. He reigned for only 4 months before being overthrown.

380BC    In Egypt a giant stone was set at the Nile’s exit into the Mediterranean by order of Pharaoh Nektanebo I. A smaller stela noted the name of the city as Herakleoin. The city was submerged by an earthquake around 800CE. In 2001 the stones were pulled from the sea.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A9)

380BC-362BC    Nectanebo served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.

373BC    The Persian army moved to attack Egypt. They abandoned the effort when the Nile flooded over the Delta.

365BC-360BC    Teos, son of Nectanebo, served as the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty. He failed in an attempted attack on Persia and was deserted by the Egyptians and Greek mercenaries. He fled to Persia where Artaxerxes II gave him refuge.

360BC-343BC    Nectanebo II served as the 3rd and final ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.

343BC    Artaxerxes III of Persia led a successful campaign against Egypt and Nectanebo II fled to Ethiopia. Artaxerxes appointed Pherendares as satrap of Egypt and returned to Babylon laden with treasures.

343BC-332BC    In Egypt the Persians ruled for a 2nd time.
    (eawc, p.13)

343BC-338BC    Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of Persia, served as 1st ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty.

338BC    Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of Persia, was murdered by his own commander Bagoas.
338BC    Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, succeeded his father as king of Persia. He served as the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty.

336BC    Arses, king of Persia and ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty, was murdered by his commander Bagoas.

332BC    Alexander entered Egypt and founded Alexandria. A fishing village at the site was called Rhakotis. In 2007 archeologists found evidence of urban settlement at Alexandria dating back to about 1,000 BC.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty29.html)(AP, 7/26/07)

331BC    Alexander left Egypt and left Cleomenes of Naukratis in charge. This position was later claimed by Ptolemy. When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the kingdom.

330BC    Alexandria became the capital of Egypt.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.A17)

323BC    Jun 10, Alexander died In Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A Historical Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.62)(BS, 5/3/98, p.12E)(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6)(ON, 1/01, p.11)(WBO)

323BC-285BC    Ptolemy I Soter, son of Lagus and commander under Alexander, ruled Egypt as the first king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Under his rule the library of Alexandria was commissioned.

323BC-30BC    The Ptolemy and his descendants ruled over Egypt. This era came to be known as the Ptolemaic period. At the ancient library of Alexandria Callimachus of Cyrene was the first to catalog writings alphabetically.
    (Enc. of Africa,1976, p.167)(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A11)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Parade p.13)

c300BC    In 2005 a well-preserved and colorful mummy from the 30th pharaonic dynasty was unveiled at Egypt’s Saqqara pyramid complex.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.A1)

c300BC-200BC    Scientists of the Univ. of Calif. Berkeley expedition of 1899 uncovered hundreds of crocodile mummies encased and stuffed with papyrus covered with writings from the ruins of the city of Tebtunis. The site dated from the 3rd century BCE when Ptolemy the Great ruled Egypt.
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.A4)

290BC    Ptolemy I of Egypt authorized the construction of the Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria. It became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

285BC-246BC    Ptolemy II (b.c309BC, Philadelphus) of Macedonia served as the 2nd king of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty. During his reign (285-247) he founded the Cyprian port of Famagusta and built a canal to link the Nile to the gulf of Suez.
    (NG, 8/04, Geographica)(www.crystalinks.com/ptolemaic.html)

281BC    Arsinoe II, first daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter, fled to Cassandreia (Macedonia) and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos, one of the sons of Ptolemy I from his previous wife, Eurydice of Egypt.

279BC    The Pharos at Alexandria was constructed. The lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was toppled by an earthquake in 1303CE. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the waters off Alexandria in 1996.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.B1)

246BC    Jan 9, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 2nd king of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty, died.

246BC-222BC    Ptolemy III Euergeter served as Egypt’s 3rd ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 2010 archeologists discovered a temple, thought to belong to Queen Berenice, wife of King Ptolemy III who ruled Egypt in the 3rd century B.C. Archeologists believed that the temple might have been dedicated to the ancient cat-goddess Bastet.
    (www.crystalinks.com/ptolemaic.html)(AP, 1/19/10)

222BC-205BC    Ptolemy IV Philopater served as Egypt’s 4th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

205BC-180BC    Ptolemy V Epiphanes served as Egypt’s 5th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He became ruler at age 5 following the death of his father. He married Cleopatra I and died at age 29 while putting down insurgents in the Delta. His wife became regent for their young son.

c200BC    The Egyptian priest Hor cared for the ibis galleries. His writings explained that hundreds of people were involved in the animal mummification business at Saqqara.
    (AM, 9/01, p.29)

c196BC    The Rosetta Stone, found in 1799, was inscribed about this time. It affirmed the rule of Ptolemy V (age 13) in 3 languages.
    (WSJ, 6/5/01, p.B1)

c190BC-120BC    Hypsicles of Alexanderia, mathematician. He wrote “On the Ascension of Stars," in which he was the first to divide the Zodiac into 360 degrees.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.A17)(www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/TLAstronomy.htm)

180BC-164BC    Ptolemy VI Philometor served as Egypt’s 6th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. His regent mother died around 176BC and Ptolemy ruled under the control of his guardians, Eulaeus and Lenaeus.

164BC    Ptolemy VI Philometor went to Rome and left Egypt under the rule of his brother Ptolemy VII Euergetes II Physcon.

163BC-145BC    Ptolemy VI Philometor was called back to Egypt and agreed to split their rule. Physcon assumed rule of the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt.

69BC        Cleopatra (d.30BC), daughter of Ptolemy XII, was born. She was queen of Egypt from 51BC-49BC, 48BC-30BC. During her reign she declared earthworms to be sacred and her subjects were forbidden to kill them.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bpjprn5)(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/29/98, p.A13)

51BC-49BC    Cleopatra was queen of Egypt from 51BC-49BC and 48BC-30BC.
    (WUD, 1994, p.276)

50BC        Jun-50BC Aug, The "Zodiac of Dendera," a map of the stars of this period, was carved in stone. It is now in the French Louvre.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

48 BC        Sep 28, On landing in Egypt, Pompey was assassinated by Roman advisors of King Ptolemy X!! of Egypt.

48BC        The library at Alexandria was ravaged by fire during the fighting between Caesar and Ptolemy XIII.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria)

31BC        Sep 2, The Naval Battle of Actium in the Ionian Sea, between Roman leader Octavian and the alliance of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Octavian soundly defeated Antony's fleet which was burned and 5000 of his men were killed. The rivals battled for control of the Roman Empire in the naval battle of Actium, where Cleopatra, seeing Antony's navy being outmaneuvered by Octavian's, ordered her 60 ships to turn about and flee to safety.

30BC         Aug 30, Cleopatra, the 7th and most famous queen of ancient Egypt, committed suicide about this time.
    (AP, 8/30/97)

30BC        Rome gained control over Egypt. The wheat fields of Egypt became one of Rome's main sources of food. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A11)

27BC        An earthquake hit Egypt and devastated the temple of Amenhotep III in Luxor, which dated to about 1389.
    (AP, 4/26/11)   

25BC        Strabo, a geographer and scholar from Alexandria, made the most comprehensive map of the known world.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)

15BC        Roman Emperor Augustus built the Temple of Dendur on the Nile for the goddess Isis of Philae. Its ruin later later made its way to New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.105)

96        Jul 1, Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

150        Claudius Ptolemy, a Roman citizen of Egypt, authored his “Almagest" about this time. It was a mathematical and astronomical treatise, written in Greek, on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths. Ptolemy of Alexandria published his theory of epicycles, the idea that the moon, the sun and the planets moved in circles around the Earth.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almagest)(Econ, 2/7/04, p.75)

168        Claudius Ptolemy (b.~90), a Roman citizen of Egypt, died about this time. As a geographer and mapmaker he collected information from travelers and constructed maps of the then known world. His maps were forgotten as the Roman Empire declined and were not rediscovered until the early 1400s. Robert Newton in his book "The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy" (1977), called him "the most successful fraud in the history of science."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius_Ptolemy)(ATC, p.15)(NH, 6/97, p.43)(LAT, 3/30/05)

248        Dec 28, Saint Dionysius (d.264) of Alexandria, named "the Great," began serving as the 14th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

249        Apollonia of Alexandria died. She was among group of virgin martyrs who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. According to legend her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered. She thus became popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Apollonia)

267        In Egypt the fathers of two teenage wrestlers struck a deal to fix a match for the price of a donkey in the first surviving record of a sporting competition being stitched up for financial gain.
    (Econ, 9/23/17, p.14)

269        Palmyra’s Queen Zenobia, taking advantage of Roman weakness, invaded Egypt to the southwest and occupied Anatolia to the north.
    (Econ, 5/30/15, p.81)

270        Zenobia of Syria proclaimed herself "Queen of the East" and attacked Roman colonies adjoining her and conquered Egypt.
    (ON, 7/00, p.1)

272        Roman emperor Aurelian sent an army to attack Zenobia’s troops in Egypt and was repulsed.
    (ON, 7/00, p.1)

300-400    As long ago as the 4th century, an Egyptian scientist named Papp suggested there should be a science called heuristics to solve inventive problems.

317        Aug 7, Flavius Julius Constantius II, Emperor of Egypt, Byzantium, Rome (337-61), was born.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

340-360    The Codex Sinaiticus, a manuscript of the Christian Bible, was written in the middle of the fourth century and contains the earliest complete copy of the Christian New Testament. For most of its history it resided at St. Catherine’s Monastery built (527-565) on Egypt Mt. Sinai. It left the monastery in the 19th century for Russia, in circumstances that were later disputed.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.82)(www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/codex/default.aspx)(Econ, 3/26/05, p.80)

347        May 14, Pachomius, Egyptian monastery founder, abbot (Coenobieten), died.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

365        Jul 21, An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died. The ancient Egyptian city, known as Leukaspis or Antiphrae, was hidden for centuries after it was nearly wiped out by the tsunami. When Chinese engineers began cutting into the sandy coast to build the roads for a new resort in 1986, they struck the ancient tombs and houses of the town founded in the second century B.C.
    (www.earthscape.org/r2/jos/vol1-1june1997/pg55.html)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.18)(AP, 9/8/10)

c300-400    Ammon Scholasticus, Greek lawyer, worked in Panopolis. In 1997 Prof. William H. Willis (d.2000) of Duke Univ. completed an archive of his papers: "The Archives of Ammon Scholasticus."
    (SFC, 7/19/00, p.B2)

415        Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar. The mob kidnapped her, dragged her to a church, stripped and tortured her with broken shards of pottery. Her body parts were then butchered, put on public display and burnt to a crisp. In 2004 Jonathan Kirsch authored "God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism."
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M1)

490        Oct 29, Petrus Mongus, patriarch of Alexandria, died.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

527-565    Emperor Justinian built the St. Catherine monastery in Egypt’s Sinai Desert to house the bones of St. Catherine of Alexandria, who was tortured to death for converting to Christianity. The site was thought to be the place where Moses saw the Miracle of the Burning Bush.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T6)(http://interoz.com/egypt/Catherines.htm)

600-700    The library at Alexandria disappeared in the 7th century.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)

628        Apr 3, In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

641        Fustat was established as an encampment for the Muslim Arab conqueror of Egypt. The city reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of approximately 200,000. It was the center of administrative power in Egypt, until it was ordered burned in 1168 by its own vizier, Shawar, to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading Crusaders. The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fustat)

642        Sep 17, Arabs conquered Alexandria and destroyed the great library. Omar, the second caliph, successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of world scholarship.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.103)(MC, 9/17/01)

676         Cairo was built by the Arabs only 1300 years ago. The name comes from the Egyptian "El Qahir," the name of the planet Mars.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.165)(SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.2)

700        The Egypttian port city of Heracleion, founded about 800BC, was swallowed by the sea about this time. Researchers later found it—150 feet beneath the surface of Egypt's Bay of Aboukir.

700-800    An earthquake during this period sent the Nile port cities of Canopus, Menouthis and Thonis-Herakleion into the Mediterranean Sea. Evidence of the submerged cities was revealed by a pilot in 1933.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A1)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.73)

828        Venetian merchants stole the relics of Saint Mark from a Coptic church in Alexandria and brought them home in triumph.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.125)

912        Egyptian singer Nehmes Bastet died about this time. In 2012 Egyptian and Swiss archaeologists reported a roughly 1,100 year-old tomb of a female singer in the Valley of the Kings. It was the only tomb of a woman not related to the ancient royal families ever found in the Valley of the Kings. The singer's name, Nehmes Bastet, means she was believed to be protected by the feline deity Bastet. At the time of her death, Egypt was ruled by Libyan kings, but the high priests who ruled Thebes were independent.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

969        Named El Qahira -"the victorious,"  Cairo gained power from its position beside the Nile.
    (NG, May 1985, p.603)

969        By this time the Fatimids had conquered most of North Africa and claimed Cairo as their capital. The Shiites gained control of Egypt.
    (ATC, p.91)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)

970        In Egypt the al-Azhar madrassa was founded and became the chief center of Arabic literature and Sunni Islamic learning in the world. It was founded as mosque by the Fatimid commander Jawhar at the orders of the Caliph and Ismaili Imam Al-Muizz as he founded the city for Cairo. In 1961 al-Azhar attained university status.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Azhar_University)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.53)

1000-1100    Sicily was in the possession of the Fatimid caliph of Cairo.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.68)

1006        May 1, A supernova was observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1009        Oct 18, Al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and its associated buildings, apparently outraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the "miraculous" Descent of the Holy Fire, celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

1021        Feb 13, Al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh, the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021), died. He is known as the “mad caliph of Cairo." The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

1029-1094    Al-Mustansir, ruler of most of North Africa. He was the wealthiest of the Fatimid caliphs and was based in Cairo.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1070        A famine forced Al-Mustansir to send the women of Cairo to Baghdad to escape starvation.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1099        Aug 12, At the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem, which had already fallen to the Crusaders.
    (HN, 8/12/99)

1169        Mar 23, Shirkuh,  Kurd General, vizier of Cairo, Saladin's uncle, died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1177        Nov 18, Saladin marched north from Egypt with 26,000 light cavalry intent on capturing the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ramleh.html)

1180        The Kingdom of Jerusalem under Baldwin IV reached a truce with Egypt under Saladin.
    (ON, 6/07, p.6)

1187        Oct 2, Sultan Saladin captured Jerusalem from Crusaders.

1193        Mar 3, Saladin [Salah ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-1193), died. Saladin had reimposed Sunni orthodoxy in Egypt after routing the Fatimids, a dynasty of Ismaili Shias which had ruled for two centuries.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1261)(SC, 3/3/02)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.M6)(Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)

1201        Jul 5, An earthquake in Syria and upper Egypt killed some 1.1 million people.

1204        Dec 13, Maimonides (b.1135), Spanish-born Jewish scholar, died in Cairo. His books included the “Mishnah Torah," the single most important Jewish book after the Bible and Talmud, and “Guide for the Perplexed." In 2005 Sherwin B. Nuland authored “Maimonides."
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/09540b.htm)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M1)

1217        Nov 29, Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (b.1145) died in Alexandria. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185, in the years preceding the Third Crusade.

1219        Nov 5, The port of Damietta (later in the UAR) fell to the Crusaders after a siege.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1219        St. Francis d’Assisi journeyed to Egypt and met with the sultan to work for peace.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.D2)

1244        Oct 17, The Sixth Crusade ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1244        Sheikh Abu el Haggag, Tunisian born Sufi, died in Luxor, Egypt. His family was from Mecca and traced its lineage to Mohammed. He founded a Sufi mosque in Luxor and is buried there. An annual celebration in Luxor, called the Moulid, celebrates his birthday. Egyptologists believe this event is related to the ancient Opet Festival from the 18th Dynasty.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.36)

1250        Feb 8-1250 Feb 11, The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought between crusaders led by Louis IX, King of France, and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yussuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari.

1250        Apr 6, Louis IX (1214-1270), King of France, lost the Battle of Fariskur, Egypt, and was captured by Muslim forces .

1250        Apr 30, King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars. The Mamluk dynasty exacted 240 tons of silver for his release.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1250        May 2, Toeransa, sultan of Egypt, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1250-1517    The Mamelukes (aka Mamluks - Arabic for chattel), a military class initially composed of slaves, seized control of the Egyptian Sultanate and ruled until 1517.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)(Econ, 8/22/15, p.50)

1258        The Abbasids fled from Baghdad to Egypt following the Mongol invasion that ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.55)

1260        Oct 24, Saif ad-Din Qutuz (aka Koetoez), Turkish sultan of Egypt, was murdered.

1289        Apr 29, Qala'un, the Sultan of Egypt, captured Tripoli.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1291        May 18, Acre, the last major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his forces from Egypt and Syria after a siege of 43 days. It had been in the hands of the Franks for 100 years. Egyptian Mamelukes (Mamluks) occupied Akko (Acre). The crusaders were driven out of Palestine. Khalil, al-Ashraf Salah ad-Din, the Mamluk King, conquered Akko and put an end to the Crusader’s rule in the Holy Land.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)(Arch, 7/02, p.19)

1303        In Egypt the Pharos Lighthouse at Alexandria was toppled by an earthquake.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)

1300-1400    The nose of the Sphinx was lost in the 14th century.
    (SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)

1250-1382    The Bahri Mamluks ruled Egypt.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)

1382        The Bahri Mamluks, rulers of Egypt, were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks.
1382        Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) arrived in Cairo following a turbulent political career in Tunis. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English), which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th century European scholarship.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)

1442        Al-Maqrizi (b.1364), Egyptian historian, died. His work included a history of Cairo. Maqrizi had begun a large work called the Muqaffa, an encyclopedia of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. Another Egyptian historian, al-Sakhawi, believed this would require eighty volumes to complete, but only sixteen were written.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Maqrizi)

1487        Lorenzo the Magnificent ordered a giraffe from Africa and a cardinal’s hat for his 13-year-old son from Pope Innocent VIII. In return for the hat Lorenzo promised the hand of his eldest daughter for the Pope’s illegitimate son along with a nice loan. The giraffe was procured from Sultan Qaitbay, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt. Pope Innocent promised to get Queen Anne of France to hand over Djem, the exiled brother of Qaitbay, for use as a pawn. Lorenzo promised to give the giraffe to Anne. In 2006 the story was covered by Marina Belozerskaya in her book “The Medici Giraffe."
    (WSJ, 8/19/06, p.P9)

1504        Venetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
    (TL-MB, p.8)

1516        Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
    (PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1517        Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.

1517        Apr 13, Osman’s army occupied Cairo. Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1517        The Mamelukes lost power.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)

1553         Piri Reis, aka Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, (b.1465-1470), Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer, died. He was beheaded in Cairo, having been found guilty of raising the siege of Hormuz Island and abandoning the fleet, even though his reason was the lack of maintenance of his ships. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Indian and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era.

1680        Leavened bread was developed in Egypt.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680        Hykos tribesmen wore sandals and successfully overcame barefoot Egyptians.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1769-1849    Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt (1805-1848).
    (WUD, 1994, p.892)

1783        Jun 8-1784 Feb, A series of 10 eruptions from the Laki Craters on Iceland changed atmospheric conditions in most of the Northern Hemisphere. This also generated a cascade of events that led to record low levels of water in the Nile River and brought famine to the region. By 1785 a sixth of Egypt’s population had either perished or fled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9xemq)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)

1798        May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon planned to conquer. In 2008 Paul Strathern authored “Napoleon in Egypt."
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored "Bonaparte in Egypt." A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt."
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1798        Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte's army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1798        Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Murad Bey and his Arab Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        Jul 23, Napoleon captured Alexandria, Egypt.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1798        Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt. Nelson's fleet of 14 ships led the attack on Napoleon's fleet in Abu Qir Bay, capturing six and destroying seven of the 17 French vessels. The flagship of Napoleon's fleet, L'Orient, sank in the battle. It was uncovered by a French team in 1998. More than 1,500 Frenchmen and 200 British soldiers reportedly died in the sea battle.
    (AP, 4/19/05)

1799        Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1799        May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d'Acre in Egypt. Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
    (HN, 5/20/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        May 28, Napoleon ordered the retreat of all troops back to Egypt from Jaffa. The march lasted 17 days with one week  to cross the Sinai.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
    (HN, 7/11/00)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1799        Aug 22, Napoleon slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast and returned to France.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        Pierre Bouchard [Boussart], an officer in Napoleon‘s army, discovered the Rosetta Stone in the city of Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek. The stone is black basalt... and bears three texts: the uppermost is in early Egyptian hieroglyphic; the middle one in the Neo-Egyptian demotic script often used in writing papyri; and the lowermost text is Greek. Deciphering the stone, the work of English physicist Thomas Young and then French archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion, led to an understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion published memoirs on the decipherment in 1822.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.584)(RFH-MDHP, p.182)(HN, 7/19/98)(HNQ, 7/7/00)

1800        Mar 20, French army defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1800        Oct, Napoleon banned the smoking of hashish and consumption of drinks containing it.   

1801        Napoleon's army in Egypt surrendered to Turkish and English forces. The French civilian toll topped 25 of 150, while the military toll topped 25,000 over the 3-year expedition.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1802        Vivant Denon (1747-1825), French author and archeologist, authored Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte" (Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country).
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)

1805        Aug 3, Mohammed Ali became the new ruler of Egypt.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1805-1848    Mehemet Ali (Muhammad Ali) served as the viceroy of Egypt.
    (WUD, 1994, p.892)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)

1809-1826    Civilians and soldiers who returned home from Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) published during this period in serial form “Description de l’Egypte" (The Description of Egypt), the most comprehensive view of Egypt to date.
    (SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1811        Mar 1, In Egypt the Ottoman viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha massacred the Mameluke leaders of Egypt for plotting against him. He had invited them to a banquet at the citadel of Cairo.
    (PCh, 1992, p.373)(SC, 3/1/02)

1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahhabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)
1811        The Mamelukes remained a powerful influence in Egypt until they were massacred or dispersed by Mehemet Ali.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)

1814        Jean Francois Champollion (1790-1832), French scholar, published his 2-volume book “Egypt Under the Pharaohs." Income from the book provided him with royalties to continue his studies on the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone.
    (ON, 8/10, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Fran%C3%A7ois_Champollion)

1815        Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian hydraulic engineer and vaudeville entertainer, arrived in Egypt and began to search for tombs of pharaohs.
    (NG, 9/98, p.19)

1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int’l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)

1816        Mohammed Ali Pasha, Ottoman ruler over Egypt, sent Fredric Cailliaud, a French goldsmith and mineralogist, to find the Roman emerald mines of southeastern Egypt.
    (AM, 5/01, p.A38)

1817        Nov 22, Fredric Cailliaud discovered the old Roman emerald mines at Sikait.
    (AM, 5/01, p.39)

1817        Giovanni Battista Belzoni discovered the tomb of Seti I.
    (NG, 9/98, p.19)

1819        The government of Egypt formally presented the obelisk of Alexandria as a gift to Great Britain. It was first erected in Heliopolis in 1461 BC. The Romans had moved it to Alexandria in 14BC and it had lain prone since an earthquake soon after 1300.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1825        British traveler and draftsman James Burton sketched tombs of the New Kingdom pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings.
    (NG, 9/98, p.7)

1826        Apr 23, Missolonghi fell to Egyptian forces.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1826        Jean-Francois Champollion, French Egyptologist and decipherer of the Rosetta Stone, began collecting Egyptian artifacts. He convinced Charles X to purchase the private collections of the French and English consuls in Egypt.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1827        John Gardner Wilkinson, one of the founders of Egyptology, designated the 5th tomb beyond the entrance to the Valley of the Kings as KV 5. It was later discovered to be a family tomb, the burial site for many of the sons of Ramses II.
    (NG, 9/98, p.8)

1829        May 10, Thomas Young, physicist, decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphics, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1829        The Obelisk of Luxor, a gift from Egypt, was transported to the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)

1833        Ferdinand de Lesseps, came to Cairo as a French consul. He was later posted to Alexandria. Inspired by the idea of joining the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, he persuaded the Ottoman governor of Egypt to build the canal and in 1859, he symbolically swung a pickax to launch the construction, which took 10 years. The canal was officially opened on Nov. 17, 1869.
    (AP, 7/7/20)

1836        Edward Lane (1801-1876), English orientalist, published “Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," a classic account of Egyptian society.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.14)

1849        In Egypt the reign of Ottoman viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha ended.
    (PCh, 1992, p.373)

1859        Apr 25,    Ground was broken for the Suez Canal.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/02)

1861        Apr 15, Samuel (41) and Florence Baker (20) left Cairo to search for explorers John Speke and James Grant.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1866        The Egyptian viceroy was renamed the Khedive.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1867        Feb 17, The 1st ship passed through the Suez Canal.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1867-1875    The Suez Canal Co. issued bonds for some hundred million francs to keep afloat. The Khedive went bankrupt and the British under Disraeli snapped up the Khedive's shares for £4 million.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1868        Mar 26, Fuad I, king of Egypt (1922-36), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1869        Nov 17, The Suez Canal was opened in Egypt, linking the Mediterranean and the Red seas. The 100 mile canal eliminated a 4000-mile trip around Africa. Empress Eugenie, the wife of Napoleon III, together with Ferdinand de Lesseps, chief architect of the canal, led the first file of ships from on board the French imperial yacht Aigle. It was financed by the Rothschild banking empire. In 2003 Zacharay Karabell authored "Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal."
    (I&WWI, p.1041)(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP, 11/17/97)(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1871        Dec 24, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Aida" had its world premiere in Cairo, Egypt. He completed it too late to celebrate the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP, 12/24/97)(PCh, 1992, p.522)

1877        Jan, Englishmen Sir Erasmus Wilson donated money to bring the obelisk of Alexandria to Britain. He hired civil engineer John Dixon to bring it to London. Dixon designed an iron pontoon ship called the Cleopatra to carry the obelisk.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1877        Oct 14, A storm in the Bay of Biscay caused the British pontoon ship Cleopatra, carrying  the obelisk of Alexandria, to tilt precariously in the sea. 6 seamen from the tow ship Olga died as they tried to assist the men on the Cleopatra.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.10)

1878        Sep 21, The obelisk of Alexandria was erected upright at a public park in London.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.10)

1879        Aug 23, Governor-general Charles Gordon of Sudan returned to Cairo.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He travelled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.
    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)
1880        Swedish Egyptologist Karl Piehl uncovered the tomb of Amenhotep, the deputy seal-bearer of the Pharaoh King Tuthmosis III (1504BC-1452BC), in the city of Luxor, about 600 km (375 miles) to the south of the capital Cairo. It later disappeared under the sand and was rediscovered in 2009.
    (Reuters, 3/1/09)
1880        Abi Hasira (b.1807), a Jewish kabbalist (aka Abu Hassira, Jacoub Ben Masoud, Yaakov Abuhatzeira) and the son of the chief rabbi of Morocco, died in Damanhur, near Alexandria, Egypt, following an attempted trip to the Holy Land. He is revered by some Jews as a mystic renowned for his piety and for performing miracles. His gravesite became popular with pilgrims.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7pryucu)(AP, 1/4/10)

1881        Jan 22, Ancient Egyptian obelisk, "Cleopatra's Needle," was erected in Central Park.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1882        Sep 13, British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir.

1882        Sep 14, British General Wolseley (d.1913) reached Cairo.

1882        In Egypt a military coup against the Khedive furnished a pretext for a British invasion.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1883        Nov 3, A poorly trained Egyptian army, led by British General William Hicks, marched toward El Obeid in the Sudan--straight into a Mahdist ambush and massacre.
    (HN, 11/3/98)

1885        Richard Burton, British adventurer and linguist, published his translation of “The Thousand and One Nights." The 1835 Cairene manuscripts formed the cornerstone of the canonical version of the fluid text.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.54)

1888        An Egyptian farmer discovered thousands of cat mummies.
    (SFEM, 12/15/96, BR p.7)

1889        In Egypt the double statue of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye was discovered. An Italian team restored the statue after it was first unearthed, filling in the missing pieces with modern stonework. In 2011 six missing pieces from the 3,400-year-old colossal double statue were discovered on the west bank of the Nile in the southern city of Luxor.
    (AP, 1/9/11)

1893        Feb 9, Suez Canal builder De Lesseps and others were sentenced to prison for fraud.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1893        Howard Carter (18) left his home in England to draw the pyramids of Egypt.
    (ON, 5/00, p.6)

1896        In Egypt Solomon Schechter, a Romanian-born reader in rabinics at England’s Cambridge Univ., discovered a cache of hundreds of thousands of documents collected by the Jews of Fustat (Old Cairo). In 2011 Adina Hoffman and Peter Cole authored “Sacred Trash: The Lost and Found World of the Cairo Geniza."
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, p.G4)

1898        Apr 8, British General Horatio Kitchener defeated the Khalifa, leader of the dervishes in Sudan, at the Battle of Atbara. Anglo-Egyptian forces crushed 6,000 Sudanese.
    (HN, 4/8/99)(MC, 4/8/02)

1898        Sep 2, Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers, machine guns and rifles. Lt. Winston Churchill led one of the last (and most useless) cavalry charges in history.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1899        Scientists of the Univ. of Calif. Berkeley expedition uncovered hundreds of crocodile mummies encased and stuffed with papyrus covered with writings from the ruins of the city of Tebtunis. The site dated from the 3rd century BCE when Ptolemy the Great ruled Egypt.
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.A4)

1902        In Egypt the low dam in Aswan was completed. This led to frequent flooding of the ancient temple of Philae. In the 1960s the temple was moved to higher ground some 500 meters downriver.
    (Econ, 9/17/16, p.47)

1905        Mar 9, Archeologists unearthed the royal tombs of Yua and Tua in Egypt.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1905        Baron Edouard Empain of Belgium built the model city of Heliopolis near Cairo, Egypt, with his own elaborate, Indian-inspired palace as its main attraction.
    (AP, 5/4/05)

1907        Howard Carter obtained the patronage of George Herbert, the 5th Earl of Carnarvon to finance his archeological excavations in Egypt.
    (ON, 5/00, p.6)
1907        In Egypt a mummy known as KV55 was found. It was named after the number of the tomb where it was found in the Valley of the Kings. In 2010 DNA and CT scanning identified the mummy as that of Pharaoh Akhenaten (1350-1336BC).
    (AP, 3/12/10)

1908        In Cairo, Egypt, the Café Riche was founded on Talaat Harb Street, 2 blocks from Tahrir Square, and became a sanctuary for observers of Egyptian public life.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.85)

1910        Mar 28, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt gave his “Law and Order in Egypt" speech at Cairo Univ. Sheikh Ali Yusuf, Muslim cleric and popular columnist, had written an open letter in praise of Roosevelt’s visit, but the president’s imperious tone soon disappointed Egyptian hopes.
    (www.mobipocket.com/EN/eBooks/eBookDetails.asp?BookID=86377)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.1910)

1910        Production of Egyptian crude oil was started in the Gulf of Suez.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.9)

1911        Dec 11, Naguib Mahfouz (d.2006), Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian novelist, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)(SFC, 8/31/06, p.A13)

1912        Apr 8, Steamers collided in Nile, drowning 200.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1912        Dec 23, The Aswan Dam in Egypt began operation.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1913        Frank Shuman, American inventor, created the first large solar pumping station in Meadi, Egypt.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, TQ p.23)

1914        The Egyptian Treasures of Harageh, a collection of 37 items dating back to about 1900BC, were given to donors in St. Louis who helped underwrite their excavation from a tomb near Fayum. In 2014 the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York purchased the collection.
    (SFC, 10/5/14, p.A5)

1916        Jan 3, Three armored Japanese cruisers were ordered to guard the Suez Canal.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1916        Aug 5, The British navy defeated the Ottomans at the naval battle off Port Said, Egypt.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1918        Jan 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1971), was born.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1918        Dec 25, Anwar Sadat (d.1981), president of Egypt, was born. "There can be hope only for a society which acts as one big family, and not as many separate ones."
    (AP, 5/9/98)(HN, 12/25/98)

1919        Dec 15, In Cairo, Egypt, medical student Iryan Yusuf threw a bomb at the car of the prime minister as he arrived at the Café Riche. The PM  survived the attack.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.85)

1919        In Egypt the Wafd Party was founded as a nationalist party to create secular Muslim-Christian unity in the face of British imperialism. It was instrumental in the development of the 1923 constitution, and supported moving Egypt from dynastic rule to a constitutional monarchy.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wafd_Party)

1920        Feb 11, Farouk I, last King of Egypt (1936-52), was born in Cairo.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1920s        The statue of Ramses II was found in Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, 15 miles from Cairo.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A12)

1921        At the Cairo Conference Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine.  Faisal I died one year after independence and his son, Ghazi I succeeded him.
    (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)

1922        Feb 28, Britain declared Egypt a sovereign state, but British troops remained. Saad Zaghloul (1859-1927) brought Egypt independence from Britain.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)(Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.14)

1922        Mar 15, Sultan Fuad I issued whereby he changed his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt.

1922        Nov 4, British archeologist Howard Carter was elated when his Egyptian workers uncovered the top of a stairway cut into bedrock in the Valley of the Kings. For a decade, Carter had been searching for the tomb of the young king Tutankhamun, who had ruled Egypt 3,200 years before. Carter was particularly thrilled at the discovery of the staircase because his wealthy patron, the Earl of Carnarvon, had agreed to fund only one more season before abandoning the search. At the bottom of the staircase was a sealed doorway, which suggested that the tomb had probably not been robbed. Carter ordered the stairway filled and telegraphed his patron, "At last have made wonderful discovery in valley; a magnificent tomb with seals intact; recovered same for your arrival; congratulations." On November 26, Carter, with Carnarvon standing by, drilled a small hole in the tomb's antechamber. Inserting a candle, Carter peered into the darkness at the rich funerary goods. When asked by Carnarvon if he could see anything, the awestruck Carter replied, "Yes, wonderful things."
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.598)(AP, 11/4/97) (HNPD, 11/3/98)

1922        Nov 14, Boutros Boutros Ghali, Egyptian secretary-general of UN (1992-), was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1922        Nov 26, Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter, archeologists, opened King Tut’s tomb in Egypt.
    (HN, 11/26/98)(AP, 11/26/02)

1923        Feb 16, In Egypt the burial chamber of King Tutankhamen's recently unearthed tomb was unsealed by archeologist Howard Carter.
    (AP, 2/16/08)(www.king-tut.org.uk/curse-of-king-tut/howard-carter-timeline.htm)

1923        Apr 5, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert (56), England’s 5th Earl of Lord Carnarvon, died in Egypt from an infected mosquito bite. He financed the excavation of the Egyptian New Kingdom Pharaoh Tutankhamen’s tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Kings.

1923        Arab feminists returned from a women’s conference in Rome and dumped their head coverings at the Cairo train station. A whole generation was inspired to follow suit.
    (WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A1)

1924        Jan 3, Howard Carter opened the doors to the last shrine in the hall, revealing the large stone sarcophagus of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen. The next day Carter was photographed with Arthur Callender and an Egyptian workman in the Burial Chamber, looking through the open doors of the four gilded shrines, towards the quartzite sarcophagus tomb of Tutankhamun.

1924        Jan 26, Saad Zaghloul (1859-1927) began serving as PM of Egypt and continued to November 24, 1924.

1924        Feb 12, Women were banned from entering the tomb of Tutankhamun which leads to diplomatic problems with Great Britain and America. Carter wrote a pamphlet to document interference by authorities and leaves the excavation and locks the tomb. Pierre Lacau, the French Director of Antiquities, demands the keys and Carter refuses to give them up.

1924        Feb 20, Pierre Lacau, the French Director of Antiquities, was authorized by the Egyptian Cabinet to reopen the tomb of Tutankhamun and resume work. Howard Carter refuses its offer to continue his work under Egyptian control.
    (www.king-tut.org.uk/curse-of-king-tut/howard-carter-timeline.htm)(NG, May 1985, p.598)(SFC, 8/5/96, p.A10)

1924        Nov 22, England ordered the Egyptians out of Sudan.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1924        Nov 19, Sir Lee Stack, the Sirdar and Governor-General of the Sudan, was assassinated. This and subsequent British demands, which Egypt’s PM Zaghloul felt to be unacceptable, led Zaghloul to resign and to play no further role in government.

1925        Mar 9, Egyptian Ministry of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb of King Sneferu.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1928        May 4, Hosni Mubarak, Egyptian president (1981-2011), was born in the village of Kafr el-Moseilha in the Nile delta province of Menoufia.
    (AP, 7/9/04)(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A4)

1928        Mar, The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt by Hassan al-Banna (1906-1949), a young school teacher and scouting enthusiast. His plan was to re-Islamicize society by teaching the fundamentals of Islam in everyday language. He set up welfare organizations and was famous for his commitment to social justice. In 1946 a branch opened in Syria and branches began spreading across the globe.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hassan_al-Banna)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.44)(WSJ, 7/12/05, p.A12)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.54)
1928        Egypt’s King Fuad I, neither signed nor vetoed a parliament bill to repeal Law 10 of 1914 (the Assembly Law) within 30 days. The king, who objected to the repeal but knew any veto would be overturned, prevented it being published in the official gazette, leaving its legal status, and that of the original Assembly Law, unclear.
    (Reuters, 2/5/17)
1928        In Egypt Pierre Montet, a French archeologist, began excavations at Tanis. He was convinced that the ruins there were of Pi-Rameses, capital of Rameses the Great. However it was later determined that many of the artifacts had been brought there from Qantir by the kings of Dynasties 21 and 22, as they built their new Delta capital. In the late 1930s and 1940s an entire complex of tombs was found intact at Tanis.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.18)

1929        Aug 24, Yasser Arafat (d.2004), leader of the Palestinian Liberation Movement (Nobel 1994), was born in Cairo according to his Cairo birth certificate. He was the 5th child of Palestinian merchant Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini. In 1998 Said K. Aburish published his biography "Arafat: From Defender to Dictator."
    (SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Yasser-Arafat)

1929        Egypt and Great Britain made an agreement on behalf of Britain's African colonies which gave Egypt the right to most of the more than 100 billion cubic meters of Nile water that reaches the downstream countries annually.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

1931        Apr 22, Egypt signed a treaty of friendship with Iraq.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1933        Apr 29, Constantine Cavafy (b.1863), Greek poet, died in Alexandria, Egypt. The 1996 Greek film "Cavafy" was a profile of the Greek homosexual poet, and a winner of Greece’s National Film Award for best feature of the year. Cavafy spent 30 years working as a clerk in the Ministry of Irrigation. In 2006 “The Collected Poems of C.P. Cavafy," translated by Aliki Barstone, was published.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/kafavis.htm)(SFC, 6/18/98, p.E4)(SSFC, 6/24/01, DB p.64)

1933        Count Byron De Prorok undertook an archeological expedition from Egypt into Ethiopia. His book "Dead Men Do Tell Tales" described the venture. He pioneered the use of motion pictures from 1920. His other books included "Digging for Lost African Gods" (1926), "Mysterious Sahara" (1929) and "In Quest of Lost Worlds" (1935).
    (AM, 9/01, p.64)

1935        Nov 13, Anti-British riots took place in Egypt.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1936        Aug 26, The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, calling for most British troops to leave Egypt, except those guarding the Suez Canal, was signed in Montreux, Switzerland. It was abrogated by Egypt in 1951.
    (AP, 8/26/05)

1936        King Farouk ascended to the throne.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)

1937        The Gayer-Anderson Museum was founded in Cairo, Egypt.
    (AM, 3/04, p.34)

1938        Muslim Brotherhood chief Hassan el Banna (1906-1949), speaking in Cairo, proposed stitching together the nascent states of the Ottoman empire to form one Muslim community.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.49)

1939        Mar 21, In Egypt King Farouk arrived at Tanis for the opening of the coffin of the 21st Dynasty King Psusennes I, recently discovered by French archeologist Pierre Montet. It turned out that this coffin actually belonged to Sheshonq II of the 22nd Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1940        Feb 28, In Egypt King Farouk arrived at Tanis for the opening of the sarcophagus of the 21st Dynasty King Psusennes I, recently discovered by French archeologist Pierre Montet.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.24)

1940        Apr 17, In Egypt King Farouk arrived at Tanis and ordered French archeologist Pierre Montet to open the tomb of King Amenemope, son of 21st Dynasty King Psusennes I.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.25)

1940        Jul 14, A force of German Ju-88 bombers attacked Suez, Egypt, from bases in Crete.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1940        Sep 9, Italian troops under Marshal Graziani attacked Egypt. Rodolfo Graziani (1882-1955) was already known as the “Butcher of Ethiopia."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodolfo_Graziani)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.20)

1940        Dec 9, British troops opened their first major offensive in North Africa during World War II and seized 1,000 Italians in a sudden thrust in Egypt.
    (AP, 12/9/97)(HN, 12/9/98)

1941        May 18, An Egyptian steamer sank.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1942        Feb 4, Sir Miles Lampson, British high commissioner, staged a virtual coup d’etat against King Farouk. In 1998 David Freeman wrote a romantic historical novel: "One of Us," that was loosely set on this background.
    (WSJ, 2/25/98, p.A20)

1942        Jun 24, The German Africa Corps occupied Egypt.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1942        Jun, British Flight Sergeant Denis Copping (24), made a "fairly flawless emergency landing" of his American-built Kittyhawk P-40 in the desert of western Egypt. It was part of General Montgomery's British forces, mobilized to fight the Afrika Korps of Germany's Rommel. In 2012 the plane was found almost intact" in a vast sea of sand and rock.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

1942        Jul 27, The advance of German army was halted in the first battle of El Alamein, Egypt.

1942        Oct 23, During World War II, Britain launched a major offensive against Axis forces at El Alamein in Egypt.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1942        Oct 24, The 2nd day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1942        Oct 25, In the 3rd day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt), the British continued an offensive move.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1942        Oct 26, In the 4th day of the battle at El Alamein the Australians made a breakthrough.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1942        Oct 27, In the 5th day of battle at El Alamein: heavy battles and Australians advanced.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1942        Oct 28, The 6th day of the battle at El Alamein. British offensive under Montgomery.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1942        Oct 29, In the 7th day of battle at El Alamein Montgomery led an assault.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1942        Oct 30, On the 8th day of battle at El Alamein a new Australian assault began.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1942        Oct 31, The 9th day in battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1942        Nov 1, The 10th day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1942        Nov 2, 11th day of battle at El Alamein, Egypt: British made an assault on Tel el Aqqaqir. Montgomery defeated Rommel in battle of Alamein Egypt.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1942        Nov 3, The 12th day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt): Scottish assault.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1942        Nov 4, The 13th day of battle at El Alamein: Axis Africa corps retreated from El Alamein in North Africa in a major victory for British forces commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
    (AP, 11/4/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein)

1942        Nov 5, Richard Carver (28), the stepson of Britain’s Gen. Montgomery, was captured by the Afrika Corps, a day after the battle of El Alamein. A year later after serving time in an Italian prison, he journeyed some 400 miles to reunite with Gen. Montgomery. In 2009 Tom Carver, his son, authored “Where the Hell Have You Been" Monty, Italy and One Man’s Incredible Escape."
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.97)(http://tinyurl.com/ykwz9t7)

1943        Nov 22, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met in Cairo to discuss measures for defeating Japan.
    (AP, 11/22/99)

1944        Nov 6, British official Lord Moyne was assassinated in Cairo, Egypt, by members of the Zionist Stern gang (Lehi).
    (AP, 11/6/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lehi_%28group%29)

1945        Feb 24, Egyptian Premier Ahmed Maher Pasha was killed in Parliament after reading a decree.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1945        Mar 22, The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt. Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the UN and the Arab League.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1945        Mar 24, Egypt declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1945        Oct 20, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon formed the Arab League to present a unified front against the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1945        The Egyptian musical film "Salaamah" starred Oum Kalsoum (d.1974).
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, DB p.53)

1945        Hamas began life as a branch of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, which advocated the creation of states based ion Muslim law across the Middle East. [see Palestine 1987]
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.48)(www.upi.com/inc/view.php?StoryID=18062002-051845-8272r)

1946        Feb 21, Anti-British demonstrations took place in Egypt.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1946        Egypt’s King Farouk hosted the 1st Arab summit. The group resolved to thwart the birth of Israel.
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A10)

1946        France allowed Haj Amin al-Husseini, the former mufti of Jerusalem, to escape to Egypt. He had resided in Nazi Germany and hidden in Paris to avoid answering for various war crimes.
    (WSJ, 11/15/06, p.D14)

1946        French archeologist Pierre Montet (d.1966) resumed his excavations at Tanis, Egypt, and continued work there until 1951. In 1958 he published an account of his discoveries titled “La Necropole Royale de Tanis."
    (Arch, 5/05, p.25)

1947        An Egyptian and Ugandan water agreement led to the construction of Uganda’s Owen Falls Dam and authorized Egyptian engineers to monitor Nile water releases.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A1)

1948        May 15, Hours after declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
    (AP, 5/15/97)

1948        Jul 14, Israel bombed Cairo.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1948        Oct 14, Large scale fighting took place between Israel and Egypt.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1948        Oct 18, The Israeli offensive, Operation 10 Plagues, began the against Egyptian army.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1948        Dec 28, Premier Nokrashy Pasha of Egypt was assassinated by a member of the outlawed Moslem Brotherhood because of his failure to achieve victory in the war against Israel.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1948        The Muslim Brotherhood opposition party was officially outlawed.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A16)

1949        Feb 12, Muslim Brotherhood chief Hassan el Banna (b.1906) was shot to death in Cairo.

1949        Feb 24, Israel and Egypt signed an armistice agreement.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1949        Nov 7, King Faruk disbanded the Egyptian parliament.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1950        Nov 16, Egyptian king Farouk demanded the departure of all British troops.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1950        Saudi Arabia transferred the islands of Sanafir and Tiran to Egypt for fear that Israel might grab them. In 2016 Egypt ceded the islands back to Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 4/23/15, p.39)

1951        Mar 8, The Int’l. Table Tennis Federation banned Egypt for refusing to play Israel.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1951        Oct 17, The Egyptian army fired on British troops.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1951        Nov 18, British troops occupied Ismailiya, Egypt. [see Jan 20, 1952]
    (MC, 11/18/0)

1952        Jan 20, British troops occupied Ismalia, Egypt. [see Nov 18, 1951]
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1952        Mar 1, Egyptian government-Ali Maher Pasja resigned.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1952        Jul 23, General Mohammed Neguib seized power in Egypt. There was a revolution in Egypt, King Farouk I abdicated. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the monarchy and established Egyptian sovereignty after 2,300 years of foreign domination. The revolution was led by the group of Free Officers headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser and included Kamal Eddin Hussein.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(NG, May 1985, p.584)(HFA, '96, p.34)(TMC, 1994, p.1952)(SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)

1952        Jul 26, King Farouk I of Egypt abdicated in the wake of a coup led by Gamal Abdel Nasser.
    (AP, 7/26/97)(SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)

1952        Jul, Egyptian Prince Muhammed Abdel Monem (1899-1979) headed a regency committee that ruled from July 1952 to June 1953, when the new rulers of Egypt turned the country into a republic. Prince Monem had married Ottoman Princess Neslihan Sultan in 1940. In 1957 they returned to Istanbul.
    (AP, 4/3/12)

1952        Sep 7, General Mohammad Naguib (1901-1984) formed an Egyptian government and became premier. Naguib served as Egypt’s 1st president. He was dismissed in Nov, 1954.
    (MC, 9/7/01)(www.presidency.gov.eg)

1952        In Egypt Mohammed Zakaria Ghoneim found the burial mask of noblewoman Ka Nefer Nefer at the Saqqara pyramids. It dated back to 1307BC-1196BC. In 1998 St. Louis bought the mask for half a million dollars from Phoenix ancient Art gallery in Geneva, which was owned by Lebanese brothers Hicham and Ali Aboutaam. In 2004 an Egyptian court sentenced Ali Aboutaam in absentia to 15 years in prison for smuggling artifacts from Egypt to Switzerland.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.A24)

1952        Nov 3, Egypt protested German retribution payments to Israel.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1952        In Egypt some 2,000 vast estates occupied half the country’s fertile land and millions of illiterate peasants toiled as sharecroppers.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.32)

1953        Jan 17, In Egypt all political parties were dissolved and banned. The ban continued to 1976.
    (http://countrystudies.us/egypt/32.htm)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.86)

1953        Jun 18, Egypt was declared a republic, and the monarchy was abolished, ending the rule of Muhammad Ali's dynasty. Naguib became the first president and also prime minister. Nasser became deputy prime minister and minister of interior.

1954        Feb 23, In Egypt Pres. Naguib resigned. The popular outcry was so great that Naguib was reinstated as president. Nasser, however, took the position of prime minister, previously held by Naguib, and remained president of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).

1954        Apr 18, Colonel Nasser seized power in Egypt.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1954        Oct 19, Egypt and Britain concluded a pact on the Suez Canal, ending 72 years of British military occupation. Britain agreed to withdraw its 80,000-man force within 20 months, and Egypt agreed to maintain freedom of canal navigation.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1954        Oct 26, In Egypt a member of the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to kill PM Nasser.

1954        Oct 29, In Egypt Colonel Nasser disbanded the Moslem Brothership.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1954        Nov 14, Egyptian Pres. Naguib was fired and a state of emergency declared. Lt. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970), chairman of the RCC, took command.

1954        In Egypt Youssef Chahine (1926-2008), filmmaker, directed “The Blazing Sun" with Omar Sharif.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.B5)

1954        The statue of Ramses II was moved from Memphis to Cairo. It was divided into 3 pieces and loaded onto trucks for the move.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A12)

1955        In Egypt Onsi Sawiris founded a small construction firm. It grew to become the Orascom business group worth over $12 billion in 2005.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.62)

1956        Jan 1, Sudan became independent from Britain. Northern Muslim parties took over rule. Southerners demanded autonomy and civil war began. Sudan seceded from Egypt. This separated the Nubian communities split between the two countries.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(SFC, 11/17/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.21)(Econ, 9/17/16, p.47)

1956        Jan 16, Egyptian Pres. Nasser pledged to reconquer Palestine. His government made Islam the state religion.
    (HN, 1/16/99)(MC, 1/16/02)

1956        Apr 18, An Israeli-Egyptian cease fire, arranged by UN Gen’l. Sec. Dag Hammarskjöld, went into effect.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1956        Jun 13, The 74-year British occupation of the Suez Canal ended. The last British troops left the Canal base.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(PC, 1992 ed, p.953)

1956        Jun 23, Egyptians approved a new constitution and elected Gamal Abdel Nasser as president. The new constitution acknowledged the long struggle by women and for the first time provided them with equal political rights.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/875/eg4.htm)(AP, 6/23/97)

1956        Jul 19-1956 Jul 20, The US and Britain announced the withdrawal of their aid offers to Egypt for the construction of the Aswan high dam.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1249)

1956        Jul 20, Great Britain refused to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1956        Jul 26, Egypt’s Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal to provide revenue for the construction of the high Aswan dam. His speech in Alexandria, which included the codeword “De Lesseps," triggered the army to start the seizure of the canal. 
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(EWH, 1968, p.1249)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.23)

1956        Aug 7, British government sent 3 aircraft carriers to Egypt.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1956        Sep 11, Britain and France announced economic pressure on Egypt to accept international control over the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Sep 12, British Prime Minister Eden announced a British, French, US agreement to establish an association to operate the Suez. Nasser dubbed this as an attempt to provoke war.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Sep 14, Egypt assumed complete control over the operation of the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1249)

1956        Oct 14, British and French officials met as Israel was about to attack Egypt. Anthony Nutting (d.1999 at 79), a deputy foreign secretary, learned that Prime Minister Anthony Eden had agreed with the French that once fighting began, they would send in paratroopers under the guise to separate the fighting factions, but would actually support Israel, seize the canal and undermine Nasser. Nutting resigned when British planes took to the air Oct 31.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A25)

1956        Oct 29, During the Suez Canal crisis, Israel launched an invasion of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. Paratroopers under Ariel Sharon dropped into Sinai to open the Straits of Tiran. The Sinai Campaign, also known as Operation Kadesh, lasted eight days to November 5, 1956.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)(www.jafi.org.il/education/100/Concepts/d3.html)

1956        Oct 31, Great Britain and France attempted to take over the Suez Canal. They bombed Egyptian airfields.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Nov 2, The UN passed an American resolution, 64 to 5, for a ceasefire at the Suez Canal in Egypt. The General Assembly took up a Canadian suggestion for an emergency force to monitor the ceasefire. The UN Emergency Force (UNEF) became the first “blue hat" UN peacekeepers.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)(www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unefi.htm)

1956        Nov 4, Israel captured the Straits of Tiran and reached the Suez Canal in Egypt.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1956        Nov 5, Britain and France started landing troops in Egypt during fighting between Egyptian and Israeli forces around the Suez Canal. A cease-fire was declared two days later.
    (AP, 11/5/97)
1956        Nov 5, Israel liberated Sharm-el-Sheikh, reopening Gulf of Aqaba.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1956        Nov 6, Pressure from the US and USSR effected a cease-fire in the Middle-East. The UN created an emergency force (UNEF) to supervise a cease fire. Britain’s PM Anthony Eden called French PM Guy Mollet to tell him that Britain was aborting operations in Egypt. German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, meeting with Mollet, remarked that Europe must unite to counter the influence of the United States.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p. 1242)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        Nov 7, Britain’s PM Anthony Eden surrendered to American demands and stopped British operations in Egypt’s Canal Zone.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.29)

1956        Nov 15, The first units of UNEF arrived to enforce the cease fire in the Suez Canal Zone.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Nov 30, Britain and France bowed to UN pressure and agreed to leave the Suez Canal. Russia and the US forced a combined British, French and Israeli operation against Nasser in the Suez to abort.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(TMC, 1994, p.1956)

1956        Dec 3, England & France pulled troops out of Egypt.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1956        Dec 22, The evacuation of the Suez Canal was completed by Britain and France.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Dec 29, Salvage crews began to clear the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Alfredo Kraus (d.1999 at 71) made his debut as the Duke of Mantua in a production of "Rigoletto" at the Royal Opera House in Cairo.
    (SFC, 9/11/99, p.A19)

1957        Jan 9, British PM Anthony Eden resigned in the wake of the Suez crises.
    (AP, 1/9/99)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.23)

1957        Feb 17, Suez Canal reopened.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1957        Mar 8, Israeli troops left Egypt. Suez Canal re-opened for minor ships.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1957        Mar 9, Egyptian leader Nasser barred U.N. plans to share the tolls for the use of the Suez Canal.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1957        Apr 10, Egypt reopened the Suez Canal to all shipping traffic. The canal had been closed due to wreckage resulting from the Suez Crisis.
    (AP, 4/10/08)

1957        Egypt became the first country in the Arab world to elect a woman to parliament.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.29)
1957        Indar Jit Rikhye (1920-2007), UN peacekeeper from India, became chief of staff of UN forces along the Suez Canal. Prior to this each national liaison officer reported to their own governments.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, p.99)

1957        Albert Metzger, owner of the Cecil Hotel in Alexandria, was kicked out of Egypt "with only two suitcases." The hotel had been founded by his father in 1929. The Cecil palace, which once attracted Alexandria's rich cosmopolitan elite, was nationalized by late president Gamal Abdel Nasser after Egypt's nationalist revolution in 1952. In 2007 the Metzger family regained control of the 86-room four-star hotel run by French company Accor.
    (AFP, 6/21/07)

1958        Feb 1, Syria and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic. Most Syrians resented the merger, which was led by the radical Baath (Arab Socialist Resurrection) party. The union of Syria and Egypt was dissolved in 1961 following a coup in Syria. Egypt kept the name United Arab Republic until 1971.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)(AP, 2/1/08)

1958        Feb 5, Gamel Abdel Nasser was formally nominated to become the first president of the new United Arab Republic. Egypt used the UAR name from 1961-1971.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1555)

1958        Feb 21, Egypt-Syria as UAR elected Gamel Nasser president with a 99.9% vote.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1958        Mar 2, Yemen announced it will join the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria).
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1958        Oct 23, USSR lent money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1959        May 8, A 3-deck Nile excursion steamer sprang a leak panicking passengers who capsized  the ship. 200 drowned just yards from shore.
    (MC, 5/8/02)`

1959        Oct 31, The USSR and Egypt signed contracts for building the Aswan Dam.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1959        The Grand Sheikh of Cairo’s al-Azhar University, the foremost seat of Sunni scholarship, issued a fatwa that officially recognized mainstream Shiism as a legitimate school of thought.
    (Econ, 3/4/06, p.22)

1959        A water agreement between Egypt and Sudan was based on an annual net yield of 96.2 billion cubic yards of water and gave Egypt 72.15 billion and Sudan 20.04. Ethiopia got no allocation and never recognized the treaty.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A1)

1960        Jan 9, The foundation stone for Egypt’s Aswan High Dam was laid.

1960        Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the country’s media. Mustafa Amin (d.1997 at 83) and his twin brother Ali published 5 of the best-selling publications prior to the seizure and were highly critical of Nasser.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1960        Egypt passed a Transmission Law that gave the state-run Egyptian Radio and Television Union (ERTU) the sole right to transmit television signals out of the country. The law was later use to clamp down on providers of satellite television.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.A9)

1961        Syria withdrew from the UAR following a coup.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)

1961-1971    UAR was the official name of Egypt over this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)

1962        Mar 9, Egyptian Pres. Nasser declared Gaza belongs to Palestinians.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1964        Jan 17, The PLO charter was put together with articles that proclaimed Israel an illegal state and pledged "the elimination of Zionism in Palestine." The PLO was founded in Egypt. Fatah became the core group of the PLO.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.A18)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(SFC, 11/11/04, p.18)

1964        Mar 25, Egypt ended a state of siege (1952-64).
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1964        May 9, Khrushchev visited Egypt.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1964        May 14, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev joined United Arab Republic President Gamel Abdel Nasser in setting off charges, diverting the Nile River from the site of the Aswan High Dam project.
    (AP, 5/14/04)

1964        Waguih Ghali authored “Beer in the Snooker Club," a story about life in Cairo shortly after the fall of King Farouk (1952).
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.108)

1964        In Egypt the first stage of the Aswan High Dam began harnessing the Nile.

1965        Mar 15, Nasser was re-elected Egyptian President.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1965        Nov 1,  In Cairo, Egypt, a trackless trolley plunged into Nile River drowning 74.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1965        Mustafa Amin was arrested while meeting an American diplomat in Alexandria and accused of being an American spy. He was later freed by Pres. Anwar Sadat.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1965        Former King Farouk died at a restaurant in Rome. The obese monarch was notorious for his decadent lifestyle. The David Freeman novel "One of Us" is based on his life and times.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)

1966        Jun 19, French archeologist Pierre Montet (b.1885), renowned for his excavations at Tanis, Egypt, died in Paris. In 1958 he published an account of his discoveries titled “La Necropole Royale de Tanis."
    (Arch, 5/05, p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Montet)

1966        Aug 29, In Egypt Sayyid Qutb (b.1906), intellectual godfather of radical Islam, was hanged for treason under Pres. Nasser. Qutb had earlier written: "A Muslim has no nationality except his belief." He denounced western hedonism and the decadence of Muslim regimes. Qutb had spent some time in the US (1948-1951) and authored the 1951 essay “The America I Have Seen." While in prison (1954-1964) in Egypt, Qutb authored “Milestones," to chart the course of his crushed movement. His brother Muhammad went into exile in Saudi Arabia where he taught at King Abdul Aziz Univ. Osama bin Laden was one of his students. In 2010 John Calvert authored “Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism."
    (WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A18)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)(Econ, 7/17/10, p.86)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.20)

1966        Naguib Mahfouz, Nobel Prize (1988), published his novel "Adrift on the Nile."
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C11)

1966-1967    Yemen was engaged in civil war. Egypt's Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser sank his country in a ruinous effort to bolster the Republicans in Yemen's civil war.
    (Econ, 8/30/03, p.64)(Econ., 2/29/20, p.38)

1967        May 22, Egyptian president Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel.

1967        Jun 5, The Six Day War erupted in the Middle East as Israel, convinced an Arab attack was imminent, raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq entered the conflict. Jordan lost the West Bank, an area of 2,270 sq. miles. War broke out as Israel reacted to the removal of UN peace-keeping troops, Arab troop movements and the barring of Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba. Israel destroyed Egypt’s air force on the ground and knocked out the planes of Jordan, Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(NG, 5/93, p.58)(HNQ, 5/22/00)(Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)
1967        Jun 5-1967 Jun 10, Israel fought the Six-Day War against Syria and captured the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Allegations that Israeli soldiers killed hundreds of Egyptian prisoners with the knowledge of national leaders were made by Israeli historians in 1995. Israel occupied Syrian territory. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were captured by Israel. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1967        Jun 6, Israeli troops broke Egypt’s massive defenses in Sinai and occupied Gaza on the 2nd day of the 6-day war.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War)(Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)

1967        Jun 8, On the 4th day of the Six-Day War Israel captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, as well as the West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem from Jordan.
    (SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)

1967        Jun 10, Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations-mediated cease-fire. Israel took Gaza and the Sinai from Egypt, Old Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. In 2002 Michael B. Oren authored "Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the Modern Middle East." Israeli military historian Arieh Yitzhaki later said that his research showed Israeli troops killed 300 Egyptian prisoners of war. Israel said soldiers on both sides committed atrocities. In 2007 Tom Segev authored “1967: Israel, the War and the Year that Transformed the Middle East."
    {Israel, Palestine, Syria, Egypt}
    (AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)(AP, 3/6/07)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.97)

1969        Nov 3, The Arab League brokered a deal in Cairo that gave the PLO in Lebanon refugee camps freedom of government interference. They reached an agreement that effectively endorsed PLO freedom of action in Lebanon to recruit, arm, train, and employ fighters against Israel. The Lebanese Army protected their bases and supply lines.
    (www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_lebanon_cairo_1969.php)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.46)

1969        In Egypt the construction on the Aswan High Dam, which expanded irrigation, had led to an increase in bilharzia infection. In this year the government began to channel its bilharzia interventions into more comprehensive and organized control programs and projects. During the 1970’s and 1980s a campaign of multiple drug injections to combat the parasitic disease led to a massive spread of hepatitis c.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/wuwmx)
1969        Egypt’s President Gamel Abdel Nasser purged nearly 200 judges.
    (Econ 5/6/17, p.45)

1970        Jan 28, Israeli fighter jets attacked the suburbs of Cairo.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1970        Jul 21, The Aswan Dam opened in Egypt. Over the years the giant dam caused the disruption of the Nile's flow and destroyed vital mineral deposits. Fishing industries have been linked to the spread of disease. Formal opening ceremonies were held Jan 15, 1971.

1970        Aug 7, Israel, Jordan and Egypt agreed to a ceasefire under the terms of the US proposed Roger Plan. The Roger Plan was originally proposed in a December 9, 1969, speech at an Adult Education conference. The plan was formally announced on 19 June 1970.

1970        Sep 28, In Egypt Pres. Gamal Abdul Nasser (b.1918) died of a heart attack. He became president in 1953. Anwar Sadat replaced Nasser.

1970        Sep 27, A cease-fire accord was signed in Cairo between the Jordanian army and Palestinian guerrillas by King Hussein and Yasser Arafat brokered by the Arab peace committee headed by Bahi Ladgham of Tunisia.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/6e3v9s)

1970        Oct 15, Anwar Sadat (1918-1981) succeeded the late Gamal Abdel Nasser as president of Egypt. Sadat had worked with Nasser to overthrow Egypt‘s monarchy and was imprisoned during World War II for his ties to the Germans. After the revolution in 1952, he held key posts under Nasser including that of vice president (1964-66 and 1969-70). In 1973, he led Egypt into a war with Israel, but five years later negotiated the Camp David Accords with Israeli premier Menachem Begin for which both men received the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated by Muslim extremists in 1981.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)(HNQ, 7/30/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anwar_Sadat)

1970        Nov 27, Syria joined the pact linking Libya, Egypt and Sudan.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1970        Khaled Mohieddin, Egyptian leftist opposition leader, was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.
    (Reuters, 5/6/18)

1971        Jan 15, Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, 600 miles upstream from Cairo, was formally inaugurated.

1971        Sep 11, Egypt adopted a new constitution by public referendum. It called for the president to be chosen by at least two-thirds of MPs, and then confirmed by referendum. In 2007 a questionable referendum approved 34 constitutional  amendments.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Egypt)(Econ, 9/25/04, p.61)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.57)

1971        Nov 14, In Egypt Shenouda III (b.1923) became the Coptic Orthodox Pope and the 116th successor to Saint Mark the Evangelist.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Shenouda_III_of_Alexandria)

1971        A number of members of the Egyptian National Assembly were expelled for plotting to overthrow Pres. Sadat.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)

1972        Jul 18, Egypt’s President Sadat demanded that the USSR withdraw all military advisors from Egypt.

1972         In Egypt Hosni Mubarak was appointed commander of the air force and deputy minister for military affairs.
    (AP, 7/9/04)

1973        Oct 6, The fourth Arab-Israeli war in 25 years was fought. Israel was taken by surprise when Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan attacked on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, beginning the Yom Kippur War. Syria tried to regain the Golan Heights with a massive attack with 1,500 tanks. The assault, empowered by Russian equipment, was repulsed by air power.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(TMC, 1994, p.1973)(AP, 10/6/97)(HN, 10/6/98)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.54)
1973        Oct 6, The Egyptian Air Force under Hosni Mubarak launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero. The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.

1973        Oct 15 Israeli tanks under General Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and began to encircle two Egyptian armies.

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1973        Oct 24, The UNSC passed Resolution 339, serving as a renewed call for all parties to adhere to the cease fire terms established in Resolution 338. Organized fighting on all fronts ended by October 26.

1973        Oct 26, Organized fighting on all fronts of the Yom Kippur ended. Of Israel’s roughly 2,120 tanks, about 840 were destroyed over the 20 days of the war.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)(Econ, 6/4/11, TQ p.19)

1973        Nov 11, Israel and Egypt signed a cease-fire.

1973        Nov 15-1973 Nov 22, Egypt and Israel exchanged prisoners of war.

1973        Dec 21, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.

1973        Syria acquired chemical weapons from Egypt just before war with Israel.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1974        Jan 18, Israel and Egypt signed a Separation of Forces Agreement.

1974        Feb 28, The United States and Egypt re-established diplomatic relations after a seven-year break.
    (AP, 2/28/98)

1974        Nawal El Saadawi of Egypt authored "God Dies by the Nile," a novel of daughters and wives abused by men consumed with power.
    (SFC, 4/14/03, p.D1)

1975        Mar 29, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat declared that he would reopen the Suez Canal on June 5, 1975.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1975        Apr 15, Egypt’s Pres. Anwar Sadat chose Hosni Mubarak to serve as vice president.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.A4)(www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=24129)

1975        Jun 5, Egypt reopened the Suez Canal to international shipping, eight years after it was closed because of the 1967 war with Israel.
    (AP, 6/5/97)

1975        Sep 1, Israel and Egypt initialed the Sinai II agreement on disengagement. A ceremonial signing was held in Geneva on Sep 4.

1975        Oct 26, Anwar Sadat became the first Egyptian president to pay an official visit to the United States.
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1975        In Egypt Lake Nasser behind the Aswan High Dam was filled.
    (NG, May 1985, p.602)

1975-2000    US aid to Egypt totaled some $52 billion over this period.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.B4)

1976        Dec 25, Some 100 Moslems, returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, died when their boat, the Egyptian SS Patria, sank in the Red Sea.
    (HN, 12/25/98)(www.emergency-management.net/ship_acc.htm)

1976        Egypt passed legislation barring soldiers, conscripts and members of the security from voting while in the service. The ban was widely seen as a move designed to keep both the military and the security agencies out of politics, despite the fact that the country was run by former generals.
    (AP, 5/26/13)
1976        In Egypt Khaled Mohieddin (1922-2018) founded the leftist Patriotic Progressive Unionist Party.
    (Reuters, 5/6/18)

1977        Mar 12, Egypt's Anwar Sadat pledged to regain Arab territory from Israel.

1977        Apr 4, Egyptian Pres Anwar Sadat held his 1st meeting with President Jimmy Carter.

1977        Nov 19, Egyptian Pres. Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel. Peace talks began in the Middle East with Sadat going to Israel.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1977)(AP, 11/19/97)
1977        Nov 19, The Libyan flag was adopted, after Libya left the Federation of Arabs Republic, which consisted of Libya, Egypt and Syria.

1977        Nov 20, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to address Israel's parliament.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1977        Dec 25, Israeli PM Menachem Begin met Egyptian Pres. Sadat (1918-1981) in Egypt.

1977        Food riots took place in Egypt following higher prices for everything from flour to rice. Kamal Addin Hussein, an independent member of the Egyptian People's Assembly, accused Pres. Sadat of punishing the people. Hussein was voted out of the Assembly for his statements. Sadat soon backed down and cancelled the price hikes.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)(Econ, 11/12/16, p.46)
1977        In Egypt agricultural engineer Shukri Mustafa became the leader of Takfir wal Hijra. The group began in the 1960s as a splinter group of Muslim Brotherhood, but did not gain international prominence until 1977. The group’s ideology was developed in Egypt, where theorists openly advocated using immigration as a Trojan horse to expand jihad (holy war).
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takfir_wal-Hijra)

1978        Jan 8, The Israeli government voted to "strengthen" settlements in occupied Sinai.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1978        Feb 3, Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat arrived in Washington DC to discuss the Middle East peace process with US President Jimmy Carter.

1978        Jul 18, Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), US Sec. of State, met with the Egyptian and Israeli Foreign Ministers at Leeds Castle, England.

1978        Sep 5-1978 Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt met at Camp David, Md. In 2014 Lawrence Wright authored “Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David."
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.79)

1978        Sep 16, The Grateful Dead performed at the Great Pyramid of Giza. Hanza El Din (1930-2006), Nubian oud virtuoso, first played with the Grateful Dead.
    (SFC, 5/26/06, p.B9)(www.archive.org/details/gd78-09-16.sbd.orf.2319.sbeok.shnf)

1978        Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt signed agreements at Camp David, Md. Israel promised to withdraw gradually from Sinai and to establish some form of autonomous Palestinian territory on the West Bank. Sadat's astrologer, Hasan al-Tuhami, was the only person Sadat trusted. In the Camp David Accord "Israel was the winner and Egypt the Loser." Thus wrote Boutros Boutros-Ghali in his 1997 book: "Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat’s Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL, 1988, p.119)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1978        Oct 12, Representatives of Israel and Egypt opened talks in Washington.

1978        Oct 22, Negotiators for Egypt and Israel announced in Washington they had reached tentative agreement on the main points of a peace treaty.
    (AP, 10/22/98)

1978        Oct 27, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their progress toward achieving a Middle East accord.
    (AP, 10/27/97)

1979        Mar 21, The Egyptian Parliament unanimously approved a peace treaty with Israel.
    (AP, 3/21/99)

1979        Mar 22, The Israeli parliament approved a peace treaty with Egypt.

1979        Mar 26, The Camp David peace treaty was signed by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat at the White House. [see Sep 5-17, 1978] Under the historic peace accord, Israel and Egypt agreed to operate flights between the countries.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords)(AP, 9/16/12)

1979        Mar 31, The Arab League suspended Egypt following its treaty with Israel.

1979        Apr 2, Israeli PM Menachem Begin visited Cairo, Egypt, and met with Pres. Sadat.

1979        May 25, Israel began to return Sinai to Egypt. Under the new peace treaty, Israel returned the captured Sinai to Egypt. In return, Egypt agreed to leave the area demilitarized.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/time70s.html)(AP, 1/31/11)

1979        Nov 25, Israel returned the Alma oil field in A-Tour to Egypt.

1979        Dec 25, Egypt began major restoration of the Sphinx.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1979        The Abu Hassira festival was made possible after Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel. Thereafter it has repeatedly drawn angry reactions from residents of the village. Abu Hassira (Abi Hasira), a renowned Jewish religious figure from Morocco, fell ill and died in Egypt in 1880.
    (AFP, 1/11/12)
1979        Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini cut diplomatic ties with Egypt.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.29)
1979        The US began financing Egypt’s military at an annual cost of $1.3 billion.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.65)
1979        US forces began serving as peacekeepers in the Sinai Peninsula following the Camp David peace treaty.
    (SFC, 8/19/15, p.A2)

1979-1980    The Islamic Jihad was founded in Egypt by Palestinian students from the Gaza Strip. Nafez Azzam was one of the founders. Control was later moved to Iran with training and funding from Iran, Syria and Hezbollah in Lebanon. Leaders included Ramadan Shalah and Abdullah Shami.
    {Egypt, Palestine, Iran, Syria, Lebanon}
    (www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/egyptian_islamic_jihad.htm)(SFC, 6/6/02, p.A12)

1980        Jan 26, Israel and Egypt established diplomatic relations, in accord with PM Begin’s agreement with Pres. Sadat on Jan 10 at Aswan.

1980        Feb 26, Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors for the 1st time.

1980        Mar 23, Shah of Iran arrived in Egypt.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1980        Jul 27, On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979), died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1980        Jul 29, A state funeral was held in Cairo, Egypt, for the deposed Shah of Iran, who had died two days earlier at age 60.
    (AP, 7/29/00)

1980        Egypt’s Pres. Sadat allowed Sharia to become the principal source of Egyptian law.
    (SFC, 7/15/06, p.E2)

1980-1989    During the 1980s Ayman Al-Zawahri fled from Egypt after he was sentenced to 3 years in prison for belonging to an outlawed group. He later met Osama bin Laden and became the "emir" of the Islamic Jihad.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)

1981        Jun 17, Riots between Muslims & Christians in Cairo left 16 people dead.

1981        Oct 6, Egyptian Pres. Anwar Sadat was killed by Islambouli, an Islamic fundamentalist (Takfir wal Hijra) and Egyptian army lieutenant, at the parade ground of Nasser City during a ceremony commemorating the Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Although authorities were warned of a death plot hours earlier, the information did not get to the president in time. Abboud and Tarek el-Zomor were convicted in 1984 of plotting the assassination and of belonging to the outlawed Islamic Jihad group, but not of actually killing Sadat. The two were sentenced to 20 years in prison. The five prime suspects, including the shooter, were captured and executed. The events are described in a book by Fouad Allam: "The Brotherhood and I." In 2000 Mohammad Khan produced the film "Days of Sadat," starring Ahmed Zaki.
    (SFC, 4/26/96, p.A-12)(HNQ, 7/12/98)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A8)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A16)(AP, 3/11/11)

1981        Oct 7, Egypt's parliament named Vice President Hosni Mubarak to succeed the assassinated Anwar Sadat. He invoked a state of emergency and tolerated the Muslim Brotherhood.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-8)(AP, 10/7/97)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)

1981        Oct 10, Funeral services were held in Cairo for Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat, who had been assassinated by Muslim extremists.
    (AP, 10/10/02)

1981        Oct 13, Voters in Egypt elected Vice President Hosni Mubarak the new president in a referendum with a 98.5% vote, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(AP, 7/9/04)

1981        Oct 14, Hosni Mubarak, the new president of Egypt, was sworn in to succeed the assassinated Anwar Sadat. Mubarak pledged loyalty to Sadat's policies.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

1981        Oct, Tarek el-Zomor and his cousin, a lieutenant in the Egyptian army, were arrested for plotting Sadat's assassination and belonging to the outlawed Islamic Jihad group, but they did not shoot the president. In 1984 they were sentenced to 20 years prison, the maximum term under Egyptian law. Zomor was released from prison in 2005.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

1981        Nov 14, In Egypt the weight of Lake Nasser unexpectedly  triggered earthquakes, such as the 5.2 magnitude quake on Nov 14, 1981.
    (NG, May 1985, p.603)(http://tinyurl.com/349x3j)

1981        Construction began on the Cairo Metro.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A6)

1982        In Egypt the Soviet built turbine blades of the Aswan High Dam cracked. The US gave the Egyptian government 85 million dollars to replace the blades. It was expected that the generators be functional by 1990. Heavy evaporation has caused Lake Nasser to become more saline.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.602)

1982        In Egypt the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) was created as part of a peacekeeping mission on the Sinai Peninsula following the 1979 Camp David Accord between Egypt and Israel.
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, Par p.4)

1982        In Egypt the Soviet built turbine blades of the Aswan High Dam cracked. The US gave the Egyptian government 85 million dollars to replace the blades. It was expected that the generators be functional by 1990. Heavy evaporation has caused Lake Nasser to become more saline.
    (NG, May 1985, p.602)

1983        Dec 22, Egyptian president Mubarak met with PLO leader Yasser Arafat.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1983        Mohamed Heikal (1923-2016, Egyptian political author, passed a damning judgment of Sadat's 11 years in power in his 1983 book "Autumn of Fury, The Assassination of Sadat."
    (AP, 2/17/16)
1983        An international expedition of American, Polish and Egyptian anthropologists in the Aswan region unexpectedly came upon the skeleton of a prehistoric man thought to be about 80,000 years old, the oldest human skeleton ever found in Egypt. Early modern humans were present in the Levant between 130,000-80,000 BP.

1984        The Muslim Brotherhood gets into Parliament for the first time through an alliance with Egypt's Labor Party.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-8)

1985        Oct 9, The hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise liner surrendered after the ship arrived in Port Said, Egypt.
    (AP, 10/9/97)

1985        Nov 23, Egypt Air flight 648 was hijacked to Malta by Palestinian militant Omar Mohammed Ali Rezaq, a member of the Abu Nidal terrorist group.  
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EgyptAir_Flight_648)

1985        Nov 24, The hijacking of an Egyptair jetliner parked on the ground in Malta ended violently as Egyptian commandos stormed the plane. Fifty-eight people died in the raid, in addition to two others killed by the hijackers. Ali Rezaq of the Abu Nidal terrorist group was imprisoned in Malta for 7 years and then released. The US FBI apprehended him in Nigeria in 1993 and he was convicted by a US federal jury in 1996 and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(AP, 11/24/97)

1985        Boutros Boutros-Ghali was the minister of state for foreign affairs and warned that the next war in the Middle East would be fought over water.
    (NG, 5/93, p.53)

1986        Feb 9, The tomb of Tutankhamen's treasurer, Maya, was found in Egypt.

1986        Sep 11, Egypt's Pres Mubarak received Israeli premier Peres.

1987        The opera "Aida" was staged at the Temple of Luxor by the company Opera on Original Site Inc.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)

1987        Voters in Egypt elected President Hosni Mubarak for a 2nd term.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(AP, 7/9/04)

1987        Oct, The Cairo Metro opened its first line, 26.5 miles long.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A6)

1988        Oct 13, Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was named recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    (AP, 10/13/98)

1988        Dec 18, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to discuss how to continue the momentum gained by the first U.S.- PLO dialogue.
    (AP, 12/18/98)

1989        Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak sacked Defense Minister Abdel-Halim Abu Ghazala, widely popular among troops and civilians and even talked about as a possible successor to Mubarak.
    (AP, 2/16/11)
1989         Pres. Mubarak's lobbying culminated in a majority of Arab League foreign ministers endorsing Egypt's readmission to the league after 10 year absence caused by Arab rejection of Sadat's peace treaty signing with Israel.
    (AP, 7/9/04)
1989        Egypt signed a treaty with the British that ostensibly allowed it to block any big projects upstream of the Aswan Dam.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.50)

1990        Feb 4, Nine people were killed as guerrillas attacked a bus carrying Israeli tourists near Cairo, Egypt.
    (AP, 2/4/00)

1990        Aug 5, In Cairo the 19th Islamic Conference of foreign Ministers adopted the “Cairo Declaration," which laid out an alternative view of liberty. The member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) attached a rider that the application of all human rights should be subordinated to sharia law.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.63)(www.religlaw.org/interdocs/docs/cairohrislam1990.htm)

1991        May, In Egypt Gen. Hussein Tantawi was appointed chief commander of the armed forces.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

1991        Dec 14-1991 Dec 15, At least 464 people were left dead or missing when an Egyptian-registered ferry sank in the Red Sea near the port of Safaga after coral reef tore a hole in a ferry's side.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/3/06)

1991        Nawal El Saadawi (b.1931), Egyptian feminist writer, authored "Daughter of Isis," a detailed account of her childhood. She left Egypt in 1993 and returned in 1996. In 2002 she authored "Walking Through Fire," a continuation of her memoir.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M2)
1991        The IMF began extensive loans to Egypt along with pressure to sell-off state owned enterprises. The government of Pres. Hosni Mubarak picked 314 companies to privatise.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.41)

1992        Jan 25, Mahmoud Riad (b.1917), Egyptian diplomat and sec-gen of Arab League (1972-79), died.

1992        Jun 8, In Egypt two masked gunmen shot and killed writer Farag Foda.
    (WSJ, 2/20/98, p.A16)(www.tkb.org/MorePatterns.jsp?countryCd=EG&year=1992)

1992        Jul 21, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who said afterward that he'd accepted Rabin's invitation to visit Israel.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1992        Oct 12, A 5.8 earthquake hit Cairo and at least 510 people died.
    (AP, 10/12/97)(http://io.ingrm.it/amminist/annali/elenean433.htm)

1992        Oct 21, In Dairu a British nurse died in a bus attack by Islamic extremists.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1992        Naguib Mahfouz, Nobel Prize (1988) winning Egyptian author, published his novel "Sugar Street." It was the most political and last book of his “Cairo Trilogy."
    (WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)

1992        The radio program "Nocturnal Confessions" began.
    (SFC, 12/2/96, p.A12)

1992        Pres. Mubarak launched a crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood following civil war in Algeria triggered by Islamic electoral successes.
    (WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A16)

1992        Muslim militants began an insurgency with attacks largely in southern Egypt to overthrow the government of Hosni Mubarak. By 1996 more than 920 people had been killed, mostly police and militants.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)(SFEC,12/28/97, p.A17)

1992        An agreement was made on sharing water from Nubian sandstone aquifer system, the largest in the world, located under Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)

1992-1996    Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt served as the Secretary-General of the UN.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)

1993        Feb 26, In Cairo a bomb in a coffee shop killed 3 people and injured 18.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1993        Mar 24, Mahmoud Abouhalima, a cab driver implicated in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was flown back to the United States from Egypt. Abouhalima was later convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

1993        Jun 8, In Cairo, Egypt, a bomb exploded near a tour bus on Pyramids Road killing 2 people and wounding 22 others.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1993        Aug 15, An Egyptian surrendered peacefully after hijacking a Dutch jet to Germany to demand the U.S. release Muslim cleric Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman.
    (AP, 8/15/98)

1993        Oct 6, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chief Yasser Arafat held their first official meeting in Cairo, Egypt, to begin work on realizing terms of the Israeli-PLO accord.
    (AP, 10/6/98)

1993        Oct 26, In Cairo gunfire at a hotel killed 2 Americans, 1 Frenchman and injured 3 others.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1993        Nov 25, Egyptian Prime Minister Atef Sedki escaped an attempt on his life when Islamic militants detonated a car bomb near his motorcade. The attack killed a 5-year-old girl. Yasser al-Siri, a member of the "media committee" of the Islamic Jihad, was tried and convicted in absentia for the assassination attempt. Siri fled to the UK and obtained political asylum.
    (HN, 11/25/98)(WSJ, 10/26/01, p.A19)

1993        Dec 10, Mansour El-Kikhia, former Libyan ambassador to the UN, was kidnapped in Cairo. The US CIA later reported that he was taken to Libya and executed in early 1994. El-Kikhia’s book “Libya’s Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction" was published in the US in 1997.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)

1993        Dec 27, In Egypt, a gun and bomb attack on a tourist bus in old Cairo wounded 8 Austrians and 8 Egyptians. The militant group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1993        A 12-mile section of the Cairo Metro beneath the Nile River was begun. A grand opening was scheduled for 2000.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A6)

1993        Dr. Ayman al-Zawahri became head of the Egyptian Jihad.
    (WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A1)

1994        Jan 10, Talks between Israeli and Palestinian negotiators resumed in Taba, Egypt.
    (AP, 1/10/99)

1994        Feb 23, In Egypt, an explosion hit a train in Assiut. 6 foreign tourists were hurt. The militant Islamic group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1994        Mar 4, At Abu Tig machine-gun fire fatally wounded a German woman on a Nile cruise ship.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1994        Aug 26, In Egypt a 13-year-old Spanish boy was killed and 3 others injured in a tour bus attack by Islamic extremists at Nag Hammadi.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1994        Sep 5, A U.N.-sponsored population conference opened in Cairo, Egypt, where Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland lashed out at the Vatican and at Muslim fundamentalists by defending abortion rights and sex education. 179 nations signed a statement to ensure every woman’s right to education and health care and to make choices about childbearing. In 2004 world leaders of 85 nations endorsed the plan but the US refused because the statement mentioned “sexual rights." 
    (AP, 9/5/99)(SFC, 10/14/04, p.A9)

1994        Sep 27, At Hurghada a German tourist and 2 Egyptians were killed by Islamic extremists. Two other Germans were injured in gunfire at a Red Sea resort city, and one later died.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1994        Oct 14, Nobel Prize-winning writer Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) was stabbed several times in the neck by a 21-year-old assailant on a Cairo street. Muslim militants were blamed in the attack. The wound resulted in the paralysis of his writing hand.
    (WSJ, 2/20/98, p.A16)(AP, 10/14/04)

1994        Oct 23, At Naqada a British man was killed and 3 injured in an attack on a van by Islamic extremists.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1994        Nov 2, In Durunka, Egypt, more than 475 people were killed when fuel carried by floodwaters ignited.
    (AP, 11/2/99)

1994        Ali Salem, Egyptian playwright, traveled across Israel and authored “My Drive to Israel." I sold some 60,000 copies and angered Egyptian intellectuals.
    (SFC, 12/19/08, p.A24)

1994        In Egypt Youssef Chahine (1926-2008), filmmaker, directed “The Emigrant." The film,  about the Old Testament figure of Joseph, was denounced by militant Islamists and banned.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.B5)

1994        The government of Egypt decreed that schoolgirls may not wear the full length veil, niqab, that covers everything but the eyes.
    (SFC, 5/23/96, p. C2)   

1994        In Cairo a conference on population called on improving the lot of women so that they would have fewer children.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.A12)

1994        McDonald’s opened its first Egypt restaurant in Cairo.
    (WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A12)

1994        Police Gen’l. Raouf Khairat was killed. Four people were sentenced to death in 1997 for crimes including the murder which they denied.
    (SFC, 9/16/97, p.A12)

1994-1995    Five Egyptian banks lent out some $370 million of which only $115.6 was paid back. In 2000 a court convicted 4 parliamentary members in a corruption scandal with sentences up to 10 years. A total of 31 people were found guilty.
    (SFC, 6/26/00, p.A12)

1995        Feb 2, The leaders of Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinians held an unprecedented summit in Cairo to try to revive the Mideast peace process.
    (AP, 2/2/00)(http://tinyurl.com/255pml)

1995        Jun 26, Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak escaped unharmed after his motorcade came under fire during a trip to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He was en route to a summit of the Organization of African Unity. In 1996 an Ethiopian court sentenced 3 Egyptian men to death for the attack.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)(AP, 7/9/04)(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A4)

1995        Nov 19, A suicide bomber self-destructed in the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad and killed 15 others. 59 were wounded. Islamic militants opposed to the Cairo regime claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 11/20/95, p.A-1)(MC, 11/19/01)

1995        Sep 24, Israel’s Rabin and the PLO under Arafat, signed a pact, Oslo II, in Taba, Egypt, ending nearly three decades of Israeli occupation of West Bank cities. They scheduled a 9/7/97 date for Israel’s departure from the West Bank, except for Jewish settlements and certain military locations. A final accord was scheduled for 5/7/99. The Oslo Accords stipulated that 80% of the water from the “mountain aquifer" beneath land occupied by Israel in 1967 should go to Israel, and the rest to the Palestinians.
    (SFC, 1/9/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/24/00)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(Econ, 7/30/16, p.38)

1995         Dec 7, The ruling party of Pres. Hosni Mubarak won a 2/3 majority in parliament. Islamic activists charged vote-rigging. 27 people were killed and about a 1000 opposition activists were arrested. The US gives Egypt more than 2 bil in foreign aid annually. More than 90% of the population of 60 mil are Muslims.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-1)

1995        Dec 21, A train collision outside Cairo, Egypt, claimed 75 lives.
    (AP, 12/20/00)

1995        "Ancient Egyptian Art: The Brooklyn Museum" is a CD by Digital Collections.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.84)

1995        Yousry Nasrallah directed the Egyptian documentary “On Boys, Girls and the Veil."
    (SFC, 7/15/06, p.E3)

1995        Egypt enacted its first environmental laws.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A1)

1995        Some 373 people were killed this year in terrorist attacks.
    (WSJ, 1/18/02, p.A1)

1996        Jan, Pres. Hosni Mubarak brought in a new economic team and named Kamal el-Ganzouri as Prime Minister. Ganzouri pushed legislation to allow foreigners to buy Egyptian property and businesses and other changes.
    (WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A12)

1996        Apr 17, In [El Giza] Cairo, Egypt, suspected Muslim militants attacked a group of Greek tourists in front of the Europa hotel. 18 people were killed and 14 wounded.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.A-1)(SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1996        Jun 18, Parliament abolished a law that imposed stiff penalties on journalists for libel and defamation and eliminated a provision that allowed journalists to be jailed without charge.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)

1996        Jul, Female circumcision was banned but the prohibition was not incorporated into the penal code.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A11)

1996        Aug 31, Torrential rains threatened Sudan and Egypt with floods.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A4)

1996        Oct 16, Two girls, 4 & 3, died from bleeding after being circumcised at their homes by a government doctor.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A11)

1996        Oct 27, In Egypt a 12-story apartment building collapsed in Heliopolis, a suburb of Cairo and at least 2 people were killed. The death toll reached 25 and 100 were still missing. The owner had illegally added the last 5 levels.
    (SFC, 10/28/96, p.A9)(SFC, 10/30/96, p.A8)

1996        Dec 29, The government arrested 240 linked to the outlawed Islamic group the "Kotbioun," a violent branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A8)

1996        The documentary film "Days of Democracy" was about women in Egyptian politics.
    (SFC, 9/6/99, p.B5)

1996        In Egypt Mustafa Mashour (d.2002 at 81) took over leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood. He had spent 20 years in jail.
    (SFC, 11/19/02, p.A23)
1996        In Egypt Abu al-Ila Madi founded the Al-Wasat Al-Jadid (the New Center) party. It was a split off from the conservative Muslim Brotherhood and sought to create a political movement promoting a tolerant version of Islam with liberal tendencies.
    (AP, 2/19/11)
1996        A 2,000 year old cemetery was discovered at the Bahariya Oasis. An estimated 10,000 bodies were thought to be there. The place began to be called the Valley of the Golden Mummies when some mummies were found to be sheathed in gold.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A12)

1997        Jan 11, A new canal was planned to be cut 150 miles northwest from Lake Nasser.
    (SFC, 1/11/96, p.C1)

1997        Jan 21, The al-Ahram newspaper reported that a 30-member family of beggars was arrested. They had managed to save $294,000 from illegal begging on the streets of Suez.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.C1)

1997        Feb, Ahmed Zayat, an Egyptian American, took over the Al Ahram Beverages Co. and began to build a state-of-the-art brewery to produce Egyptian Stella and Danish Carlsberg Beer.
    (WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A12)

1997        Mar 13, Four masked, suspected Islamic gunmen opened fire in a Christian village in southern Egypt and killed 14 men before escaping.
    (SFC, 3/14/97, p.A16)(AP, 3/13/98)

1997        Jul 22, Six police officers were killed in an ambush by militants near Minya.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A13)

1997        Jul 26, It was reported that a cease-fire had been proclaimed by 6 imprisoned leaders of the Gamaa al Islamiya. The government dismissed the cease-fire as empty talk.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A13)

1997        Aug 15, It was reported that a nurse in Alexandria, Aida Nur el-Din, had killed at least 18 patients so that she would not be disturbed at night.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.C1)

1997        Sep 16, In Egypt a state-owned farm-truck carrying up to 120 boys and girls overturned and killed 29 of them. 23 children from Sa el-Hagar were killed.
    (SFC, 9/17/97, p.C4)(SFC, 10/1/98, p.A14)

1997        Sep 18, In Egypt two gunmen killed 10 people in Cairo’s Tahrir Square in front of the Egyptian Museum. Of the dead were nine German tourists and a bus driver and a dozen more were wounded as the tour bus was set afire. Saber and Mahmoud Abu el-Ulla, a former inmate of a mental hospital and his brother, were caught, convicted and sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 9/19/97, p.A12)(SFC,10/31/97, p.D3)(AP, 9/18/98)

1997        Aug 31, Prince Charles brought Princess Diana home for the last time, escorting the body of his former wife to a Britain that was shocked, grief-stricken and angered by her death in a Paris traffic accident. Princess Diana (36) and Egyptian billionaire Dodi al-Fayed (42) were killed along with the car’s driver in a car crash in Paris while trying to evade paparazzi photographers. A bodyguard was severely injured but expected to survive. It was later learned that the driver had 3 times the legal alcohol limit and was driving at about 110 mph.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/2/97, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/98)

1997        Oct 26, In Egypt Pres. Mubarak opened the new Peace Canal to carry Nile water to the Sinai Peninsula. The irrigation of 620,000 acres of desert was planned to support 1.5 million residents.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A9)(WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A1)

1997        Nov 17, In Egypt 6 gunmen killed 62 people, including 58 foreign tourists, at the Hatshepsut Temple in Luxor. The assailants, members of the Gamaa al-Islamiya, were all killed. The attack was meant to force the US to release Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman who was serving a life term for a plot to bomb NYC landmarks. The assailants, members of the Gamaa al-Islamiya, were all killed. It was later reported that Mustafa Hamza ordered the attack and that he was financed by Osama bin Laden. Mohamed Ali Hassan Mokhlis, a suspected planner of the attack, was arrested in Uruguay in 1999 and handed over to Egypt in 2003.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A1)(SFC,11/22/97, p.C1)(SFC, 5/14/99, p.A15)(AP, 11/17/07)

1997        Dec 15, A court sentenced a physician, Dr. Rabie Ibrahim Mahgoub, one year in prison and a fine of $150 for the April death of a 14-real-old girl, Amina Abdel-Hamid Abu-Elah, who was undergoing circumcision surgery (called genital mutilation by opponents).
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B2)

1997        Dec 27, Hassan Khalifa was sentenced to death for the 1993-94 murders of 26 policemen and 8 Romanian nationals. Rifaat Zeidan and Abdul-Hamid Othman, all members of al-Gama’a al-Islamiya, were sentenced to death in absentia.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A17)

1997        Dec 28, The Health Ministry banned government certified doctors and health workers from performing female circumcision.
    (SFC, 12/29/97, p.A7)

1997        The Egyptian film "Destiny" starred Nour el-Cherif and Laila Eloui. It was directed by Youssef Chahine. It was about the 12th century philosopher Averroes.
    (SFC, 9/17/99, p.C6)

1997        A phase out of leaded gasoline was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A1)

1998        Jan 17, It was reported that motorists in Cairo were switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) to fuel their vehicles. It was both cheaper and burned cleaner. Over 5,000 vehicles had made the switch.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Feb 23, In Afghanistan Osama bin Laden declared a holy war on the US. Bin Laden announced the formation of the World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. It called on Muslims worldwide to attack Americans. The Al Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published a statement that announced an alliance between Dr. Zawahri, head of the Egyptian Jihad, and Osama bin Laden. "We—with God’s help—call on every Muslim…to comply with God’s order to kill Americans."
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A8)(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)

1998        Mar 31, A sweeping press ban forbade publishing houses from printing in tax-free zones. This amounted to a temporary de facto ban for over 50 publications that printed in the Nasr City tax-free zone outside of Cairo.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A10)

1998        May 24, Saber and Mahmoud Abu el-Ulla, a former inmate of a mental hospital and his brother, were hanged for the Sep 18, 1997, killings of 10 people in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1998        May 25, The conclusion of a decade long, $2.5 million restoration project on the Sphinx was celebrated.
    (SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)

1998        May, the government passed an amendment that governing police that said a current or former officer could be jailed and fined for divulging information obtained while on duty, unless permission was obtained from the Interior Dept.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.A12)

1998        Jun 17, Sheik Mohammed Sharawi died at age 87. The popular cleric lectured on Egyptian TV and his teachings were widely acclaimed. He supported female circumcision and ruled that women should not be appointed to top government positions or become judges.
    (SFC, 6/19/98, p.B6)

1998        Jun 25, Albanian security personnel (SHIK) under CIA guidance arrested Shawki Salama Attiya, a Tirana cell forger. Over the next month they made a successful raids on more suspected members of the Egyptian Jihad terrorist organization. The suspected terrorists were turned over to anti-terrorist officials in Egypt, where they delivered forced confessions following torture.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)

1998        Aug 24, In Egypt Abu Nidal was captured after crossing the border from Libya. He had split from the PLO in 1974 and was responsible for terrorist bombings in 1985 at the Rome and Vienna airports and a 1986 hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 as well as a number of assassinations of PLO figures. Egypt denied the report of Nidal’s capture.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(WSJ, 8/27/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep, In Egypt Brigadier Gen’l. Hamdi El-Batran was to go on trial for his book "The diary of an Officer in the Countryside."
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 18, In Egypt a train jumped its tracks in the town of Kafr el-Dawar and at least 47 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/19/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 1, It was reported that construction of the $180 million Bibliotheca Alexandria was proceeding. Completion was expected in Oct, 1999.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 4, From Egypt it was reported that a new 3rd party, named "Wasat" or middle party, was emerging. It was an alternative to the fundamentalist Islamic regime and the secular state.
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec, Construction of wind farms on 32 square miles of desert at Zafarana was to begin with Danish and German financing.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A8)

1999        Jan 2, Police arrested 71 suspected Muslim militants over the last 3 days on suspicion of plotting to kill senior government officials.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, p.A19)

1999        Jan 18, The end of Ramadan was marked by prisoner releases in Egypt, Palestine and Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 1/18/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 11, Defense Sec. William Cohen announced $3.2 billion in subsidized arms sales to Egypt.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A16)

1999        Mar 21, Balloonists Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones landed their Breitling Orbiter 3 north of Mut, Egypt, a day after setting their around the world record.
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A21)

1999        Spring, The Islamic Group announced that it was giving up armed struggle.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.D3)

1999        Apr 19, It was reported that Cairo's new governor, Abdul Rahim Shehata, had drafted and begun a new beautification plan which included moving garbage sorting and recycling 18 miles away. The move was expected to seriously impact the livelihood of the Zebaleen, i.e. garbage collectors.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A8)

1999        May 27, In Egypt the parliament approved powers over private groups with laws of operating rules and banned private groups from participating in political activity.
    (SFC, 5/28/99, p.D3)

1999        Jun 19, Kamal Eddin Hussein, revolutionary and former vice-president, died at age 77.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)

1999        Jul 24, Shoukry Ayyad, poetry critic, died at age 78. His 20 books on Arabic poetry, language and theater included "The Hero in Literature and Fables," "Music of Poetry," and Language and Creativity."
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)

1999        Jul, The culture ministry announced plans to move the temple of Hibis (b.~600BCE) to protect it from rising groundwater.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)   

1999        Sep 4, At Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority Pres. Yasser Arafat signed a new deal that ceded West Bank land to the Palestinians and set up a timetable for peace.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 6, In Egypt Said Hassan Suleiman (40) inflicted a light wound with a sharp object On Pres. Mubarak in Port Said. Suleiman was immediately killed by security guards.
    (SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 7, In Egypt police shot and killed 4 suspected Islamic militants including Farid Kidwan, leader of al-Gamaa al-Islamiya.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A14)

1999        Sep 26, In Egypt a 79% turnout in weekend referendum gave Pres. Mubarak (71) 94% support for a further 6-year term. Opposition groups boycotted the vote and called for democracy and the lifting of the state of emergency in force since 1981.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)(AP, 7/9/04)

1999        Oct 12, Ahmed H. Zewail, an Egyptian chemist at the California Inst. of Tech., won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for finding a way to freeze-frame the private matings of molecules using ultra fast laser probes.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A2)

1999        Oct 31, An EgyptAir Boeing 767-300, Flight 990, enroute from New York to Cairo crashed off Nantucket Island and all 217 people aboard were killed. Captains Ahmed al-Habashy and Raouf Noureldin were at the controls. Relief pilot Gamil al-Batouti was suspected to have caused the crash.
    (SFC, 11/1/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/16/99, p.A3)(SFC, 11/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1999        Dec 31, Violence broke out in southern Egypt following an argument between a Christian shopkeeper and a Muslim customer in el-Kusheh.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.D3)

1999        Sally Tagholm authored "Ancient Egypt" a children's guidebook to the land of the Pharaohs.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.10)

1999        During the trial of 107 suspected terrorists defendants reported that agents of Osama bin Laden had purchased dangerous biological agents through the mail for as little as $3,865."
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A20)

1999        Ayman Al-Zawahri, "emir" of the Islamic Jihad, was sentenced to death in absentia by an Egyptian military court for organizing an insurgency against the government.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)

2000        Jan 3, A curfew was imposed in southern Egypt following violence between Muslims and Christians that left 20 Christians and Muslim dead in the village of el-Kusheh (Al Kosheh).
    (SFC, 1/4/00, p.A12)(SFC, 6/30/01, p.A10)

2000        Jan 27, In Egypt a new law which expanded women's right to divorce passed the People's Assembly. Travel freedoms were excised at the last minute.
    (SFC, 1/28/00, p.A15)(SFC, 9/28/01, p.D3)

2000        Feb 26, Pope John Paul II visited the 6th century St. Catherine's monastery in Egypt, built on the reputed site where Moses encountered the burning bush. He met with Greek Orthodox Archbishop Damianos and held a short prayer service in an olive garden outside the monastery.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.A20)

2000        Feb, Ahmed Osman Saleh and Ahmed Ibrahim al-Naggar, members of the Egyptian Jihad, were hanged for their connections to terrorist cases. They had been pulled out of Albania in 1998 by Albanian Security (SHIK) working with the CIA.
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A10)

2000        May, The government banned the Socialist Labor Party and shut down its weekly organ, Al Shaab.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A10)

2000        Jul 20, In Egypt at least 15 people were killed when a 6-story factory building collapsed in Alexandria.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B10)

2000        Jun 30, Saad Eddin Ibrahim, sociology professor and pro-democracy advocate, was arrested on nebulous anti-government charges. He was released Aug 11.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A10)

2000        Sep 3, A 2-day meeting of Arab League foreign ministers opened. Yasser Arafat said he would not accept a peace deal without control of Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10)

2000        Sep 27, Shereef Fawzi Mohammad el-Falali (35), a civil engineer, was arrested in Heliopolis for providing intelligence information to Israel.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.C7)

2000        Oct 21, Arab leaders met in Cairo for a 2-day summit where they condemned Israel for violence and made proposals to deal with Israel.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A1,21)

2000        Nov 15, Election results were released. The National Democratic Party of Hosmi Mubarak won 388 of the legislature’s 444 (448) elected seats. 12 people died in the elections and irregularities were charged. 17 seats went to independents allied with the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/16/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A16)

2000        Nov 18, Some 2000 women from 19 Arab countries met in Cairo to push for improved status in their male-dominated societies.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.C16)

2000        Nov 21, Egypt recalled its envoy from Israel to protest the bombings in Gaza.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.A18)
2000        Nov 21, At least 11 people were left dead after robbers escaped with $361,000 from the National Bank of Egypt in Maragha following a gun battle with police.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.C6)

2000        Nov, Egypt’s Constitutional court ruled that men cannot block women from obtaining passports. Husbands, however could refuse to sign the passports.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D3)

c2000        The new library at Alexandria opened.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)

2000        Tharwat Salah Shehata gave up as head of the Egyptian Jihad and Dr. Zawahri resumed control.
    (WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A8)

2001        Apr 2, Pres. Bush met with Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak and both pledged to continue searching for an end to Middle East violence.
    (WSJ, 4/3/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 28, Shimon Peres, Israel’s foreign minister, traveled to Cairo to discuss objections to the Jordanian-Egyptian Middle East peace initiative.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A12)

2001        May 7, It was reported that Shaaban Abdel Rehim, an Egyptian singer, had a big hit with his song "I Hate Israel."
    (SFC, 5/7/01, p.C1)

2001        May 11, Cairo authorities arrested 52 males aboard a riverboat restaurant for homosexual activities. 23 of the men were later convicted and sentenced to prison terms of one to five years for immoral behavior and contempt of religion.
    (SFC, 9/19/01, p.B4)(SSFC, 11/2/14, p.A3)

2001        May 21, In Cairo Saad Eddin Ibrahim, an Egyptian American human rights campaigner, was sentenced to 7 years in prison of charges of tarnishing Egypt’s image, accepting foreign money and embezzling funds. His conviction was overturned Dec 3, 2002.
    (SFC, 5/22/01, p.A10)(SFC, 12/4/02, p.A19)

2001        Jun 17, The Cairo weekly Al Nabaa published a sex scandal along with pictures at the Coptic Christian Muhariq monastery in Assiut between former monk Adel Saadallah Gabriel and an unidentified woman. Publisher Mamdouh Mahran was charged with disturbing the peace. Al-Nabaa was banned from publishing on July 5 and Mahran faced charges of sedition.
    (SFC, 6/30/01, p.A8)(SFC, 7/6/01, p.D4)

2001        Jul 18, A trial began for 52 men arrested on charges of obscene behavior and contempt of religion. The men were arrested May 11 at the Queen Boat nightclub in Cairo. On Nov 14, 23 men were sentenced up to 5 years in prison and 29 were acquitted. In 2002 Pres. Mubarak tossed out the verdicts against all but 2 of the 52 defendants.
    (SFC, 7/18/01, p.A12)(SFC, 11/15/01, p.A19)(SFC, 5/31/02, p.A13)

2001        Aug 24, Pope Shenouda III, the 117th successor of St. Mark and head of the 12-million member Egyptian Coptic Orthodox Church, was denied access to a site in Marin, Ca., where a new monastery was planned.
    (SFC, 8/25/01, p.A10)

2001        Sep 18, In Cairo a 15-year-old boy was sentenced to 3 years in prison for practicing homosexuality.
    (SFC, 9/19/01, p.B4)

2001        Sep 25, Interpol issued a bulletin for the arrest of Ayman al-Zawahri (50), an Egyptian surgeon believed to be Osama bin Laden’s closest al Qaeda associate in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct, The US-Egypt Bright Star war games involved 23,759 US troops and 43,350 Egyptian troops. The annual games began 20 years ago. 8 other nations participated with some 564 soldiers apiece.
    (SFC, 1/18/02, p.A29)

2001        Nov 2, A US classified memo to Congress notified lawmakers that the Bush administration planned a $400 million arms deal with Egypt that included 53 Harpoon Block II surface-to-surface satellite guided missiles.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A5)

2001        Nov 19, Egypt and Syria confirmed the extradition of Rifai Ahmed Taha, a former aide to Osama bin Laden, from Syria to Egypt.
    (SFC, 11/20/01, p.A12)

2001        Dec, Ahmed Agiza and fellow Egyptian Muhammed Alzery were handed over to US agents at Bromma Airport in Stockholm and taken to Egypt, where they were tortured as a result. Alzery was released in 2003 without standing trial, while Agiza was convicted of planning to overthrow the Egyptian government and sentenced to 15 years in prison. He was freed by Egyptian authorities last year.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2001        Egypt’s economy expanded about 3.2% in 2001 and 2002.
    (WSJ, 8/6/04, p.A7)

2002        Jan 6, It was reported that Egypt required female graduates of secondary schools, exempt from the military draft, to spend 6 months in a service program.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 21, In Alexandria, Egypt, a small group of leading rabbis, Muslim clerics and bishops signed the Alexandria Doctrine, which condemned violence and insisted that holy places be kept open.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2pey69)(Econ, 11/3/07, SR p.13)

2002        Jan 30, The 3.5-ton satellite Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUNE), launched in 1992, broke up in Earth’s atmosphere over Egypt. It had surveyed the entire Milky Way and beyond and transmitted date until Jan 31 2001.
    (SFC, 1/30/02, p.A2)(www.cbc.ca/health/story/2002/01/31/satellite020131.html)

2002        Feb 6, Egypt won a pledge for $10 billion in aid from 37 donor nations.
    (SFC, 2/8/02, p.A12)

2002        Feb 19, In Cairo, Egypt, an overcrowded train en route from Cairo to the southern city of Luxor burst into flames from a gas cannister. It then traveled 2 1/2 miles before the driver stopped. 361 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A9)(SFC, 2/21/02, p.A8)(AFP, 5/27/04)

2002        Mar 2, Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak (73) began a 4-day visit to the US.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A19)

2002        Mar 5, Pres. Bush met with Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak, who called for greater US involvement in seeking Middle East peace.
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A11)(SFC, 3/6/02, p.A13)

2002        Mar 9, In Cairo Arab foreign ministers met and voiced support for a Middle East peace proposal by Saudi Arabia.
    (SSFC, 3/10/02, p.A16)

2002        Mar 18, Van Leo (80), Armenian-born Egyptian photographer (Leon Boyadjian), died. His portraits gave Egypt’s beggars, strippers and the elite the look of Hollywood film stars.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A27)(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/579/cu6.htm)

2002        Apr 3, Israeli tanks entered the Wet Bank cities of Jenin, Salfeet and Nablus. At least 1 Israeli soldier and 12 Palestinians were killed. Gunners from Lebanon’s Hezbollah exchanged artillery and mortar fire with Israeli troops. Scores of Palestinian gunmen were holed up in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. The Egyptian government announced a cutoff of official contacts with Israel. Syria shifted 20,000 troops in Lebanon toward the Lebanese-Syrian border reportedly in accord with the 1989 Taif agreement.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A1,13)(WSJ, 4/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 9, Sec. of State Colin Powell met with Pres. Mubarak in Egypt and stated that he would meet with Yasser Arafat. Some 10,000 demonstrated in Alexandria and one protester was killed by police.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A18)(SFC, 4/17/02, p.A14)

2002        May 7, An EgyptAir Boeing 737 with 62 people crashed in bad weather near Tunis. 14 people were killed.
    (SFC, 5/8/02, p.A15)(AP, 5/7/03)

2002        Jun 8, Pres. Bush met with Egypt’s Pres. Hosni Mubarak, who said Middle East violence would continue until Israel withdraws from Palestinian territory and hope for a future is restored to the Palestinian people.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.A12)

2002        Jun 11, Tahseen Basheer (77), a veteran diplomat who served as official spokesman for two of Egypt's late presidents died.
    (AP, 6/12/02)

2002        Jul 5, In southern Egypt a minibus and a truck collided head-on, killing all 18 people aboard the bus.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2002        Jul 30, In Egypt a military court convicted 16 members of the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood group, mostly academics and professionals, on charges of conspiring against the government and sentenced them to up to five years in prison.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2002        Aug 10, In rural Upper Egypt 3 gunmen ambushed two vehicles, killing 22 members of a rival family.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Sep 9, In Egypt a military court convicted 51 men in one of the country’s biggest cases against Muslim militants in years and sentenced them to two to 15 years in prison. The group was dubbed al-Wa’ad (the Promise).
    (AP, 9/9/02)(SFC, 9/10/02, p.A11)

2002        Sep 17, Pres. Mubarak named his son, Gamal, to third most powerful member of NDP's secretariat despite repeated denials he is not grooming his son to succeed him as president.
    (AP, 7/9/04)

2002        Oct 14, Gen. Adel Labib, gov. of Qena Province in southern Egypt, ordered a ban on shisha (water pipe) smoking.
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.F7)

2002        Oct 16, Egypt inaugurated the new $230 million Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern version of the ancient library known for a freedom of thought and expression lacking in today's Middle East. It was funded mostly by Iraq, the UAR and Saudi Arabia. The planned capacity was 4 million books.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.D11)(AP, 10/16/02)

2002        Nov, Egypt state television planned to air a 41-part series titled "Horseman Without a Horse," about a journalist’s efforts to uncover the truth behind an alleged Jewish plot to conquer the world. "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" were 1st printed in 1897. They were copied from a novel by Hermann Goedsche and believed to be concocted by the secret police of Czar Nicholas II. Goedsche claimed a secret group of rabbis were plotting to take over the world. His story was based on Maurice Joly’s "Dialogues in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu."
    (SFC, 10/24/02, p.A9)

2002        Nov 6, A bus carrying workers home for an Islamic holiday collided with a truck and overturned east of Cairo, killing 24 people and wounding 25 others.
    (AP, 11/6/02)

2002        Nov 12, In Egypt a court sentenced Mohammed el-Wakil, the news director of a state-owned television station, to 18 years of hard labor in prison on bribery and drug charges.
    (AP, 11/13/02)

2002        Nov 16,  Hussein Bicar (89), Egypt's well-known portrait artist and painter, died.
    (AP, 11/17/02)

2002        Egypt expelled Amr Khaled, a Muslim minister, for attracting large crowds at Cairo mosques. Khaled moved to the US and beamed TV programs to Egypt and the rest of the Arab world. His broadcast aired on Iqra, a Saudi-owned religious satellite channel and he spoke out against terrorism and despair.
    (SSFC, 2/26/06, p.A15)

2002        Egypt’s economy expanded about 3.2% in 2001 and 2002. The population stood at about 67 million.
    (WSJ, 1/18/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/6/04, p.A7)

2003        Jan 7, In Egypt Orthodox Christmas was marked for the first time as a national holiday in this predominantly Muslim nation.
    (AP, 1/7/03)

2003        Feb 17, American CIA operatives snatched Egyptian cleric Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (Abu Omar) from his house in Milan and took him to Egypt, where he was jailed, tortured and released. In 2005 an Italian judge ordered the arrest of 13 American suspects on charges of kidnapping. In 2009 Nasr asked for euro10 million (nearly $15 million) in damages from the American and Italian defendants charged in his abduction.
    (Econ, 7/2/05, p.48)(AP, 10/7/09)(SFC, 10/8/09, p.A2)

2003          Feb 27, In Egypt tens of thousands gathered for an anti-war demonstration in Cairo.
    (SFC, 2/28/03, A20)

2003          Mar 1, Arab leaders held a summit in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The UAR became the 1st Arab country to call for Sadam Hussein to step down.
    (SSFC, 3/2/03, A8)

2003        Jun 3, In Egypt Arab leaders met with President Bush as he plunged into the labyrinth of Mideast peace talks. They pledged to fight terror and violence and called on Israel to "rebuild trust and restore normal Palestinian life."
    (AP, 6/3/03)

2003        Sep 16, Mohammed Abdel Qader and his brother were summoned to a Cairo police station by Captain Ashraf Safwat. Abdel Qader died five days later and an autopsy gave torture by electric shock combined with a weak heart as the cause of death.
    (AFP, 2/1/07)

2003        Oct 11, A team of 18 doctors in Dallas, Texas, began a complicated separation surgery in an attempt to give Ahmed and Mohamed Ibrahim, 2-year-old conjoined twins from Egypt, a chance at independent lives. The 34-hour went well.
    (AP, 10/11/03)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)(SFC, 10/14/03, p.A3)

2003        Dec 4, Palestinians opened formal talks in Egypt aimed at forging a cease-fire they hope will induce Israel to halt its attacks on militants and lead to renewed peace negotiations.
    (AP, 12/4/03)(WSJ, 12/5/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 10, The presidents of Egypt and Iran met for the 1st time since 1979. Iran's rulers authorized the signing of a UN nuclear deal.
    (WSJ, 12/11/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 22, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Maher (68) was attacked by Islamic extremists at the Al Axsa mosque in Jerusalem. He said the incident would only strengthen his country's resolve to settle the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
    (AP, 12/23/03)(SFC, 12/23/03, p.A3)

2003        Raymond William Baker authored “Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists."
    (SFC, 7/10/04, p.A11)

2004        Jan 2, Kemal el-Sheik (85), Egyptian film director celebrated for a career that spanned nearly five decades, died.
    (AP, 1/2/04)

2004        Jan 3, An Egyptian Air Flash, Boeing 737, carrying 148 people, most of them French tourists on New Year family holidays, crashed into the Red Sea off the resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, killing all on board.
    (AP, 1/3/04)(SFC, 1/3/04, p.A3)

2004        Jan 6, Egypt and Iran agreed to restore diplomatic ties sundered in 1979.
    (WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 26, In Egypt an 11-story building collapsed in Nasr City, a Cairo suburb, during a fire and at least 14 people, mostly firefighters and police responding to a blaze, were killed.
    (AP, 1/27/04)

2004        Jan 29, Egypt expelled American journalist Charles Levinson. He had written articles on torture and deaths in Egyptian prisons. Levinson was allowed to return in February.
    (SFC, 2/19/04, p.A14)(SFC, 2/21/04, p.A2)

2004        Feb 9, An Egyptian enraged at the events in the Middle East stabbed 2 foreign tourists in Cairo’s historic Ghawriya district.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

2004        Feb 27, In Egypt Izzat Mohammed Hamid, a clan leader in a southern town, threatened to kill scores of hostages if police should attempt a rescue. The band seized the hostages during a shootout with authorities who had been trying to arrest fugitives wanted for drug trafficking and other crimes.
    (AP, 2/27/04)

2004        Feb 28, Egyptian security forces attacked gunmen who had taken an estimated 80 people hostage in a southern Egyptian town. Some of the captives were feared dead.
    (AP, 2/28/04)

2004        May 27, In Egypt 5 people were burned to death and 14 others injured when a gas canister, carried by a passenger, blew up on a commuter bus in Cairo.
    (AFP, 5/28/04)

2004        May, The Muslim Brotherhood announced its intention to form a human rights organization with members from other political parties.
    (SFC, 7/10/04, p.A11)

2004        Jun 3, The United States signed an agreement to give Egypt $300 million to compensate it for "regional unrest" stemming from last year's war in Iraq.
    (AP, 6/4/04)

2004        Jun 5, The European Investment Bank (EIB) granted a loan of 100 million euros (122 million dollars) to Egypt's state-run natural gas holding company (EGAS) to finance pipeline construction in Jordan.
    (AFP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 22, In Egypt a 5-story apartment building collapsed in the southern city of Aswan, killing at least 13. Eight residents remain missing.
    (AP, 6/22/04)(AP, 6/23/04)

2004        Jul 9, In Egypt President Hosni Mubarak's cabinet resigned and the longtime leader appointed technocrat Ahmed Nazief (Nazif), a relative outsider, to replace Atef Obeid as prime minister, further consolidating his power at a time of growing calls for political, social and economic change. Half of the 26 regional governors were also replaced.
    (AP, 7/9/04)(Econ, 7/17/04, p.47)

2004        Jul 19, An Egyptian truck driver held hostage for two weeks by insurgents in Iraq was freed and taken to the Egyptian Embassy.
    (AP, 7/19/04)

2004        Jul 23, Iraqi insurgents in Baghdad kidnapped Muhammad Mamdouh Qutb, a 3rd ranking official of the Egyptian Embassy, demanding his country abandon any plans it had to send security experts to Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/24/04, p.A13)(AP, 7/23/05)

2004        Jul 26, An Egyptian diplomat held hostage by militants in Iraq for three days was released and was in good condition.
    (AP, 7/26/04)

2004        Sep 2, Egypt's antiquities chief revealed a 2,500-year-old hidden tomb under the shadow of one of Giza's three giant pyramids.
    (AP, 9/2/04)

2004        Sep 11, Egypt claimed that its regional and international clout qualify it for a permanent seat on an expanded U.N. Security Council.
    (AP, 9/11/04)
2004        Sep 11, Petros VII, the Christian Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, was killed after an army helicopter that was transporting him and his entourage to a monastic enclave in northern Greece crashed in the sea. The helicopter carried 12 passengers and 4 crew.
    (AP, 9/11/04)

2004        Sep 15, The Egyptian and Syrian presidents linked calls by the UN and fellow Arab leaders for Syrian troops to leave Lebanon to past UN resolutions demanding that Israeli pull out of the West Bank and Golan Heights.
    (AP, 9/15/04)

2004        Sep 19, In northern Egypt a pickup truck and a minibus collided head on a rural road, killing 13 people and injuring 10.
    (CP, 9/19/04)

2004        Sep 22, Six members of the same family were hanged in Egypt after being convicted for the revenge-killing of 22 members of a rival family two years ago.
    (AP, 9/22/04)
2004        Sep 22, In Iraq kidnappers seized 4 Egyptians and four Iraqis working for the country's mobile phone company.
    (AP, 9/24/04)

2004        Sep 23, Egypt’s ruling National Democratic Party ended its annual conference and announced that income and corporate taxes would be halved with top rates capped at 20%.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.61)
2004        Sep 23, In Iraq kidnappers seized 2 more Egyptian construction engineers working for the country's mobile phone company.
    (AP, 9/24/04)(SFC, 9/25/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 1, US aid to Egypt for fiscal 2005 began. The budget request of $535 million was down $40 million from 2004.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A13)

2004        Oct 7, A car bomb at Egypt’s Taba Hilton killed 34 people on the last day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. The attack was quickly followed by two more car bombings outside beach-bungalow camps south of Taba. The next day Israeli officials said they believe al-Qaida was probably behind 3 suicide car bomb attacks targeting Red Sea resorts filled with Israeli tourists.  It was later reported that all 4 bombers who attacked the resorts escaped on foot minutes before their vehicles exploded.
    (AP, 10/8/04)(SFC, 10/8/04, p.A1)(AP, 10/13/04)(AP, 11/12/10)

2004        Oct 25, Egyptian authorities said a Palestinian refugee plotted the coordinated bombings targeting Israeli tourists at resorts in the Sinai and accidentally killed himself while carrying out the deadliest blast. Egypt announced it had arrested five of the nine men who bombed Red Sea resorts almost three weeks ago, saying the attackers used stolen cars packed with old war-time explosives and a washing-machine timer.
    (AP, 10/25/04)

2004        Oct 27, The Egyptian government approved the creation of a political party headed by a young ambitious lawyer, in only the third time that a new party was authorized there in almost three decades. Al-Ghad became Egypt's 18th party.
    (AFP, 10/27/04)

2004        Nov 7, In Egypt a passenger bus returning from Saudi Arabia collided with a truck, killing 33 people.
    (AP, 11/8/04)

2004        Nov 12, Kings, princes and presidents from across the world paid a last tribute to Yasser Arafat at a military funeral in Cairo. Arafat was interned in Ramallah before a sea of mourners.
    (AP, 11/12/04)(SFC, 11/13/04, p.A17)

2004        Nov 13, Egypt released 200 Islamic militants to mark Eid al-Fitr, the end of Ramadan fests. Egypt newspapers reported that some 700 members of the al-Gama'a al-Islamiya had  been released from prison in recent days. The Islamist group fought the government in the 1990s but has since renounced violence.
    (Reuters, 11/14/04)(AP, 11/15/04)

2004        Nov 17, Millions of locusts swarmed into northern Egypt for the first time in 50 years, prompting authorities to order emergency pesticide spraying to protect the region's important agriculture industry.
    (AP, 11/18/04)

2004        Nov 18, Israeli troops killed three Egyptian policemen mistaken for Palestinian militants along the Gaza-Egypt border.
    (AP, 11/18/04)

2004        Nov 30, The 28th Cairo International Film Festival, the biggest in the Middle East, opened with US and British films excluded from competition for "technical" reasons.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

2004        Dec 5, Egypt freed an Israeli Arab businessman convicted of spying in exchange for Israel's release of six Egyptian students.
    (AP, 12/5/04)

2004        Dec 8, In Cairo, Egypt, several thousand Christians who packed a cathedral compound hurled stones at riot police to protest a woman's alleged forced conversion to Islam. At least 30 people were injured.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 14, Egypt and Israel signed a first joint trade accord with the United States since their historic peace treaty 25 years ago.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Naguib Sawiris, Egyptian businessman, started the Middle East’s 1st non-government, non-satellite television station in Iraq.
    (WSJ, 4/18/05, p.B1)

2004        In Egypt Kefaya, a loose gathering of mainly Nasserist and communist activists, was formed. It struggled to make an impact beyond its street protests since the regime started loosening the noose slightly on the political scene.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Jan 1, Egypt was forecast for 3% annual GDP growth with a population at 74.6 million and GDP per head at $1,030.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.94)

2005        Jan 4, Diplomats said the U.N. atomic watchdog agency has found evidence of secret nuclear experiments in Egypt that could be used in weapons programs.
    (AP, 1/4/05)

2005        Jan 27, Egypt admitted to failing to signal a "number of research experiments" to the IAEA, after diplomats said the agency was investigating an Egyptian lab that could be used to make plutonium, a nuclear weapons material.
    (AFP, 2/14/05)

2005        Jan 31, in Egypt Ayman al-Nur, the head of an opposition party, denounced his arrest on forgery charges, telling a court it was a strike against political reform, while human rights groups said the moves against him could be a message to other opposition groups.
    (AP, 2/1/05)

2005        Feb 1, Egyptian security forces clashed with Islamic militants in the mountains of Sinai, killing a suspect in last year's deadly bombings of beach resorts on the peninsula.
    (AP, 2/1/05)

2005        Feb 5, Egyptian police killed two suspected militants wanted in last year's Sinai bombings following clashes in Egypt's Sinai peninsula desert.
    (AP, 2/5/05)

2005        Feb 6, Four Egyptians working for a mobile phone company were abducted by gunmen in Baghdad, and Islamic militants threatened to kill an Italian journalist Feb 7 unless Italy agrees to withdraw its troops.
    (AP, 2/6/05)

2005        Feb 8, In Sharm El-Sheik, Egypt, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas declared that their people would stop all military and violent attacks against each other, pledging to get peace talks back on track. The Palestinian militant group Hamas said it would not be bound by the cease-fire declarations.
    (AP, 2/8/05)
2005        Feb 8, Cairo’s 2-week book fair ended. During the two-week fair, police confiscated leftist books and arrested three people protesting any renewal of Hosni Mubarak's presidency.
    (AP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 14, The UN atomic monitoring agency said Egypt's nuclear experiments were small, basic and do not appear part of an attempt to make weapons, praising Cairo's cooperation with an investigation of the country's now mothballed clandestine activities.
    (AP, 2/14/05)

2005        Feb 19, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi and Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak backed an African solution to the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region during 2 rounds of talks in Cairo.
    (AFP, 2/19/05)

2005        Feb 21, Over 500 people rallied in Cairo to protest against a new term in office for Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and against moves to enable his son Gamal to succeed him.
    (AFP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb 22, A US human rights advocacy group said the Egyptian government had shown a "shameless" lack of accountability by failing to name the 2,400 people it had detained for the Oct 7 Sinai terror attacks. Relatives were not told where they are held.
    (AP, 2/22/05)(WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 23, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said that he expects further Syrian troop redeployments in Lebanon, and he dispatched his intelligence chief to Damascus to meet with President Bashar Assad to discuss increasing American and European pressure on Syria.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2005        Feb 25, Atef Sedki (75), former PM of Egypt (1986-1996), died. He helped steer Egypt toward a market-oriented economy.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Feb 26, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ordered a revision of the country's election laws and said multiple candidates could run in the nation's presidential elections.
    (AP, 2/26/05)

2005        Mar 3, An Arab League meeting opened in Cairo. An Arab diplomat said Syria has told Arab countries it needs to keep 3,000 troops and early-warning stations inside Lebanon to maintain its security despite international pressure for a full withdrawal. Saudi Arabia told Syria to withdraw its troops.
    (AP, 3/3/05)(SFC, 3/4/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 9, Egypt’s parliament agreed to amend the Constitution to allow for 1st time multi-candidate balloting.
    (SFC, 3/10/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 12, Ayman Nour, Egyptian opposition leader and presidential hopeful, walked out of Cairo's central security headquarters and was whisked to the shoulders of his supporters after posting bail.
    (AP, 3/12/05)

2005        Mar 25, In Cairo, Egypt, the new $30 million, 74-acre Al-Azhar, was inaugurated under the auspices of Aga Khan.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.F1)

2005        Mar 27, A Cairo court sentenced an Egyptian to 35 years in prison after finding him guilty of spying for the Iranian Revolutionary Guard and planning to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The court gave Mahmoud Eid Mohamed Dabbous 10 years in prison for spying for a foreign state and another 25 years for plotting to kill Mubarak.
    (Reuters, 3/27/05)
2005        Mar 27, Egyptian police detained about 200 members and supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood, before and during an attempt to protest outside parliament in favor of reform.
    (AP, 3/28/05)
2005        Mar 27, Ahmed Zaki (55), one of Egypt's most acclaimed actors, died. He portrayed former Egyptian presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat.
    (AP, 3/27/05)

2005        Mar, In Egypt protests by the Kefaya (Enough) Movement drew hundreds across the country to oppose a fifth term for Pres. Mubarak or plans to let his son Gamal succeed him.

2005        Apr 4, About 300 university students staged a rowdy protest in downtown Cairo calling for Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to step down and further democratic reforms.
    (AP, 4/5/05)

2005        Apr 7, A bomb blast rocked a Cairo bazaar popular with foreigners. An American tourist died the next day from wounds sustained in a bomb blast raising the death toll to three. Hassan Rafaat Ahmed Bashandi (17-18), was carrying almost 7 pounds of TNT in a leather bag filled with nails when it exploded prematurely.
    (AP, 4/8/05)(AP, 4/11/05)

2005        Apr 17, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak and Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi discussed joint projects to allow their respective countries to benefit from the waters of the Nile River.
    (AFP, 4/17/05)
2005        Apr 17, Egypt's Interior Ministry identified 4 men it accused of training a bomber who killed three tourists and himself in a Cairo bazaar.
    (AP, 4/17/05)

2005        Apr 26, President Vladimir Putin started the first visit to Egypt by a Russian head of state in more than 40 years, in an effort to reinforce Moscow's political and economic ties with the Arab world.
    (AFP, 4/26/05)

2005        Apr 27, Hundreds of pro-democracy activists protested in 15 Egyptian cities and towns, drawing out large numbers of riot police who briefly detained 75 protesters.
    (AP, 4/27/05)

2005        Apr 30, In Egypt a bomb blast and tour bus shooting took place near Cairo tourist sites. A man identified as a suspect in an April 7 bombing blew himself up as he leapt off a bridge during a police chase. Less than two hours later 2 veiled women opened fire on a tour bus in a historic part of Cairo and one of them was killed in a gunbattle with security guards..
    (AP, 5/1/05)

2005        May 1, In Egypt police detained about 200 people from the home villages of 3 attackers responsible for a bomb blast and tour bus shooting near Cairo tourist sites the day before.
    (AP, 5/1/05)

2005        May 4, Thousands of supporters of the banned Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's largest Islamic group, protested across the country in an escalation of the opposition campaign demanding political reform. Police arrested hundreds of protesters.
    (AP, 5/4/05)

2005        May 8, In Alexandria Egypt, some 3,000 female supporters of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood gathered to demand democratic reforms.
    (AP, 5/8/05)

2005        May 10, Egypt's parliament overwhelmingly passed a constitutional amendment allowing multicandidate presidential elections for the first time, but the opposition denounced the reform, saying it won't shake President Hosni Mubarak's grip on power.
    (AP, 5/10/05)

2005        May 18, Egyptian security detained 56 men in northern Egypt in the latest of a series of sweeps against the banned but usually tolerated Muslim Brotherhood.
    (AP, 5/18/05)
2005        May 18, President Bush offered his unqualified support for Egypt's political reform process as he received PM Ahmed Nazief at the White House.
    (AP, 5/18/06)

2005        May 19, In Egypt authorities detained 14 members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood in the south in a crackdown on the large Islamist movement. The number of detained rose to more than 780.
    (Reuters, 5/20/05)

2005        May 20, Ashraf Saeed Youssef (27), ringleader of 3 recent attacks that targeted Western tourists in Egypt, died in the Cairo hospital he'd been transferred to a week ago for treatment after hitting his head several times against the wall of his prison cell.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        May 22, Egyptian authorities arrested the 4th-highest official in the powerful Muslim Brotherhood and 25 others. Mahmoud Ezzat, secretary-general of the Islamist group and head of its Cairo operations, is the highest-profile Brotherhood arrest since 1996.
    (AP, 5/22/05)

2005        May 25, In Egypt police and plainclothes security men beat and arrested demonstrators calling for a boycott of a government-backed referendum on constitutional changes that would clear the way for Egypt's first multicandidate presidential election.
    (AP, 5/25/05)

2005        May 26, Officials announced that a nationwide referendum to open the way for Egypt's first multicandidate presidential elections passed overwhelmingly.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        Jul 1, Egypt and Israel signed a commercial agreement committing Egypt to export natural gas to Israel for 20 years. Egypt pulled out of the deal in 2012. A Swiss court eventually ordered Egas to pay $1.7 billion to compensate its Israeli partners.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/egisgas.html)(Econ, 8/19/17, p.41)

2005        Jun 7, In Egypt 12 people, including two children, were killed and 16 injured when a building collapsed in Egypt's Mediterranean city of Alexandria.
    (AP, 6/8/05)

2005        Jun 17, Egyptian security forces in the Sinai mountains clashed with suspects in deadly attacks last year on Red Sea resorts. Security officials said a soldier and a fugitive were killed and four other soldiers were wounded.
    (AP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 22, Egyptian police opened the streets of north Cairo to political protests against and in favor of President Hosni Mubarak, giving the opposition a chance to argue their case with ordinary people.
    (Reuters, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 26, In Egypt some 200 demonstrators gathered outside state security headquarters in Cairo to protest torture.
    (AP, 6/26/05)

2005        Jun 28, Egypt ordered five public sector company bosses to stand trial in a multi-million dollar corruption case, one of the biggest of its kind in recent years.
    (AFP, 6/29/05)

2005        Jun 30, The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's largest Islamic group, launched an alliance devoted to the peaceful removal of President Hosni Mubarak, who has been in power since 1981. Several other opposition groups promptly lent their support to what the Brotherhood has called the an alliance intended "to exercise peaceful pressure on the regime, through legal and constitutional means, to make it respond to democratic change."
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 2, An Egyptian judicial report was released that alleged the government forged turnout figures and forced state employees to fabricate results in a May referendum to allow first-ever multiparty presidential elections.
    (AP, 7/3/05)
2005        Jul 2, Ihab al-Sherif, an Egyptian envoy, was kidnapped in Baghdad, weeks after arriving in the country. He was expected to become Iraq's first Arab ambassador since Iraq's new government took office. Al-Qaida later announced it had killed him.
    (AP, 7/3/05)(AP, 7/2/06)

2005        Jul 4, Egypt replaced the editors of all the top state-owned publications in the biggest reshuffle the media houses have seen in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 7/4/05)

2005        Jul 7, Al-Qaida in Iraq said in a Web statement that it has killed Ihab al-Sherif, Egypt's top envoy in Iraq, posting a video of the blindfolded diplomat identifying himself.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Egypt recalled its staff to Cairo and said it will temporarily shut its diplomatic mission in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/7/05)

2005        Jul 13, Opposition movements from across Egypt's political spectrum joined in opposition to President Hosni Mubarak with calls for a boycott of September's presidential vote.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, Egypt announced it was launching a campaign for the return of five of its most precious artifacts from museums abroad, including the Rosetta Stone in London and the graceful bust of Nefertiti in Berlin.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

2005        Jul 15, An official said police in Egypt said they had arrested Magdy el-Nashar (33), an Egyptian biochemist, sought in the probe of the London bombings. He was taken into custody upon his arrival in Cairo from abroad.
    (AP, 7/15/05)

2005        Jul 17, Egypt demanded that institutions in Britain and Belgium return two pharaonic reliefs it says were chipped off tombs and stolen 30 years ago, threatening to end their archaeological work here if they refuse.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 19, Egypt said that Magdy el-Nashar, the detained chemist wanted by Britain for questioning about the London bombings, had no links to the July 7 attacks or to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 23, In Egypt a rapid series of car bombs and another blast ripped through a luxury hotel and a coffee shop in the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik, killing at least 83 people. The Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades, a group citing ties to al-Qaida, claimed responsibility for the bombings. The previously unknown Mujahedi Masr or "Holy Warriors of Egypt" group disputed the claims of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades, al-Qaida, and said five of its own members died carrying out seven explosions.
    (AP, 7/23/05)(AP, 7/24/05)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.40)
2005        Jul 23, Kristina Miller (27) of Peachtree City, Ga., was the only American killed in the  blasts at the Egyptian resort at Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AP, 7/27/05)

2005        Jul 24, In Egypt an explosive detonated as it was being carried by Sami Gamal Ahmad (33), to the tourist area of Kerdassa, a bazaar of souvenir shops near the Pyramids of Giza. Ahmad was severely injured.
    (AP, 7/24/05)

2005        Jul 26, Investigators have identified a suicide bomber in the weekend attacks that killed scores in this Red Sea resort, saying he was an Egyptian with Islamic militant ties. DNA tests identified him as Youssef Badran, an Egyptian Sinai resident.
    (AP, 7/26/05)
2005        Jul 26, A third previously unknown Islamist group, Tawhid and Jihad Group in Egypt, claimed responsibility on the Internet for the bomb attacks on Egypt's Sharm el-Sheikh resort in which as many as 88 people were killed. It said it was responsible for bomb attacks that ripped through the resort town of Taba last October, killing 34 people.
    (AP, 7/26/05)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.40)

2005        Jul 28, President Hosni Mubarak announced his bid to run in Egypt's first multicandidate elections on Sept. 7, promising new legislation to "besiege" terrorism and replace the country's much-criticized emergency laws.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak called for an extraordinary Arab summit to be held in Sharm el-Sheikh on August 3, just days after the deadly attacks in the Red Sea resort.
    (AFP, 7/28/05)

2005        Jul 30, In Egypt police and government supporters beat pro-reform activists with batons, sometimes kicking them as they on lay the ground, during a protest against President Hosni Mubarak's announcement that he would run for re-election for a fifth time.
    (AP, 7/30/05)

2005        Aug 1, Egyptian police cornered a main suspect in the Sharm el-Sheik bombings in his mountain hideout and killed him in a shootout that also fatally wounded his wife. The couple's 4-year-old daughter also was wounded.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Aug 14, Egypt’s Interior Ministry announced that it had identified those responsible for the July 23 terrorist attack at Sharm el-Sheik.
    (SFC, 8/15/05, p.A3)

2005        Aug 15, In Egypt’s the Sinai Peninsula a crude roadside bomb blasted a vehicle belonging to international peacekeepers, lightly wounding two Canadians.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

2005        Aug 18, Egyptian police detained Hassan el-Arishi, a suspected mastermind behind the July 23 deadly attacks in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AP, 8/19/05)

2005        Aug 21, Egyptian police arrested 300 people as security forces deployed 2,100 men backed by armored vehicles in the Sinai Peninsula for a massive sweep through the rugged desert region in search of terrorists involved in a series of recent bombings.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

2005        Aug 23, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak vowed to work towards a long-envisaged free trade agreement with the US as he called for stronger economic ties with Washington.
    (AFP, 8/23/05)

2005        Aug 24, Egyptian security forces besieging parts of rugged northern Sinai clashed with gunmen and arrested 26 people during a massive search for suspects linked to the recent attacks in the peninsula.
    (AP, 8/24/05)
2005        Aug 24, Israel and Egypt reached an agreement to have 750 Egyptian troops take control of a volatile Egypt-Gaza border area from Israeli forces.
    (AP, 8/24/05)

2005        Aug 25, Two Egyptian police officers were killed in a bomb blast in the northern Sinai.
    (AFP, 8/25/05)

2005        Aug 28, Egyptian authorities released senior Muslim Brotherhood member Mahmoud Ezzat after holding him without trial for more than three months. 8 other jailed members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood also were ordered freed.
    (AP, 8/28/05)

2005        Aug 29, Egypt's intelligence chief met Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas to shore up the strained cease-fire with Israel and discuss freedom of movement across Gaza's borders.
    (AP, 8/29/05)

2005        Sep 3, An Egyptian court ruled that non-governmental groups will be allowed to monitor the nation's first multi-candidate presidential election next week.
    (AP, 9/3/05)

2005        Sep 5, In Egypt an actor knocked over a candle on a stage filled with billowing paper, starting a blaze that killed at least 32 people at the Culture Palace in Beni Suef.
    (AP, 9/6/05)
2005        Sep 5, In Egypt a bus in Abu Swaylim village collided with a car and then plunged into a canal, killing 7 people, leaving at least 5 missing and presumed drowned, and injuring 14.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 7, Egyptians voted in the country's first-ever contested presidential election, but charges of fraud and a big boycott rally marred balloting that longtime leader Hosni Mubarak portrayed as a major democratic reform.
    (AP, 9/7/05)

2005        Sep 8, In Egypt President Hosni Mubarak took an overwhelming early lead in his country's first-ever contested presidential race in a ballot marred by low turnout and widespread reports of voter intimidation.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 9, Pro-government newspapers trumpeted President Hosni Mubarak's re-election victory after preliminary results showed he swept Egypt's first contested race for his job. The turnout was 23%.
    (AP, 9/9/05)(Reuters, 9/9/05)

2005        Sep 10, A defiant Egyptian opposition ratcheted up the pressure on President Hosni Mubarak, after he was reelected with the votes of only one-fifth of the electorate.
    (AFP, 9/10/05)

2005        Sep 14, Egypt said it had found an arms-smuggling tunnel under the Gaza border, and Palestinians crossing the frontier were warned to return by sunset when passport controls will be reimposed.
    (AP, 9/14/05)

2005        Sep 16, Thousands of Palestinians broke through Egyptian and Palestinian Authority lines on the Gaza border, pouring into Egypt in defiance of government attempts to secure the frontier.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 19, Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas said the Gaza-Egypt border will reopen only as part of an international agreement, quashing speculation Egypt and the Palestinians might operate a crossing without Israel's blessing.
    (AP, 9/19/05)

2005        Sep 20, Egyptian police stopped Palestinians from returning to Gaza, causing a crowd of more than 1,000 people to gather near the crossing here, as officials from the two sides met to discuss the border situation.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, A US Air Force officer taking part in a military exercise was killed in a road accident in northern Egypt.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

2005        Sep 23, In Egypt Seoudi Ali Salem, a Qatari man participating in an informal car race, killed five people and injured 32 when his speeding car slammed into a crowd sitting on a grassy median strip on the airport road. Salem fled the scene with another driver.
    (AP, 9/24/05)
2005        Sep 23, Palestinians took charge of a border for the first time ever, allowing thousands to cross between the Gaza Strip and Egypt in a temporary opening of the frontier.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

2005        Sep 28, Egyptian police in the Sinai peninsula shot dead two men suspected of organizing bombings which killed 67 people in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh in July.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Oct 11, In Egypt some 3,000 Islamists students staged a demonstration at Cairo Univ. to press for increased freedom on campus and free and fair union elections next month.
    (AFP, 10/11/05)

2005        Oct 12, In Egypt a sit-in by hundreds of Sudanese refugees outside the offices of the UNHCR in the Cairo entered its 14th day, even as the agency insisted it could not meet their asylum demands. Some 14,400 Sudanese refugees were registered in Egypt.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 15, Egyptian authorities ordered the release of a leading Muslim Brotherhood figure, Essam el-Erian, and three other members of the banned Islamic group.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2005        Oct 19, The International Organization for Migration (IMO) said "Ethiopian women and girls who migrate to Lebanon, Egypt, Yemen and Saudi Arabia suffer from maltreatment, physical, sexual and emotional abuses," in a report based on interviews with 443 women returning from the region.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2005        Oct 21, In Alexandria, Egypt, thousands of Muslims rioted outside a Coptic Christian church to denounce a play deemed offensive to Islam, prompting police to beat protesters and fire tear gas into the crowd. 3 people died and more than 90 were injured. The play, "I Was Blind But Now I Can See," tells the story of a young Christian who converts to Islam and becomes disillusioned. The riot was sparked by the distribution of a DVD of a play that was performed at the church two years ago.
    (Reuters, 10/21/05)

2005        Oct 25, The US deported Mohammed Abouhalima (41) to Egypt. He had just finished serving an 8-year prison term after being convicted of helping his brother, Mahmoud, flee New York following the Feb. 26, 1993 attack that killed six people and wounded more than 1,000.
    (AP, 10/27/05)

2005        Oct 28, Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak held unexpected talks with his beleaguered Syrian counterpart Bashar Assad to discuss Damascus' crisis with the West over the killing of a former Lebanese leader.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Nov 1, Two Islamic militants jailed in the 1981 killing of President Anwar Sadat were released after more than two decades behind bars. Nageh Ibrahim and Fouad el-Dawalibi were founding members of al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya, once Egypt's largest Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 7, The EU agreed to monitor a Gaza-Egypt border crossing that serves as the main gate to the world for Palestinians.
    (AP, 11/7/05)

2005        Nov 9, Egyptians cast ballots in their most robustly contested parliamentary election in more than 50 years, but no one expected the vote to unseat the long-dominant party of President Hosni Mubarak.
    (AP, 11/9/05)

2005        Nov 10, Egypt's ruling party secured the most seats in the first stage of parliamentary balloting, but the banned Muslim Brotherhood made its mark as well, sending 42 candidates to run-off elections.
    (AP, 11/10/05)

2005        Nov 12, In Egypt hundreds of Sudanese refugees staging a sit-in outside UN offices in Cairo began a hunger strike to press their case for asylum.
    (AFP, 11/12/05)

2005        Nov 16, In Egypt the Muslim Brotherhood won 20% of the overall vote in the first round of parliamentary elections, according to initial official results released after a day of intense runoff balloting. The group is banned but members as individuals doubled their parliamentary seats to 34. The ruling party won 112 seats.
    (AP, 11/16/05)(WSJ, 11/17/05, p.A1)

2005        Nov 19, In Cairo, Egypt, Shiite and Kurdish delegates stormed out of an Iraqi reconciliation conference, halting the effort to patch over ethnic and religious fault lines threatening to drag the country into a full civil war.
    (AP, 11/19/05)

2005        Nov 20, Widespread violence marred the second round of Egypt's parliamentary vote, with police saying a campaign worker was shot and killed in Alexandria and witnesses reporting scores of injuries. Police arrested 400 Muslim Brotherhood activists in a crackdown on the Islamist group.
    (AP, 11/20/05)(Reuters, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 21, In Egypt ballot results showed that the banned Muslim Brotherhood won about a quarter of the parliamentary seats open in the second round of balloting despite widespread violence that marred the voting.
    (Reuters, 11/21/05)(AP, 11/22/05)
2005        Nov 21, In Egypt Iraqi leaders backed a Sunni call for a timetable for the withdrawal of U.S.-led forces and said Iraq's opposition had a "legitimate right" of resistance. The announcement concluded a reconciliation conference backed by the Arab League.
    (AP, 11/22/05)(SFC, 11/22/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/22/05, p.A1)
2005        Nov 21, Egyptian forces shot dead Salem Khadr al-Shnub, a Bedouin leader in the Sinai peninsula. He was wanted over his suspected involvement in a string of deadly bombings in the area. Two of Shnub's relatives, Sallam Sweilam and Sallam Sallam Sweilam, were also killed in the clashes.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 23, Egypt's parliamentary polls claimed a 2nd victim when supporters of a newly-elected MP seized backers of a losing candidate, tied them to the back of tractors and dragged them through the streets.
    (AFP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 25, Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas opened the Gaza-Egypt border in a festive ceremony, a milestone for the Palestinians who for the first time took control of a frontier crossing without Israeli veto powers and gained some freedom of movement.
    (AP, 11/25/05)

2005        Nov 26, Police detained at least 140 members of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood as Egyptians voted in a parliamentary runoff.
    (AP, 11/26/05)

2005        Nov 27, In Egypt the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood captured 29 more seats in weekend parliamentary runoff elections.
    (AP, 11/27/05)

2005        Nov 28, Egyptian police arrested nearly 200 Muslim Brotherhood activists in a crackdown the opposition Islamist group said was designed to weaken its chances in parliamentary elections this week.
    (AP, 11/28/05)

2005        Nov 30, The Muslim Brotherhood said Egyptian police rounded up hundreds of Muslim Brotherhood organizers in the two days before the last stage of parliamentary elections, bringing the total in two weeks to over 1,600.
    (AP, 11/30/05)

2005        Dec 1, In Egypt riot police battled voters, killing one person and blocking entry to polling stations in opposition strongholds in the third and final round of legislative elections.
    (AP, 12/01/05)

2005        Dec 2, Election officials said that Egypt's leading opposition group did not win any seats outright in the final round of parliamentary voting, which was marred by violence and police barring thousands from casting ballots.
    (AP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 7, In Egypt police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at crowds trying to break through blockades of polling stations in an opposition stronghold, the final day of parliamentary elections, and a hospital official said two people were killed.
    (AP, 12/07/05)

2005        Dec 8, Preliminary results in Egypt's elections gave the leading opposition group, the Muslim Brotherhood, a record 19% of the seats in parliament after a four-week election that counted 11 fatalities.
    (AP, 12/08/05)(Reuters, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 10, Egypt's justice minister announced that just 26% of registered voters cast ballots in the month-long parliamentary elections that ended this week. The low turnout reflected both voter apathy and fear of violence. The ruling party won 71% of the seats.
    (AP, 12/10/05)

2005        Dec 22, Mohammed Mahdi Akef, the leader of Egypt's main Islamic opposition group, said the Holocaust was a "myth," and he slammed Western governments for criticizing disclaimers of the Jewish genocide.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 24, In Egypt a court sentenced leading government opponent Ayman Nour to five years' imprisonment for forgery at the end of a year-long judicial process that has drawn international criticism and strained Egypt's relations with the US. Nour was freed in 2009.
    (AP, 12/24/05)(AP, 2/18/09)

2005        Dec 27, A conference underlining the gravity of Egypt's landmines problem kicked off in Cairo, with delegates appealing for international support in the mine clearing effort. Egypt is one of the most heavily-mined regions in the world, a legacy of World War II and the Arab-Israeli wars, which left the northwestern desert infested with an estimated 22 million mines and  other unexploded ordnance (UXOs).
    (AFP, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 30, Egyptian police turned water cannons on Sudanese war refugees and beat them with sticks, clearing out a squatters camp in a city park. At least 10 people were killed.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        Dec 31, In Egypt President Hosni Mubarak on Saturday swore in a new Cabinet that retained major personalities of the previous government, while adding two more pro-American business figures and installing Egypt's first minister to wear a headscarf. The government of PM Ahmed Nazif included Aisha Abdul Hadi, appointed as labor and immigration minister.
    (AP, 12/31/06)
2005        Dec 31, In Egypt several Sudanese migrants injured when police violently cleared a ramshackle camp died later from their wounds, raising the death toll from the clash to 25. Sudanese refugees began trickling across the border to Israel following the clashes.
    (AP, 12/31/05)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.45)

2005        Sayed al-Qimani, Egyptian writer, fearing for his life publicly repented for purported sins and abandoned writing for some years. His book “Rabb al-Zaman" (God of Our Time) was marked for banning by the ‘Ulama’, who also sued him for his views. 
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.53)(www.dayan.org/D&A-Egypt-ami.htm)

2006        Jan 3, A Foreign Ministry spokeswoman said Egypt will deport 654 Sudanese refugees who were violently evicted from a protest camp in a Cairo park last week.
    (AP, 1/3/06)

2006        Jan 4, Two Egyptian guards were shot dead at the border with Gaza after armed Palestinians made a hole in the border wall. Palestinian militants angry at the jailing of their leader stole two bulldozers and smashed through the border wall between Gaza and Egypt.
    (AP, 1/4/06)

2006        Jan 11, Egypt released 164 Sudanese migrants who were detained last month when police evicted them from a city park in a violent operation that brought international condemnation.
    (AP, 1/12/06)
2006        Jan 11, In Egypt a tour bus carrying Australian tourists overturned on a wet highway, killing six people and injuring at least 24.
    (AP, 1/11/06)

2006        Jan 14, Egypt and France were locked in legal wrangling over a decommissioned aircraft carrier containing asbestos, leaving the French warship stranded off the Egyptian coast for the third day running.
    (AFP, 1/14/06)

2006        Jan 18, Egypt released 233 Sudanese migrants detained after security forces broke up a protest camp in a Cairo square last month.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Jan 31, In Egypt 14 tourists from Hong Kong were killed and 30 wounded when their bus spun off the road along the Red Sea coast in one of the deadliest crashes involving foreign nationals in recent years.
    (AP, 1/31/06)

2006        Jan, In Egypt El-Kabir (21), a Cairo minibus driver, intervened in an argument between police and his cousin. Kabir was arrested by police, who sodomized with a wooden pole and filmed the incident on video. The tape later made it onto the Internet and in 2007 a judge ordered 2 police officers into custody pending trial.
    (AP, 1/21/07)

2006        Feb 1, Two top Egyptian officials called on Hamas to recognize Israel, disarm and honor past peace deals, the latest sign Arab governments are pushing the militant group to moderate after its surprise election victory.
    (AP, 2/1/06)

2006        Feb 3, An Egyptian passenger ferry carrying 1,408 people, mostly Egyptian workers returning from Saudi Arabia, sank in the Red Sea overnight. The 35-year-old ship, "Al-Salam Boccaccio 98," went down 40 miles off the Egyptian port of Hurghada between midnight and 2 a.m. Rescue boats picked up at least 362 survivors from the ferry that caught fire and sank in the Red Sea, apparently so fast there was no time for a distress signal. But more than 1,000 missing passengers and crew were feared drowned. The report into the sinking found the ship was overloaded and using forged documents to hide a shortage of safety equipment. In 2008 an Egyptian court acquitted in absentia Mamdouh Ismail, the owner of the ferry and his son, of negligence and corruption. Ismail, is a member of parliament's upper house, and his son Amr was a top executive in the ferry company. In 2009 Mamdouh Ismail was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and negligence and sentenced to seven years in prison.
    (AP, 2/3/06)(AP, 2/4/06)(AP, 4/19/06)(AP, 7/27/08)(AP, 3/11/09)

2006        Feb 8, Egypt's antiquities chief announced that American archaeologists from the Univ. of Memphis have uncovered an 18th Dynasty tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, the first uncovered there since King Tutankhamen’s in 1922. The 18th Dynasty ruled from around 1560 B.C. to 1085 B.C.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 9, Two masked gunmen shot out the tires of a diplomatic vehicle and kidnapped Egypt's military attache to the Palestinian Authority, in a brazen daylight abduction just outside the heavily guarded Egyptian mission in Gaza City.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 11, An Egyptian diplomat abducted at gunpoint in the Gaza Strip was released.
    (AP, 2/11/06)

2006        Feb 14, The Egyptian parliament approved the two-year postponement of municipal polls despite objections from opposition Islamists and the US. President Hosni Mubarak issued a decree last week calling for the delay of the elections which was passed by parliament's upper chamber on Feb 12 and approved this day in two readings by the lower chamber.
    (AFP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb 16, Egypt confirmed its first cases of H5N1 bird flu.
    (Reuters, 2/17/06)

2006        Feb 22, Imprisoned Egyptian opposition leader Ayman Nour asked US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to look into whether Egypt can benefit from a US offer to help developing countries develop nuclear energy.
    (AP, 2/22/06)

2006        Feb 26, Egypt's antiquities chief said archaeologists had discovered a pharaonic sun temple with large statues believed to be of King Ramses II (1270-1213BC) under an outdoor marketplace in Cairo.
    (AP, 2/26/06)

2006        Feb 27, In Egypt an official said a Liberian-flagged tanker, Grigoroussa 1, lost 3,000 tons of heavy fuel in the Suez Canal after a collision with a quay caused a leak.
    (AFP, 2/27/06)

2006        Mar 3, Egypt arrested Rashad Bayyumi, a Muslim Brotherhood leader, along with 7 members of Egypt's main opposition group. Bayyumi sits on the Brotherhood's 13-member Guidance Bureau. 3 more members were arrested the next day.
    (AFP, 3/4/06)
2006        Mar 3, Scientists reported the discovery of a 19-mile wide crater in Egypt’s Sahara desert. The newfound crater, named Kebira, was likely carved by a space rock that was itself roughly 0.75 miles wide in an event that would have been quite a shock, destroying everything for hundreds of miles. It was discovered in satellite images by Boston University researchers Farouk El-Baz and Eman Ghoneim.

2006        Mar 5, Egyptian security forces arrested three more members of the Muslim Brotherhood, taking to 15 the number of Islamists from the banned opposition group arrested in the last few days.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 10, Tamer Yusri Yassin, who worked in Qatar and is considered the founder of a group of 14 people involved in terrorist attacks, was allegedly extradited to Egypt from Qatar. The next day Qatar denied that Yassin was extradited. Yassin was one of 14 people referred for trial by the public prosecutor this week for involvement in two Cairo bombings on April 7 and April 30, 2005.
    (AFP, 3/11/06)(Reuters, 3/12/06)

2006        Mar 13, Pope Benedict XVI and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak held talks at the Vatican about Iran, Iraq and the prospects for lasting peace in the Middle East.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Mar 17, Nearly 1,000 Egyptian judges held a half-hour silent protest to demonstrate for full judicial independence and against the government's order to interrogate six of their colleagues who criticized recent elections.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2006        Mar 18, Egypt's health ministry said a 30-year-old Egyptian woman has died of bird flu, the country's first human victim of the virus.
    (Reuters, 3/18/06)

2006        Apr 2, The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that four Egyptians have caught bird flu, including two who died from the virus.
    (Reuters, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 6, A government minister said Egypt has found two more people infected with the bird flu virus, bringing the number of human cases in the country to 11.
    (AP, 4/6/06)
2006        Apr 6, A manuscript called the Judas Gospel, probably copied from the original Greek, was unveiled. Discovered in the 1970s near Minya, Egypt, the volume, including the gospel and other documents, was sold to an Egyptian antiquities dealer in 1978. Researchers ruled that the manuscript is most likely authentic and declared with confidence that it was consistent with a date of approximately A.D. 280.
    (Reuters, 4/6/06)(LiveScience, 4/8/13)

2006        Apr 10, Egypt’s Health and Population Minister Hatem el-Gabali said a 12th case of human bird flu has been found.
    (Reuters, 4/11/06)

2006        Apr 14, In Egypt worshippers at three Christian churches came under attack from knife-wielding assailants during Mass. Police said one worshipper was killed and more than a dozen wounded in the simultaneous attacks in the northern city of Alexandria.
    (AP, 4/14/06)
2006        Apr 14, Five publishers, all members of Egypt's opposition Muslim Brotherhood, were detained as they prepared to publish material criticizing Egypt's emergency law.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)

2006        Apr 16, In Egypt police fired live ammunition into the air and lobbed tear gas into rioting crowds of Christians and Muslims in a third day of sectarian violence in Alexandria. Egyptian police detained 43 university students on suspicion of membership in the banned Muslim Brotherhood, the country's largest Islamic fundamentalist group.
    (AP, 4/16/06)

2006        Apr 19, The Egyptian government said it had arrested a group of 22 militant Islamists planning bomb attacks on tourist targets, a gas pipeline near Cairo and Muslim and Christian religious leaders. The statement listed 22 members, led by a 26-year-old humanities student named Ahmed Mohamed Ali Gabr.
    (Reuters, 4/19/06)

2006        Apr 24, In Egypt 3 explosions rocked the resort city of Dahab at the height of the tourist season, killing 21 people and wounding more than 80. 3 of the dead were thought to be suicide bombers.
    (AP, 4/25/06)(AP, 5/2/06)

2006        Apr 26, In Egypt 2 suicide bombers struck outside the main base of the multinational peacekeeping force near the Gaza border in Sinai, killing themselves but causing no other casualties.
    (AP, 4/26/06)

2006        Apr 30, Egypt's parliament agreed to a two-year extension of emergency law requested by the government while it prepares replacement anti-terrorism laws. Egyptian security forces hunting bombers behind attacks last week in the Sinai peninsula fought gunbattles with suspects and killed 3 of them.
    (AP, 4/30/06)(AFP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 1, Egyptian security forces fatally shot three men wanted in terrorist bombings that killed at least 18 people in a coastal Sinai Peninsula resort on April 24. A police officer was also killed.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 9, In Egypt Nasser Khamis el-Mallahi, the leader of an al-Qaida-inspired group wanted for last month's bombings in Dahab, was killed in a gunbattle in the mountains of the Sinai Peninsula.
    (AP, 5/9/06)

2006        May 11, Thousands of Egyptian riot police beat pro-democracy activists in Cairo, chasing and dragging them through the streets to break up a demonstration in support of judges who blew the whistle on election fraud.
    (AP, 5/12/06)

2006        May 12, Gamal Mubarak, the son of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, met secretly with top White House officials, including Vice President Dick Cheney. Gamal is widely seen as his father's heir-apparent.
    (AP, 5/15/06)

2006        May 18, In Cairo, Egypt, police beat pro-reform protesters in the streets and arrested more than 300 for the second week in a row as Egyptian courts dealt new setbacks to activists seeking greater democracy.
    (AP, 5/18/06)

2006        May 20, President Hosni Mubarak opened the World Economic Forum in a booming Red Sea resort with a surprisingly tough speech that signaled deepening strains in the once-ironclad links with Egypt's American allies and benefactors. PM Ahmed Nazif said the Egyptian government is not in a hurry to change the country's political system.
    (Reuters, 5/20/06)(AP, 5/20/06)

2006        May 21, In Egypt global business and political leaders focused on dialogue, democracy and development in the Middle East. 3 major players, Iran, Hamas and Syria, were absent.
    (AP, 5/21/06)

2006        May 25, About 300 pro-reform judges staged a sit-in outside a downtown Cairo courthouse to demand the independence of Egypt's judiciary as thousands of riot police watched.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        Jun 2, Two Egyptian security officers were killed in an exchange of fire with Israeli troops after crossing the border into Israel.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 18, In Egypt 2 brothers who led a gang that held more than 100 people hostage two years ago were hanged in Alexandria.
    (AP, 6/18/06)
2006        Jun 18, China's PM Wen Jiabao wrapped up a two-day visit to Cairo after meeting with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and signing 10 oil, natural gas and telecommunications deals. He was also scheduled to visit Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (AP, 6/18/06)

2006        Jun 19, Egyptian authorities detained 31 members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood, bringing to nearly 700 the number of members arrested since a crackdown began in March.
    (AP, 6/19/06)

2006        Jun 27, Egyptian security forces shot dead two men named as members of a group behind deadly bombings in Sinai tourist resorts.
    (AP, 6/27/06)

2006        Jul 14, Militants forced open a border gate between Egypt and Gaza, wounding an Egyptian officer and letting hundreds of Palestinians who had been trapped on the Egyptian side of the border to get into Gaza.
    (AP, 7/14/06)

2006        Jul 15, Arab foreign ministers held an emergency summit in Cairo over Israel's expanding assault on Lebanon, the worst Israeli attack on its neighbor in 24 years.
    (AP, 7/15/06)

2006        Jul 18, Egypt and Israel reopened the Rafah border crossing for the first time in three weeks, triggering a rush to the border by thousands of Palestinians who had been waiting in Egypt.
    (AP, 7/18/06)

2006        Aug 6, A former official of Egypt's Gama'a Islamiya said that even if some members of the Islamist group had joined al Qaeda it was unlikely that most would.
    (AP, 8/6/06)

2006        Aug 20, Arab League foreign ministers convened in Egypt for an emergency meeting to discuss how to fund reconstruction in war-ravaged Lebanon and defuse Mideast tensions amid rising discord between moderate Arabs and Syria, a main backer of Hezbollah.
    (AP, 8/20/06)

2006        Aug 21, In northern Egypt a passenger train barreled into railway station and collided with a second train outside Qalyoub, killing at least 58 people and injuring more than 100.
    (AFP, 8/21/06)(SFC, 8/22/06, p.A3)

2006        Aug 22, An Egyptian tour bus overturned in the Sinai peninsula killing 11 people, most of them Israeli Arabs, and injuring more than 30.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 30, Naguib Mahfouz (b.1911), Arab writer, died in Cairo. He became the first Arab writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature (1988) for his novels depicting modern Egyptian life. Across the span of 35 novels, hundreds of short stories and essays, over 20 movie scripts and five plays, Mahfouz depicted with startling realism the Egyptian "Everyman" balancing between tradition and the modern world.
    (AP, 8/30/06)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.78)

2006        Sep 4, In Egypt a passenger train collided with a cargo train north of Cairo, killing 5 people and injuring 30 others.
    (AP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 16, Fouad el-Mohandes (82), one of Egypt's most beloved comedians, died in Cairo. His plays and movies made over a half century brought him fans across the Arab world.
    (AP, 9/16/06)

2006        Sep-2006 Oct, In Egypt for the seventh year running, a mysterious black cloud appeared over Cairo, triggering serious health concerns for the polluted city's 16 million residents. This year the black cloud coincided with the month of Ramadan, notorious for its traffic jams.
    (AFP, 10/26/06)

2006        Oct 10, A World Health Organization official said Egypt has detected its first human case of the highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus since May in an Egyptian woman who raised ducks from her home.
    (Reuters, 10/10/06)

2006        Oct 16, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi held talks on how to resolve the Darfur crisis in Sudan without intervention from outside Africa.
    (AFP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 17, The Italian bank Sanpaolo won a five-way race for control of Bank of Alexandria, the first Egyptian bank to be privatized in a selloff worth 1.6 billion dollars.
    (AFP, 10/17/06)

2006        Oct 31, A parliament speaker said Egypt it will amend its constitution to make it easier for candidates to run for president, part of long-delayed political reforms that President Hosni Mubarak plans to carry out next year. Talaat Sadat (52), the nephew of Egypt's late President Anwar Sadat, was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, after saying in an interview that Egyptian generals had masterminded his uncle's assassination.
    (AP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 3, Egyptian police found more than 3,000 pounds of explosives buried in two caches in the Sinai desert, one of them near the Palestinian-controlled Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 6, In Italy a Milan court sentenced Rabei Ousmane Sayed Ahmed, the accused mastermind of the March 2004 train bombings in Madrid, to 10 years in jail for membership of a terrorist organization. A second Egyptian, Yahya Mawad Mohamed Rajeh, was sentenced to five years in jail in the case.
    (AFP, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 7, China and Egypt agreed to co-operate on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, state media said, in a development that could rile the United States, a traditional Cairo ally.
    (AFP, 11/8/06)

2006        Nov 14, Eighteen Egyptians were killed when a public bus and a truck collided on a highway south of Cairo.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 30, In Egypt a state security court sentenced three Islamic militants to death for their involvement in suicide attacks that killed 34 people at Sinai resorts in 2004.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 2, A 50-year-old battle to evict squatters from one of Egypt's most renowned archaeological sites, the West Bank of Luxor, ended as authorities began demolitions. The fate of Qurna's 10,000 residents was sealed when authorities gave the demolition order for the mud-brick houses erected over ancient Egyptian tombs.
    (AFP, 12/3/06)

2006        Dec 4, Egypt’s Interior Ministry said police had arrested an American, 11 Europeans and several others from Arab countries for allegedly plotting terrorist attacks in Middle Eastern countries including Iraq.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 6, Egypt’s Pres. Hosni Mubarak arrived in Dublin at the start of a five-day European tour that will also include France and Germany. He said renewing the Middle East peace process is top of his agenda.
    (AFP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 7, Egyptian authorities expelled two Belgians and eight French terrorist suspects, but an American and another French citizen remained in Egyptian custody.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 14, In Egypt police arrested Mohammed Khayrat el-Shater, the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood's chief strategist, and at least 140 others in a crackdown after a protest by uniformed students raised fears the Islamist political group is creating a military wing.
    (AP, 12/14/06)

2006        Dec 16, An Egyptian court denied Bahais the right to state their religion on official documents and described them as pro-Israeli apostates, in a landmark case condemned by rights organizations.
    (AFP, 12/16/06)
2006        Dec 16, British PM Tony Blair arrived in Egypt for Middle East peace talks, saying the next few days and weeks would be critical in determining whether Israel and the Palestinians can break their cycle of violence.
    (AP, 12/16/06)

2006        Dec 24, An Egyptian woman died of bird flu, hours after tests confirmed she and two other members of her extended family had been suffering from the highly pathogenic virus.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 27, A 26-year-old Egyptian man died of bird flu, the third member of his extended family to die of the virus.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2006        Dec 28, Israeli security officials said Egypt has sent a large shipment of weapons through Israeli territory to shore up forces loyal to the embattled Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, an extraordinary show of support by both countries for his efforts to renew peacemaking with Israel.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec, In Egypt some 18,000 textile workers went on strike at Mahalla over low wages and purported corruption. They won an annual bonus worth 45 days’ pay.
    (SFC, 2/20/07, p.A11)

2006        Film-maker Tahani Rached made her one-hour documentary "El-Banate Dol" ("Those Girls") based on the lives of street girls in Cairo, Egypt.
    (Reuter, 7/26/06)
2006        Egypt’s Pres. Hosni Mubarak sold a chain of department stores called Omar Effendi to a Saudi buyer. The chain and its real estate were valued at 1.1 billion pounds, but the buyer paid half that. An Egyptian court later overturned the deal.
    (Econ, 9/16/17, p.41)

2007        Jan 4, Overshadowed by an Israeli raid into the Palestinian territories, a summit between Israel and Egypt achieved little in reviving the long-stalled Mideast peace process, highlighting instead the disagreements between Israel and its Arab neighbors.
    (AP, 1/5/07)

2007        Jan 19, An Egyptian woman died from bird flu after six days in hospital.
    (Reuters, 1/19/07)

2007        Jan 24, Egyptian security forces arrested seven members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood north of Cairo in a widening crackdown on the country's largest opposition movement.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Feb 1, A Lebanese publisher said the Egyptian government had censored several Egyptian and foreign titles at its annual book fair, including the classic novel "Zorba the Greek" as well as books by Czech author Milan Kundera.   
    (AFP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 11, In Egypt Osama Hassan Mustafa Nasr, known as Abu Omar, was released. The Egyptian Muslim preacher had been allegedly kidnapped by CIA agents off the streets of Milan, Italy, on Feb 17, 2003, and taken to Egypt. It was reported that since the end of December seven women have been stabbed by a dark-skinned man in his 20s in Cairo’s Maadi suburb, whose richer areas are home to numerous embassies and many foreigners.
    (AP, 2/12/07)(AFP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 15, In Egypt police arrested 80 members of the Muslim Brotherhood, in what appeared to be a pre-emptive strike against the country's largest Islamic group ahead of elections and a key parliamentary debate.
    (Reuters, 2/15/07)
2007        Feb 15, Nadia Abdel Hafez, an Egyptian woman (37), died of bird flu in a Cairo hospital and a boy, 5, became the 22nd Egyptian to test positive for the deadly disease.
    (Reuters, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 18, Egyptian authorities arrested Mohammed Sayed Saber (35), an Egyptian engineer from the country's nuclear energy agency, for spying for Israel, but the arrest was not announced until April 17.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2007        Feb 20, It was reported that recent strikes in Egypt involved over 35,000 workers at nearly a dozen textile, cement and poultry plants. Experts said there has never been a legal strike in Egyptian history.
    (SFC, 2/20/07, p.A11)

2007        Feb 21, Security officials said Egyptian border and security authorities had arrested 23 Palestinians and Egyptians in the Sinai region, including one who was wearing an explosives belt and had crossed from Gaza to Egypt in an underground tunnel.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 22, Abdel Kareem Nabil (22), an Egyptian blogger arrested in 2006, was convicted of insulting Islam and President Hosni Mubarak and sentenced to four years in prison in Egypt's first prosecution of a blogger. Nabil was convicted for calling Islam a brutal religion in a piece he wrote in 2005 after Muslim worshippers attacked a Coptic Christian church in Alexandria. In 2009 an Appeals court upheld his 4-year sentence. Nabil, aka Kareem Amer, was released on Nov 5, 2010, and then re-arrested, held for 11 days and beaten.
    (AP, 2/22/07)(AP, 12/22/09)(AP, 11/17/10)(Reuters, 11/24/10)

2007        Feb 23, Egyptian security forces discovered approximately 1 ton of explosives hidden underground near Egypt's border with Gaza.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 28, An Egyptian court ordered a freeze on the assets of 29 known financiers of the Muslim brotherhood, Egypt's most powerful opposition movement. An Egyptian with Canadian citizenship on trial for spying for Israel shouted from his courtroom cage that a confession had been extracted under torture.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Feb, An Egyptian publisher recalled copies of a book written by a controversial feminist after discovering it "offends religion." Nawal al Saadawi (b.1931), one of Egypt’s most renowned feminists, authored her play “God Resigns in the Summit Meeting." Religious leaders attacked the script without reading it on the grounds that Islam does not allow criticism of “God’s work." In 1965 she lost her job in Egypt’s Ministry of Health because of her political views. In 1981 she created the Arab Women’s Solidarity Association, the nation’s first independent women’s organization.
    (SSFC, 5/6/07, p.F3)(http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/07/02/07/10102478.html)

2007        Mar 11, Health Ministry and World Health Organization officials said a 4-year-old Egyptian boy has contracted the deadly bird flu virus, bringing to 24 the number of Egyptians who have tested positive for the disease.
    (AP, 3/11/07)

2007        Mar 14, In Egypt a published decree said Mukbil Shakir, head of the Supreme Judicial Council, has named the country's first female judges despite opposition from conservative Muslims. Shakir appointed 31 women to judge or chief judge positions in Egypt's courts.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 18, In Egypt over 100 mainly Islamist lawmakers walked out of parliament to protest government moves to push through constitutional laws that opponents fear will entrench the ruling party's grip on power.
    (AP, 3/18/07)

2007        Mar 19, Egypt's parliament approved a controversial set of amendments to the constitution that the opposition has denounced as a blow to democracy. Critics said the amendments are meant to ease the succession of Pres. Mubarak’s son.
    (AP, 3/19/07)(WSJ, 3/21/07, p.A1)

2007        Mar 26, Egyptians were slow to vote in a referendum on constitutional amendments that opponents condemned as a sham and a setback to democratic progress. Egyptian human rights groups later said that turnout for the referendum was only five percent, far lower than the 27 percent reported by the government.
    (AP, 3/26/07)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.57)(AP, 4/11/07)

2007        Mar 27, Egypt’s government said voters had overwhelmingly approved a set of controversial amendments to Egypt's constitution, a day after opposition groups massively boycotted the referendum. Egyptian blogs soon showed cell video clips of ballot stuffing.
    (AP, 3/27/07)(WSJ, 3/30/07, p.A1)

2007        Mar 30, A French architect claimed to have uncovered the mystery about how Egypt's Great Pyramid of Khufu was built. Jean-Pierre Houdin said advanced 3D technology had shown the main ramp which was used to haul the massive stones to the apex was contained 10-15 meters beneath the outer skin, tracing a pyramid within a pyramid.
    (Reuters, 3/30/07)

2007        Apr 14, The Egyptian state news agency MENA said that Neo-Nazis had attacked an Egyptian diplomat in the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The Ukrainian government has said it deeply regrets the incident.
    (Reuters, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 17, Egypt launched EgyptSat 1, its first remote sounding satellite, from Baikonur Cosmodrome. The spacecraft was jointly developed by Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Ukraine. Israeli officials suspected it to be a spy satellite. In 2010 ground-controllers lost it.
    (http://claudelafleur.qc.ca/Spacecrafts-2007.html)(Econ, 10/30/10, p.50)

2007        Apr 18, At least 16 Egyptian secondary school students were killed on their way to school when a truck they were riding in collided head-on with another vehicle south of Cairo.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 21, In Cairo an Egyptian-Canadian man was convicted of spying for Israel and sentenced to 15 years in prison by a special security court.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 29, In Egypt police arrested two lawmakers and at least 10 other members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood group as part of an ongoing campaign against the country's strongest opposition group.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        Apr 30, Egyptian authorities released two Muslim Brotherhood lawmakers but ordered 12 other members of the country's most powerful opposition group detained.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 2, An Egyptian court sentenced Al Jazeera producer Huweida Taha Metwalli to six months in jail or a fine of 10,000 Egyptian pounds ($1,760) for her part in producing a feature on torture by Egyptian police.
    (AP, 5/2/07)
2007        May 2, Egypt and Japan agreed to push together in a bid to end the crisis over Iran's nuclear ambitions, calling for a Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction.
    (AFP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, In Egypt a conference of nearly 50 nations opened at Sharm el-Sheik to rally international support, particularly from Arab nations, for an ambitious plan to stabilize Iraq. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met Syria's foreign minister in the first high-level talks between the two countries in years. Hours after the chief military spokesman in Iraq said Syria had moved to reduce "the flow of foreign fighters" across its border.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 6, In Egypt a plane carrying foreign peacekeepers across the Sinai desert crashed near a stretch of highway where it had tried to make an emergency landing, killing eight French soldiers and a Canadian.
    (AP, 5/6/07)

2007        May 8, An Egyptian court decided in a rare ruling that President Hosni Mubarak's order to try 40 of the banned opposition Muslim Brotherhood's top figures before a military court was not valid.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 10, In Cairo Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni held talks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in the first high-level discussion between Israel and the Arab world on an Arab initiative calling for an exchange of land for peace.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 12, Egyptian security forces arrested 59 Muslims in Bamha accused of setting fire to Christian homes and shops the previous day in clashes over church construction that underlined lingering sectarian tensions.
    (Reuters, 5/12/07)

2007        May 13, The US said it is willing to talk to Iran if discussions deal only with Iraq, where the Bush administration says Tehran is undermining the Baghdad government and exporting deadly roadside bombs. Iran's foreign ministry spokesman said that Tehran has agreed to a formal request from the US to talk about security in Iraq. Vice President Dick Cheney held talks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak toward the end of a regional tour, focusing on ways to stem chaos in Iraq and on Iran's impact on security in the Gulf.
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 15, Mohammed Sayed Saber (35). an Egyptian accused of spying for Israel praised the Jewish state for its advanced technology and claimed documents he passed on were so outdated they posed no threat to Egypt's security.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 19, Police arrested 14 members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood as part of Egypt's ongoing campaign against the country's strongest opposition group.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 24, Egypt approved the formation of a new liberal political party headed by a former member of President Hosni Mubarak's ruling National Democratic Party (NDP).
    (AFP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 26, Egyptian Lieutenant Colonel Ihab Ahmed, a UN peacekeeper, died after he was shot during a robbery at his residence in El Fasher. Ahmed, part of a small group of reinforcements sent to Darfur, became the UN's first casualty since its arrival in the region.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 29, Egypt's parliament voted to expel an MP and nephew of late President Anwar Sadat, after he was declared bankrupt.
    (AFP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 9, A Cairo court ruled that a private Egyptian university can not ban a visiting student from entering its premises in full Islamic veil.
    (AFP, 6/9/07)
2007        Jun 9, An Egyptian girl (10) who contracted the H5N1 bird flu virus died, bringing the number of fatalities from the disease in the most populous Arab country to 15.
    (Reuters, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 11, Police barred voters from polling stations and arrested about 100 opposition members, as Egyptians chose members of the upper chamber of parliament in an election marred by violence that killed one person. President Hosni Mubarak's ruling party won a majority of seats in elections for Egypt's upper house of parliament. The Muslim Brotherhood condemned the elections for their unprecedented fraud.
    (AP, 6/11/07)(AP, 6/13/07)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.54)

2007        Jun 25, In Cairo a state security court sentenced Mohammed Sayed Saber (35), an Egyptian nuclear engineer, to life in prison after convicting him of spying for Israel. He had been charged with harming the country's national security by giving stolen documents to Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency, in exchange for $17,000.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

2007        Jun 27, Egyptian archaeologists said the mummy of an obese woman, who likely suffered from diabetes and liver cancer, has been identified as that of Queen Hatshepsut, Egypt's most powerful female pharaoh. Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt in the 15th century B.C., was known for dressing like a man and wearing a false beard. But when her rule ended, all traces of her mysteriously disappeared, including her mummy. Discovered in 1903 in the Valley of the Kings, the mummy was left on site until two months ago, when it was brought to the Cairo Museum for testing.
    (AP, 6/27/07)
2007        Jun 27, An Egyptian state-run news agency said Ashraf Marwan (62), the controversial son-in-law of Egypt's late President Gamal Abdel Nasser, has died in London. Marwan was suspected of being a double agent for Israel during the 1973 war.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun 28, Egypt banned all female circumcision, the widely-practiced removal of the clitoris, which just days ago cost the life of a 12-year-old girl.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun 29, In Egypt 33 students from Cairo's Ain Shams University were detained at a holiday camp in Alexandria and charged with holding a meeting "aimed at propagating the Muslim Brothers' ideology."
    (AFP, 6/30/07)

2007        Jul 2, Egyptian security sources said Sherif al-Filali, an Egyptian engineer who was convicted in 2002 of spying for Israel, has died in jail of a possible heart attack while serving a 15-year sentence.
    (Reuters, 7/2/07)

2007        Jul 13, Some 4,000 Palestinians remained stuck on the Egyptian side of the border with trouble finding food and shelter, shortages they blamed on local authorities who are indifferent to their plight.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 14, Egyptian police said authorities have arrested 35 men suspected of membership in an al-Qaida- inspired group that planned to carry out attacks in Egypt.
    (AP, 7/14/07)

2007        Jul 16, Orascom Construction Industries S.A.E. of Cairo said it is investing $115 million to acquire a 50% stake in a North Korean cement plant.
    (WSJ, 1/16/07, p.A6)

2007        Jul 19, About 2,000 people protested at the border terminal between Egypt and the Gaza Strip, demanding the crossing be opened to allow thousands of Palestinians trapped in Egypt to return.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 22, Egyptian police shot and killed a Sudanese woman (28) and seriously wounded four others on the Sinai Peninsula as they tried to sneak into Israel. They were among 27 Darfur refugees caught by border guards in the desert after paying 700 dollars (500 euros) to a Bedouin smuggler.
    (AP, 7/22/07)(AFP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 25, The foreign ministers of Egypt and Jordan, delegated by the 22-member Arab League, began a historic visit to Israel to formally present an Arab peace plan, saying they were extending "a hand of peace" on behalf of the region.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.48)

2007        Jul 30, Egyptian police clashed with Bedouins protesting a government order to demolish their houses along the Palestinian Gaza Strip's border, leaving dozens injured. Egyptian media have reported a government plan to force the Bedouins from a 500-foot-wide band of land along the border to prevent traffickers from digging tunnels used to smuggle weapons and people into Gaza.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Jul 31, In Egypt US Sec. of State Rice and Defense Secretary Robert Gates made a joint show of diplomatic force during two days of meetings with Arab allies, part of an 11th-hour effort to rally diplomatic and practical help for the US-backed Shiite-led government in Baghdad. The tour opened talks on a proposed US arms package for Arab states worth more than $20 billion. US officials extended a 10-year pledge to continue $1.3 billion in annual aid to Egypt’s military. Military aid to Israel was raised to $3 billion. Weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and 5 smaller monarchies was said to be $20 billion. Total US military aid to the region over the next decade amounted to $63 billion.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.39)

2007        Aug 8, A report by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights detailed 567 cases of police torture in the last 14 years, of which 167 led to the victim’s death.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.38)(www.eohr.org/)

2007        Aug 11, It was reported that citizens in 5 of Egypt’s 26 governorates have been suffering a dire shortage of drinking water.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.40)

2007        Aug 20, In Egypt 4 terror suspects were convicted by a security court and sentenced to life in prison for their involvement in 3 attacks that killed two French tourists and an American in April, 2005. Five other suspects, including two women, received jail sentences that ranged from one to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

2007        Sep 6, Ayman Ismail Hassan, one of the key witnesses and co-defendants in the trial of Egyptian opposition leader Ayman Nour, was found hanged in his prison cell in Cairo. "I confessed to forgery under pressure from officers from state security," Hassan told reporters on June 30, 2005, after his lawyer told the court he had changed his plea to not guilty.
    (Reuters, 9/6/07)

2007        Sep 23, In Egypt thousands of workers at Ghazl el-Mahalla started a strike, demanding 150-day shares of annual profits, improved industrial safety, and raising the monthly bonuses. The strike started by 10,000 workers, has gone up to 15,000. Ghazl al-Mahallah is the biggest textile factory in the Middle East, with over 27,000 workers comprising its total labor force.

2007        Sep 25, A jailed Egyptian militant committed suicide in his cell. Sayed Ragab Abdullah (45) had been jailed 15 days ago for alleged membership in an Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 29, Egypt’s government and the striking workers in Mahalla el-Kobra announced a deal ending the textile worker’s strike after officials agreed to demands for three months' worth of profit-sharing bonuses.
    (AP, 10/2/07)

2007        Sep, In Egypt the Muslim Brotherhood circulated a draft of its first detailed political platform. It would bar women and Christians from becoming president and establish a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government.
    (SFC, 10/11/07, p.A14)

2007        Oct 7, Thousands of angry demonstrators destroyed the regional headquarters of Egypt's ruling party in El Arish, demanding government protection from lawlessness after a downtown shootout between Bedouin tribesmen and local residents.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 14, In Egypt at least six people drowned and 15 others were reported missing after the gangplank on their Nile ferry collapsed.
    (AFP, 10/14/07)

2007        Oct 15, An army minibus slammed into a water tanker truck in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, killing 13 soldiers and the civilian driver.
    (AP, 10/16/07)

2007        Oct 4, Egypt sent a high-level protest to dozens of European nations expressing "astonishment and regret" at their refusal to endorse Cairo's call for a Middle East nuclear free zone at a conference last month. At last month's IAEA session, 25 of the 27 EU nations abstained as did other countries hoping to join the union. In all, 47 nations abstained. Israeli objections forced a vote in which 53 countries, Muslim states and their supporters from the developing world, backed the proposal.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 29, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced plans to build several nuclear power plants, joining several Arab countries in the Middle East that recently have broadcast their own atomic energy ambitions.
    (AP, 10/29/07)

2007        Nov 3, Egypt's ruling party appointed President Hosni Mubarak's son to an important new committee in a move seen as further paving the way for the younger Mubarak to succeed his father.
    (AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Cairo, ranked one of the most polluted cities in the world, was reported to be once again under the shadow of a highly toxic black cloud which settles above the huge city every autumn. Exhaust fumes belched by millions of cars mixed with the hypertoxic emissions of the annual burning of rice stubble in rural areas of the Nile Delta are a prime cause, along with the city's ever-expanding population.
    (AFP, 11/4/07)
2007        Nov 4, In Egypt the face of King Tut was unshrouded in public for the first time, 85 years after the 3,000-year-old boy pharaoh's golden enshrined tomb and mummy were discovered in Luxor's famed Valley of the Kings in 1922.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 5, An Egyptian court convicted two police officers and sentenced them to three years in prison for torturing a bus driver, in a case that came to light after a video of the abuse was posted on the Internet.
    (AP, 11/5/07)

2007        Nov 9, Egyptian border guards opened fire on Hana Mohamed (24) of Eritrea after she failed to heed their warnings to stop south of the Rafah border crossing. The young woman bled to death after being shot in the legs.
    (AFP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 12, The Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights and New York’s Human Rights Watch released a report saying the Egyptian government refuses to recognize minority religions and Christian converts in official state records.
    (SFC, 11/16/07, p.A25)(www.eipr.org/en/)

2007        Nov 20, Israel’s PM Olmert met with Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak and said a peace deal with the Palestinians can be signed within a year.
    (WSJ, 11/21/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov, In Egypt the film "Heya Fawda" (Arabic for "It's Chaos") opened. It is a rare, frank look at police torture, corruption and political oppression that rights groups say is widespread in Egypt. It has been pulling in viewers and spurring criticism since opening.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2007        Dec 3, Hundreds of civil servants protested in front of Egypt's Cabinet, demanding wage increases to cope with rising prices and inflation.
    (AP, 12/4/07)
2007        Dec 3, Egypt opened its border crossing with Gaza to let in Palestinian religious pilgrims headed for Saudi Arabia, the first time Palestinians have been allowed to enter Egyptian territory since Hamas militants seized Gaza in June.
    (AP, 12/3/07)

2007        Dec 7, In Zagazig, Egypt, 3 students were killed and dozens injured when a fire broke inside an Al-Azhar university campus building in the Nile Delta.
    (AP, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 14, Local newspapers reported that nearly 2,000 Egyptian civil servants have ended a sit-in outside government headquarters in Cairo after winning a battle to change their status and increase their salaries.
    (AP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 17, Nine Egyptians were killed and seven injured when a car crashed into a group of people celebrating a religious festival on Egypt's Red Sea coast.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 21, At least eight Egyptians were killed and 24 others injured when a bus collided head-on with another vehicle on an intercity road south of Cairo.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 22, In Egypt a policeman was killed overnight in a shootout with Bedouin tribesmen smuggling African immigrants into Israel. A minibus fell off a ferry and sank in the Nile River in southern Egypt, killing 16 people including six children.
    (AFP, 12/22/07)(AP, 12/22/07)

2007        Dec 24, A 12-story building collapsed in Egypt's Mediterranean port city of Alexandria, killing at least 35 people. Shoddy materials, illegal construction and a culture of corruption were blamed for the deaths.
    (AFP, 12/25/07)(AP, 12/30/07)

2007        Dec 25, In Egypt dozens of Palestinian security men affiliated to Fatah staged a mass break-out from the camp where they have been held in Rafah. Egyptian police were able to recapture 40 of them, transferring them to police stations in the coastal town of Arish.
    (Reuters, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 26, Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak visited Egypt to discuss Israeli allegations that Egypt was doing too little to prevent arms smuggling to the Islamist movement Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Egypt rejected Israeli complaints about weapons smuggling into Gaza.
    (Reuters, 12/26/07)

2007        Dec 31, Palestinian pilgrims broke windows and burned mattresses and blankets in temporary camps to protest Egypt's refusal to let them return to Gaza through a crossing controlled by Hamas. A Palestinian woman (67) died of a heart attack when she was caught amid scuffles. The standoff over the pilgrims began Dec 29, when some 3,060 Palestinians returning from the hajj in Saudi Arabia arrived by ferry at the Egyptian Red Sea port of Nuweiba in southern Sinai, heading back to Gaza.
    (AP, 12/31/07)
2007        Dec 31, In Sudan the African Union transferred authority to a new joint peacekeeping force with the UN in Darfur. An AU official said Ethiopia and Egypt will each send 850 troops early in the new year to serve with a joint UN-AU force in the Darfur region.
    (AP, 12/31/07)(Reuters, 12/31/07)
2007        Dec 31, In southern Egypt a bus plunged into a canal alongside the Nile River, killing 17 passengers and the driver.
    (AP, 12/31/07)

2007        Egypt’s population stood at about 75 million.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.40)

2008        Jan 2, Egypt allowed more than 2,000 Palestinian pilgrims to enter the Gaza Strip, drawing a fierce rebuke from Israel, which had tried to prevent top members of the militant Hamas from returning home.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 16, Pres. Bush visited Egypt. Stalled reforms and bitterness over the jailing of hundreds of dissidents haunted his visit. Bush promised to stay engaged in pulling Israelis and Palestinians toward a peace pact by the end of his term.
    (AP, 1/16/08)

2008        Jan 17, Members of the European Parliament adopted a resolution criticizing Egypt's human rights record, even after Cairo summoned EU ambassadors to complain about the text.
    (AFP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 18, Egypt angrily rejected a European parliament resolution criticizing its human rights record, with Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit saying it revealed both arrogance and ignorance.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 19, Egyptian police shot dead a man from Ivory Coast and detained two other African migrants who were trying to cross illegally into Israel.
    (AP, 1/19/08)

2008        Jan 23, Tens of thousands of Palestinians on foot and on donkey carts poured into Egypt from Gaza after masked gunmen used land mines to blast down a seven-mile barrier dividing the border town of Rafah.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Jan 24, A top Israeli defense official said that Israel wants to relinquish all responsibility for the Gaza Strip, including the supply of electricity and water, now that the territory's southern border with Egypt has been opened.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 25, Egyptian guards with riot shields formed human chains along the Egypt-Gaza border, but were unable to stop hundreds of Palestinians from rushing into Egypt after a bulldozer wrecked another section of fence along the frontier.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 26, Egyptian riot police and armored vehicles restricted Gaza motorists to a small border area of Egypt, in the second attempt in two days to restore control over the chaotic frontier breached by Hamas militants. At least 36 Egyptian security personnel have been hospitalized, including some in critical condition, due to border incidents with Palestinians.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Jan 27, Egyptian forces brandishing electrified batons stopped Gaza cars from crossing the breached border and tightened security at checkpoints to try to confine Palestinians who moved freely into Egypt for a fifth straight day.
    (AP, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 28, Egyptian security forces and Hamas militants strung barbed wire across one of the openings in the Egypt-Gaza border, a sign that a days-long breaching of the frontier may be nearing an end.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 29, A Cairo court ruled to allow Egyptian Bahais to leave their religion blank on official documents, in effect restoring their access to jobs, schools and medical and financial services.
    (AP, 1/29/08)
2008        Jan 29, Cars and trucks traveled freely across the border from Gaza to Egypt for a seventh day. Egyptians living near the breached border with Gaza warned that chaos was brewing and demanded the crisis be resolved.
    (AP, 1/29/08)

2008        Feb 1, Hundreds of Hamas supporters protested on the breached Gaza-Egypt border to demand it remain open, while Egyptian troops poured cement and laid down metal spikes in a new attempt to halt the influx of Gazans.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 2, Hamas agreed to Egyptian calls to control the flow of Palestinians through the breached Gaza border and expects Egypt to seal remaining gaps in the frontier wall.
    (AP, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 3, Egyptian troops closed the last breach in Egypt's border with the Gaza Strip, ending 11 days of free movement for Palestinian residents of the blockaded territory.
    (AP, 2/3/08)

2008        Feb 4, Egyptian forces and Palestinian gunmen exchanged fire at the Gaza-Egypt border, killing one person and wounding 59 others a day after Cairo closed the breached frontier with the Hamas-run enclave.
    (Reuters, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 7, In Egypt at least 29 people, including children, were killed and 16 injured in a traffic pileup blamed on early morning fog southeast of Cairo.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 9, Egypt's highest civil court ruled that 12 Coptic Christians who had converted to Islam could return to their old faith, ending a yearlong legal battle over the predominantly Muslim state's tolerance for conversion.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 11, A Cairo appeals court acquitted Howayda Taha, an Al-Jazeera journalist sentenced to six months over a film that highlighted torture in Egyptian police stations, but it still upheld a fine against her.
    (AFP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 15, Two international rights groups said Egyptian police have stepped up arrests of persons suspected of having HIV, detaining four men this month in a crackdown that violates basic human rights.
    (AP, 2/15/08)

2008        Feb 16, Egyptian border guards shot and killed an Eritrean woman and arrested her two young daughters after they tried to cross illegally into Israel.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Feb 18, Egyptian security sources said police have rounded up some 500 Palestinians in north Sinai in the past four days and plan to deport them back into Gaza shortly.
    (AP, 2/18/08)

2008        Mar 3, Egyptian security forces detained at least 36 members of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's strongest opposition group, including some likely candidates in local elections next month. The men were accused of belonging to a banned group, possessing anti-government literature and organizing unauthorized meetings. Egypt has arrested more than 230 members of the Islamist group since mid-February, taking the total number in detention to well over 550.
    (Reuters, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 4, In Cairo US Sec. of State Condoleezza Rice said she has released $100 million in military aid to Egypt after telling the US Congress the money was necessary for national security reasons. Police arrested 54 members of Egypt's largest opposition movement, the first day for registration of candidates for key local council elections.
    (Reuters, 3/4/08)(AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 5, In Egypt police arrested 86 Brotherhood members in several provinces. All faced charges of belonging to an illegal group and possessing Brotherhood-related promotional leaflets.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 6, In Egypt police arrested 26 members of the Muslim Brotherhood in an ongoing crackdown on Egypt's largest Islamic opposition group ahead of next month's local election.
    (AP, 3/6/08)
2008        Mar 6, Palestinian militants ambushed an Israeli army jeep on the border with Gaza, killing one soldier and wounding three. Deputies of Egypt's intelligence chief Omar Suleiman met with officials from the Islamic militant Hamas and the smaller Islamic Jihad in the Egyptian Sinai city of el-Arish to persuade Hamas to accept a truce that would halt rocket attacks.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, An official said Egypt is building a 13-foot high concrete and rock wall interspersed with watch towers along its narrow boundary with the Gaza Strip to prevent Hamas militants from breaching the border.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 9, In Tanta, Egypt, at least 5,000 members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood demonstrated against government attempts to block members from registering their candidacy in April's key local elections.
    (AP, 3/9/08)

2008        Mar 13, In Egypt A Muslim Brotherhood leader said more than 90 percent of Egyptian Islamist candidates have been prevented from registering for April local elections due to a crackdown by the regime and a campaign of obstruction.
    (AFP, 3/13/08)

2008        Mar 16, In Egypt 23 people, mostly policemen, were killed when their vehicle smashed into a truck on the highway between Cairo and Alexandria.
    (AP, 3/16/08)

2008        Mar 18, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak, amid rising public discontent at sky-rocketing food prices, said in the official Al-Ahram daily that uncontrolled population explosion is draining the state's budget. A baby is born every 23 seconds in Egypt, which is the Arab world's most populous nation with a population of 78 million.
    (AFP, 3/18/08)
2008        Mar 18, Egyptian police fatally shot a Sudanese woman and arrested a second one who was with an infant as they tried to cross into Israel.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 20, Israeli defense officials announced they've worked out a tentative deal for Egypt to become the main electricity supplier to the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 22, Egyptian and European archeologists announced they had discovered a giant statue of Queen Tiy, the wife of 18th dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, on the south Egypt site of the Colossi of Memnon.
    (AFP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 24, An American cargo ship under contract to the US Navy opened fire on a small Egyptian boat while moving through the Suez Canal. Egyptian authorities said at least one man was killed. On Aug 28 the US ambassador met with the family Mohammed Fouad, the man killed, and offered an apology and 750,000 Egyptian pounds, or about US$140,000. In return, the family agreed not to sue the US government.
    (AP, 3/25/08)(AP, 8/29/08)

2008        Mar 28, A commerce ministry official said Egypt is to suspend rice exports for six months to try to meet the demands of its own people hit by soaring food prices. Hundreds of residents of the ancient city of Luxor clashed with riot police during a protest against government attempts to move them to make room for an open-air museum free of modern buildings.
    (AP, 3/28/08)(AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Apr 2, Newspapers reported that Egypt has ordered the seizure of the March 25 special edition of the German news magazine Der Spiegel after it was deemed to be insulting to Islam and the Prophet Mohammed.
    (AFP, 4/2/08)

2008        Apr 6, In Egypt thousands of demonstrators angry about rising prices and stagnant salaries torched buildings, looted shops and hurled bricks at police who responded with tear gas in a northern industrial town as part of a nationwide strike. Three people were killed and more than 150 injured over two days of unrest in Mahalla, the culmination of more than a year of strikes by workers at a giant state-run textile factory.
    (AP, 4/7/08)(AP, 4/4/09)

2008        Apr 7, The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's largest opposition force, called on Egyptians to boycott local council elections due on Tuesday in protest at the disqualification of most of its candidates.
    (Reuters, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 8, Egypt rushed to grant bonuses to workers amid riots over food costs. Turnout for local elections was later reckoned at under 5% under a boycott by the Muslim Brotherhood.
    (WSJ, 4/9/08, p.A1)(Econ, 9/13/08, p.32)
2008        Apr 8, In Palestine’s Hamas threatened to burst across the Israeli border to end Israel's blockade of Gaza if Egypt and Israel do not lift their blockade.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(WSJ, 4/9/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 15, In Egypt a security official said 25 members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood have been sentenced to up to 10 years in jail.
    (AP, 4/15/08)A 2008 report by the Egyptian Center for Women's Rights says two-thirds of women in Egypt experienced sexual harassment on a daily basis.

2008        Apr 16, A security official said Egypt's ruling party has won 92 percent of the votes in April 8 municipal elections boycotted by the main opposition group the Muslim Brotherhood.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 17, In Egypt former President Carter met with a Hamas delegation from Gaza, part of a series of talks with the Islamic militant group that has drawn sharp criticism from US and Israeli officials. Carter said he urged Hamas leaders from the Gaza Strip to stop militants from firing rockets into southern Israel.
    (AP, 4/17/08)(AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 28, Egypt’s official MENA news agency reported that PM Ahmed Nazif has urged anyone who can resolve the nationwide problem of price rises to come forward with ideas.
    (AFP, 4/28/08)

2008        Apr 30, In Egypt state news agency MENA said Palestinian factions meeting in Cairo for talks with Egyptian security officials have agreed to an Egyptian proposal for a truce with Israel starting in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

2008        May 1, A speeding tourist bus carrying dozens of Europeans and Canadians overturned, rolled off an embankment and burst into flames on a desert highway in Egypt's Sinai peninsula. At least nine passengers were killed and about 30 wounded.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 5, Egypt's parliament endorsed a government bill to raise taxes and fuel prices less than a week after President Hosni Mubarak announced a 30 percent salary increase for all government employees.
    (AP, 5/5/08)

2008        May 6, Egyptian border police fatally shot a Nigerian man who was trying to cross illegally into Israel. Guards also shot three Sudanese men and one woman who were also trying to sneak into Israel.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 10, The main border crossing between the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip and Egypt was temporarily opened under a deal between the Islamist group and Cairo.
    (Reuters, 5/10/08)

2008        May 12, The Arab Network for Human Rights Information (ANHRI) said that an Egyptian government-owned Internet service provider on May 4 blocked the Egyptian Movement for Change - Kefaya website, in the latest crackdown on the country's cyber dissidents.
    (AFP, 5/12/08)

2008        May 15, In Egypt Abdullah Kamel Mohammed (42) man was sentenced to 1,000 years behind bars after scamming hundreds of people out of 280 million pounds (around 52 million dollars).
    (AFP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 17, In Egypt Pres. Bush opened two days of talks with a string of leaders in Sharm El-Sheik by sitting down with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 18, In Egypt Pres. Bush lectured the Arab world about everything from political repression to the denial of women's rights but ran into Palestinian complaints he is favoring Israel in stalled Mideast peace talks. His message was aimed at the countries in the region where the political and civil systems are far from free as he ended a five-day Mideast trip.
    (AP, 5/18/08)

2008        May 26, Egypt's parliament at the request of the government extended emergency law for another two years or until the government prepares an anti-terrorism law.

2008        May 31, An Egyptian police official said boxes of ammunition, rocket-propelled grenades and anti-aircraft missiles have been found in a mountain in the northern Sinai peninsula. He said the weapons were to be smuggled into the neighboring Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 5, Egyptian archaeologists unveiled a 4,000-year-old "missing pyramid" that they believed to have been discovered by an archaeologist almost 200 years ago and never seen again. The pyramid was thought to have been built by King Menkauhor, an obscure pharaoh who ruled for only eight years. The style of the pyramid indicates it was from the Fifth Dynasty, a period that began in 2,465 B.C. and ended in 2,325 B.C.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 7, In Egypt thousands of demonstrators fought with police after a protest over flour rations in a town on the Mediterranean coast. Mustafa Khalil (88), a former Egyptian prime minister (1978-1980), died. He was an architect of the 1979 Camp David peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.
    (AP, 6/8/08)
2008        Jun 7, A boat carrying 150 African migrants en route to Europe sank off the Libyan coast. The Libyan authorities later recovered 40 bodies. The Libyan government informed the Egyptian government of the incident on June 13 because they believe that 12 of the passengers were Egyptians.
    (AFP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 9, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak warned that the population could more than double to reach 160 million by 2050, hindering social and economic development unless something is done about the "urgent" problem.
    (AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 13, Amnesty International said Egypt has deported 400 Eritrean asylum seekers back to Asmara and plans to forcibly return 1,200 more who are being held in detention in Egypt, putting them at serious risk of torture.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 15, An Islamic ruling that Egypt should give some of its oil and gas wealth to the people has ratcheted up the pressure on the government, already faced with rising popular discontent over food prices. The Islamic Research Centre of Cairo's Al-Azhar University, Sunni Islam's highest authority, issued a fatwa or religious edict saying it is a sacred duty to pay 20 percent of oil, gas and mineral revenues in the form of alms to the poor known as zakat.
    (AFP, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 17, Egypt's state-owned news agency said Israel and Hamas have agreed on a truce to begin June 19.
    (AP, 6/17/08)

2008        Jun 24, A lawyer said prison guards at an Egyptian jail near the Mediterranean city of Alexandria beat up 17 inmates to force them to end a hunger strike. An Egyptian security official denied a beating had taken place.
    (AFP, 6/29/08)

2008        Jun 30, In Egypt African Union Commission chief Jean Ping told African leaders at a summit that Africa must assume its responsibility in crisis-riven Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 6/30/08)

2008        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Egypt, announced that it was extending the mandate of its force in Somalia for another six months but urged the UN to take over the peacekeeping mission. The African leaders also called for dialogue between Zimbabwe's political foes and a national unity government following President Robert Mugabe's widely discredited reelection.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)(AP, 7/2/08)

2008        Jul 7, In Egypt smugglers killed a police officer during a shootout on the border with Israel.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Jul 12, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met his Egyptian counterpart Hosni Mubarak, kicking off a round of diplomacy with Middle East leaders ahead of an EU-Mediterranean summit. Sarkozy said that Syria and Lebanon will open embassies in each other's countries for the first time. Syria's leader cautioned there was still work to be done before that could happen.
    (AP, 7/12/08)(AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 16, In Egypt a truck ploughed into traffic at a closed level crossing, pushing a bus, truck and several cars into the path of a passenger train. Four people died from their injuries overnight bringing the total number of dead to 41.
    (AFP, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 17, Wikimania 2008 opened in to Alexandria, Egypt, for a 3-day tradecraft meeting. The gathering of online encyclopedia creators drew some 650 Wikipedians from 45 countries.
    (WSJ, 8/8/08, p.W1)(http://wikimania2008.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page)

2008        Jul 21, Egyptian police arrested 39 members of the country's largest opposition group, the banned Muslim Brotherhood during a raid on a camp north of Cairo. The men, aged 18 to 35, said they were only on vacation. Egyptian authorities shut down the Cairo office of an Iranian TV network, as the two nations spar over "Assassination of a Pharaoh," a film that justifies the killing of former Egyptian President Anwar Sadat by Islamic militants.
    (AP, 7/21/08)(AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 27, In Egypt Youssef Chahine (1926), filmmaker, died in Cairo. His 28 films included “The Blazing Sun" (1954) with Omar Sharif. His 1994 film “The Emigrant," about the Old Testament figure of Joseph, was denounced by militant Islamists and banned.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.B5)

2008        Jul 28, Lebanese singer Suzanne Tamim (30) was found stabbed and her throat slashed in Dubai. On August 8 Egypt banned news coverage of the brutal slaying following media reports in other papers that said a wealthy Egyptian businessman ordered 3 men to carry out the killing. On Sep 2 Hisham Talaat Moustafa, an Egyptian lawmaker and business tycoon, was arrested in the death Tamim. He was accused of paying a former police officer $2 million to kill her. On May 21, 2009, Moustafa was sentenced to death for ordering Tamim’s death. Former officer, Mohsen el-Sukkary, was also convicted and sentenced to death. In 2010 Moustafa was spared the death penalty after a retrial changed his original death sentence to 15 years in prison.
    (www.allaboutjazz.com/php/news.php?id=21342)(AP, 9/2/08)(AP, 5/21/09)(AP, 9/28/10)

2008        Aug 1, In southern Egypt 12 people were killed and 16 others wounded when two speeding passenger buses rammed into a truck.
    (AFP, 8/1/08)
2008        Aug 1, Hamas forces seized about 15 leaders of Fatah in Gaza, upping the stakes in a week of tit-for-tat arrests between the bitter Palestinian rivals. Fatah said more than 200 of its men have been seized over the past week. Five Palestinians died and 18 were wounded in a smuggling tunnel under the Gaza-Egypt border after Egyptian troops blew up the entrance.
    (AP, 8/1/08)(AP, 8/2/08)

2008        Aug 2, Saad Eddin Ibrahim (69), an exiled Egyptian human rights activist who also holds US nationality, was sentenced in abstentia to two years in prison for defaming Egypt. He was accused him of defaming the country after a series of articles and speeches on citizenship and democracy in which he criticized the Egyptian regime. Ibrahim, who founded the Ibn Khaldoun Centre for Development Studies, was sentenced in 2001 to seven years for "tarnishing Egypt's reputation," before being freed on appeal after spending 10 months behind bars.
    (AFP, 8/2/08)

2008        Aug 30, Egypt opened its Rafah border crossing with the Gaza Strip, allowing more than 2,500 people to leave the Hamas-controlled territory and about 1,000 to enter in a goodwill gesture before the holy Muslim month of Ramadan begins.
    (AP, 8/30/08)(Reuters, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 3, An Egyptian cargo ship with 25 crew was hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Aden near Somalia, making it the 10th vessel to be hijacked in the area since July 20.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 6, In Egypt massive boulders fell from the towering Muqattam cliffs onto a shanty town outside Cairo and buried dozens of homes. The death toll rose on a daily basis and reached 103 on Sep 19. According to residents, there could be up to 500 people buried under the hundreds of tons of rock that fell. In 2010 a court convicted the Cairo deputy governor for the rock slide that killed 119 people and sentenced him to five years in prison. The court found Mahmoud Yassin and seven lesser officials guilty of manslaughter.
    (AP, 9/6/08)(AP, 9/13/08)(AP, 9/20/08)(AP, 5/26/10)

2008        Sep 11, Amnesty Int’l. reported that Egyptian security forces have killed at least 28 immigrants leaving Egypt for Israel, since the first killing in the summer of 2007.
    (SFC, 9/12/08, p.A12)

2008        Sep 15, In Egypt a speeding truck collided with a tourist bus in Egypt's Sinai peninsula, killing 12 people and injuring 33.
    (AP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 19, Masked kidnappers in Egypt seized 19 hostages including German, Italian and Romanian tourists in a remote desert area near the Sudanese and Libyan borders. The kidnappers demanded $15 million in ransom. On Sep 29 Egyptian and Sudanese forces rescued the captives near the Sudanese-Chadian border.
    (Reuters, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 20, A Palestinian was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers who said they saw him light a firebomb near a Jewish settlement. Suhayeb Saleh was later identified by his parents, who said he was 14 years old. Egypt opened its Gaza border terminal to allow passage of students and medical patients for 2 days.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

2008        Sep 21, Egypt's foreign ministry said an illegal migrant boat carrying 83 Egyptians headed for Europe has gone missing off the coast of Greece after leaving Egypt 3 days ago.
    (AP, 9/21/08)

2008        Sep 23, The bodies of 2 Palestinian smugglers were pulled from a tunnel that collapsed along the Gaza-Egypt border. 3 more bodies were removed the next day. The five were bringing contraband goods from Egypt into Gaza when an explosion collapsed the tunnel. Three smugglers survived and were arrested on the Egyptian side.
    (AP, 9/24/08)

2008        Sep 28, Sudanese forces engaged a group of kidnappers in a gunbattle in northwest Sudan who had been sent out to get gas and food. Six kidnappers were killed in the fight, and two captured. The two told the authorities where the rest of the kidnappers and their captives were hiding. The kidnappers were believed to be armed desert tribesmen. Kidnappers released the 19-member European tour group, abducted on Sep 19, into one car near the Sudanese-Chadian border. The group drove some 200 miles before encountering Egyptian special forces and returning safely to Cairo.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(AP, 9/30/08)

2008        Sep, Egypt’s overall inflation rate stood at about 23%. The average wage was under $100 per months and some 2.6 million people were unable to cover their basic food needs.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.31)

2008        Oct 5, Ahmed Abul Gheit, the first Egyptian foreign minister to visit Iraq in nearly two decades, arrived in Baghdad and promised to help Iraq face its challenges. 11 people, including women and children, were killed after US forces came under attack by gunfire and a suicide bomber during a raid in Mosul. There were no casualties among American forces. Elsewhere in the northern city, gunmen opened fire on mourners in a funeral tent, killing 5 people and wounding 7 others. American troops acting on a tip killed Abu Qaswarah (also known as Abu Sara), the No. 2 leader of al-Qaida in Iraq in a raid in the northern city of Mosul. The Moroccan was known for his ability to recruit and motivate foreign fighters.
    (AP, 10/5/08)(SFC, 10/6/08, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 5, In Egypt 13 people were killed and 24 injured when a bus and a truck collided head-on south of Cairo.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 8, In Egypt at least 11 people died when an apartment building collapsed in the port city of Alexandria.
    (AFP, 10/8/08)

2008        Oct 14, Egyptian police shot dead an African migrant and wounded another as they tried to cross illegally into Israel.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 20, Sister Emmanuelle (b.1908), a Belgian-born nun who devoted her life to helping the poor in North Africa and in France, died in France. Madeleine Cinquin had spent 20 years working with children in a slum in Cairo as part of a lengthy career helping the dispossessed.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 25, The United States announced a pledge of an additional $320 million to the global fight against bird flu at a conference in Egypt. The US also warned against complacency in combating the virus, which could mutate and cause a deadly pandemic.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 26, An Egyptian news agency that transmitted footage of protesters tearing down a portrait of the president was fined $27,000 for operating unlicensed equipment, and its owner said he was targeted as a warning to other media. A judge upheld a complaint by the government against Nader Gohar, head of the Cairo News Company. The complaint came shortly after CNC broadcast footage from Al-Jazeera English in April showing the anti-government protesters.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2008        Oct 31, In southern Egypt tourist bus overturned, killing six Belgian tourists and injuring 26 other Belgian passengers.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Oct, US customs officials at Miami International Airport seized a 3,000-yeor-old Egyptian sarcophagus from a shipment coming from Spain after the importer could not present proper documentation to prove ownership. It dated back to the 21st Dynasty (1070-945 B.C.) and belonged to a noble called Imesy. An investigation found the coffin had been stolen from Egypt 126 years ago and taken to Spain before it was shipped to the US. In 2010 it was returned to Egypt.
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2008        Nov 1, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak promised to push ahead with economic reform and step up efforts to combat poverty, despite the impact of the international financial crisis on Egypt's economy.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 2, Ahmed Al-Mirghani (67) former head of Sudan’s last democratically elected government (1986-1989), died in Egypt. In 1989 a military coup led by current President Omar al-Bashir unseated him.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 7, Egyptian police arrested 25 Muslim Brotherhood members at a meeting at Faous, in the eastern Nile Delta.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)

2008        Nov 9, Egyptian authorities denied entry to one of Osama bin Laden's sons and put him on a plane to Qatar, becoming the third country to reject the self-proclaimed "ambassador for peace." Omar Osama bin Laden (27) and his British wife, Zaina Alsabah (52), arrived at Cairo International Airport over the weekend after he unsuccessfully tried to seek political asylum in Spain.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 11, Egypt's chief archaeologist has announced the discovery of a 4,300-year-old pyramid in Saqqara, the sprawling necropolis and burial site of the rulers of ancient Memphis. The new pyramid is the 118th discovered so far in Egypt.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Armed Bedouin attacked a security checkpoint in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and seized 11 policemen in a restive area near the border with Israel. The Bedouin tribesmen were angered by a police shooting a day earlier that killed a suspected Bedouin smuggler in the area.
    (AP, 11/11/08)

2008        Nov 20, Egypt held emergency talks with nations bordering the Red Sea on how to stop Somali gunmen from hijacking ships. Somali pirates had already seized at least 80 ships off the Horn of Africa this year.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.A13)

2008        Nov 23, In Egypt police fired tear-gas at about 2,000 rioters in the southern town of Aswan as they protested the police shooting to death of a bird-seller.
    (AFP, 11/23/08)

2008        Nov 25, In Egypt the state news agency MENA reported that Coptic Pope Shenuda III has banned Egyptian Christians from praying in a church-owned building in Cairo after sectarian clashes there with Muslims.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)

2008        Dec 14, Orascom Telecom, an Egyptian company, said it will launch 3G mobile telephone service in North Korea on Dec 15, after winning the contract to build the advanced network in a country where private cell phones are banned.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Eva Habil (53) became Egypt's first female mayor. The Christian lawyer, beat five male candidates, including her younger brother, to become mayor of the predominantly Coptic Christian town of Komboha in southern Egypt.
    (AFP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, An Egyptian bus crowded with passengers, many of them students, veered off the road into a canal south of Cairo, killing 59 passengers.
    (AP, 12/14/08)(AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 19, Egypt's communications ministry says Internet cables in the Mediterranean Sea have been cut, causing massive Internet outages.
    (AP, 12/19/08)

2008        Dec 22, In Egypt 7 Russian tourists died when their bus flipped over along the winding mountain roads north of the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AFP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 24, In Egypt an Australian teacher (61), who allegedly stuffed his luggage with 2,000-year old animal mummies and religious figurines wrapped as gifts, was arrested and charged with smuggling antiquities.
    (AP, 12/25/08)

2008        Dec 27, Israel began “Operation Cast Lead" as its warplanes retaliating for rocket fire from the Gaza Strip pounded dozens of security compounds across the Hamas-ruled territory in waves of airstrikes, killing nearly 200 people and wounding 270 others in the single bloodiest day of fighting in years. Gaza militants fired 30 rockets and mortars after the air offensive began. A missile hit the town of Netivot, killing an Israeli man and wounding four people.
    (AP, 12/27/08)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.24)
2008        Dec 27-2009 Jan 21, In Egypt security forces arrested at least 860 activists of the Muslim Brotherhood as public demonstrations mounted during the Israeli assault on Gaza.
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.48)

2008        A report by the Egyptian Center for Women's Rights said two-thirds of women in Egypt experienced sexual harassment on a daily basis.
    (AP, 6/7/12)

2009        Jan 1, Somali pirates seized the Blue Star, an Egyptian cargo ship, and its 28 crewmembers. A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden. A crew of the French warship "PM L'Her" dispatch boat intercepted two speedboats carrying 8 Somali pirates as they were preparing to board a Panamanian cargo ship. The Blue Star and its crew of 28 were freed on March 5 after a ransom was dropped from a plane.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/2/09)(AP, 3/5/09)

2008        John R. Bradley, British writer, authored "Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution."
    (AFP, 7/27/08)

2009        Jan 10, Israeli forces pounded rocket-launching sites and smuggling tunnels in Gaza and planes dropped leaflets warning of an escalation in attacks, as Palestinian militants fired at least 10 more rockets at Israel. The Israeli military said more than 15 militants were killed in overnight fighting. An Israeli tank shell killed nine people in a garden outside a home in the northern Gaza town of Jebaliya. In Cairo, Egypt, Palestinian Authority Pres. Mahmoud Abbas urged both Israel and Hamas to agree to an Egypt-brokered truce. Syria-based Palestinian militant groups including Hamas rejected the idea of deploying international observers or troops in Gaza.
    (AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 13, Israeli ground troops closed in on downtown Gaza City, battling Palestinian militants in the streets of a densely populated neighborhood, destroying dozens of homes and sending terrified residents running for cover as gunfire and explosions echoed in the distance. Some 15 rockets and mortar shells were fired toward Israel, causing no injuries. Egyptian mediators pushed the militant Palestinian Hamas group to accept a truce proposal for the embattled Gaza Strip in talks. The UN secretary-general headed to the region to join the multitrack diplomatic efforts for a cease-fire in Israel’s 18-day offensive, in which more than 900 Palestinians have been killed, half of them civilians.
    (AP, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 31, Security sources said Egypt has begun installing cameras and motion sensors along its border with the Gaza Strip to try to combat smuggling to the Hamas-run territory.
    (Reuters, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 12, An Egyptian security official said police have arrested 40 suspected smugglers and seized goods in a new crackdown on smuggling into the Hamas-run Gaza Strip in a  crackdown that started last weekend.
    (AP, 2/12/09)

2009        Feb 11, In Egypt archeologist revealed the discovery of a burial chamber 36 feet below ground at the necropolis of Saqqara dating back to about 640BC.
    (WSJ, 2/12/09, p.A9)

2009        Feb 12, Hamas deputy leader Moussa Abu Marzouk told Egypt's official MENA news agency that the Islamic militant group has agreed to an 18-month truce with Israel.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 14, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit held talks with Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir amid reports that the International Criminal Court has decided to issue a warrant for his arrest..
    (AFP, 2/14/09)

2009        Feb 18, A leading Egyptian dissident, Ayman Nour (44), who was jailed after challenging the country's longtime president in the 2005 elections, was unexpectedly freed after years of pressure from the United States.
    (AP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 20, In Egypt 5 crew members died when a Ukrainian cargo plane crashed during takeoff, burst into flames and slid down the runway in the city of Luxor.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Feb 22, In Egypt a group of French teenagers on a school trip was hit hard by a bombing at Cairo’s famed 14th century Khan al-Khalili bazaar. The attack killed a 17-year-old French girl and wounded another 24 people: 17 French, three Saudis, three Egyptians and a German. Egyptian police soon arrested three suspects. On May 23 Egyptian authorities said they had arrested seven people for being part of an al-Qaida linked group accused of carrying out the attack. They included two Palestinians, two Egyptians, a British-Egyptian, a Belgian-Tunisian and a French-Albanian woman, some of whom had entered Egypt as students.
    (AP, 2/23/09)(AP, 5/23/09)
2009        Feb 22, The bodies of four people were found in a smuggling tunnel under the Gaza-Egypt border, a day after another body was discovered in the area. Border officials said about 1,000 university students and holders of foreign residency permits were eligible to cross, and by mid-afternoon, about 600 people had made the trip.
    (AP, 2/22/09)

2009        Mar 2, At a donor’s conference in Egypt Palestinian Pres. Mahmoud Abbas, seeking to shore up his position against rival Hamas, asked international donors to funnel millions of dollars through his government to rebuild the devastated Gaza Strip. The gathering aimed to raise at least $2.8 billion from 80 donor nations and international organizations.
    (AP, 3/2/09)

2009        Mar 9, A group of Egyptian army cadets stormed a police station in a southern suburb of Cairo, leaving at least five policemen and three cadets injured. The attack came after a local police chief arrested a cadet on March 5 for loitering on a street corner and refusing to show any ID. The cadet was taken to the police station, beaten and held overnight.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 9, A cargo ship sank off the Red Sea coast of Egypt shortly after leaving port, leaving 14 sailors missing. At least 2 crew members drowned. 10 people were rescued when the 5,600-tonne Ibn al-Battuta went down in the sea off the port of Abu Dhunaima in Egypt’s Safaga region.
    (AP, 3/9/09)

2009        Mar 10, In Egypt rival Palestinian factions opened talks aimed at coming up with a power-sharing agreement, hearing a call to forget their contentious and sometimes bloody past.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 11, Saudi Arabia hosted the leaders of Egypt and Syria in an effort to persuade Damascus to move away from Iran and join with US-allied Arab countries in working to blunt Tehran's influence.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 16, Amr Moussa (b.1936), former Egyptian Foreign Minister and head of the Arab League, said AL countries will not carry out an International Criminal Court request to arrest Sudan's president on charges of war crimes in Darfur.
    (AP, 3/17/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amr_Moussa)

2009        Mar 17, Egyptian security officials caught 2 Hamas officials returning to Gaza with nearly $850,000 stuffed into candy tins.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 18, Egypt opened its border crossing with the Gaza Strip for the second time in two months to allow medical aid and Palestinians to enter the coastal territory.
    (AP, 3/18/09)

2009        Mar 25, Egypt, one of the strongest US allies in the Middle East, welcomed Sudan's president despite an international warrant seeking his arrest on charges of war crimes in Darfur. Egypt is not an ICC signatory and both it and the Arab League have backed al-Bashir.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Mar 28, An Egyptian health ministry spokesman said a two-year-old girl has contracted bird flu, the 60th reported case since the first outbreak of the disease in the country in 2006.
    (AP, 3/28/09)

2009        Mar 31, Twelve Egyptian laborers headed for jobs in Jordan were killed and 35 others injured when their bus overturned in the Sinai peninsula.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 4, Egyptian police beat and detained at least 18 members of an anti-government protest group during a demonstration to demand the release of two activists, Sarah Rezk and Amina Taha. The two 19-year-olds detained April 2 for allegedly distributing leaflets calling for a national day of protest on April 6.
    (AP, 4/4/09)

2009        Apr 6, Egyptian police were out in force to deal with a nationwide protest called by pro-democracy groups, arresting Islamists and seeking to contain small demonstrations in the capital, Cairo.
    (AFP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 11, Egypt's Coptic Orthodox Church for the first time issued a certificate of conversion to a Muslim-born Christian. It was only the second time that such a request has been formally made in a country where converting to Christianity, while not illegal, is practically impossible. Egypt's Copts, the largest Christian community in the Middle East, account for an estimated six to 10% of the country's 80 million inhabitants.
    (AFP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 13, It was reported that Egypt has cracked a major Hezbollah network and arrested 49 Hezbollah members and sympathizers between November and January.
    (WSJ, 4/13/09, p.A8)

2009        Apr 15, Egyptian police detained three teenage Palestinian men on suspicion of crossing illegally into Egypt and also found explosives near the border with Gaza.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 18, In Egypt the state-run newspaper Al-Ahram reported that an Egyptian woman has contracted bird flu in the second case in the country in as many days.
    (AFP, 4/18/09)
2009        Apr 18,  In southern Egypt Muslim gunmen shot dead two Coptic Christians as they left church after an Easter vigil, in an apparent five-year-old vendetta.
    (AFP, 4/19/09)

2009        Apr 21, Egyptian antiquities authorities announced that archaeologists exploring the "Way of Horus," an old military road in the Sinai, have unearthed four new temples amidst the 3,000-year-old remains of an ancient fortified city that could have been used to impress foreign delegations visiting Egypt. Early studies suggested the fortified city had been Egypt's military headquarters from the New Kingdom (1569-1081 BC) until the Ptolemaic era, a period lasting about 1500 years.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 24, In Egypt a woman (33) died from the H5N1 strain of bird flu, the third death from the disease in Egypt this week.
    (AFP, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 29, Egypt began slaughtering the roughly 300,000 pigs in the country as a precautionary measure against the spread of swine flu even though no cases have been reported here yet.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        May 3, Egyptian police fired tear gas and clashed with irate pig farmers, leaving 12 people injured as owners resisted the government's attempt to slaughter all the nation's pigs to guard against swine flu.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 5, A restricted UN report said IAEA inspectors detected nuclear particles in Egypt last year and in 2007. A senior diplomat accredited to the agency said that it was the first time the traces were reported by the Vienna-based nuclear monitor.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 11, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu was in Egypt for talks seen aimed at showing he can be a true Middle East peace partner before he heads to the White House on May 18. Progress in peace negotiations must come before Arab recognition of Israel, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said in an interview with Israel TV.
    (Reuters, 5/11/09)(AP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 14, Egyptian security forces arrested 14 members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood in dawn raids at their homes.
    (AFP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, In Egypt a three-year-old boy from north Egypt tested positive for the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu in the second such case in two days. This brought to 71 the number of bird flu infections in Egypt.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 16, In Egypt 13 factory workers were killed when their small pickup truck crashed head on into a large lorry in southern Egypt.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 18, In Egypt a 4-year-old girl died of bird flu, making her the country's 27th death from the virus since 2006.
    (AP, 5/19/09)
2009        May 18, A leading animal rights group criticized Egypt for using "shocking and cruel" methods to slaughter the country's pigs over swine flu fears, responding to a YouTube video that showed men skewering squealing piglets with large kitchen knives and hitting others with crowbars.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 21, In Egypt Hisham Talaat Moustafa, a real estate mogul with ties to Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak's son, was sentenced to death for ordering the slaying of a Lebanese pop star in a case that sparked a media frenzy in a country where the elite is often perceived as being above the law. Moustafa, a member of the ruling National Democratic Party, was accused of paying a former Egyptian police officer $2 million to kill Suzanne Tamim while she was in Dubai. Former officer, Mohsen el-Sukkary, was also convicted and sentenced to death. On March 4, 2010, the Court of Cassation, the country's highest court of appeal, overturned his conviction, and ordered a retrial.
    (AP, 5/21/09)(AP, 3/4/10)

2009        May 22, In Egypt Ayman Nour, a prominent Egyptian dissident, was attacked by an assailant on a motorcycle who ignited a flammable substance in his face, leaving his head burned. Nour accused elements within the ruling party of being behind the attack.
    (AP, 5/23/09)

2009        May 25, In Egypt a judge overturned the conviction and two-year prison sentence of Saad Eddin Ibrahim, an exiled Egyptian-American academic and outspoken critic of the regime, paving the way for his return home.
    (AP, 5/25/09)

2009        Jun 4, Pres. Obama spoke in Cairo and touched on many themes Muslims wanted to hear in the highly anticipated speech broadcast live across much of the Middle East and elsewhere across the Muslim world. Muslims praised Obama's address as a positive shift in US attitude and tone. But hard-liners criticized it as style over substance and said it lacked concrete proposals to turn the words into action.
    (AP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 7, Egypt's public prosecutor ordered the return of a shipment of Russian wheat impounded last month on health grounds. The decision to ship back the 52,000 tons of wheat, worth 9.6 million dollars (6.8 million euros), came after an investigation found the grain was contaminated with insects and unspecified heavy metals.
    (AFP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 8, In Egypt at least 18 factory workers were killed when their bus collided with a truck in the Nile Delta.
    (AFP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 28, Egyptian security forces arrested a leading member of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood and three others in pre-dawn raids. Egyptian police shot dead a migrant and wounded two others as they tried to enter Israel illegally.
    (AFP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jun, In Egypt 75 people were sentenced to death this month in comparison to just 86 for all of 2008. In July the Cairo-based Arab Center for the Independence of the Judiciary and Legal Profession issued a report expressing concern that the "extravagance" with which the penalty was being used meant that defendants were not receiving a fair trial. According to the UN 43% of Egyptians lived on less than $2 a day.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, In Germany Marwa al-Sherbini (32), a pregnant Muslim woman from Egypt, was stabbed to death in a Dresden courtroom as her young son watched. She was involved in a court case against her neighbor for calling her a terrorist and was set to testify against him when he stabbed her 18 times inside the courtroom in front of her 3-year-old son. Her husband, who was in Germany on a research fellowship, came to her aid and was also stabbed by the neighbor and shot in the leg by a security guard who initially mistook him for the attacker.
    (AP, 7/6/09)

2009        Jul 7, In Egypt 22 people were killed in two separate accidents on the notoriously dangerous road between the capital Cairo and the southern city of Minya.
    (AP, 7/7/09)

2009        Jul 9, Egypt’s Interior Ministry said authorities have arrested 25 militants with links to al-Qaida on suspicion of plotting attacks on oil pipelines and ships in the Suez Canal.
    (AP, 7/9/09)

2009        Jul 15, In Egypt the two-day Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) opened in Sharm-El-Sheik. 50 leaders from the 118-nation grouping of mostly of African, Asian and Latin American nations gathered for their 15th meeting to address the world's biggest problems, such as terrorism and financial instability. Cuba's Pres. Raul Castro called for an international financial system that better takes into account developing countries interests.
    (AP, 7/15/09)

2009        Jul 16, In Egypt 8 Serb tourists and 3 Egyptians were killed when a truck on the wrong side of the road hit their coach head-on along Egypt's Red Sea coast.
    (AP, 7/16/09)

2009        Jul 26, Egypt's prosecutor general officially charged 26 suspects, including two Lebanese and five Palestinians, for spying for the militant group Hezbollah, as well as plotting terrorist attacks and aiding militants in the Gaza strip. Some were accused of planning to attack ships on the Suez canal and tourists in Egypt.
    (Reuters, 7/26/09)(AP, 7/26/09)

2009        Aug 13, The crew of two Egyptian fishing vessels overpowered Somali pirates after being held hostage for four months and, with machetes and tools, killed at least two pirates before sailing to freedom. The fight took place near the coastal town of Las Qorey off the Gulf of Aden. The pirates had demanded a ransom of $1.5 million.
    (AP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 15, Somali pirates found seven dead colleagues floating in the ocean and vowed to take revenge against Egyptian fishermen they say killed them during an August 13 escape.
    (Reuters, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 17, Israeli soldiers mistakenly shot and wounded an Egyptian policeman near Eilat along the border between the two countries.
    (AP, 8/17/09)

2009        Aug 25, An Israeli air strike on a smuggling tunnel between the Gaza Strip and Egypt killed three Palestinians and wounded seven.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 31, Egyptian police found the entrances to four tunnels and two tons of explosives hidden near the border with Gaza. A day earlier they had thwarted an attempt to smuggle 500 kg (1,100 lb) of explosives into Gaza.
    (AP, 9/1/09)

2009        Sep 8, A security official said Egyptian border guards shot dead four sub-Saharan migrants as they tried to illegally enter Israel.
    (AFP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 17, An Egyptian judge convicted two American couples of human trafficking in an illegal adoptions case and sentenced them to two years in prison. The trial highlighted bureaucratic entanglements and murky legislation on adopting children in the predominantly Muslim country.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Cairo, Egypt, a 2-day meeting of the International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament (ICNND) opened. It was set up by the governments of Australia and Japan to probe ideas on how to cut the world's nuclear arms stockpile ahead of a UN conference on the subject next year. Iran and Israel stated their positions on disarmament separately during the gathering.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 5, It was reported that conservative Egyptian lawmakers have called for a ban on imports of a Chinese-made kit meant to help women fake their virginity and one scholar has even called for the "exile" of anyone who imports or uses it. The Artificial Virginity Hymen kit, distributed by the Chinese company Gigimo, costs about $30. It is intended to help newly married women fool their husbands into believing they are virgins.
    (AP, 10/5/09)

2009        Oct 7, Egypt's antiquities department severed its ties with France's Louvre museum because it has refused to return what are described as stolen artifacts,
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 9, Egypt's top Islamic cleric said that students and teachers will not be allowed to wear face veils in classrooms and dormitories of Sunni Islam's premier institute of learning, al-Azhar, part of a government effort to curb radical Islamic practices.
    (AP, 10/9/09)
2009        Oct 9, France's culture minister agreed to return painted wall fragments to Egypt after a row over their ownership prompted the country to cut ties with the Louvre Museum.
    (AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 15, It was reported that the Taj network, funded by the National Science Foundation, now connects India, Singapore, Vietnam and Egypt to the larger Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development (GLORIAD) global infrastructure, and "dramatically improves existing US network links with China and the Nordic region," according to an NSF statement.

2009        Oct 21, Security guards thwarted an attempted hijacking on an EgyptAir flight from Istanbul to Cairo by overpowering a Sudanese man who threatened crew members with a plastic knife. The man told flight attendants he wanted to "liberate Jerusalem."
    (AP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 24, In Egypt two passenger trains collided at high speed south of Cairo, killing 18 people and wounding 39. An initial inquiry found that a signalman had left work early and failed to warn drivers of delays because of a water buffalo on the track. Later analysis of a blood sample from the driver of the first train revealed the presence of traces of hashish.
    (AFP, 10/25/09)(AFP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 6, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao headed to Egypt for a summit with African leaders as Beijing bids to expand its diplomatic and economic influence on the resource-rich continent.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 7, China’s PM Wen Jiaobao sought to reassure the world's Muslims about his country's goodwill towards them in Cairo, at a time when Beijing is criticized for the treatment of its own Muslim minority.
    (AFP, 11/7/09)

2009        Nov 8, At the start of the two-day Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in Egypt China's Premier Wen Jiabao pledged $10 billion in low interest loans to African nations over the next three years and said Beijing would cancel the government debts of some of the poorest of those countries.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 15, An Egyptian judicial source said 2 Egyptian Christians, Rami Atef Khella and Raafat Khella, have been condemned to death for the murder of a Muslim man who married one of their relatives after she converted to Islam. Mariam Atef Khella and the couple's daughter Nur were wounded at the time of the attack more than a year ago.
    (AFP, 11/15/09)
2009        Nov 15, Egypt’s information technology minister said Egypt will apply for the first Internet domain written in Arabic. The announcement was made at a conference grouping Yahoo's co-founder and others to discuss boosting online access in emerging nations.
    (AP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 18, Egyptian fans were attacked after Algeria won (1-0) a make-or-break World Cup qualifying game in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, and offices of Egyptian companies in Algeria were ransacked after a matchup in Cairo over the weekend.
    (AP, 11/19/09)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.52)

2009        Nov 20, Egyptian police shot and killed a Bedouin in north Sinai after the arrest of fellow tribesmen prompted clashes. Protesters injured dozens of police near the Algerian embassy in Cairo, fanning the flames of a diplomatic spat that erupted after Algeria won a football World Cup qualifier.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)

2009        Dec 10, Egyptian security officials said a project is under way along the Gaza border to stem smuggling into the Palestinian territory through underground tunnels. A border guard with Hamas' Gaza rulers said the Egyptians are digging during the day and putting sheets of metal into the trenches at night.
    (AP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 11, The Canadian government said that it has approved a request from Egyptian-backed telecom Globalive Wireless Management Corp. to launch its mobile phone service in Canada.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 14, In Egypt a 2-day regional conference ended addressing for the first time the once taboo topic of sexual harassment. Activists said the sexual harassment of women in the streets, schools and work places of the Arab world was driving them to cover up and confine themselves to their homes.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 16, Egypt's antiquities chief said the wall paintings that caused a feud between Egypt and the Louvre Museum will be returned to their original location in a tomb in Luxor.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 20, Iraq's PM Nouri al-Maliki opened a landmark visit to Egypt in what aides described as an ambitious attempt to improve relations with one of the Arab world's most powerful players.
    (AP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 22, Egypt confirmed it is engaged in construction along its border with Gaza but said it is not building what some reports have said is a steel wall to block cross-border smuggling.
    (Reuters, 12/22/09)

2009        Dec 27, In Lebanon Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah called on Egypt to stop building a steel wall along the Gaza border that could obstruct tunnels which provide a lifeline for the blockaded enclave.
    (Reuters, 12/27/09)

2009        Dec 29, Egypt's top diplomat said Israel's PM Netanyahu presented Egypt with ideas for restarting Mideast peace talks, impressing his hosts with proposals that go further than past Israeli positions.
    (AP, 12/29/09)

2009        Dec 31, Hundreds of demonstrators rallied on opposite sides of an Israeli-Gaza border crossing to protest the blockade of the seaside territory imposed by Egypt and Israel.
    (AP, 12/31/09)

2009        Yusef Zeidan, Egyptian writer, won the Arabic Booker Prize for his novel “Azazil" (2008). It centered on a fifth-century debate between Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, over various arcane ecclesiastical and theological issues.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.54)
2009        Egypt passed a law allocating 64 seats out of 518 in the People’s Assembly to women.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.30)
2009        Egypt’s population stood at about 82 million. Most of the people lived in the Nile Valley, an area smaller than Denmark.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.58)

2010        Jan 3, National Bank of Egypt (NBE) and Banque Misr, the country's first and second biggest banks by assets, said they had agreed to accept real estate in exchange for hundreds of millions of dollars in public sector debt.
    (Reuters, 1/3/10)

2010        Jan 6, Egyptian security forces and Palestinians clashed at the Gaza border over the delay of an international aid convoy, killing one Egyptian border guard and wounding 15 Palestinians. 3 gunmen in a car sprayed automatic gunfire into a crowd leaving a church in the town of Nag Hamadi, about 40 miles from the ancient ruins of Luxor. The lead attacker was identified as a Muslim. 6 male churchgoers and one security guard were killed on the Coptic Christmas Eve. The 3 suspects in the drive-by shooting gave themselves up to police on Jan 8 after being surrounded by security forces. On Jan 16, 2011, a court convicted and sentenced to death a Muslim man for his part in the drive-by shooting. "I am a victim; I did not do it," screamed Mohammed Ahmed Hassanein, whose trial lasted 11 months. He was convicted of first degree murder and terror-related charges.
    (AP, 1/6/10)(AP, 1/7/10)(AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 7, In Egypt thousands clashed with police during a funeral procession for the seven people killed in an attack on churchgoers leaving a midnight Mass for Coptic Christians.
    (AP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 9, In Egypt Muslims and Christians set fire to each others' homes and shops near the southern town of Nagaa Hamady, three days after a gunman killed six Coptic Christians in a drive-by shooting there.
    (Reuters, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 12, Texas-based Apache Corp. said it made its sixth oil and gas discovery in the Faghur Basin play in Egypt's far Western Desert near the Libyan border.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 16, Egypt's largest opposition movement, the Muslim Brotherhood announced its new leader, Mohammed Badie (66), a member of the group's conservative faction. He was chosen by the movement's 30-member international council and becomes the group's eighth supreme leader since its foundation in 1928.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 18, In Egypt and Israel heavy rains and flash floods left seven people dead, including a British tourist who was killed when a sailboat capsized on the Nile River.
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 20, Three more Egyptians died in flooding in the southern Sinai Desert, bringing the toll for three days of unseasonably heavy rains to 10.
    (AP, 1/20/10)

2010        Jan 31, An Egyptian security official said 25 Egyptians were arrested on suspicion of planning a bombing attack against Jewish pilgrims in the country and belonging to a militant Islamist group. The suspects, rounded up over the past few weeks in the Nile Delta governorate of Daqahlia, were found in possession of explosives and rudimentary rocket warheads.
    (AFP, 1/31/10)

2010        Feb 1, Egypt’s Parliament amended an antiquities law to bring in stiffer punishments for the theft and smuggling of relics while granting patent rights to the country's antiquities council.
    (AFP, 2/1/10)

2010        Feb 8, In Egypt Mahmoud Ezzat, the new deputy leader of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood, and two other top figures were among 16 people arrested by police in a dawn sweep across the country targeting members of the nation's most powerful opposition group. They were accused of trying to set up training camps for staging attacks.
    (AP, 2/8/10)(AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 21, Egyptian police shot dead two African migrants as they attempted to enter Israel illegally. A man threw a suitcase containing a makeshift bomb at Cairo's main synagogue. There were no injuries or damage to the synagogue. A man (49), with a record of Islamic extremism and drug abuse, was detained on Feb 23.
    (AFP, 2/21/10)(AP, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 23, Egyptian newspapers reported that former UN atomic watchdog chief Mohammed ElBaradei has said he is prepared to run for president of Egypt. He said Mubarak, head of state since 1981, would not necessarily win a free election and went on to criticize corruption and poverty in Egypt. The constitution as it stands barred an ElBaradei candidacy. It requires candidates to have been a leading member of a party for at least one year and for the party to have existed for at least five years.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, Darfur's most powerful rebel group and the Sudanese government signed a truce in Cairo after a year of internationally sponsored negotiations, raising hopes the bloody seven-year conflict could draw to a close. According to the framework agreement, JEM would take part in the government's executive, judicial and legislative branches.
    (Reuters, 2/23/10)(AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 25, In Egypt Ahmed Mostafa (20), an engineering student, was detained and charged with publishing false news and "tarnishing the military's image" after blogging about a student forced to leave the military academy to make room for a candidate from a wealthier family. A military tribunal later agreed to suspend proceedings in return for an apology.
    (AP, 3/7/10)

2010        Feb 26, In Egypt a Costa Europa luxury cruise liner carrying nearly 1,500 passengers slammed into the pier as it docked Friday at the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik in fierce winds, leaving three crew members dead. Bad weather wreaked havoc across Egypt, pelting the capital with a freak hail storm.
    (AP, 2/26/10)(AFP, 2/26/10)

2010        Feb 27, Egypt's parliament voted by an overwhelming majority to regulate organ transplants in a bid to curb illegal trafficking and tourism over the issue.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Feb 28, The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities announced that archaeologists have unearthed the massive head of one Egypt's most famous pharaohs who ruled nearly 3,400 years ago. Amenhotep III, the grandfather of Tutankhamun, ruled from 1387-1348 B.C. at the height of Egypt's New Kingdom and presided over a vast empire stretching from Nubia in the south to Syria in the north.
    (AP, 2/28/10)

2010        Mar 2, Egyptian newspapers reported that former UN atomic chief Mohamed ElBaradei has called for constitutional changes in his first statement since forming an opposition group.
    (AFP, 3/2/10)

2010        Mar 6, An operation in Germany to remove the gall bladder of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was "successful" and he was in hospital convalescing.
    (AFP, 3/6/10)

2010        Mar 10, Top Egyptian cleric Sheik Mohammed Sayed Tantawi (81), whose views often drew criticism from religious conservatives and secular Muslims, died of a heart attack during a visit to Saudi Arabia. Tantawi angered radicals by supporting organ transplants, denouncing female circumcision and ruling that women should be appointed to senior judicial and administrative positions in government. At the same time, he shocked many Muslims in 2004 by siding with France in its steps to ban the hijab head covering from state schools.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 12, In Egypt 23 Coptic Christians were wounded when extremist Muslims attacked a church community center in Marsa-Matruh. At least 27 people were arrested in northern Egypt after fighting erupted between Muslims and Christians over land.
    (AP, 3/13/10)(Reuters, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 14, Egypt's Constitutional Court backed the right of women judges to sit on the bench in the state's administrative courts, despite opposition from conservatives. The ruling was not "decisive" and debates within the administrative courts could still continue along the conservative-liberal fault line.
    (AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 15, Israel’s Haaretz newspaper said Egyptian security officials have arrested Yotam Feldman, an Israeli journalist, as he tried to sneak across the porous Israeli-Egyptian border with African migrants. Feldman told his investigators he was reporting on African migrants sneaking into Israel from Egypt. Feldman returned home on March 22, saying he had been beaten in captivity and that some of his materials had been confiscated.
    (AP, 3/15/10)(AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 21, In Cairo, Egypt an international donors conference raised $850 million in pledges for projects intended to ensure the safe return of more than 2.7 million people displaced during the war in Darfur. The one-day conference was organized by the 57-nation Organization of The Islamic Conference and included representatives from the US, European nations, UN agencies and aid groups.
    (AP, 3/21/10)(AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 24, Egyptian police arrested 22 people suspected of involvement in smuggling goods into the Gaza Strip as part of major crackdown.
    (AFP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 26, Egyptian police said they arrested 45 suspected smugglers over the past three days in an intensified crackdown on the supply line to Gaza by way of hundreds of cross-border tunnels. Among the suspects was a man accused of trying to deliver $242,000 in Egyptian pounds and US dollars to Hamas in Gaza.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 2, In Egypt former UN nuclear watchdog chief Mohamed ElBaradei issued a public call for change in defiance of an emergency law banning gatherings critical of the authorities.
    (Reuters, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 3, In Egypt police arrested Ahmed Mahanna, owner of Dawin publishing, and confiscated copies of "ElBaradei and the Dream of a Green Revolution," a book calling for political change and lauding the former head of the UN nuclear agency, Mohammed ElBaradei.
    (AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 6, Egyptian police beat and dragged off protesters to disperse a gathering of a few dozen in downtown Cairo calling for constitutional reforms and fairer presidential elections. The next day Egypt's prosecutor general ordered the release of all the protesters arrested during the demonstration.
    (AP, 4/6/10)(AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 10, Kuwait deported back to Egypt at least 21 supporters of leading pro-reform Egyptian activist and former UN nuclear watchdog chief Mohamed ElBaradei, a day after arresting them. Some 20 more Egyptians were still being detained in Kuwait.
    (AFP, 4/10/10)(AP, 4/11/10)

2010        Apr 12, An Egyptian activist said Mohammed ElBaradei, emerging opposition leader and former head of the UN's nuclear watchdog agency, has called for a boycott of the upcoming elections. ElBaradei has turned his focus to promoting electoral reforms and constitutional amendments that would allow a credible rival candidate to run in next year's presidential election.
    (AP, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 14, Egypt's state news agency reported that 10 African nations have failed to conclude a long delayed new agreement for sharing water from the Nile and will call for closer cooperation instead.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

2010        Apr 20, Ethiopia said that it would go ahead with a new deal with six other countries on sharing the waters of the Nile and accused Egypt of "dragging its feet" on a more equitable treaty.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 21, Egypt charged five leading members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood, including a Saudi, Awadh al-Qarani, with money laundering and raising funds abroad, in the latest government effort targeting the country's largest opposition movement.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 4/26/10)

2010        Apr 28, An Egyptian court convicted 26 men of spying for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah and plotting attacks in Egypt, and gave them prison sentences ranging from six months to life. 3 of the defendants, including leader Mohammad Qiblan, were convicted in absentia. A Hamas security official in charge of the tunnel area along the border said Egyptians had filled a passage with some type of crowd dispersal gas killing four Palestinians. The next day Egypt denied the charges saying fires sparked by such explosions could use up all the oxygen in the tunnel and people caught inside could suffocate.
    (AP, 4/28/10)(AP, 4/29/10)(SFC, 4/28/10, p.A3)

2010        May 2, Egyptian police shot dead two African migrants in separate incidents near the border with Israel.
    (AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        May 3, In Egypt police used batons and splintered wooden sticks to beat several protesters from a crowd of about 400 people, mostly from opposition groups and social movements, that turned out near the government headquarters in downtown Cairo.
    (Reuters, 5/3/10)
2010        May 3, Egypt's oil ministry said it has signed a memorandum of understanding in Beijing with two Chinese companies to build a $2 billion refinery that would be its largest such plant.
    (AP, 5/3/10)
2010        May 3, The leaders of Israel and Egypt met to discuss the renewal of the Middle East peace process ahead of US-backed indirect negotiations between the Palestinians and the Jewish state.
    (AP, 5/3/10)

2010        May 8, It was reported that Egyptian billionaire Mohamed Al Fayed has sold luxury London department store Harrods to Qatar Holding, the Gulf royal family's investment arm.
    (AFP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 11, Egypt's government called for a two-year extension of the country's controversial emergency law but claimed its use would now be limited. Human rights activists dismissed the changes and warned the law would continue to be used to suppress dissent.
    (AP, 5/11/10)
2010        May 11, Mohamed Ibrahim, an Egyptian-American university botany professor teaching in the United States, was arrested at Cairo airport after arriving on a direct flight from New York carrying two pistols, 250 bullets, two swords and 11 knives in his luggage.
    (Reuters, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, Four African countries (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) signed a new treaty on the equitable sharing of the Nile waters despite strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan, who have the lion's share of the river waters. The new agreement, the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework, is to replace a 1959 accord between Egypt and Sudan that gives them control of more than 90 percent of the water flow. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit warned at the weekend that Cairo's water rights were a "red line" and threatened legal action if a partial deal is reached.
    (AFP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 16, Egyptian police shot and killed a Sudanese migrant as he attempted to cross the border illegally into neighboring Israel.
    (AFP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 23, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said that his country plans to boost trade with Egypt, during a visit to Cairo where he met with President Hosni Mubarak.
    (AFP, 5/23/10)

2010        Jun 1, Egyptians elected members of parliament's upper house, in a poll marked by widespread voter apathy, charges of irregularities and a clash in which three policemen were wounded. Egypt's ruling National Democratic Party scored an overwhelming victory in upper house elections amid accusations of irregularities and a low voter turnout.
    (AFP, 6/1/10)(AFP, 6/3/10)
2010        Jun 1, Pro-Palestinian activists sent another boat to challenge Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ordered the opening of the Rafah border crossing to allow humanitarian aid into the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 5, A Cairo court upheld a ruling to strip Egyptian men married to Israeli women of their citizenship in a case that has highlighted national sentiment towards Israel.
    (AFP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 6, Egyptian police beat a young businessman (28) to death on an Alexandria street after he posted a video on the Internet of officers sharing the spoils from a drug bust among themselves. Images of Khaled Said's broken body were soon posted on social networking websites, where activists dubbed him the "martyr of the emergency law." On June 23 Egypt's state prosecutor said that a second autopsy confirmed that Said had in fact died of asphyxia after swallowing a bag of marijuana. Prosecutors later charged plainclothes policemen Mahmoud Salah and Awad Ismail Suleiman with illegal arrest and harsh treatment, falling far short of demands by the victim's family for a murder charge. In 2011 a medical panel said that Said died of asphyxiation after he was beaten, and a bag had been placed in his mouth after he fell unconscious. In October, 2011, two policemen accused of beating Khaled Said to death, were convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison. The convictions were overturned on appeal. Mahmoud Salah and Awad Ismail Suleiman were freed on June 1, 2013, pending a retrial. On March 3, 2014, Salah and Suleiman were sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/11/10)(AFP, 6/23/10)(AP, 7/27/10)(AFP, 9/25/11)(AP, 10/26/11)(AP, 6/1/13)(Reuters, 3/3/14)

2010        Jun 7, An Egyptian security official declared the blockade of Gaza a failure and said his country will keep its border with the Palestinian territory open indefinitely.
    (AP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, In Egypt Coptic Pope Shenouda rejected a court ruling that Coptic men could remarry following divorce, except in cases of separation following adultery, saying the decision was against the church's principles and reflected interference in its affairs.
    (Reuters, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 10, Egypt launched a campaign to enforce a smoking ban in the scenic seaside city of Alexandria, no small feat in a nation where four out of 10 men use tobacco.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 13, Egyptian security forces in Cairo hit protesters and knocked some to the ground before rounding dozens up at a demonstration against a police beating that killed a young man a week ago.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 16, Israeli officials they will significantly ease its bruising land blockade of the Gaza Strip, in an effort to blunt the widespread international criticism that has followed a deadly Israeli commando raid on a blockade-busting flotilla. Israeli troops shot and killed a drug smuggler on the Egyptian border. Egypt said he was among a group of seven armed men trying to bring drugs into Israel.
    (AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 20, Egyptian security forces beat and arrested dozens of protesters when they attempted to march through downtown Cairo in the latest demonstration against police brutality following the June 6 death of a young man.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 21, Egypt's government confirmed that oil has leaked from one of several rigs operating off the coast of the Red Sea resort Hurghada and has polluted about 100 miles (160 km) of coastline including tourist beach resorts. The government has kept quiet about the leak for days.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 23, In Cairo Abdel Hamid Musa Abu Aqrab, a top Egyptian militant leader, was sentenced to death for killing two police commanders in 1992 and 1993 and for organizing bomb attacks against security officials and tourists in the 1990s. Aqrab headed the military wing of Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiya group. The group was also blamed for a failed 1995 assassination attempt on President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa. A judge at the state security court referred Abu Aqrab's case for confirmation by Egypt's top religious authority, the Grand Mufti, in a procedural step that almost always confirms the death penalty.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 25, In Egypt several thousand people, joined by top opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, protested what they call authorities' systematic use torture in the largest demonstration yet sparked by the alleged beating death of a young man by police this month.
    (AP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jun 26, Egyptian security officials said that Israeli soldiers shot dead a suspected Egyptian drug smuggler after he illegally crossed the border with the Jewish state.
    (AFP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 27, A new UN report cited political repression as one of the main forces preventing Egyptian youths, who make up a quarter of the population, from participating in the country's development.
    (AP, 6/27/10)
2010        Jun 27, In Ethiopia water minister of Egypt and Sudan said they will not be forced into signing a new deal on the sharing of the Nile's waters. Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda inked a framework in March, 2010, replacing a 1929 colonial-era treaty between Egypt and Britain which gave Cairo veto power over upstream projects. A two-day meeting concluded of regional water ministers concluded with Egypt handing over the body's chair to Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 6/27/10)

2010        Jul 5, In Cairo, Egypt, religious liberal Nasr Abu Zayd (66), a Koranic scholar declared an apostate for challenging mainstream Muslim views on the holy book, died.
    (Reuters, 7/5/10)

2010        Jul 6, In Egypt Mahmoud Taha Swellem, a disgruntled employee of an Egyptian construction company, opened fire on his colleagues, killing six and wounding 16, before surrendering. Swellem, a driver, pulled over the company bus in western Cairo, whipped out an assault rifle and showered his passengers with bullets.
    (AP, 7/6/10)(SFC, 7/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 13, The Egyptian government released a Bedouin activist and blogger after three years of imprisonment as part of an effort to ease tensions in the Sinai Peninsula. Authorities detained Mosaad Suleiman Abu Fagr (41) in December 2007 and accused him of inciting Bedouins to protest against government discrimination.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 14, A ship sent by a Libyan charity to break Israel's naval blockade of the Gaza Strip changed course in the Mediterranean Sea and docked at an Egyptian port after agreeing to deliver its cargo of aid through Egyptian territory.
    (AP, 7/14/10)(AP, 7/15/10)

2010        Jul 19, Egypt signed a significant agreement with BP to develop 2 offshore gas fields in the largest deal for the beleaguered oil giant since its drilling rig disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AFP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 21, The leaders of Egypt and Turkey met in Cairo to discuss stuttering international efforts to coax Israeli and Palestinian leaders back to the negotiating table.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 22, Egyptian security officials said smugglers who sneak consumer goods, cash and weapons into the blockaded Gaza Strip have cut hundreds of holes in an underground steel wall Egypt is building along the border to try to stop them.
    (AP, 7/22/10)

2010        Jul 27, In Egypt armed and masked Bedouin tribe members hijacked a bus from an industrial area in the central Sinai peninsula. The bus was carrying 30 employees of Sinai Cement who were dumped before the hijackers fled with the vehicle.
    (Reuters, 7/27/10)

2010        Aug 2,  A string of rockets was fired toward the Israeli resort city Eilat, and one hit in neighboring Jordan, killing one person and wounding four. On Aug 3 Jordan said it has evidence that the rocket attack originated from neighboring Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. After days of denials an Egyptian official said the deadly rocket attacks were carried out by the militant Palestinian Hamas group operating from Egypt.
    (AP, 8/2/10)(AP, 8/3/10)(AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 12, Egypt's  religious ministry launched an ambitious project to, neighborhood by neighborhood, unify the timing and sound of the Islamic call to prayer across Cairo, a sprawling city of 18 million. System glitches and a communication breakdown delayed it by a day.
    (AP, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 13, In Egypt a gunbattle between Eritrean migrants and Bedouin traffickers demanding more money to take them to Israel left at least four people in the Sinai Desert. 2 others were shot dead by Egyptian police barring them from illegally crossing the border. A woman died of her injuries on Aug 15. Police later said as many as 10 migrants were killed and that dozens more could be lost in the desert. Two of those who escaped were killed by Egyptian guards at the Israeli border.
    (AP, 8/14/10)(Reuters, 8/15/10)(AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 18, Crowds of Egyptians angered by daily power outages at the height of a scorching summer blocked a major highway south of Cairo with barricades of burning tires.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 21, In Egypt a Vincent Van Gogh painting, identified as "Poppy Flowers," was cut out of its frame in the Mahmoud Khalil museum after it opened in the morning. The painting was valued at 55 million dollars. The painting of the yellow and red flowers in a vase had been stolen before, in 1977, but was found the following year. None of the alarms and only seven out of 43 surveillance cameras were working at the Cairo museum where the painting was stolen. In October a court convicted 11 officials from the Culture Ministry of gross negligence and sentenced them to 3 years in prison, pending an appeal.
    (AFP, 8/21/10)(AP, 8/22/10)(SFC, 10/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 25, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak announced plans for the government to start building the country's first nuclear power plant at a site on the Mediterranean coast, ending a year of controversy.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Aug 28, An Egyptian security official said police in the Sinai desert have discovered two large caches of weapons that were to be smuggled to Gaza. The find included anti-aircraft weaponry.
    (AP, 8/28/10)

2010        Sep 9, In Egypt 11 police recruits died and another four were injured when flames engulfed their barracks in a Cairo suburb.
    (AFP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 11, In southern Egypt a barge leaked some 100 tons of gasoline into the Nile River. Captain Yasser Hussein told police that low water levels caused the boat to tilt and partially submerge  allowing the fuel to leak.
    (AP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 12, An Egyptian security official said 16 Russians and Moldovans, who killed an Egyptian smuggler, have handed themselves over to police. Some of the would-be migrants to Israel attacked and fatally stabbed smuggler Massud Salim (31) after he attempted to rape one of the female members of the group.
    (AFP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 18, Egyptian police killed a Sudanese man and wounded three others when they opened fire on would-be migrants trying to enter Israel.
    (AFP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 19, Egyptians officials said Mohammed Dababish, a top Hamas security official, was arrested at Cairo airport for using falsified travel documents.
    (AP, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 22, In Egypt Coptic Bishop Bishoy said certain verses in the Quran were inserted after Muhammad's death by one of his successors. Muslim belief says the prophet received all verses through the archangel Gabriel during his lifetime. On Sep 25 Egypt's top Islamic institution criticized Bishoy, warning that the statement threatened Egypt's national unity. On Sep 26 Egypt's Coptic Christian leader Pope Shenouda III apologized in a television interview to any Muslims who were offended by Bishoy’s comments.
    (AP, 9/26/10)(AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 30, Egyptian telecom giant Orascom Telecom said its Algeria unit has been hit with a $230 million preliminary tax reassessment, marking a new and increasingly acrimonious chapter in the company's relations with the North African nation.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 3, Egypt backed the Palestinians' refusal to negotiate with Israel as long as it continues to build West Bank settlements, even as officials urged for continued diplomacy to salvage the month-old talks.
    (AP, 10/3/10)
2010        Oct 3, Egyptian and Iranian airlines agreed to resume direct flights between the two countries for the first time since 1979.
    (SFC, 10/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 12, Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood accused the government of cracking down ahead of November's parliamentary election. Police had arrested at least 28 members of the Islamist group over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 10/12/10)

2010        Oct 4, Russia's VimpelCom Ltd and Weather Investments, the investment company headed by Egyptian telecom mogul Naguib Sawiris, said they are merging to form what would become the world's fifth largest mobile telecommunication service provider in a deal valued at over $6.5 billion. Under the agreement VimpelCom, which is Russia's second largest mobile phone service provider, would own via Weather 51.7 percent of Egypt's Orascom Telecom and all of Italy's Wind Telecomunicazioni SpA, both of which are headed by Sawiris.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 5, A leading independent Egyptian daily, Al-Dustour, announced that it has fired chief editor Ibrahim Eissa, an outspoken government critic, amid what journalists are calling a state crackdown on the media ahead of parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 12, Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood accused the government of cracking down ahead of November's parliamentary election. Police had arrested at least 28 members of the Islamist group over the last 2 days. An Egyptian regulatory body set new rules for companies sending text messages to multiple mobile phones, a step that activists say will stifle efforts to mobilize voters before the elections, which are to be held in the last week of November.
    (AFP, 10/12/10)(AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 13, Egypt was reported to have handed down new media requirements that will effectively put all live broadcasts, including TV talk shows and news bulletins, under the control of state television. Several private broadcast service providers said that they received letters from the telecom regulator ending their standing permits to offer live broadcast feeds from Egypt starting from Oct 15.
    (AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 19, Egypt's main satellite operator said it shut down 12 private television channels on grounds of violating broadcasting licenses. Egypt's largest opposition Islamist group said that police detained 164 Muslim Brotherhood members, most of them election campaign workers, in a spate of raids across the country.
    (AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, Egyptian and South African leaders met in Cairo for talks aimed at strengthening economic ties between the two African powerhouses and working towards a free trade deal for the continent.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 23, An Egyptian court issued a final ruling against the permanent presence of police on university campuses, saying they restricted academic independence.
    (AFP, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 25, In Egypt a planned website, Harrasmap, will allow women to quickly report instances of harassment via text message or Twitter, to be loaded onto a digital map of Cairo to show hotspots and areas that might be dangerous for women to walk alone. The data will be shared with activists, media, and police. Cairo's online map will run off a platform called Ushahidi, an open-source software first developed to report violence in Kenya after 2008 elections there. Since then test models of it have run in South Africa, Gaza and India.
    (AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 26, Egyptian security forces detained 70 campaign workers from the opposition Muslim Brotherhood while hanging election posters in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria ahead of next month's parliamentary vote.
    (AFP, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 29, An Egyptian security official said a man from Sudan's Darfur region was shot dead trying to sneak across the border into Israel. 2 others were taken into custody as smugglers and others scattered into the desert.
    (AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Oct 31, In Iraq an al Qaeda attack left 68 people dead including 46 hostages, 7 police and 5 attackers, at the Sayidat al-Nejat Syriac Christian cathedral (Our Lady of Salvation) in Baghdad. The attack ended with police storming the church to free more than 100 hostages. Officials said most of the casualties were killed or wounded when the security forces raided the place and that the attack was aimed at driving the Christian minority out of the country. Al-Qaida cited the cases of 2 Egyptian women, wives of Coptic priests, who had converted to Islam in order to get away from their abusive husbands.
    (Reuters, 11/1/10)(AFP, 11/1/10)(SFC, 12/27/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 1, Egypt’s Information Minister Annas el-Fiqi ordered all companies providing the service or television networks with uplinks to reapply for permits. The measure will affect about a dozen uplink providers and TV stations. Providers have complained it is aimed at controlling live TV broadcasts such as political talk-shows.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 4, Egypt and the World Bank signed two new loan agreements worth 820 million dollars, in the largest financing provided by the institution to the country's electricity sector.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 7, In Egypt Ahmed Shabaan (19) went missing. His body was recovered in a canal four days later. The family of Shabaan said police officers beat him at the Sidi Gaber police station in Alexandria. On Nov 16 Amnesty International called on Egyptian authorities to investigate allegations that police tortured the young man to death.
    (AP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 11, In Egypt Muslim Brotherhood lawyer Abdel Moneim Abdel Maqsud said 31 of the group's members were detained in the port city of Ismailia over the last 24 hours, including the three candidates for the district.
    (AFP, 11/11/10)
2010        Nov 11, Israel's government told its citizens to immediately leave Egypt's Sinai desert because of a kidnapping threat from the Army of Islam. A day later Egyptian security officials said they had and confiscated explosives this week and arrested 20-25 members of a cell planning to attack Israelis and international forces in Sinai.
    (AFP, 11/11/10)(AFP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 16, In Egypt a senior Brotherhood official said Egyptian police have rounded up about 600 Muslim Brotherhood members ahead of this month's parliamentary election and some 250 are still detained. In southern Egypt Muslims set fire overnight to at least 10 houses belonging to Coptic Christians in the village of al-Nawahid over rumors that a Christian resident had an affair with a Muslim girl. Coptic Christians make up about 10% of Egypt's population of 80 million.
    (AFP, 11/16/10)(AP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 17, In Egypt a security official said a teenage bride (19) has been beaten and stabbed to death by brothers and an uncle after she married against the family's wishes. The trio murdered the woman after tracking her down to the apartment she shared with her husband, a poor farmer, in Minya province. The men were subsequently arrested.
    (AFP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 19, In Egypt at least 100 members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood were arrested across the country less than 10 days ahead of legislative elections.
    (AFP, 11/19/10)

2010        Nov 20, In Egypt a tour bus lost control and flipped over several times on a winding mountain road near a Red Sea resort, killing eight tourists.
    (AP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 22, Egypt's Orascom Telecom said it is selling its entire 50% stake in its Tunisian subsidiary to Qatar Telecom in a deal valued at $1.2 billion.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Nov 24, In Egypt hundreds of Christians smashed cars and windows in Cairo and clashed with police in protests over the halt in the construction of a church that left one person dead in Giza's Omraniya neighborhood. A 2nd person died of injuries on Nov 26. The Coptic community said authorities in Egypt are reluctant to approve permits to build churches. Egypt’s attorney general decided to hold the 156 protesters for 15 days on suspicion of inciting the riots.
    (AP, 11/24/10)(Reuters, 11/25/10)(AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 26, An Egyptian judicial source said courts have ordered the cancellation of Nov 28 parliamentary elections in 24 districts after orders to reinstate opposition and independent candidates were ignored. The Alexandria criminal court sentenced 11 Islamists to two years in prison for election campaigning for the banned Muslim Brotherhood. 
    (AFP, 11/26/10)(Reuters, 11/26/10)(AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 28, Egypt held elections for a new, 508-seat parliament. The election was marred by scattered violence, reports of vote buying and the ejection of many independent monitors from polling stations.
    (AP, 11/28/10)

2010        Nov 29, In Egypt demonstrations and riots swept across the country protesting alleged fraud by the ruling party in parliamentary elections. The opposition said its candidates had been heavily defeated. Rights groups estimated turnout for the elections was only 10 to 15 percent.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov 30, Egypt’s official election results were released. The ruling National Democratic Party wiped out its Islamist opponents from parliament in the first round of a disputed election.  The leading opposition group dismissed the results of parliamentary elections as "invalid," but nevertheless said its candidates would participate in weekend runoffs.
    (AP, 11/30/10)(AFP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 1, In Egypt a top official from the opposition Muslim Brotherhood said the group is pulling out of parliamentary elections, citing widespread fraud.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 2, Egypt's second biggest opposition bloc said it would refuse to take up the two seats it won in a parliamentary election it said was faked, in addition to refusing to take part in a second round.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 5, Egypt held runoff parliamentary elections. President Hosni Mubarak's ruling party won a sweeping victory after the two main opposition groups decided to boycott in protest of alleged fraud in the first round. Mubarak's party won 420 of 508 seats in parliamentary polls.
    (AP, 12/5/10)(AP, 12/6/10)(AFP, 12/6/10)
2010        Dec 5, A shark tore the arm off an elderly German tourist at an Egyptian Red Sea resort, killing her almost immediately, only days after sharks badly mauled four other European tourists in the waters.
    (AP, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 6, A coalition of Egyptian rights groups urged President Hosni Mubarak to nullify the results of the country's parliamentary election because of widespread vote rigging. Election monitors charged that Egypt's polls were marked by widespread fraud, as Mubarak's party prepared to take almost 100-percent control of parliament.
    (AP, 12/6/10)(AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 11, Egypt’s minister of electricity said his country plans to build its first nuclear power plant and have it operational by 2019.
    (SSFC, 12/12/10, p.A10)

2010        Dec 12, Hundreds of Egyptian activists and members of opposition groups protested against what they said were violations during a parliamentary vote that handed the ruling party a huge victory last month.
    (Reuters, 12/12/10)
2010        Dec 12, Heavy rain and fierce winds pummeled countries across the Middle East, killing a woman in Lebanon, sinking a ship off Israel's coast and prompting Egypt to close its largest Mediterranean port. A factory collapsed in Alexandria. 13 bodies were later pulled from the rubble and at least 15 more workers were believed trapped.
    (AP, 12/12/10)(AFP, 12/12/10)(SFC, 12/14/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 13, Egyptian officials said rain and sandstorms that battered the country at the weekend killed at least 31 people, adding the toll could rise as rescue workers were still sifting through two collapsed buildings.
    (AFP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 20, An Egyptian State Security prosecutor said that authorities have charged a local businessman, Tarek Hassan, and two Israelis for recruiting agents in Egypt, Syria, and Lebanon to spy for Israeli intelligence.
    (AP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 21, The leaders of Egypt and Libya were in Khartoum for talks with Sudanese leaders on the future of Africa's largest country ahead of a referendum that's likely to break it into two.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 26, Egypt said it has adopted a stimulus plan with the aim of injecting 10-20 billion pounds ($1.72-3.44 billion) into the economy in the 2011 calendar year. Gamal Mubarak, the son of Pres. Mubarak, said he will press ahead with bold new economic reforms that will be "more ambitious and more daring" than those that have come before, while still vowing to protect the nation's poor from any fallout.
    (Reuters, 12/26/10)(AP, 12/26/10)
2010        Dec 26, In southern Egypt a tour bus slammed into a truck, killing eight Americans and injuring 21 others in the latest fatal crash involving tourists.
    (AP, 12/26/10)

2010        Dec 27, An Egyptian Ministry of Health official said a resurgent H1N1 swine flu virus has infected 1,172 people in Egypt and killed 56 since October 8.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)

2010        Dec 29, In Egypt flood waters caused by torrential rains earlier this week swept a bus packed with 77 schoolgirls and their teachers off a highway in the country's south, ending in the tragic death of 15 people, most of them students. The last two survivors were pulled out of the waters in the early hours Dec 31.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        Tarek Osman authored “Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to Mubarak."
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.102)
2010        Egypt’s population numbered about 85 million, roughly a quarter of all Arabs.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.55)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.63)

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