Timeline European Union: Common Market

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The EU was initially formed as an economic trading block. It has continued to grow and develop as a broad-based social entity with open internal borders. May 9 is Europe Day.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.55)

EU Timeline (Univ. of Leiden): http://tinyurl.com/awlef
EU History:

1306        Pierre Dubois, a counselor for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)

1789-1848    In 2015 Adam Zamoyski covered this period in Europe in “Phantom Terror: The Threat of Revolution and the Repression of Liberty 1789-1848."
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1939-1945    Norman Davies covered this period in his 2006 book “Europe at War 1939-1945: No Simple Victory." His central theme was the Western alliance with Stalin and its consequences. In 2012 Max Hastings authored “All Hell Let Loose: The World At War: 1939-1945." On average nearly 30,000 people were killed every day.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.94)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)

1947        Jun 5, Secretary of State George C. Marshall in a speech at Harvard Univ. called for a European Recovery Program to be initiated by the European powers and supported by American aid (Marshall Plan). The program was intended to assist European nations, including former enemies, to rebuild their economies. In 2007 Greg Behrman authored “The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe."
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D6)

1948        The 10-nation Western European Union defense alliance was formed. It was set to close in July 2011.
    (SFC, 6/4/99, p.A14)(Econ, 6/26/10, p.63)

1949        May 5, The treaty constituting the Statute of the Council of Europe was signed by ten countries: Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, accompanied by Ireland, Italy, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Robert Schuman, foreign minister of France, defined a country as European by its democratic and institutional adherence to common European values.
    (http://tinyurl.com/tye8k)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.21)

1950        May 9, The first step in the process of foundation of the European Community was given by the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman. In a speech inspired by Jean Monnet, Schuman proposed that France and Germany and any other European country wishing to join them pool their coal and steel resources. This plan of economic integration looked for developing the approach between France and Germany, moving definitively away the haunt of war in Europe.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.27)(www.historiasiglo20.org/europe/anteceden2.htm)

1950        Jul 1, The European Payment Union (EPU) came into being, by agreement of the country members of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).  The latter had replaced the original Committee of European Economic Cooperation (CEEC), in April, 1948, and is an organization of European recipients of U.S. economic assistance.

1951        Jean Monnet, French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister, helped found the European Union with agreements between 6 countries on the pooling of coal and steel resources.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)

1954        May 18, European Convention on Human Rights went into effect.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1954        Oct 23, Following a London Conference, agreements on a modified Brussels Treaty were signed in Paris and the Western European Union (WEU) came into being.

1955        Jun 1, The 3-day Messina Conference opened in Sicily. This conference of the foreign ministers of the six member states of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) led to the creation of the European Economic Community in 1958.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messina_Conference)(Econ, 10/17/15, SR p.7)

1956        Nov 6, Pressure from the US and USSR effected a cease-fire in the Middle-East. The UN created an emergency force (UNEF) to supervise a cease fire. Britain’s PM Anthony Eden called French PM Guy Mollet to tell him that Britain was aborting operations in Egypt. German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, meeting with Mollet, remarked that Europe must unite to counter the influence of the United States.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p. 1242)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        The Eurovision Song Contest, the brainchild of French music producer Marcel Baison, began with 7 contestants.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.57)

1957        Mar 25, The Treaties establishing the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community were signed in Rome. The Treaty of Rome enabled people, goods, services and money to move unchecked throughout the Union. The Council of Ministers represents the governments of the members. Major decisions are made by the Council of Foreign Ministers. A 20-member Commission composed of appointed representatives of each member state serves as the administrative arm and members represent the Union. The Commission proposes and executes laws and policies. A European Parliament is composed of 626 members elected by the electorates of the member states and they sit in party groups. The Commission proposes, the Parliament advises, and the Council decides. The goal was to create a common market for all products but especially coal and steel.
    (AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)(http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/eec.htm)

1958        Jan 1, Treaties establishing the European Economic Community went into effect.
    (AP, 1/1/98)

1959        Nov 20, Seven European nations (Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland) signed the Stockholm Convention to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The organization becoming operative on May 3 1960.

1961        Jul 31, Ireland formally applied for membership in the European Community.

1961        Aug 9, The United Kingdom applied for membership in the European Community.

1961        Aug 10, Denmark formally applied for membership in the European Community.

1962        Nov 1, Greece entered the European Common Market.

1963        Sep, The Treaty of Ankara on reducing duties implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
    (WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

1963        The EU signed a trade deal in Yaounde, Cameroon, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)

1967        May 11, The United Kingdom re-applied to join the European Community. It was followed by Ireland and Denmark and, a little later, by Norway. General de Gaulle was still reluctant to accept British accession.
1967        May 11, French President Charles de Gaulle for a second time said he will veto Britain's application to join the Common Market. One reason he gave was the incompatibility of its farming policies.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/27/newsid_4187000/4187714.stm)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.62)

1969        Dec 1, On the initiative of the French President, Georges Pompidou, the Heads of State or Government of 6 European countries met in The Hague in order to define the methods of reviving the European integration process. The Hague Summit was held to establish the goal of European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A22)(www.ena.lu/hague_summit_december_1969-022500027.html)

1972        Interrail was launched to mark the 50th anniversary of an int’l. rail industry group. It provided single ticket access to a large part of Europe’s rail network. In 1994 it expanded to the ex-communist east.
    (Econ, 9/5/15, p.55)

1973        Jan 1, The European Economic Community (EEC), the forerunner to the EU, admitted Britain, Ireland and Denmark even though they made chocolate containing a small percentage of vegetable fat.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A22)

1973        Jul 3, The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) opened in Helsinki with 35 states sending representatives.

1973        Sixteen countries signed a convention establishing a European patent. The first applications were filed 5 years later. By 2012 signatory countires reached 38 including the EU’s 27 members.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.66)
1973        A Frenchman invented a standard Eurobarometer poll to show how various member countries agreed and disagreed. The first poll was published in 1974.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.72)(http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/standard_en.htm)

1975        Jun 5, The outcome of the British referendum reveals that 67.2% of voters are in favor of the United Kingdom remaining a member of the Community.

1975        Feb 28, The EU signed another trade deal in Lome, Togo, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1975/index_en.htm)

1975        May 20, The European Economic Community adopted a trade agreement with Israel.

1979        Mar 13, European Monetary System (EMS) entered into force.

1979        May 28, The acts relating to Greece's accession to the European Communities were signed in Athens, Greece.

1979        Jun 7-1979 Jun 10, The first elections to the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage were held. The turnout for the vote was 63%.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1979/index_en.htm)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.56)
1979        Jun 7-1979 Jun 10, Belgian PM Leo Tindemans led his party during the first direct elections to the European Parliament, winning with 983,000 votes, still a record for any election in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)

1979        Jun 28, The Greek Parliament ratified the Treaty of Accession.

1979        Sep 19, The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats was signed. It became effective as of June 1, 1982.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.126)(http://tinyurl.com/yez66ct)

1981        Jan 1, Greece joined the European Union. It joined the Eurozone on Jan 1, 2001, allowing it to be among the first group of countries that issued euro banknotes on Jan 1, 2002.

1982        Feb 23, In a consultative referendum, Greenland, which became a member of the European Community as part of Denmark, opted for withdrawal from the Community.

1982        Oct 1, The framework agreement on cooperation between the European Community and Brazil entered into force.

1983        Dec 17, An Economic cooperation agreement between the Community and the Andean Pact countries was signed in Cartagena, Colombia.

1984        Mar 12, The EU Council signed an agreement on future relations between Greenland and the Community.

1984        Jun 25-1984 Jun 26, A European Council is held in Fontainebleau, France. The Ten reach an agreement on the amount of compensation to be granted to the United Kingdom to reduce its contribution to the Community budget.

1984        Oct 9, A cooperation agreement between the European Community and the Yemen Republic was signed in Brussels.

1984        The EU introduced milk quotas. They were designed when low market prices and high subsidies were filling EU warehouses with surplus “butter mountains" and mounds of milk powder, at ever greater cost to the EU budget. The quotas were abolished in 2015.
    (http://www.economist.com/node/10689170)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.64)

1985        Feb 1, Greenland left the European Community but remains associated with it as an overseas territory.

1985        Mar 29-1985 Mar 30, A European Council is held in Brussels, Belgium. It accepts the adhesion of Spain and Portugal in the European Communities and agrees on the Integrated Mediterranean Programmes (IMP) as proposed by the Commission.

1985        Jun 12, Spain and Portugal signed Accession Treaties to the European Community.

1985        Jun 14, European states signed the Schengen Agreement, which allowed for the abolition of systematic border controls between the participating countries. The agreement was incorporated into EU law in 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schengen_treaty)(Econ, 10/13/07, p.53)

1985        Dec 2-1985 Dec 4, A European Council was held in Luxembourg. The Ten agreed to amend the Treaty of Rome and to revitalize the process of European integration by drawing up a Single European Act.

1985        The EU instituted the Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought as a tribute to the Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A17)

1985        The EU began its "Culture Capital" program to promote European integration.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1985-1995    Frenchman Jacques Delors served as president of the European Commission.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.50)

1986        Feb 17, The Single European Act modifying the Treaty of Rome was signed a 1st time in Luxembourg. [see Feb 28] The single European Act was passed to end trade restricting regulations and create a true single European market by 1992.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.9)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1986/index_en.htm)

1986        Feb 28, The Single European Act modifying the Treaty of Rome was signed a 2nd time in The Hague.

1986        Mar 1, In Sweden Social Democrat Ingvar Carlsson became prime minister. He served until October 1991. Under his administration Sweden made the decision to apply to join the EU.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Sweden)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.57)

1986        Sep 15-1986 Sep 20, In Punta del Este, Uruguay, the Ministers of ninety-two nations agreed to a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (Uruguay Round).

1986        Nov, The European Commission decided on GSM as the first digital standard.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.8)

1986        Portugal and Spain entered the European Union expanding the membership to 12.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 7/18/03, p.D5)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.3)

1987        Apr 14, The Turkish Government formally applied to join the European Communities.

1987        May 13, The Bank of Spain signed an agreement to join the European Monetary System.

1987        Nov 10, The Bank of Portugal signed an agreement to join the European Monetary System (EMS).

1987        The EU inked its first fishing deal with Mauritania.
    (WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)

1988        Sep 26, A Trade and economic cooperation agreement between the European Community and Hungary was signed in Brussels. The European Council adopted a declaration regarding the American law on trade and competitivity (the "Trade Act"). It expresses its preoccupations about the protectionist potential of the law.

1989        Jun 19, The Spanish peseta entered the European Monetary System (EMS) exchange-rate mechanism; the composition of the ECU is adjusted following the inclusion of the Spanish peseta and the Portuguese escudo.

1989        Jul 17, Austria formally applies to join the European Community.

1989        Sep 19, The trade and commercial and economic cooperation agreement between the Community and Poland signed in Warsaw, Poland.

1989        Oct 3, The EU Parliament issued its “Television Without Frontiers" directive.

1989        Dec 18, An agreement on trade and commercial and economic cooperation between the European Community and the Soviet Union is signed in Brussels, Belgium.

1989        Dec 20, The European Commission advised against Turkey’s membership in the EEC.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.8)(http://tinyurl.com/29sr46p)

1990        Apr 18, A Franco-German proposal was made at the Dublin summit for the political union of the 12 European Community member countries.

1990        May 17, The effective date for pension rights for both men and women as ruled by a European court in 1994.

1990        Jun 15, The Dublin regime was established by the Dublin Convention and signed in Dublin, Ireland. It first came into force on 1 September 1997. The EU’s Dublin Rule said that people applying for asylum in an EU country other than the one they first entered should be returned to that first country.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Regulation)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.25)

1990        Jul 1, The first phase of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) comes into force. Four Member States (Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland) are granted an exceptional regime given their insufficient progress towards financial integration.

1990        Oct, French Pres. Francois Mitterand called for an economic government of Europe during a Franco-German summit in Paris.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.58)

1990        Dec 15, European Community leaders wrapped up a historic summit in Rome committed to creating a politically unified federation.
    (AP, 12/15/00)

1990        The Venice Commission was created by 18 member states to advise the Council of Europe on constitutional matters after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its official name is the European Commission for Democracy through Law. By 2012 it included 47 members.

1991        Apr 14, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is inaugurated in London, United Kingdom.

1991        Oct 21-1991 Oct 22, The European Community and the European Free Trade Association concluded a landmark accord to create a free trade zone of 19 nations by 1993.
    (AP, 10/22/01)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1991        Nov 8, The European Community and Canada imposed economic sanctions on Yugoslavia in an attempt to stop the Balkan civil war.
    (AP, 11/8/01)

1991        Dec 9-1991 Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht tentatively agreed to begin using a single currency by 1999. The European Council reached an agreement on the draft Treaty on the European Union.
    (AP, 12/9/01)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1991        Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/01)

1991        Dec 16, "Europe Agreements" are signed with Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

1992        Feb 7, The Treaty on the European Union was signed in Maastricht by the Foreign and Finance Ministers of the Member States.

1992        Mar 18, Finland formally applies to join the European Communities.

1992        May 11, 12 European countries recalled their ambassadors from Serb-dominated Yugoslavia to protest Serb involvement in Bosnia's ethnic war.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1992        May 20, Switzerland formally applies to join the European Communities.

1992        Jun 2, Danish voters rejected the Maastricht union treaty.
    (AP, 6/2/97)

1992        Jun 18, A referendum is held in Ireland, the people vote in favor of the ratification of the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Jul 2, Luxembourg ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Jul 31, Greece ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Sep 20, French voters narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty on European union.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1992        Oct 26, Italy ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Nov 4, Belgium ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Nov 25, Norway formally applies to join the European Communities. Spain ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Dec 2, Germany's lower house of parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of the Maastricht Treaty on European unity.
    (AP, 12/2/97)

1992        Dec 6, A narrow majority of Swiss referendum voters rejected the idea of joining the European Economic Area, a free trade club embracing the EU and Liechtenstein.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.46)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Dec 11, Portugal ratified the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Dec 15, The Netherlands ratified the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Dec 18, Germany ratified the Treaty on the European Union.

1992        Jacques Delors, president of the European Commission, almost scuppered the Uruguay round of world trade talks rather than cut farm spending.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.58)


1993        Jun, EU membership criteria were laid down at the European Council in Copenhagen, Denmark. Under the “Copenhagen criteria" would-be EU members were required to show that they meet the political and institutional standards of membership.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_criteria)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.55)

1993        Dec 14, The United States and European Community set aside a bitter fight over films, unlocking the door to the world's biggest-ever trade reform package.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1994        Jun 24, The EU and Russia signed a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA). It went into force on Dec 1, 1997.

1995        Jan 1, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the European Union. Sweden held their elections to the parliament later that year on 17 September. Austria held its elections on 13 October, 1996 and Finland on 20 October, 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.26)
1995        Jan 1, The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), formed in 1973, was renamed the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

1995        Nov, The Barcelona Process, launched by Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers, formed an innovative alliance based on the principles of joint ownership, dialogue and co-operation. It brings together the 27 Members of the European Union and 12 Southern Mediterranean states. Economic incentives and the strengthening of civil society were used to encourage reform.
    (http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/euromed/index_en.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.68)

1995        The EU banned Sudan 1, a red dye and genotoxic carcinogen, from use in food.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.56)
1995        The European Commission implemented the flagship Data Protection Directive.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Protection_Directive)

1996        Mar 1, The first Asia-Europe meeting (ASEM) opened in Bangkok, Thailand, with 25 countries and the EU Commission participating.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.63)(http://tinyurl.com/25mhkw7)

1996        Mar 27, The European Union imposed a global ban on British beef and beef products due to concerns over mad cow disease.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)

1996        Apr, The EU decided to allow Monsanto to begin selling genetically modified soybeans in Europe.
    (WSJ, 11/30/99, p.A1)

1996        Jun 9, The latest average unemployment rate was 11%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun 11, A trade pact between the EU and Algeria was passed along with an agreement to provide $3.6 million to help pay for elections in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1996        Jun 19, The European Union approved a British plan for wiping out “mad cow" disease.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A10)

1996        Jul 12, The EU warned that it would freeze US assets and impose visa requirements on Americans if European companies are penalized for investing in Cuba.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A9)

1996        Oct 2, The EU said that it will challenge the US Helms-Burton law in a new court of world trade.
    (SFC, 10/2/96, p.A8)

1996        Oct 16, The EU began its campaign against the US Helms-Burton Act by asking the WTO (World Trade Organization) to set up a panel to resolve differences over the law.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A9)

1996        Oct 24, The EU voted to block hundreds of millions in aid to Turkey for failure to sufficiently improve human rights.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A17)

1997        Jan 1, The EU introduced the Pan-European Cumulation System (PECS) to turn a latticework of bilateral trade rules into a single multilateral umbrella. It extended the system to include Turkey in 1999.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.68)(www.foreigntrade.gov.tr/ab/ingilizce/panavrup.htm)

1997        Apr 11, The EU postponed for 6 months a WTO case that charged the US with unfair trade practices.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 2, The EU formally set up a common foreign and security policy in the Amsterdam Treaty. It set to adopt key asylum and immigration measures within five years of the treaty's entry into force, expected in 1999. A protocol to the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam reclassified animals as sentient beings.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.42)(http://hrw.org/worldreport/Helsinki-28.htm)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)

1997        Nov 11, The EU high court upheld hiring and promotional preferences for women.
    (SFC, 11/12/97, p.C2)

1997        Dec 1, The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between Russia and the EU came into force. It was signed in June 1994 to encourage political, commercial, economic and cultural cooperation.

1997        Dec 4, The EU banned tobacco advertising and gave cigarette makers until 2006 to end sponsorship of major sports and cultural events. Governments get 3 years to enact the ban beginning Oct 1988 on all advertising except at stores that sell cigarettes.
    (SFC, 12/5/97, p.B2)

1997        John Laughland authored “The Tainted source: The undemocratic origins of the European idea."
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)
1997        The EU established a stability pact that included a member limit of 3% on deficits and a goal of avoiding a national debt bigger than 60% of GDP.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.55)
1997        The EU made labels compulsory for genetically modified (GM) food.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.32)

1998        Mar 25, The executive body of the EU endorsed a proposal for 11 nations to be part of the new system. These included Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Finland, Ireland, Austria and Luxembourg.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B3)

1998        Mar 31, The EU set this date for membership talks with Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Estonia and Cyprus. Preliminary talks were also set with Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria.
    (SFC, 12/13/97, p.A12)

1998        May 3, European leaders selected Dutchman Wim Duisenberg as chief of the new European Central Bank (ECB), with the proviso that he leave in 2002 and allow Jean-Claude Trichet of France to take over.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.21A)

1998        May 20, The EU approved a rescue package to save the French Credit Lyonnais banking group. In exchange the state bank would be privatized and assets would have to be sold.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.D4)

1998        Jun 1, The European Central Bank (ECB) was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam. It is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. It began operating on Jan 1, 1999.

1998        Jul 1, The European Central Bank was inaugurated with headquarters in Frankfurt under Pres. Wim Duisenberg.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A18)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C3)

1998        Nov 9, The Human Rights Act 1998, an Act of the Westminster Parliament, made the European Convention on Human Rights part of the law of all parts of the UK. It did not come fully into effect until 2 October 2000.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Rights_Act_1998)

1998        Dec, A Dutch auditor working for the European Commission charged that commissioners were awarding contracts to friends and relatives.
    (SFC, 1/12/99, p.A8)

1998        The EU agreed to ban asbestos by 2005.
    (WSJ, 12/9/02, p.A1)

1999        Jan 1, The Maastricht Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in order to join. Some of the criteria are: maximum budget deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain made the transition.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)
1999        Jan 1, When the euro was launched the US dollar-euro ($:€) exchange rate stood at $1.16:€1.
1999        Jan 1, Weimar, Germany, began its tenure as the EU Culture Capital for the year.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 4, The euro, the new money of 11 European nations, got off to a strong start on its first trading day, rising against the dollar on world currency markets and closed in New York at $1.181. A founding principal of the euro area held that national central banks be independent of their governments.
    (SFC, 1/5/99, p.C2)(AP, 1/4/00)(HN, 1/4/01)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.77)

1999        Jan 25, The US planned to notify the World Trade Organization that it planned sanctions on the European Union and 100% tariffs on a wide range of products due to a dispute over EU banana import laws.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A11)

1999        Jan 14, The EU voted against censure after EU Pres. Jacques Santer of Luxembourg pledged to impose a reform program to prevent fraud.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Santer)

1999        Mar 15, All 20 members of the EU executive body, the European Commission led by Jacques Santer, resigned in the wake of charges of fraud, corruption and mismanagement.
    (SFC, 3/16/99, p.A1)(Econ, 9/13/03, p.50)

1999        Mar 24, The EU leaders in Berlin chose Romano Prodi, former prime minister of Italy, as the new chief executive.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A5)

1999        Apr 8, The EU cut interest rates by .50% from 3% to 2.5% in an attempt to stave off a recession.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.A9)

1999        Apr 14, The EU countries proposed a peace plan for Kosovo, wherein the province would be placed under temporary European administration if Pres. Milosevic withdraws his forces and allows refugees to return.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.C2)

1999        May 3, EU scientists said that the hormone, 17 beta-oestradiol, used by American cattle farmers is carcinogenic. The EU 10 year ban on the use of hormones in beef would likely be maintained.
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A14)

1999        May 5, The EU endorsed Romano Prodi, the former prime minister of Italy, as the next president of the European Commission.
    (WSJ, 5/6/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 3, The 15-member EU announced plans to establish itself as a military power with a 60,000-troop force. A day later the EU named Javier Solana as the 1st foreign policy and security czar of the union.
    (SFC, 6/4/99, p.A14)(SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 4, The EU named Javier Solana as the 1st foreign policy and security czar of the union.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 14, Voters in the 15-nation bloc of the European Union overturned socialist dominance with the election of the center-right European People's Party.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C16)

1999        Jun 19, The Bologna process for the creation of the European Higher Education Area started. 29 European Ministers responsible for higher education signed the Bologna declaration in which they undertake to create a European Higher Education Area.

1999        Jul 14, The EU agreed to resume British beef exports on Aug 1, ending a 3-year ban due to mad cow disease.
    (WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A13)

1999        Jul 20, Nicole Fontaine of the European's People's Party was elected as leader of the European Parliament.
    (WSJ, 7/21/99, p.A19)

1999        Aug 1, The EU cleared British beef for export. A ban had followed the 1996 mad cow crises.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A9)

1999        Oct 11, South Africa and the European Union signed a free-trade pact.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)

1999        Oct 29, An EU Commission ruled that British beef was safe to eat despite French arguments for a ban to guard against mad cow disease.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov 24, Mexico and the EU agreed on terms for a free trade treaty.
    (SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)

1999        Nov 30, It was reported that the EU passed the Electronic Signature Directive, a law that gave legal status to digital signatures.
    (WSJ, 12/1/99, p.A24B15)

2000        Jan 11, An EU court ruled in favor of a German woman who claimed that a German constitutional ban against women bearing arms amounts to sexual discrimination.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 26, The EU and Yugoslavia crafted a $24 million plan to clear Danube River bridge debris due to NATO bombing.
    (WSJ, 1/27/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 31, The European Union warned Austria that its 14 members would diplomatically isolate Austria if the Freedom Party of Joerg Haider entered into a coalition government.
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar, EU leaders met in Lisbon, Portugal, and agreed to turn Europe into the world’s most competitive economy by 2010. this became known as the Lisbon Agenda.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.15)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.58)

2000        May 19, China and the EU agreed to open markets.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.A8)

2000        Jun 23, The Cotonou Agreement, a treaty between the European Union and the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP countries), was signed in Cotonou, the largest city in Benin, by 79 ACP countries and the then fifteen Member States of the EU. It entered into force in 2002 and is the latest agreement in the history of ACP-EU Development Cooperation. As of Dec 31, 2007, the Cotonou Agreement ceased to be legal under the rules of the WTO.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)(Econ, 1/5/08, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotonou_Agreement)

2000        Sep 12, The EU lifted diplomatic sanctions against Austria.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 25, Europe with support from Canada and Japan announced a $280 million support package for Colombian efforts to make peace with leftist rebels.
    (SFC, 10/26/00, p.D8)

2000        Nov 20, The EU began to build its own defense force, a 60,000 man, rapid reaction corps. EU defense chiefs pledged 100,000 soldiers, 400 planes and 100 ships for a rapid-reaction force.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/21/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 6, A European Union summit began in Nice to prepare for expansion to 27 or more members.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.C5)

2000        Dec 11, The EU in Nice reached a compromise in the early hours on a treaty that gave the 4 most populous countries a stronger voice in decision making and paved the way for as many as 13 new members over the next decade.
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A12)(Econ, 3/17/07, SR p.9)

2000        EU Implementation of new anti-pollution laws began. The EU in 1998 announced plans for tougher anti-pollution laws to take effect to make car engines and fuels burn cleaner.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.D2)

2001        Jan 1, Sweden took over the 6-month rotating presidency of the EU. Its priorities centered on enlargement of the union, along with environment and employment concerns.
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A15)

2001        Mar 6, The EU ordered all livestock markets closed for 2 weeks to contain foot-and-mouth disease.
    (SFC, 3/7/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 13, US regulators moved to ban all live animals and uncooked animal products from the EU following the discovery of hoof-and-mouth disease in France.
    (SFC, 3/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 24, EU leaders ended a 2 day meeting in Stockholm announced that they would dispatch a team of mediators to help the peace process between North and South Korea.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C6)

2001        Mar 28, The EU expressed concern over Pres. Bush’s abandonment of the Kyoto Treaty for cutting carbon dioxide emissions.
    (WSJ, 3/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 30, It was reported that Germany’s Chancellor Schroeder had proposed a draft for turning the EU Executive Commission into a European government and giving the EU Parliament full power over the 15-nation budget.
    (SFC, 4/30/01, p.A8)

2001        May 14, The European Commission announced that it would establish diplomatic ties with North Korea.
    (WSJ, 5/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 8, Irish voters rejected the EU’s Nice treaty to pave the way for 12 new members. The Irish reportedly feared immigrants in search of jobs and participation in an EU Rapid Reaction Force.
    (SFC, 6/9/01, p.A9)(Econ, 3/17/07, SR p.10)

2001        Jun 14, Pres. Bush clashed with EU leaders in Sweden over his global warming policy. The EU leaders said they would move to implement the Kyoto treaty without the US.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 16, In Goteborg, Sweden, 15 EU leaders ended a 3-day summit and agreed to a firm timetable to admit new members by 2004.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A12)

2001        Sep 9, EU foreign ministers agreed on the need for a new int’l. military force to provide security in Macedonia after NATO withdrawal.
    (SFC, 9/10/01, p.B1)

2001        Oct 4, The EU made a joint announcement with Spain that the Basque ETA would be put on the list of terrorist organizations whose assets would be frozen by the EU.
    (WSJ, 10/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 10, The EU and leaders of several African nations agreed on a “Marshall Plan for Africa" to combat poverty and disease and allow access to markets in the industrialized world.
    (SFC, 10/11/01, p.C2)

2001        Oct 19, EU leaders pledged their continued support for the US-led campaign in Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A16)

2001        Dec 14, European nations began distributing a “Eurokit" of euro coins in advance of the Jan 1 day when the euro becomes legal tender.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A3)

2001        Dec 15, EU leaders concluded a 2-day Council at Laeken, Belgium. The adoption of the Laeken Declaration on the Future of Europe, established the European Convention. A constitutional convention was planned. This process was supposed to simplify the EU’s legal architecture. The admittance of 10 new members over the next 2 years was also planned. The EU declared their nascent joint military force operational.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_Councils)(WSJ, 12/17/01, p.A14)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.16)

2001        Dec 28, The EU expanded its list of terrorist organizations to include Irish, Basque, Greek and Middle Eastern extremist groups.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A11)

2001        An EU directive gave member nations until 2006 to comply with an art sale levy, droit de suite (right of continuation), allowing artists to claim a sliding scale royalty on the resale price of their works selling for over 1000 euros.
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.P14)
2001        The EU began work on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). The final package was expected to come into force in April, 2007.
    (Econ, 12/9/06, p.70)
2001        At Washington’s request the UN Security Council ordered that the assets of Yassin Qadi, a Saudi businessman and multimillionaire, be frozen soon after the Sep 11 attacks in NYC. He was alleged to be a financier of Islamic terrorism with close links to al-Qaida. The EU froze the assets of Yasin al-Qadi, a Saudi businessman, and the Al-Barakaat International Foundation, a Sweden-based charity suspected of funding al-Qaida terror groups. In 2008 the EU's highest court overturned the decision saying the order failed to offer those on a terror blacklist any legal rights to a judicial review under European law. Also frozen were the assets of Omar Mohammed Othman, also known as Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher from Jordan. In 2009 an EU court voided the freeze on Othman due to lack of proper judicial review. Othman has lived in Britain since 1993, has been arrested several times there under anti-terrorist legislation and currently faced deportation to Jordan.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/3/08)(AP, 6/11/09)

2002        Jan 1, In Europe 50 billion new euro coins and 14 billion new euro notes began circulating in 12 participating countries in the most ambitious currency changeover in history.
    (SFC, 1/2/02, p.A8)(AP, 1/1/03)

2002        Feb, The EU complained that Thailand’s 10-baht coin, introduced in 1988, was being used in vending machines all over Europe due to its similarity to the new 2-euro coin.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.C7)

2002        Mar 4, European Union’s 15 members ratified the Kyoto Protocol on global warming, but failed to set pollutant-emission levels to meet the accord’s targets.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2002        May 28, The EU announced plans to overhaul its 100,000-vessel fishing industry with some national fleets to be cut by up to 60% due to overfishing.
    (SFC, 5/29/02, p.A12)   

2002        May 29, The EU upgraded Russia to the status of a full market economy.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.A8)

2002        May 31, EU members ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A9)

2002        Jun 19, Air traffic controllers in France and other nations went on strike to protest a plan to dramatically reorganize the use of Europe's skies.
    (AP, 6/19/02)

2002        Jun 22, Tens of thousands of people banged drums, blew whistles and danced their way through Seville's streets in a rally against globalization. The EU Summit ended with new measures to deter illegal immigration.
    (AP, 6/22/02)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A22)

2002        Jul 24, The European Union will give an extra $32 million to the U.N. Population Fund to help replace the U.S. money being withheld because of concerns about coercive abortions.
    (AP, 7/24/02)

2002        Aug 30, The WTO ruled that the EU can impose $4 billion in penalties on the US because of an American tax break that promotes exports. The EU planned to give the US time to change the law.
    (SFC, 8/31/02, p.A7)

2002        Oct 3, NATO and European Union called on Croatia to cooperate with the U.N. War Crimes Tribunal, urging the government to hand over indicted war crimes suspect Gen. Janko Bobetko.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Oct 15, In northern Russia a Soyuz-U rocket carrying an EU research communications satellite exploded several seconds after liftoff from a launch pad, killing one soldier.
    (AP, 10/16/02)(WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 20, The EU, except for Portugal. banned Belarus Pres. Lukashenko and top aides to protest human rights abuses under his rule.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec 6, The EU agreed to ban single-hull tankers, likely to be effective in 2010.
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.A15)

2002        Dec 20, The European Union agreed to cuts in its fleet and cod catch quotas, but ignored scientific advice to ban cod fishing altogether to save stocks from near extinction in EU waters.
    (AP, 12/20/02)

2002        The EU set up Eurojust to help prosecutors with the worst cross-border crimes.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.52)
2002        An EU regulation forced banks to charge no more for cross-border transfers within the euro area of up to 12,500 euros than they did for domestic ones.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.82)
2002        The EU decided to go ahead and launch a satellite navigation network, Galileo, to rival America's Global Positioning System (GPS). Operations were scheduled to begin in 2008.
    (Econ, 1/31/04, p.78)
2002        The European hedge fund charity ARK (Absolute Return for Kids) was established to provide AIDS treatment in Africa, to help children in orphanages in eastern Europe and to finance education in Britain.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.80)

2003        Jan 10, The European Union proposed a diplomatic initiative to avoid war against Iraq and increased pressure on Washington to pursue a peaceful solution to the crisis over Iraq's arms programs.
    (AP, 1/10/03)

2003        Jan 15, The EU Parliament voted to ban the use of animals to test cosmetics by 2009. Imports of cosmetics using animal testing would also be banned.
    (WSJ, 1/16/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 16, The European Union's Court of Justice ordered Spain and Italy to drop national rules on what constitutes chocolate, saying they can no longer bar British and Irish confections made with vegetable fats instead of cocoa butter.
    (AP, 1/16/03)

2003        Feb 6, Belgium asked the European Union to call an emergency meeting to discuss a peaceful way out of the Iraq crisis.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003        Feb 17, European Union leaders declared their solidarity with the United States, warning Saddam Hussein that Iraq faced one "last chance" to disarm peacefully but calling war a last resort.
    (AP, 2/17/04)

2003          Mar 10, The European Union opened a new office in Cuba.
    (AP, 3/10/03)

2003        Mar 17, Berlin Plus agreement, a short title for a comprehensive package of agreements between NATO and EU, was based on conclusions of the NATO Washington Summit.
    (www.nato.int/shape/news/2003/shape_eu/se030822a.htm)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.54)

2003        Mar 27, EU governments agreed to ban single-hulled oil tankers carrying heavy fuel in an attempt to reduce the risk of slicks.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Mar 31, In Macedonia the EU began its first military operation by taking over peacekeeping duties from NATO.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

2003        Apr 1, Seven EU nations, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and Belgium, said they oppose a proposal by larger countries for a new permanent European Union presidency.
    (AP, 4/2/03)

2003        Apr 7, Cuba handed down sentences of 15-27 years to the 1st 7 of 80 recently rounded dissidents. Activists of Oswaldo Paya’s Christian Liberation Movement made up more than two-thirds of those arrested. In response the EU imposed diplomatic sanctions and Cuban officials boycotted embassy functions in what came to be called the “cocktail war." The sanctions were suspended in 2005 and lifted in 2008.
    (AP, 4/8/03)(Econ, 12/17/05, p.38)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.44)

2003        Apr 8, Twenty-two European countries submitted a proposed resolution to the UN’s top human rights body accusing Russia of grave rights violations in the breakaway republic of Chechnya.
    (AP, 4/8/03)

2003        Apr 9, The European Union's parliament ratified a historic expansion, making it nearly certain that 10 mostly eastern European countries will join the bloc next year.
    (AP, 4/9/03)

2003        Apr 16, Leaders of 25 European nations gathered in Athens to sign treaties sweeping away the 20th century's Iron Curtain divide. The 10 new EU members will formally join May 1, 2004 following ratification of treaties.
    (AP, 4/16/03)

2003        May 15, The economies of Germany, Netherlands and Italy contracted during the first three months of 2003 as the European Union as a whole showed no growth for the first time in almost two years.
    (AP, 5/16/03)

2003        Jun 13, European Union delegates agreed on a draft constitution that details how the coalition of nations will be run as it adds new members and evolves into what many hope will be a world power to rival the United States.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 19, European leaders gathered at a secluded Greek seaside resort for a three-day summit to discuss Middle East peace, illegal immigration, and the contentious draft of a first-ever European Union constitution.
    (AP, 6/19/03)

2003        Jul 10, Framers of the European Union's first constitution finalized their draft charter but failed to settle differences over how much power national governments would cede to Brussels.
    (AP, 7/10/03)

2003        Jul 29, A heat wave and a drought gauged a multibillion-dollar hole into Europe's economy, crippling shipping, shriveling crops and driving up the cost of electricity.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2003        Sep 6, The European Union said it will declare all wings of the militant Palestinian group Hamas a terrorist organization and freeze its assets after dozens of deadly attacks in Israel.
    (AP, 9/6/03)

2003        Sep 9, The European Union's high court ruled that Italy and other EU governments can temporarily ban genetically modified foods while they examine health risks, but must provide "detailed grounds," not general fears, to do so.
    (AP, 9/9/03)

2003        Sep 27, Europe's first mission to the moon blasted off aboard a European Ariane rocket from French Guiana. The SMART-1 probe made it to within 3,100 miles of the moon on Nov 15, 2004, and proceeded to move into an elliptical orbit. The spacecraft ended its mission Sep 3, 2006, when it crashed into the lunar surface.
    (AP, 9/28/03)(SFC, 11/17/04, p.A3)(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.A5)

2003        Oct 17, The EU pushed ahead with efforts to build its own defense arm but sought to ease U.S. concerns by insisting the plan would neither duplicate nor undermine NATO.
    (AP, 10/17/03)

2003        Oct 21, A top European Union official defended the bloc's $233 million contribution for Iraqi reconstruction and said that more could be forthcoming next year.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2003        Nov 3, The EU condemned lingering anti-Jewish bias it said was reflected in a new survey, which found that many Europeans see Israel as a threat to world peace.
    (AP, 11/3/03)

2003        Nov 24, British PM Tony Blair and French President Jacques Chirac confronted the sensitive issue of European defense and in a show of unity announced plans for a small rapid-reaction force of EU peacekeepers.
    (AP, 11/24/03)

2003        Nov, Wim Duisenberg, president of the European Central Bank, retired and presented a bell to his successor Jean-Claude Trichet for keeping order during meetings.
    (WSJ, 12/2/03, p.A16)

2003        Dec 13, EU efforts to seal its first-ever constitution collapsed, after leaders in Brussels could not agree on the best way to divvy power once the bloc adds 10 new members next year.
    (AP, 12/13/03)

2003        Dec 19, Fisheries ministers of the 15 European Union nations reached a compromise deal to protect dwindling stocks of cod, hake and other species.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        The European Union's anti-fraud office, OLAF, alerted French prosecutors to a "vast enterprise of Looting" at Eurostat, the commission’s statistical service.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.51)

2004        Jan 5, A letter bomb addressed to a senior member of the European Parliament burst into flames. Italian anarchists were suspected in the 7 mail attacks since Dec 27.
    (AP, 1/5/04)(SFC, 1/6/04, p.A10)

2004        Jan 13, The European Commission proposed an initiative aimed at creating a single market for services within the European Union (EU), similar to the single market for goods act of 1986. It came to be known as  Bolkestein Directive after the Dutch Commissioner Frits Bolkestein (b.1933), who launched it. Trade unions opposed it. On 16 February 2006, the European Parliament in plenary session in Strasbourg voted in favor of a compromise proposal that went a long way towards meeting the trade union demands

2004        Apr 24, Greek Cypriots overwhelmingly rejected a UN plan, the Annan Plan, to reunite Cyprus. The European Union pledged to start searching for ways to extend a hand of friendship to the island's long-ostracized Turkish side. It meant that only the Greek side of Cyprus would join the European Union on May 1.
    (AP, 4/25/04)(WSJ, 4/26/04, p.A13)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.49)

2004        Apr 27, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and EU officials signed an accord extending the EU-Russia partnership accord to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta, which join May 1.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        May 1, Revelers across ex-communist eastern Europe celebrated their historic entry to the European Union. 10 new members joined. Malta joined with 70 exemptions to EU rules. Poland had 43 exemptions. Latvia had 32.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.50)

2004        May 19, The European Union lifted its 6-year-old ban on biotech products by approving imports of an insect-resistant strain of sweet corn for human consumption.
    (AP, 5/19/04)

2004        May 21, The European Union confirmed its backing for Russia to join the World Trade Organization, and Russian President Vladimir Putin said Moscow in turn would speed up ratification of the troubled Kyoto accord on global warming.
    (AP, 5/21/04)

2004        May, The EU and the USA reached a deal regarding US security interests and the transfer of passenger data from European airlines. The deal was challenged by civil liberty groups. In 2006 a court upheld that the agreement lacked an adequate legal basis.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.47)

2004        Jun 10, Europeans began casting ballots across 25 member nations of the expanded European Union for a new European Parliament.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.49)

2004        Jun 13, EU balloting, begun June 10, ended. Some 150 million Europeans cast ballots across 25 member nations of the expanded European Union. Turnout was 45.3 percent.
    (AP, 6/14/04)(Econ, 6/19/04, p.49)

2004        Jun 18, European Union leaders sealed a hard-fought deal on a new constitution. It needs approval by all 25 member states before it can take effect, expected in 2007.
    (AP, 6/19/04)

2004        Jun 21, Local and international police officials warned that Europe is awash in counterfeit euro bills of excellent quality.
    (AP, 6/21/04)

2004        Jun 28, The European Union denied China's request to be officially recognized as a market economy, saying that an assessment of the Chinese economy showed too much state interference and poor corporate governance.
    (AP, 6/28/04)

2004        Jul 20, EU lawmakers elected a pro-European from Spain to be its next president as the expanded European Parliament met for the first time. The 732-member assembly chose Josep Borrell, a relatively unknown Spanish Socialist, to its top job.
    (AP, 7/20/04)

2004        Sep 10, European finance ministers chose Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker to represent the group of 12 European Union countries that share the euro currency.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

2004        Sep 22, The European Commission approved a multi-billion pound bailout of the nuclear group British Energy, after securing guarantees that the company would not breach EU competition rules.
    (AP, 9/22/04)
2004        Sep 22, The European Union agreed in principle to lift an arms embargo on Libya after pressure from Italy.
    (AP, 9/22/04)

2004        Oct 6, The EU recommended Turkey be put on the path to full membership.
    (AP, 10/7/04)

2004        Oct 11, The European Union ended 11 years of sanctions against Libya and eased an arms embargo to reward the North African country for giving up plans to develop weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 20, The EU revamped its trade rules. Nations with more than 15% of European market share of any goods were set to lose their discounted tariffs. China and India were expected to be the main losers.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.A15)

2004        Oct 22, The EU said its member states will contribute $125 million to an African Union (AU) force in Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 10/23/04)

2004        Oct 29, European leaders signed the EU's first constitution.
    (AP, 10/29/04)

2004        Nov 5, The DJ rose 72 to 10,387. The euro reached a new high of 1.2962 to the dollar. The US dollar fell to an all-time low against the euro as EU political leaders signaled they have no unified plan to stem the rise in their five-year-old currency.
    (SFC, 11/5/04, p.C1)(AP, 11/5/04)

2004        Nov 17, The EU will consider giving Greece until the end of 2006 to cut its budget deficit below 3 percent of gross domestic product.
    (AP, 11/17/04)

2004        Nov, Manuel Durao Barroso, former PM of Portugal, took over as head of the European Commission.
    (Econ, 2/19/05, p.52)

2004        Dec 2, The European Union began its biggest-ever military operation, formally taking over NATO's peacekeeping mission in Bosnia with 7,000 troops.
    (AP, 12/2/04)

2004        Dec 8, The European Union and China agreed to boost relations, but the EU made clear there can be no early lifting of its 15-year-old arms embargo until Beijing improves its human rights record.
    (AP, 12/8/04)

2004        Dec 17, European Union leaders and Turkey agreed on a compromise formula to overcome differences over Turkish recognition of Cyprus' government as a condition for opening EU membership talks.
    (AP, 12/17/04)

2004        Dec 22, A European Union court ruled that Microsoft Corp. must immediately divulge some trade secrets to competitors and produce a version of its flagship Windows operating system stripped of the program that plays music and video.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2004        T.R. Reid authored “The United States of Europe: The new Superpower and the End of American Supremacy."
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.D6)
2004        The European Union launched its European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) after the enlargement of the EU with 10 new member countries, in order to avoid creating new borders in Europe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Neighbourhood_Policy)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.53)
2004        Frontex, a Warsaw-based agency, was created to manage the EU’s external borders. The agency started to be operational on October 3, 2005 and was the first EU agency to be based in one of the new EU states.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontex)

2005        Jan 1, Europe’s 7,000 listed companies adopted int’l. financial reporting standards (IFRS), replacing the mishmash of 25 local accounting regimes with one set of rules. Over 90 countries began switching to a new int’l. accounting standards.
    (WSJ, 12/9/04, p.C1)(Econ, 6/18/05, p.73)

2005        Jan 11, The EU and the US agreed to settle their dispute over subsidies to Airbus SA and Boeing Co. through bilateral talks rather than asking the WTO to resolve it.
    (AP, 1/11/05)

2005        Jan 12, The European Parliament gave its overwhelming endorsement to the European Union's first-ever constitution and urged EU governments to quickly follow suit.
    (CP, 1/12/05)

2005        Jan 13, The European-built space probe Huygens entered the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.
    (Reuters, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 31, EU foreign ministers agreed to restore normal diplomatic relations with the Cuban government while pledging to increase contacts with critics of Pres. Fidel Castro.
    (AP, 1/31/05)

2005        Jan, The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), a market for carbon emission permits, was created.
    (Econ, 5/6/06, p.75)

2005        Feb 2, The EU told Italy, France and Germany, to do more to bring their budgets in balance as required by the rules of Europe's single currency.
    (AP, 2/2/05)

2005        Feb 7, The EU head office called for closer coordination among all member governments to hunt down and prosecute those illegally spreading unsolicited e-mails, or spam, across the 25-nation bloc.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 17, EU finance ministers warned Greece to get its finances in order by the end of 2006 and bring its annual budget deficit in line with EU spending rules or face hefty fines.
    (AP, 2/17/05)

2005        Feb 21, In Brussels President Bush appealed to Europe to move beyond animosities over Iraq and join forces in encouraging democratic reforms across the Middle East. He also prodded Russia to reverse a crackdown on political dissent, demanded that Iran end its nuclear ambitions and told Syria to get out of Lebanon.
    (AP, 2/21/05)(SFC, 2/22/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 22, The EU intends to end its ban on arms sales to China, French Pres. Jacques Chirac said after talks with Pres. Bush, who highlighted Washington's security concerns.
    (AP, 2/22/05)

2005        Apr 6, The European Commission proposed a major boost in EU spending in the 2007-2013 period to create jobs, spur growth and fund programs to make the 25-nation European Union safer and healthier for its 455 million inhabitants.
    (AP, 4/6/05)
2005        Apr 6, Under pressure to stem a rising tide of textile imports from China, the European Union's executive unveiled guidelines for imposing curbs on a country which already has 20 percent of a $400 billion market.
    (AP, 4/6/05)

2005        Apr 8, The EU’s executive commission said it had recommended guidelines to member states to boost the market for low-cost, high-speed Internet access delivered over electricity power supply lines.
    (AP, 4/8/05)

2005        Apr 13, The European Parliament approved the entry of Bulgaria and Romania into the EU in 2007, but it said both countries still need to carry out necessary reforms.
    (AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Apr 25, EU trade ministers backed a full investigation into allegations that cheap textiles and clothing from China were flooding the EU market, but disagreed on imposing fast action to block imports.
    (AP, 4/25/05)

2005        Apr, The Council of Europe, Europe's top human rights body, rejected euthanasia as a legitimate means to end life.
    (AP, 12/21/06)

2005        May 10, Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin and top European Union leaders unveiled a new partnership accord which aims in particular to deepen ties in the economic sphere, where Europe's thirst for energy dovetails with Russia's need for investment.
    (AP, 5/10/05)

2005        May 11, The European Union parliament voted to abolish loopholes that give member states, especially Britain, a way around the bloc's 48-hour maximum workweek.
    (AP, 5/12/05)
2005        May 11, Austria's parliament overwhelmingly ratified the European Union's constitution, the seventh nation to do so.
    (AP, 5/11/05)

2005        May 24, The EU announced that its members would double their aid to poor countries by 2015.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.77)

2005        May 27, The EU constitution cleared its final legislative hurdle in Germany, two days before French voters have their say on the document. The Prum Treaty was signed by Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria and Belgium (Italy has since said it wants to join too). It covers a series of justice and home affairs issues including the "exchange of information" (in effect, the "principle of availability").
    (AP, 5/27/05)(www.statewatch.org/news/2006/sep/05eu-g6.htm)

2005        May 29, French voters rejected the EU's first constitution, dealing a potentially fatal blow to the charter. In 2007 it was repackaged as the Lisbon treaty.
    (AP, 5/30/05)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.28)   

2005        May, Italy reported that it had fallen back into recession for the 1st quarter of 2005.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.13)
2005        May, In Portugal an audit estimated that the nation’s deficit could reach 7% of GDP this year, well over the 1999 EU limit of 3%.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.53)

2005        Jun 1, Dutch voters worried about social benefits and immigration overwhelmingly rejected the European Union constitution in what could be a knockout blow for a charter meant to create a power rivaling the United States. Slow economic growth in the Netherlands was seen as a key reason for the massive rejection of the EU constitution
    (AP, 6/1/05)

2005        Jun 2, Latvian lawmakers voted to ratify the European Union constitution and challenged other European nations not to give up hope that the charter can be implemented.
    (AP, 6/2/05)

2005        Jun 5, A narrow majority of Swiss voters approved joining a European Union passport-free zone, abolishing checks on the country's border by 2007, according to final results from a two-issue national referendum.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        Jun 7, The EU head office said that Italy broke the bloc's budget rules with excessive deficits in 2003 and 2004 and is likely to breach the limit again this year and in 2006.
    (AP, 6/7/05)

2005        Jul 1, An EU directive took effect banning lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and 2 types of brominated flame retardants. Some exceptions were allowed.
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.E1)

2005        Jun 15,The EU commission slapped a 40 million pound fine on pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca for illegally pushing rivals of a stomach ulcer medicine out of the market.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 18, EU leaders blamed each other after a summit collapsed without any real agreement on what lies ahead for the half-century project of uniting the continent. But they agreed Europe is in a crisis.
    (AP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 20, European Union agriculture ministers agreed to share out an annual 12.7 billion-euro ($15.51 billion) package to support rural development.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Jun 22, The European Commission unveiled proposals for a radical overhaul on EU sugar subsidies.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.73)
2005        Jun 22, The European Union's head office told Portugal to cut its burgeoning budget deficit and public debt, saying the country's economic slowdown was no excuse for violating euro-zone rules on sound finances.
    (AP, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 29, The EU gave Italy until the end of 2007 to cut its budget deficit in line with euro-zone rules, a warning that is powerless as it carries no punishment.
    (AP, 6/29/05)

2005        Jun 30, The EU and China plunged into a 2nd trade row, this time over shoes, but Brussels said a deal was still possible over Beijing's surging footwear exports.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 7, Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker asked his citizens to pass a referendum in favor of the EU Constitution.
    (WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A5)

2005        Jul 18, The EU said it will allow member countries to adopt different approaches in patenting biotech drug innovations.
    (WSJ, 7/19/05, p.A12)

2005        Aug 8, The EU head office gave its clearance for the import of a genetically modified corn product made by American biotechnology company Monsanto Co. for use in animal feed.
    (AP, 8/8/05)

2005        Sep 1, The European Commission proposed new rules for the 25 European Union nations to establish common standards on immigration and asylum.
    (AP, 9/1/05)
2005        Sep 1, Turkey insisted that it has fulfilled conditions for EU membership, as foreign ministers of the 25-nation group started meeting in Wales to assess the predominantly Muslim nation's efforts to join the bloc.
    (AP, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 2, EU governments said Europe will dip into its emergency stocks of gasoline to help the US through an energy crisis due to Hurricane Katrina.
    (Reuters, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 4, European Union and NATO said the US has asked for emergency assistance, requesting blankets, first aid kits, water trucks and food for the victims of Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 9/4/05)

2005        Sep 5, China and the EU reached an agreement to unblock some 77 million garments held up at European borders after Chinese textile imports broke through 2005 quota limits.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 7, European Union governments backed a deal to unblock Chinese textiles held at EU borders, ending a trade dispute that saw some 77 million garments pile up after imports broke through 2005 limits.
    (AP, 9/7/05)

2005        Sep 21, EU nations agreed that Turkey must recognize EU member Cyprus during its membership talks, warning that non-recognition could lead to paralysis in the negotiations.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 30, The EU insisted that governments and the private sector must share the responsibility of overseeing the Internet, setting the stage for a showdown with the United States on the future of Internet governance.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 3, EU nations reached a tentative agreement on pursuing full membership talks with Turkey, diplomats said. A spokesman for the Turkish prime minister denied reports that Ankara had agreed to the deal.
    (AP, 10/3/05)
2005        Oct 3, The EU imposed an arms embargo on Uzbekistan, cut aid, and suspended a cooperation accord to punish the increasingly isolated country for refusing to investigate the violent suppression of an uprising in May.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, In London Russia’s Pres. Putin met with EU leaders for talks on expanding cooperation in the fight against crime, including terrorism, and strengthening trade ties.
    (AP, 10/4/05)
2005        Oct 4, Croatia began delayed EU membership talks, after UN chief war crimes prosecutor Carla del Ponte endorsed Zagreb's cooperation with her court.
    (AFP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 12, The European Commission said companies that want to sell music online in the European Union can now get a single license to operate in all 25 member states.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 12, The EU agreed to legally require telecommunications companies to keep records of phone and e-mail traffic for up to one year as part of the bloc's anti-terrorist campaign.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 12, The European Commission presented a new development aid strategy focused primarily on easing poverty in Africa and on holding EU member states to their promises to double aid to the continent.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 13, The EU said the bird flu virus found in Turkish poultry was the H5N1 strain that scientists worry might mutate into a human virus and spark a pandemic. Turkey's health minister said the outbreak had been contained.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 17, The European Union unblocked $87 million in development aid for Haiti, ending a freeze imposed almost five years ago because of allegedly flawed elections in the Western Hemisphere's poorest nation.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Oct 21, The European Commission agreed to open talks with Bosnia on a cooperation agreement that could lead to full EU membership for the Balkan nation.
    (AP, 10/21/05)

2005        Oct 25, The EU's highest court finally settled the fate of feta cheese, decreeing it a traditional Greek product deserving protection throughout the 25-nation bloc in a ruling that went against other European producers.
    (AP, 10/25/05)

2005        Oct 26, The EU said the dangerous H5N1 strain of bird flu has been found in Croatia. Authorities said a 2nd parrot that died in quarantine in Britain was also infected with the virus.
    (AP, 10/26/05)

2005        Oct 28, The EU offered to reduce average agricultural tariffs by 46 percent, its steepest ever farm tariff cuts, in a proposal aimed at breaking a deadlock in world trade talks.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Nov 3, European Union officials said they would investigate a report that the CIA set up secret jails in Eastern Europe to interrogate top al-Qaida suspects. The international Red Cross also said it asked the US to let a representative visit detainees if such a facility exists. At least 10 nations denied that the prisons were in their territory. Human Rights Watch in New York said it has evidence indicating the CIA transported suspected terrorists captured in Afghanistan to Poland and Romania.
    (AP, 11/3/05)

2005        Nov 7, The EU agreed to monitor a Gaza-Egypt border crossing that serves as the main gate to the world for Palestinians.
    (AP, 11/7/05)
2005        Nov 7, EU foreign ministers agreed to launch a three-year police training mission to help the Palestinian Authority build up a new "sustainable and effective" police force.
    (AP, 11/7/05)

2005        Nov 8, The EU said Morocco will join its Galileo satellite navigation program, becoming the first African nation to participate in the project that aims to rival the US' GPS system.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 9, Europe's first mission to Venus was successfully launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and emitted a first signal at the start of its 163-day journey to the turbulent planet.
    (AFP, 11/9/05)

2005        Nov 14, EU Council decision Nr. 2005/815/EB officially gave Vilnius, Lithuania, and Linz, Austria, status as a European Capital of Culture for the year 2009.

2005        Nov 21, EU defense ministers adopted a plan to open up their $35 billion arms industry to increased cross-border competition within the 25-nation bloc, a landmark move designed to cut costs for tight military budgets.
    (AP, 11/21/05)
2005        Nov 21, EU foreign ministers authorized the start of negotiations on an agreement to prepare Bosnia for EU membership a decade after the Balkan nation was ravaged by Europe's worst fighting since World War II.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 25, EU Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn officially opened landmark negotiations on closer ties between Bosnia and the 25-member European Union.
    (AP, 11/25/05)
2005        Nov 25, Slovakia joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) as a first step towards adopting the European Union's common euro currency.
    (AFP, 11/26/05)

2005        Nov 28, EU Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner Franco Frattini warned that that any of the 25 bloc nations found to have operated secret CIA prisons could have their EU voting rights suspended.
    (AP, 11/28/05)
2005        Nov 28, The European Union managed to get Israel and its Arab neighbors to endorse an anti-terrorism code of conduct at the end of a fractious two-day summit.
    (AP, 11/28/05)

2005        Dec 7, The EU and host Canada piled pressure on the US to join an international pact to curb greenhouse gas emissions and limit the predicted chaos from global warming.
    (Reuters, 12/08/05)
2005        Dec 7, European businesses rushed to sign up for the new ".eu" Internet domain name, putting in 100,000 Web site applications by the end of its first day available.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 15, European and US officials said the EU has formally protested to Russia about its sale of sophisticated missiles to Iran, saying the diplomatic row reflected disarray on how to pressure Tehran to scale back its suspect nuclear program.
    (AP, 12/15/05)

2005        Dec 15-2005 Dec 16, Tony Blair’s EU presidency culminated in the summit in Brussels.
    (Econ, 12/10/05, p.13)

2005        Dec 17, EU leaders agreed on a 7-year spending plan for the 25-nation bloc, a hard-won deal seen as key to shaping the future of an enlarged EU and to restoring faith in its unity.
    (AP, 12/17/05)
2005        Dec 17, Macedonia moved a step closer to realizing its dream of EU membership when the bloc's leaders gave their blessing for it to start membership talks.
    (AFP, 12/17/05)

2005        Dec 22, The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ordered Turkey to put in place within three months an effective reparations mechanism for Greek Cypriots who were stripped of their possessions in the 1970s.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 26, The EU announced a 166 million euros ($196.9 million) aid package for 10 African countries. The aid will go to Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Chad, Tanzania, Uganda, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Madagascar and Comoros.
    (Reuters, 12/26/05)

2005        Dec 28, The EU launched the first satellite in its Galileo navigation program, which officials expect one day will end the continent's reliance on the US Global Positioning System.
    (AP, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 29, France reported a second death from freezing temperatures as blizzards swept through northern and central Europe, forcing flight cancellations at Prague airport and cutting power lines and rail links in Scandinavia.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2005        Dec 30, Europe's second snowstorm this week piled drifts on tracks and roads, slowing rail service, stranding motorists and causing hundreds of traffic accidents. At least four deaths were attributed to a week of icy weather.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        Mark Leonard authored “Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century."
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.83)

2006        Jan 10, European airlines lost a legal bid that aimed to strike down new EU rules guaranteeing passengers compensation for flight delays or cancellations.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 12, EU governments refused to ascribe market-economy status to 13 Chinese shoemakers, opening the way for duties to be imposed on their imports to Europe.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 18, The European Parliament rejected plans to liberalize port services across the European Union that had sparked mass strikes by dock workers and a violent protest in front of the EU legislature in France.
    (AP, 1/18/06)

2006        Jan 28, A 2-day European conference on the future of the EU ended in Salzburg, Austria. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said that Europe must face globalization head-on and not shy away from the issue.
    (AP, 1/28/06)

2006        Jan 30, European Union foreign ministers called on Hamas to recognize the state of Israel, renounce violence and disarm.
    (AP, 1/30/06)

2006        Feb 16, Serbia rejected European Union's guidelines for an independence vote in Montenegro, increasing tensions within the troubled Balkan state.
    (AP, 2/16/06)

2006        Feb 24, The EU opened an in-depth antitrust probe into mining company Inco Ltd.'s $11 billion planned purchase of Falconbridge Ltd., a deal that would create the world's largest nickel producer.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

2006        Feb 27, EU foreign ministers threatened to freeze talks with Serbia on its membership bid, setting a March deadline for Belgrade to hand over war crimes fugitive Ratko Mladic.
    (AP, 2/27/06)
2006        Feb 27, The EU agreed to grant $145 million in urgent aid to the Palestinians before a government led by the Islamic militant group Hamas takes power, a move aimed at preventing a financial collapse that could add to the chaos in the Middle East.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

2006        Mar 2, The European Central Bank raised its key interest rate by a quarter percentage point to 2.5 percent amid worries about inflation.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 3, In Austria talks between EU negotiators and Iran over its nuclear ambitions broke up without any agreement, paving the way for potential UN Security Council action against Tehran as early as next week.
    (AP, 3/3/06)
2006        Mar 3, An EU executive said Sweden's first case of mad cow disease has been confirmed by the European Union's central laboratory.
    (AP, 3/3/06)

2006        Mar 10, The EU threatened legal action against member states that create biotech-free growing zones in their countries, warning that doing so would violate EU trade rules.
    (AP, 3/10/06)
2006        Mar 10, The EU threatened to cut off aid to a Hamas-led Palestinian government "unless it seeks peace by peaceful means," its strongest signal to the new leadership.
    (AP, 3/10/06)
2006        Mar 10, The EU and the US signed a new wine deal that allows the US to export wines made using practices many European vintners shun. The bilateral accord resolved most elements of a 2-decade-long dispute over wine making methods and names.
    (SFC, 3/11/06, p.C1)(WSJ, 3/11/06, p.A4)

2006        Mar 14, EU trade chief Peter Mandelson told China to remove barriers on imports of European goods if it wants to be recognized as a market economy by the 25-nation bloc.
    (AP, 3/14/06)

2006        Mar 21, The EU said it would pay for half of a 16 million euro ($19 million) international promotion campaign to sell European-produced foods such as fruits, cheese and wine in 11 countries, including the United States, China, Japan and Canada.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 22, The EU approved a first-ever joint blacklist of nearly 100 mostly African airlines considered to be unsafe, in a move spurred by a spate of fatal crashes last year. The list, effective March 25, bans 92 airlines from plying EU skies all together and puts restrictions on another three from flying certain types of airplanes into the 25-nation bloc.
    (AFP, 3/22/06)

2006        Mar 31, The EU gave Serbia an extra month to hand over genocide suspect Ratko Mladic or face suspension of its talks on closer EU ties, after being reassured of progress in the manhunt.
    (AFP, 3/31/06)

2006        Apr 7, The EU said it has cut off direct aid payments to the Hamas-led Palestinian government because of its refusal to renounce violence and recognize Israel.
    (AP, 4/7/06)

2006        Apr 10, The EU barred Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko and dozens of his senior officials from entering any bloc countries to protest his re-election last month in a vote that international observers said was rigged.
    (AP, 4/10/06)
2006        Apr 10, EU foreign ministers endorsed a freeze of aid to the Palestinian government but said they would seek alternative ways of providing money for humanitarian projects.
    (AP, 4/10/06)

2006        Apr 11, A European spacecraft went into orbit around Venus on a mission to explore the mysterious atmosphere of Earth's nearest planetary neighbor.
    (AP, 4/11/06)

2006        Apr 26, EU Parliament investigators said the CIA has conducted more than 1,000 undeclared flights over European territory since 2001, a clear violation of an international treaty.
    (AP, 4/26/06)

2006        May 3, The European Union suspended aid and trade talks with Serbia after Belgrade failed to deliver fugitive Gen. Ratko Mladic to the U.N. war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 5/3/06)
2006        May 3, The European Commission fined 7 companies a total of $489.8 (388.1 euros) for running a cartel in bleaching chemicals.
    (WSJ, 5/4/06, p.A2)

2006        May 5, The European Commission said safety belts will have to be used in all seats on tour buses and vans across the European Union.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

2006        May 11, The EU and Latin America opened a three-day summit in Vienna with over 60 national leaders attending, including Venezuela's fiery, often anti-Washington President Hugo Chavez. Bolivian President Evo Morales said that foreign oil companies would not be compensated for oil and gas resources that have been nationalized, and European Union president Austria called for explanations.
    (AFP, 5/11/06)

2006        May 15, A top official said the EU will support an Iranian nuclear program that cannot be put to military use and will boost political and economic cooperation if Tehran accepts international oversight.
    (AP, 5/15/06)

2006        May 22, The NYSE under John Thain made a $10.2 billion cash and stock bid for Euronext NV, a European exchange operator, in an attempt to become the world’s first transatlantic stock trading center. Euronext had formed earlier as a combination of the Paris, Amsterdam and Brussels exchanges.
    (SFC, 5/23/06, p.C3)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.66)

2006        May 25, Russian President Vladimir Putin and EU leaders met for a summit focused on EU concerns about Russia's reliability as a key energy supplier.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        May 27, The EU agreed to give itself another year to sort out the impasse over its troubled constitution and build confidence in the bloc's plans for further expansion.
    (AP, 5/27/06)

2006        Jun 8, The European Central Bank (ECB) meeting in Madrid raised its key interest rate by a quarter point to 2.75% amid worries that high oil prices would spur inflation. Stock markets in Asia tumbled to their lowest levels in months and European shares also declined amid anxiety that possible US interest rates hikes will slow global growth.
    (SFC, 6/9/06, p.D3)(AP, 6/8/06)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.75)

2006        Jun 12, EU foreign ministers reached agreement with Cyprus on a formula to enable Turkey to take its first step in detailed accession talks with the 25-nation bloc.
    (AP, 6/12/06)

2006        Jun 16, EU leaders gave Slovenia a green light to join the eurozone next year, launching a new wave of expansion for the currently 12-nation single currency club. EU leaders also gave their backing to the assessment of the EU's executive arm that Lithuania would not be ready to join the eurozone next year because inflation had overshot the limit required to join.
    (AFP, 6/16/06)
2006        Jun 16, EU leaders agreed to channel aid to cash-starved Palestinians for health care, utilities and social services while still maintaining a funding freeze on the Hamas-led government.
    (AP, 6/16/06)

2006        Jun 26, The EU urged all nations to sign a global convention against torture, calling the practice "cruel, inhuman and degrading" not only to victims but to those who inflict such treatment on people.
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jun 29, Trade ministers struggled for a breakthrough in deadlocked global free trade talks as the US and EU accused each other of failing to come up with the necessary concessions.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Jul 6, The European Central Bank held its key interest rate steady at 2.75% as was widely anticipated but pledged to exercise "strong vigilance" on inflation.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 11, EU finance ministers made Slovenia the 13th member of the euro zone. This gave Slovenia 5 months to print and mint euro notes to replace the tolar on January 1.
    (WSJ, 7/12/06, p.A10)

2006        Jul 12, The EU fined Microsoft Corp. $357 million and threatened new penalties of $3.82 million a day beginning July 31 because it says the software maker failed to obey a 2004 antitrust order to share program code with rivals.
    (AP, 7/12/06)
2006        Jul 12, The EU joined the US in warning Iran it faced UN Security Council action if no solution could be found to a stand-off over its nuclear program. World powers agreed to send Iran back to the UN Security Council for possible punishment, saying the clerical regime has given no sign it means to negotiate seriously over its disputed nuclear program.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 13, The EU criticized Israel for using "disproportionate" force in its attacks on Lebanon following the cross-border raid by Hezbollah guerillas who captured 2 Israeli soldiers.
    (AP, 7/13/06)

2006        Jul 24, WTO members in Geneva called a halt to more than five years of commerce liberalization talks (the Doha talks) as differences over farm aid proved unbridgeable. The 25-nation EU criticized US intransigence over agricultural subsidies for the breakdown, while the US blamed Brazil and India for being inflexible on cutting barriers to industrial imports and the EU for refusing to make deeper cuts in its farm import tariffs.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Jul, Mauritania netted $700 million from the EU for fishing rights over 6 years.
    (WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)

2006        Aug 3, A pair of European central banks raised interest rates, increasing expectations on Wall Street that the Federal Reserve would follow suit next week. The European Central Bank hiked rates .25% to 3%, with a similar hike by the Bank of England to 4.75%.
    (AP, 8/3/06)

2006        Sep 3, The SMART-1 spacecraft, Europe's first moon probe launched Sep 27, 2003, signed off its mission on schedule by crashing into the lunar surface, completing a project scientists hope will tell them more about the moon's origin.
    (Reuters, 9/3/06)(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.A5)

2006        Sep 13, The EU's foreign policy chief and Iran's top nuclear negotiator abruptly postponed talks on easing tensions over the refusal of the Tehran regime to suspend uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 9/13/06)

2006        Sep 15, The US joined with the EU and Canada charging that China has erected illegal barriers to the sale of U.S. and other foreign-made auto parts there.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

2006        Sep 20, EU regulators fined 30 companies a total of $399.1 million for fixing prices for copper-pipe fittings.
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.A8)

2006        Sep 26, The European Commission recommended that Bulgaria and Romania join the EU next year, but under some of the harshest terms ever faced by new members.
    (AP, 9/26/06)

2006        Sep 27, EU air safety officials backed tightened rules on the amount of liquids and size of carry-on baggage passengers can bring onto commercial flights.
    (AP, 9/27/06)

2006        Oct 5, The European Central Bank, sticking to its tough line on inflation, raised its key interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point to 3.25% and hinted that another rate increase is in the offing before next year.
    (AP, 10/5/06)
2006        Oct 5, EU ministers endorsed a plan to make permanent joint patrols that pick up migrants on the high seas, moving to end internal divisions over dealing with a surge of illegal immigration from Africa.
    (AP, 10/5/06)
2006        Oct 5, US-based Human Rights Watch (HRW) said the EU's decision to abandon a trade pact with the reclusive Central Asian state of Turkmenistan was a "landmark move against tyranny."
    (Reuters, 10/5/06)

2006        Oct 6, US and European negotiators reached an interim deal on sharing trans-Atlantic air passenger data for anti-terrorism investigations.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

2006        Oct 13, The EU condemned a French bill making it a crime to deny that the World War I-era killing of Armenians in Turkey was genocide, calling it unhelpful at a critical stage in the Muslim country's EU entry talks.
    (AP, 10/14/06)
2006        Oct 13, EU and Indian leaders agreed to boost cooperation in fighting terrorism, particularly by focusing on improving the flow of intelligence.
    (AP, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 17, The EU said it felt obliged to back limited sanctions against Iran's nuclear program after Tehran refused to halt uranium enrichment as a condition to start negotiations.
    (Reuters, 10/17/06)

2006        Oct 20, In Lahti, Finland, 25 EU leaders held a one-day summit on energy. Russian President Vladimir Putin defended his government's tough stance on Georgia and dodged EU leaders' demands that he commit to a legally binding energy charter that would guarantee better access to Russia's oil and gas fields.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

2006        Oct 24, Britain said Bulgarians and Romanians will have only limited rights to work in Britain for at least a year after their countries join the European Union on January 1.
    (AP, 10/24/06)

2006        Oct 25, In Finland the US and the EU ended a 2-day meeting on cleaner energy. They agreed on tighter cooperation on renewable energy and other environmental policies despite splits over the UN’s Kyoto Protocol on global warming.
    (WSJ, 10/26/06, p.A6)

2006        Oct 26, Belarusian opposition leader Alexander Milinkevich was awarded the Sakharov Prize by the EU Parliament for his fight for democracy in the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 10/26/06)
2006        Oct 26, Europe's six largest countries agreed on ways to pre-empt terrorist attacks through sharing intelligence about threats and driving extremists from the Internet. The six states also signaled increased cooperation in stopping criminal gangs from defrauding the EU of billions of euros a year in tax revenue, amid fears terrorists might be involved.
    (AFP, 10/26/06)(AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Nov 8, The European Commission set Turkey a mid-December deadline to open its ports to shipping from Cyprus or face consequences for its troubled EU membership bid.
    (Reuters, 11/8/06)

2006        Nov 21, The UN Security Council voted to extend the EU peacekeeping force in Bosnia for a year, welcoming "tangible signs" of the Balkan nation's progress toward EU membership.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

2006        Nov 22, The European Commission said Russia had told the 25-nation bloc it intends to ban all animal product exports from the EU starting next year because Moscow claimed new members Bulgaria and Romania had poor animal health standards.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Dec 3, Andris Piebalgs, the EU Energy Commissioner from Latvia, signed an accord on nuclear cooperation with Kazakhstan. The EU hoped to increase Kazakhstan uranium sales to the EU from 3% to 20%.
    (WSJ, 12/4/06, p.A6)

2006        Dec 5, The EU presidency backed a proposal to partially suspend EU membership talks with Turkey because of Ankara's refusal to open up to trade with Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 7, Turkey offered to open a major seaport and an airport to longtime foe Cyprus to try to keep its EU entry talks on track. The EU called the step positive but insufficient.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 11, European Union foreign ministers decided to suspend 8 out of 35  parts of entry talks with Turkey over Ankara's refusal to open its ports to trade with EU member Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.53)

2006        Dec 15, The US and the EU stepped up calls for Sudan to let international troops in to support African Union forces in Darfur amid growing talk of sanctions on Khartoum.
    (AP, 12/15/06)

2006        The European Court of Human Rights overturned a Russian ban on the Salvation Army’s registration.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.73)

2007        Jan 1, Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU. Some 30,000 Israelis gained EU citizenship due to their dual registration in Romania.
    (WSJ, 10/4/07, p.A11)(AP, 1/1/07)
2007        Jan 1, Slovenia adopted the euro, becoming the 13th EU nation to use the single European currency. The transition to the euro included a 14-day period for dual use of the euro and Slovene tolar.
    (WSJ, 12/30/07, p.A4)(AP, 1/1/07)

2007        Jan 16, The European Parliament elected German conservative Hans-Gert Poettering as president of the chamber to replace outgoing Spanish Socialist Josep Borrell.
    (AFP, 1/16/07)

2007        Jan 19, Europeans labored to restore services across the continent after hurricane-force winds toppled trees, brought down power lines and damaged buildings, killing at least 47 people and disrupting travel for tens of thousands.
    (AP, 1/19/07)(SFC, 1/20/07, p.A3)
2007        Jan 19, The EU said it has donated an additional 3.95 million euros ($5 million) to support the implementation of the Nigeria-Cameroon boundary demarcation project.
    (AP, 1/20/07)

2007        Jan 22, The EU threatened Sudan with sanctions if it refused to allow UN peacekeepers into war-torn Darfur, but rights groups and analysts said the warning was not enough to stop the killings.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 23, A special committee of the European Parliament approved a report alleging EU nations including Britain, Poland, Germany and Italy were aware of secret CIA flights over Europe and the abduction of terror suspects by US agents into clandestine detention centers.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Feb 7, Michel Niaucel, a French diplomat with the European Union in Ivory Coast, was shot to death in his home overnight. Niaucel was in charge of West Africa security operations for the EU.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 12, EU foreign ministers approved plans for implementing UN sanctions against Iran, a move that is meant to punish Tehran over its refusal to halt uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 14, The European Parliament approved a controversial report accusing Britain, Germany, Italy and other European nations of turning a blind eye to CIA flights transporting terrorism suspects to secret prisons in an apparent breach of EU human rights standards.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 19, The EU extended sanctions on Zimbabwe for another year including an arms embargo, travel ban and asset freeze on President Robert Mugabe and other top officials.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 20, EU ministers agreed to cut greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below their 1990 level by 2020.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.C5)

2007        Feb 21, Europol said Police in seven European countries have broken up a network that carried out more than 200 carefully choreographed armed robberies of jewelry stores, and channeled $53 million in loot into drugs and real estate.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Mar 1, EU officials launched the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, an effort to stamp out intolerance in the 27-nation bloc under a crush of immigrants.
    (SFC, 3/2/07, p.A14)

2007        Mar 2, Checkpoint Systems Inc. said it will provide Reno GmbH with RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and store tagging systems. Reno GmbH plans to embed wireless chips in shoes sold at hundreds of stores across the continent.

2007        Mar 8, The European Central Bank raised its key interest rate a quarter percentage point to 3.75%, a move aimed at keeping growth from moving too quickly.
    (AP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 9, EU leaders agreed on a bold set of measures to fight global warming, pledging that a fifth of the bloc's energy will come from green power sources such as wind turbines and solar panels by 2020 and that 10% of European cars will run on biofuels.
    (AP, 3/9/07)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.59)

2007        Mar 14, Italy and Russia said they wanted talks between Moscow and the European Union on a new strategic partnership agreement to start as soon as possible.
    (AP, 3/14/07)

2007        Mar 15, The EU said it would put pressure on members of the Southeast Asian regional grouping ASEAN at talks in Germany to urge Myanmar to improve its human rights record.
    (AP, 3/15/07)
2007        Mar 15, The European Commission and the UN Development Program said Malaysia should empower its forest-dependent indigenous people to alleviate poverty and safeguard their environment.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 21, The EU and the UN eased their diplomatic boycott of the Palestinian government, holding talks with non-Hamas ministers.
    (Reuters, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 22, The EU approved an aviation deal with the US that opens up restricted trans-Atlantic routes to new rivals, but bowed to British concerns in delaying when the agreement takes effect. The EU said Boeing has benefited from $23.7 billion in illegal state aid, hitting back at the US in a tit-for-tat row at the World Trade Organization (WTO) over plane subsidies.
    (AP, 3/22/07)(Reuters, 3/22/07)

2007        Mar 25, European Union leaders celebrated half a century of unity by hailing the bloc's achievements in bolstering peace, democracy and prosperity, then pledged to end two years of deadlock over plans to radically overhaul the way the EU does business.
    (AP, 3/25/07)
2007        Mar 25, European leaders called for new international sanctions on Sudan over its treatment of civilians in Darfur, where the new UN humanitarian chief warned that humanitarian efforts were at risk of collapse.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Mar 31, EU foreign ministers backed an Arab peace initiative and agreed to engage with ministers of the new Palestinian national unity government who are not members of the Islamist Hamas movement.
    (AP, 3/31/07)

2007        Apr 10, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that a British woman left infertile after being treated for ovarian cancer has no right to frozen embryos against the wishes of her former fiancé, who provided the sperm.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 13, Five European countries and the European Commission signed an accord on under which they will give 5.2 million dollars for administrative reforms within the Palestinian presidency.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 19, European Union members agreed to new rules to combat racism and hate crimes across the 27-nation bloc, including setting jail sentences against those who deny or trivialize the Holocaust.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        May 2, The US and EU warned Turkey's military to stay out of the country's political showdown between the Islamic-rooted government and those in the secular establishment who fear the country will shift toward Islamic rule.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, Russia lashed out at the EU and NATO for supporting Estonia in its row with Moscow over the relocation of a Soviet war monument.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 7, South Korea and the European Union started free trade talks aimed at linking Asia's third largest economy to the world's biggest trading bloc.
    (AP, 5/7/07)
2007        May 7, A large explosion in Ukraine knocked out of service one of the main pipelines which carries Siberian gas through Ukraine to Germany and other EU clients. Shifting soil led to a break in the pipeline.
    (AP, 5/7/07)(AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 14, EU foreign ministers gave the green light for a 40-million euro aid package to the African Union peacekeeping force in the troubled Sudanese province of Darfur.
    (AP, 5/14/07)
2007        May 14, EU foreign ministers decided to drop a visa ban against four Uzbek officials, while extending other sanctions against the Central Asian nation imposed after a crackdown on an uprising in 2005.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 18, In Russia EU leaders criticized Russia's human rights record, and were faulted in return, at the end of a summit that produced no formal agreements but helped illustrate the widening political chasm between Moscow and the West.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 28, Officials said heavy storms, landslides, flash floods and lightning have killed at least 23 people in Europe and Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/28/07)

2007        Jun 21, Leaders of the EU's 27 nations gathered to discuss a new EU treaty.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
2007        Jun 21, The European Court of Human Rights found the Russian authorities responsible for the killings of four members of a Chechen family in 2003 and ordered Moscow to pay a relative $114,000.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
2007        Jun 21, Talks in Germany between the US, EU, India and Brazil to save the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Doha round of free trade negotiations collapsed.
    (Reuters, 6/21/07)

2007        Jun 22, Southeastern Europe baked under soaring temperatures, with nearly 30 deaths across the region blamed on the year's first major heat wave.
    (AP, 6/22/07)

2007        Jun 23, European Union leaders agreed on a "precise mandate," no longer called a constitution, that will guide and govern the expanded EU. They agreed on the key points of a treaty meant to strengthen the bloc's foreign policy role and eliminate unwieldy bureaucracy.
    (AP, 6/23/07)(WSJ, 6/25/07, p.A1)

2007        Jun 28, The European Commission said all Indonesian airlines and several from Russia, Ukraine and Angola will be banned from flying to the EU due to safety concerns.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jul 4, On the historic occasion of their first summit, the EU and Brazil decided to establish a comprehensive strategic partnership, based on their close historical, cultural and economic ties. Brazil and EU leaders met in Lisbon, Portugal.
    (www.eu2007.pt/UE/vEN/Noticias_Documentos/20070704BRSUM.htm)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.40)

2007        Jul 6, EU officials said they have asked Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia to join patrols of Europe's border control agency in a bid to stop massive clandestine immigration.
    (AFP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 9, The EU's top justice official said EU citizens will be protected by the US Privacy Act under an anti-terror deal with Washington on the sharing of trans-Atlantic air passenger data.
    (AP, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 10, Cyprus and Malta received approval from EU finance ministers to join the euro.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.57)

2007        Jul 12, France told Serbia its EU bid depends on letting Kosovo break away.
    (WSJ, 1/13/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 20, A heat wave sweeping central and southeastern Europe killed at least 13 people this week, with soaring temperatures sparking forest fires, damaging crops and prompting calls to ban horse-drawn tourist carriages.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jul 23, The European Union took the first step towards sending forces to Chad and the Central African Republican to help the United Nations protect refugees trapped in the violent region bordering Darfur.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

2007        Jul 24, Heavy rain and extreme temperatures continued to batter Europe, with Britain caught in its worst floods in living memory while the Balkans sizzled in heatwaves that killed at least 35 people.
    (AP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 26, The European Court of Human Rights ordered the Russian government to pay damages of $196,000 to the family members of 11 Chechen civilians killed by Russian soldiers in 2000, when security forces rampaged through Novye Aldi, setting fire to houses and killing at least 50 civilians.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2007        Jul 30, The European Commission said it was seeking a court injunction against Polish plans to build a key continental highway to prevent permanent damage to the Rospuda Valley, a "unique environmental site."
    (AFP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 6, The European Commission announced a formal EU-wide import ban on meat and livestock from the British mainland following the outbreak there of foot and mouth disease.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 10, The European Central Bank injected another $83.8 billion into the banking system amid signs that bad US mortgages were digging deeper into the world economy. Europe's main stock markets slumped further, with London and Paris shedding more than 3.0 percent, amid turmoil ignited by concerns about a weak US housing sector.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 19, Israel opened a crossing with the Gaza Strip to let in fuel shipments, but tens of thousands of homes remained without electricity because fuel for a major Gaza power company hadn't arrived. The EU cut off vital funding to a Gaza power plant, forcing it to shut down the last of its generators and darken tens of thousands of Palestinian homes. Palestinian Information Minister Riad Maliki said the EU ceased payment "because Hamas took over the electric company and started collecting the revenues and taking them to its pocket."
    (AP, 8/19/07)(AP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 21, The European Central Bank provided more cash for banks that have been clamoring for money, injecting $370.6 billion in its normal weekly refinancing.
    (AP, 8/21/07)
2007        Aug 21, The EU said it will resume vital fuel aid to the Gaza Strip's electric company, money the bloc suspended because of suspicions that Gaza's Hamas rulers were diverting revenues.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

2007        Aug 22, Russia nominated Josef Tosovsky, a former Czech prime minister and head of that country's central bank, to head the International Monetary Fund, a move that put the Kremlin and the European Union at odds.
    (AP, 8/22/07)

2007        Aug 23, The EU relaxed a ban on exports of British livestock, meat and dairy products that was imposed after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southeastern England earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/23/07)

2007        Aug 23, Sudan summoned the envoy of the European Commission and the Canadian charge d'affaires and informed them they were considered persona non grata because they interfered in Sudanese affairs. The UN chief called on the Sudanese military to remove troops remaining in southern Sudan, expressing disappointment that a July 9 deadline was not met as called for in a 2005 peace deal.
    (AFP, 8/24/07)(AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Aug 25, Sudan said it will allow an EU envoy it ordered out of the country to remain until his tenure expires next month, following an EU apology.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Sep 11, The European Commission has ditched its attempt to impose the metric system on Ireland and Britain, where a grocer was once convicted of selling bananas by the pound rather than by the kilo. The EU said it will lift all remaining restrictions on British meat and livestock next month after veterinary experts agreed that the threat from a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak was over.
    (AP, 9/11/07)(AFP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 15, EU finance ministers and central bankers agreed in Portugal to step up co-operation among themselves to improve their handling of cross-border financial crises.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2007        Sep 17, Microsoft lost its appeal of a European antitrust order that obliges the technology giant to share communications code with rivals, sell a copy of Windows without Media Player and pay a $613 million fine, the largest ever by EU regulators.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Sep 21, Google filed with the EU competition regulator for permission to buy rival DoubleClick for $3.1 billion.
    (Reuters, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed a French resolution endorsing sending a European Union-UN force to Chad and the Central African Republic to protect civilians reeling from a spillover of the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 26, The EU accused the US of trying to weaken aircraft maker Airbus and causing 27 billion dollars (19 billion euros) in losses by paying subsidies to US rival Boeing.
    (AFP, 9/26/07)

2007        Aug 9, The US Federal Reserve injected $24 billion to the banking system in the wake of a credit squeeze due to failing subprime mortgages and another $38 billion the next day. The European Central Bank (ECB) offered unlimited loans at 4% to stem the credit squeeze as it extended to Europe.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.64)(WSJ, 11/6/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 4, Egypt sent a high-level protest to dozens of European nations expressing "astonishment and regret" at their refusal to endorse Cairo's call for a Middle East nuclear free zone at a conference last month. At last month's IAEA session, 25 of the 27 EU nations abstained as did other countries hoping to join the union. In all, 47 nations abstained. Israeli objections forced a vote in which 53 countries, Muslim states and their supporters from the developing world, backed the proposal.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 5, Europe's .eu Internet domain registrar EURid said the Internet address www.sex.asia is likely to be the domain name most in demand next week when dot Asia Web sites are launched.
    (AP, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 15, European Union foreign ministers gave their final approval to deploy a 3,000-strong EU peacekeeping force for one year to help refugees and displaced people living along Darfur's borders with Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 10/15/07)

2007        Oct 19,     European Union leaders in Portugal endorsed a reform treaty to replace their failed European constitution and give the 27-nation union a more influential say in world affairs. The new Treaty of Lisbon created 2 new posts, a European foreign minister in all but name and a new standing president of the European Council.
    (AP, 10/19/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.64)

2007        Oct 22,     Microsoft Corp. dropped a nearly decade-long legal battle with European regulators, agreeing to key parts of an antitrust ruling that has already led to hundreds of millions in fines.
    (AP, 10/22/07)

2007        Oct 29, In Portugal senior officials from the EU, three US states (California, New York, New Jersey), Canada, Norway and New Zealand launched the International Carbon Action Partnership (ICAP), an international effort to fight climate change by building a global carbon trading market.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Nov 1, The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) went into effect across 30 countries in Europe. Approved in 2004 it drops traditional rules that required banks and brokers to use national exchanges for reporting and trading equities, opening Europe's exchanges to the threat of new competition.
    (www.efinancialnews.com/homepage/specialfeatures/2449084355)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.83)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.67)

2007        Nov 5, Authorities said police from across Europe have arrested 92 suspects linked to an alleged network that produced and sold child abuse videos to 2,500 customers around the world. The 15-month investigation was triggered by an Australian police discovery in July 2006 of a video depicting a Belgian father raping his daughters, aged 9 and 11.
    (AP, 11/5/07)

2007        Nov 14, The EU reached an accord with the East African Community (EAC) states of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. They will enjoy duty free, quota free access to the EU for all products, except sugar and rice, from January 1. Originally established in 1967, the EAC collapsed a decade later amid diverging economic philosophies. It was resurrected in 2000 as Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda agreed to create an EU-style common market for their 90 million citizens. Rwanda and Burundi became members in July this year.
    (AP, 11/17/07)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.52)   

2007        Nov 29, The European Parliament voted to allow Britain and Ireland to keep some of their old imperial measurements so pubs can still serve pints and road signs can show miles instead of kilometers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Dec 12, The European Central Bank said it would take joint action with the US Federal Reserve and other institutions to offer short-term funding to the money markets to help ease a global credit squeeze. The ECB said it would provide as much as $20 billion to European banks, in part to fill their demand for dwindling dollars.
    (AP, 12/12/07)

2007        Dec 13, EU leaders signed the Treaty of Lisbon to reform the bloc's institutions and give it stronger leadership, marking the end of a difficult process that has lasted nearly a decade.
    (Reuters, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 14, EU leaders held a formal meeting in Brussels, where they agreed in principle to send 1,800 policemen, judges and officials to Kosovo. They also agreed to set up a reflection group to think about challenges facing the EU between 2020 and 2030.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.87)

2007        Dec 16, The EU signed a new trade agreement with the 15-member Caribbean Forum.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.74) 

2007        Dec 17, US trade officials said the US has reached a deal with the EU, Japan and Canada to keep its Internet gambling market closed to foreign companies, but is continuing talks with India, Antigua and Barbuda, Macau and Costa Rica.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 18, EU regulators said Mastercard must drop fees it charges for cross-border transactions or face daily fines of 3.5 percent of daily global turnover.
    (AP, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 20, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania halted land and sea border controls at midnight, becoming the first in a wave of new members of Europe's passport-free Schengen zone.
    (AFP, 12/20/07)

2007        Dec 27, The Afghan government expelled UN advisor Mervyn Patterson and EU official Michael Semple, on accusations they held unauthorized meetings with Taliban militants. A spokesman for the UN mission said the diplomats had traveled to Musa Qala, a former Taliban stronghold in southern Helmand province on Dec 24, where they met with local leaders.
    (AP, 12/27/07)

2008        Jan 1, Slovenia became the first of 12 newcomers to take over the rotating presidency of the EU Union, a big psychological boost to a nation that gained independence from the ruins of the former Yugoslavia 16 years ago.
    (AP, 1/1/08)
2008        Jan 1, EU newcomers Cyprus and Malta adopted the euro, bringing to fifteen the number of countries using the currency with increasing clout over the slumping US dollar.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 3, A bitterly cold winter storm pummeled parts of Europe, killing at least three sailors when a ship sank in rough seas, and piling up snow that stranded thousands at airports, on mountain roads and in remote villages.
    (AP, 1/3/08)

2008        Jan 11, The EU food-safety agency endorsed meat and milk derived from cloned animals.
    (WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 17, Members of the European Parliament adopted a resolution criticizing Egypt's human rights record, even after Cairo summoned EU ambassadors to complain about the text.
    (AFP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 21, President Pervez Musharraf in Brussels pledged to hold free elections as he began a European trip aimed at bolstering outside support, but urged the West not to hold Pakistan to unrealistic rights standards.
    (Reuters, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 23, The EU unveiled its comprehensive climate and energy proposals.

2008        Jan 28, The EU launched its long-awaited peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic to help protect hundreds of thousands of refugees from strife-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 31, The EU ordered Italy to clean up Naples within a month, or face legal action.
    (AP, 1/31/08)
2008        Jan 31, Human Rights Watch charged that Europe and the US increasingly tolerate autocrats posing as democrats out of pure self-interest, in countries such as Pakistan, Kenya, Nigeria and Russia, as human right abuses go on.
    (AFP, 1/31/08)
2008        Jan 31, It was reported that the EU is suing Malta for permitting residents to hunt 2 species of birds in the spring. The Maltese government said it qualifies for an exemption under EU rules.
    (WSJ, 2/1/08, p.A6)

2008        Feb 4, EU nations gave preliminary approval to plans to send a 1,800-strong policing and administration mission to the breakaway province to replace the current UN mission.
    (AP, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 8, Officials said that the WTO has ruled against the EU's import tariffs for bananas, possibly opening the door to millions of dollars in US commercial sanctions.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 12, European Union antitrust regulators raided Intel Corp. and computer resellers searching for evidence that they may have broken cartel or monopoly rules.
    (AP, 2/12/08)
2008        Feb 12, The EU resumed deployment of a much-awaited peacekeeping force for two countries neighboring Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 13, The EU's top justice official called for a massive shake-up of the bloc's border security, recommending that all visitors be screened and fingerprinted and a satellite surveillance system be set up to keep illegal migrants out.
    (AP, 2/13/08)

2008        Feb 16, The EU gave the final approval for the deployment of a 1,800-member policing and administration mission in Kosovo.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Feb 27, The EU fined Microsoft Corp. $1.3 billion for charging rivals too much for software information. The fine is the largest ever for a single company and the first time the EU has penalized a business for failing to obey an antitrust order.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 28, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that a government may not deport an individual to a state where he may be at risk of torture or other ill-treatment.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.63)

2008        Mar 3, The US and EU filed a WTO case against China demanding that it loosen restraints on foreign companies vying for a greater slice of the country's lucrative market for financial information.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 5, The EU urged Serbia to make clear it saw its future with Europe and laid out incentives on visas, education and transport to try to boost the bloc's image in the Balkans.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

2008        Mar 11, EU regulators cleared Google's $3.1 billion bid for online ad tracker DoubleClick, saying the acquisition won't curb competition for online ads.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, Serbia and Russia demanded that the UN administration in Kosovo halt the transfer of authority to the European Union, calling a handover illegal and declaring they will never recognize the independence of the Serb province.
    (AP, 3/12/08)

2008        Mar 17, An EU force of 3,700 troops still deploying in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) announced the official start of its year-long mission to protect refugees and displaced people.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)

2008        Apr 7, The EU opened the way for air travelers to use mobile phones to talk, text or send e-mails on planes throughout Europe's airspace.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 14, German Chancellor Angela Merkel arrived in Dublin to discuss a European Union reform treaty that still bemuses most Irish voters ahead of a June referendum that will determine the pact's fate.
    (Reuters, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 16, The euro struck an all-time peak of 1.5969 dollars as eurozone inflation spiked to a record high.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 29, European nations failed to convince Lithuania to allow the EU to launch talks on a new partnership pact with Russia.
    (AFP, 4/29/08)

2008        May 20, The European Parliament censured Italy for its treatment of Gypsies.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.71)

2008        May 25, EU foreign ministers approved much delayed plans to begin talks with Russia aimed at forging a new "strategic partnership."
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 5, The European Parliament called for the peacekeeping mandate for Russian troops in the breakaway Georgian region of Abkhazia to be revised. The chamber also demanded the EU sends its own border mission into the conflict zone in Abkhazia.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 10, President Bush, speaking in Slovenia at his final EU-US summit, said the United States and Europe must rally to keep Iran from developing a nuclear weapon, calling the threat an incredible danger to world peace.
    (AP, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 11, The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a Resolution establishing the election procedure of the members of the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA). By mid August it was ratified by 17 countries.
    (www.coe.int/t/DG2/TRAFFICKING/campaign/default_en.asp)(Econ, 8/16/08, p.58)

2008        Jun 12, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told Kosovo's leaders he intends to reshape the UN mission there to allow the EU to take on key tasks, according to a letter in the letter to Kosovo President Fatmir Sejdiu. Russia demanded disciplinary action against the head of the UN mission in Kosovo for preparing to hand over powers to a EU mission that Moscow says is illegal.
    (Reuters, 6/12/08)

2008        Jun 13, Substantial election returns showed that Ireland's voters have rejected the EU reform treaty, a blueprint for modernizing the 27-nation bloc that cannot become law without Irish approval. A majority of voters appeared determined to register their opposition to the growth of a continental government that would erode Ireland's sense of independence.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 14, Rebels in Chad attacked the eastern town of Goz-Beida, and Irish EU troops took up defensive positions between the fighting and a refugee camp.
    (Reuters, 6/14/08)
2008        Jun 14, The EU presented Iran with a modified package of incentives to suspend its uranium enrichment program, but an Iran government spokesman said the country would reject the offer if it requires a halt to sensitive nuclear work. As part of the package Western nations told Iran that they could cut off any new help to Iran's anti-drug units unless the Islamic regime halts uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 6/14/08)(AP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 15, The EU threatened to impose sanctions against Sudanese who do not cooperate in bringing those accused of war crimes in Darfur to the international court.
    (AFP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 18, The European Parliament approved controversial new rules for expelling illegal immigrants from the bloc, overcoming opposition from left-leaning lawmakers and ignoring protests from human rights activists.
    (AP, 6/18/08)
2008        Jun 18, A European Union delegation met Fiji's coup leader Voreqe Bainimarama, seeking assurances that he will stick to a pledge to hold elections to restore democracy by March 2009.
    (AP, 6/18/08)

2008        Jun 19, The EU agreed to lift its diplomatic sanctions against Cuba, but imposed tough conditions on the communist island to maintain sanction-free relations.
    (AP, 6/20/08)

2008        Jun 23, European Union nations approved new sanctions against Iran, including an assets freeze of the country's biggest bank. The sanctions also include a travel ban on high-level experts dealing with Iran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 6/23/08)

2008        Jun 24, The EU named Iran's largest commercial bank, the chief of the Revolutionary Guards and the head of the country's nuclear program as the targets of new sanctions imposed over Tehran's nuclear defiance as part of an updated blacklist of nuclear experts and companies in Iran being targeted under new sanctions.
    (AP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 27, EU and Russian leaders, meeting in Siberia, agreed to launch formal negotiations on a new strategic agreement governing relations. A first round of negotiations will be held in Brussels on July 4.
    (Reuters, 6/27/08)

2008        Jul 7, European Union nations gave their backing to a French-drafted pact calling for tightening immigration and asylum rules across the 27-nation bloc.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 8, The EU formally invited Slovakia to join the euro zone on Jan. 1, 2009.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 10, The European Parliament called the fingerprinting of Gypsies in Italy a clear act of racial discrimination and urged the authorities to stop it.
    (AP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, European Union lawmakers called for tougher EU sanctions against Zimbabwe, including putting businessmen who finance Pres. Mugabe's regime on a visa ban list.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 15, The EU agreed to an emergency aid package for its fishing industry to cope with fuel prices.
    (WSJ, 7/17/08, p.A8)

2008        Jul 23, The European Commission froze almost euro500 million ($800 million) in aid to Bulgaria, citing corruption, organized crime, severe spending irregularities and alleged vote-buying in a country that only joined the EU last year.
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2008        Jul 25, The EU and South Africa began their first-ever summit in the French city of Bordeaux. Brussels solidly backed Pretoria's mediating role in Zimbabwe as the only way of ending ruinous political chaos.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)

2008        Aug 5, The EU said it will give Haiti $4.6 million to help pay for food in the world's poorest country.
    (AP, 8/5/08)

2008        Aug 8, The EU tightened trade sanctions against Iran to punish Tehran for not committing to a long-standing demand of the international community that it freeze its nuclear enrichment program.
    (AP, 8/8/08)

2008        Sep 5, EU nations called for an international probe to find out which country should shoulder responsibility for starting the conflict between Georgia and Russia.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 7, Italy's foreign minister, after meeting US Vice President Dick Cheney, said the EU wants to work closely with the United States in resolving the Georgian crisis.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

2008        Sep 9, The 27-member EU stopped short of offering Ukraine membership during an EU-Ukraine summit hosted by French President Nicolas Sarkozy. But the two sides began work on an "association accord," a step that offers closer political and economic ties and in the past has been designed to prepare nations for eventual membership.
    (AP, 9/10/08)
2008        Sep 9, Serbian lawmakers ratified a pre-membership agreement with the EU and an oil and gas deal with Russia after months of heated debate over the direction of the country's policies.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 15, Europe's major central banks moved quickly to calm markets, pumping billions of euros and pounds into the financial system to shore up confidence in the aftermath of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.'s bankruptcy filing in the United States.
    (AP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 16, Urgently trying to keep cash flowing amid a Wall Street meltdown, the Federal Reserve pumped another $70 billion into the nation's financial system to help ease credit stresses. Late in the day the Federal Reserve agreed to a 2-year $85 billion loan to insurance giant American International Group (AIG) in exchange for a 79.9% equity stake in the form of warrants called equity participation notes. Central banks in the US, Europe and Japan pumped tens of billions into their banking systems to keep money flowing.
    (AP, 9/16/08)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/17/08, p.A1)

2008        Sep 19, Singapore banned all dairy imports from China and the European Union demanded answers from Beijing as the baby formula scandal, which left 4 babies dead and over 6 thousand infants ill across China, spread to liquid milk.
    (Reuters, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 24, The European Union warned that Iran is nearing the ability to arm a nuclear warhead even if it insists its atomic activities are peaceful.
    (AP, 9/24/08)

2008        Sep 25, The EU banned imports of baby food containing Chinese milk as tainted dairy products linked to the deaths of four babies turned up in candy and other Chinese-made goods that were quickly pulled from stores worldwide. More than a dozen countries have banned or recalled Chinese dairy products as melamine was found in milk products from 22 Chinese dairy companies.
    (AP, 9/25/08)(SFC, 9/25/08, p.A3)

2008        Sep 29, In Georgia almost 300 monitors from 22 EU nations were in place to oversee Russia's promised troop withdrawal from the large swaths it has occupied since the August war.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 30, Bank rescues spread in Europe and some investors expressed faith that the US Congress would eventually pass a $700 billion bailout plan for the financial sector.
    (AP, 9/30/08)

2008        Oct 1, The EU imposed one of its highest ever cartel fines on a "paraffin mafia" accused of fixing prices and markets for everyday household products like chewing gum, tires and candles.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, EU monitors began patrolling Georgian territory and Russian troops allowed some of them into a buffer zone around the breakaway region of South Ossetia despite earlier warnings from Moscow they would be blocked.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 8, Six central banks jolted markets by cutting interest rates together in an attempt to shore up confidence in the world's crisis-stricken financial system. The US Fed reduced its key rate from 2 percent to 1.5 percent. The Bank of England unexpectedly slashed its key lending rate by a half-point to 4.50 percent. The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 2.50 percent. China also cut its key interest rates for a second time in less than one month. The European Central Bank sliced its rate by half a point to 3.75 percent. Sweden, and Switzerland also cut rates. Earlier in a day Japan's Nikkei showed its biggest drop since the October, 1987 stock market crash.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(AFP, 10/8/08)

2008        Oct 12, European leaders hammered out action to confront the financial crisis, adding their voices to a global chorus of demands for coordinated action against the turmoil.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 13, Europe put $2.3 trillion on the line to protect the continent's banks, a figure that dwarfed the Bush administration's $700 billion rescue program.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, The EU temporarily lifted a travel ban on the president of Belarus, a country regarded as Europe's last dictatorship, as relations with the country start to thaw.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, The EU condemned Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's "unilateral decision" to form a new government and threatened fresh sanctions unless he respects a power-sharing deal. Mugabe swore in his two vice presidents, casting doubt on a new mediation effort aimed at saving a power-sharing deal with the opposition.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)

2008        Oct 15, EU leaders agreed to stick to ambitious plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions 20% by 2020, but divisions over how to share out the cuts were widened by fears over the impact of the financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Barbados 13 Caribbean countries approved a new Economic partnership Agreement (EPA) with the EU.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.50)

2008        Oct 16, The European Commission announced 15 million euros (20 million dollars) of emergency food aid for victims of drought and soaring food prices in five east African countries. The biggest share will go to Ethiopia and Somalia and smaller amounts to Kenya, Uganda and Djibouti.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, The European Central Bank extended emergency loans to Hungary’s central bank. The ECB said it will lend up to $6.75 billion.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A5)

2008        Oct 21, EU lawmakers joined US civil liberty campaigners in criticizing a new scanner that allows airport security to see through passengers' clothes, calling it a virtual strip search that should only be used as a last resort.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 22, Officials said the EU, the US and other international donors have pledged more than $4.5 billion for rebuilding parts of Georgia that were damaged in its war with Russia.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 23, The European Parliament awarded a prestigious rights prize to jailed Chinese dissident Hu Jia on the eve of a key Beijing summit and despite pressure from Beijing not to honor him.
    (AFP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, A European Union court has ruled that EU governments should no longer freeze the funds of People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran, an Iranian opposition group on the bloc's terror blacklist. A British court ruled in its favor last year.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Cuba and the European Union ended a five-year standoff by signing an agreement that calls for EU members to send the island euro2 million (US$2.6 million) in immediate hurricane recovery aid and up to euro30 million (US$38.8 million) more in financing next year.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

2008        Oct 24, Asian and European leaders, meeting in Beijing, called for a coordinated response to the global financial meltdown and prepared to endorse a critical role for the International Monetary Fund in aiding the hardest-hit countries.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 25, In China a 2-day economic summit closed. 43 Asian and European leaders pledged around $4 trillion to support banks and restart money markets to try to stem the global crisis.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 26, Hungary reached agreement with the IMF and the EU on a broad economic rescue package, including substantial financing, steadying its battered currency. The deal was expected to be finalized over the next few days.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 29, Officials said that EU governments promised to lend Hungary 6.5 billion euros ($8.1 billion) as part of a 20 billion euro ($25 billion) international rescue package to help it weather a financial crisis that has sharply devalued its currency.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Nov 6, The European Central Bank cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to 3.25% and the Bank of England made an even more aggressive reduction of 1.5% in an effort to ease the financial crisis and boost their flagging economies.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 13, The European Union proposed plans to toughen up rules covering taxes on foreign accounts in an effort to stop tax evasion which has been endemic in some EU nations.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, China signed an agreement in Geneva to loosen controls on financial news providers in an out-of-court settlement of a dispute with the US, the EU and Canada.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 14, The EU said that the 15 countries that use the euro are officially in a recession,  as their economies shrank for a second straight quarter because of the world financial crisis and sinking demand.
    (AP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 20, The European Union formally recognized Welsh, which dates back to the 6th century, as a minority tongue. It became an official tongue in Wales in 1993, 450 years after British rulers gave it the boot in favor of English.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 25, EU ministers sought to enlist counterparts from 27 African countries in a new effort to curb the flood of illegal immigration.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)

2008        Nov 26, European ministers pledged euro10 billion ($12.8 billion) to an ambitious list of 30 space missions, including one to put a robotic rover on Mars.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, The UN Security Council approved the deployment of a EU mission (Eulex) throughout Kosovo under the UN umbrella.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.55)

2008        Nov 27, Switzerland reached an agreement with the EU to join the European Union's Schengen passport-free travel zone effective next month.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Dec 4, Europe's top human rights court ruled that storing DNA from people with no criminal record is in breach of their rights, a landmark decision that could force Britain to destroy the samples of nearly 1 million people on its database.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, The Luxembourg-based European Court of First Instance said EU governments "violated the rights of defense" of the People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran (PMOI), and that the EU nations have not provided sufficient proof to blacklist the group.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 8, The EU formally launches its anti-piracy task mission off the Somali coast, preparing to take over from the NATO flotilla guarding one of the world's most important shipping lanes.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, The EU joined calls for President Robert Mugabe to step down after 28 years ruling Zimbabwe, where spreading cholera and food shortages have worsened a desperate humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 9, The European Union and Canada reached a deal to open their aviation markets to each other by removing restrictions on direct flights and foreign ownership in airlines.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 10, The European Commission awarded the first Chaillot Prize to the Al-Nahda Philanthropic Society for Women, a Saudi charity which helps divorced and underprivileged women.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 12, European Union leaders agreed to give concessions to Ireland so it will hold a new referendum on the EU's stalled Lisbon reform treaty, which aims to make the 27-nation bloc a stronger player on the world stage.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Switzerland became the 25th member of the passport-free zone of the Schengen countries, after interior and justice ministers of the 27 EU member states formally approved the accession of this non-EU country on Nov 27. The number of Chinese visitors quickly soared.
    (www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/eur/vbel/ref_visinf/visbel.html)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.116)

2008        Dec 15, Europe's biggest bank, HSBC, joined a list of top names in world finance admitting huge potential losses in a suspected pyramid fraud scam run by Wall Street figurehead Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 17, The European Parliament gave a jailed Chinese dissident a one-minute standing ovation as it honored him in absentia with its top human rights award.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 19, France’s finance ministry unveiled a package of financial aid from the EU and others totaling $10.7 billion to help Latvia.
    (WSJ, 12/20/08, p.A8)

2008        Anand Menon authored “Europe: The State of the Union," a history of the EU.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.103)
2008        In Europe an upward trend in suicides began as the euro zone entered a recession. The term “economic suicides" was soon adopted by media outlets to describe the rise.
    (SFC, 8/15/12, p.A2)

2009        Jan 1, Slovakia became the 16th European Union member state to adopt the euro. This day also marks 10 years since the euro was introduced.
    (AP, 1/1/09)

2009        Jan 2, Ukraine sought support in European capitals a day after Russia cut off gas supplies and hardened its stance on prices. The cutoff came after Ukraine made a $1.5 billion overdue payment, but Russia demanded another $600 million, including $450 million penalties for the late payment for gas shipped in November and December. The two sides also have not agreed on prices for 2009. Russia accused Ukraine of stealing gas destined for the rest of Europe.
    (AP, 1/2/09)(Reuters, 1/2/09)

2009        Jan 4, Russia asked the EU to provide monitoring of Ukraine's gas transit system and charged Ukraine was stealing gas bound for Europe, as Kiev leveled its own charges. Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller said that the state-controlled company wanted $450 per 1,000 cubic meters, up from its last offer of $418. The reductions in gas supplies spread to the Czech Republic and Turkey.
    (AP, 1/4/09)(Reuters, 1/4/09)

2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)
2009        Jan 6, Signs mounted that the conflict in Gaza is starting to spill over into violence in Europe's towns and cities, with assaults against Jews and arson attacks on Jewish congregations in France, Sweden and Britain.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, The EU said Russia and Ukraine will accept using international monitors to verify the transit of natural gas from Russia through Ukraine's pipelines. Russia's gas giant Gazprom completely stopped sending gas to European consumers at 7:44 a.m. (0544 GMT). 80% of Russian gas shipped via Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/7/09)
2009        Jan 7, Freezing temperatures and exceptional snowfall caused travel delays across Europe and were blamed for at least 12 deaths, including that of a man in Milan who was crushed when a canopy collapsed under the weight of snow.
    (AP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 8, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said it would restore supplies to Europe through Ukraine, cut off after a dispute between Moscow and Kiev, as soon as international monitors are in place.
    (Reuters, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 10, Russia and the EU took a step toward securing the resumption of gas flows to Europe when the two signed a deal on monitoring the supplies through Ukraine. PM Vladimir Putin said Russia will restart gas supplies to Europe once an EU-led monitoring mission begins to track gas transit via Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/10/09)(Reuters, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 11, Russia, Ukraine, and the EU struck an agreement to try to resume Russian supplies through Ukraine to Europe. President Dmitry Medvedev said energy giant Gazprom would only resume gas supplies once Russia had a copy of the document signed by Ukraine and once the various teams of international observers were in place. The text of the accord calls for the EU, Russia and Ukraine to each provide 25 experts to "carry out checks on the basis of equal parity both on Ukrainian and Russian territory.
    (Reuters, 1/11/09)(AFP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, Russia's state-run monopoly Gazprom announced it will resume shipping natural gas to Europe, where tens of thousands of homes and buildings have been left without heat in freezing weather.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 13, Russia and Ukraine hotly blamed each other as Russia restarted natural gas supplies but little or no gas flowed toward Europe. EU officials watched in dismay and criticized both nations for their intransigence.
    (AP, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 15, Ukraine rejected Russia's latest request to pipe natural gas westward to increasingly frustrated EU consumers, deepening the bitter economic and political dispute that has paralyzed energy shipments to Europe.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 16, The EU threatened new sanctions against Robert Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe, blamed for political deadlock, a surging cholera epidemic and runaway inflation. The UN said the death toll from the cholera outbreak had risen to 2,201 and that the epidemic is still not under control.
    (AP, 1/16/09)
2009        Jan 15, The European Central Bank cuts its key rate by half a point to 2%, matching its lowest level ever, set in December 2005.
    (WSJ, 1/16/09, p.A5)

2009        Jan 17, Russia and Ukraine held gas crisis talks in Moscow that the European Union said were the "last and best chance" to resolve the row that has left Europe struggling without key gas supplies.
    (AFP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 18, Russia and Ukraine announced a deal to end the bitter dispute that has blocked Russian natural gas from Europe following talks between Russian PM Vladimir Putin and his Ukrainian counterpart Yulia Tymoshenko. Under the terms, Ukraine will pay 20 percent less than the European "market price" price for gas this year, which Russia says is $450 per 1,000 cubic meters. That's more than twice as much as the $179.50 Ukraine paid in 2008.
    (AP, 1/18/09)

2009        Jan 19, Russia and Ukraine signed a deal that restores natural gas shipments to Ukraine and paves the way for an end to the nearly two-week cutoff of most Russian gas to a freezing Europe.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 20, Russian gas reached Europe via Ukraine for the first time in two weeks after Moscow and Kiev ended a contract row that cut supplies to about 20 European countries.
    (Reuters, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 22, European Union antitrust regulators said they raided Slovakia's main telecom operator last week on suspicion of monopoly abuse.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 26, European Union leaders said they were willing to take in prisoners being released from the US detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, but stressed that American authorities must show ex-inmates pose no security threat before they can be resettled.
    (AP, 1/26/09)
2009        Jan 26, The European Union decided to remove an Iranian opposition group from the EU's terror list and lift the restrictions on its funds, a move likely to further damage relations strained over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 1/26/09)
2009        Jan 26, European Union nations announced the addition of 26 Zimbabwean officials and 36 companies to the EU's visa and assets freeze blacklist to pressure President Robert Mugabe to share power with Zimbabwe's opposition.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 28, The European Union promised billions of dollars in aid to the world's poorest nations to entice them to sign a new global climate change pact.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 29, The European Union signed an agreement to give Ethiopia 251 million euros (322 million dollars) in aid to boost development projects across the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AFP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 8, Voters in Switzerland approved an expanded labor deal with the European Union that allows Romanians and Bulgarians to work in the Alpine republic.
    (AP, 2/8/09)

2009        Feb 10, The European Union announced that it has signed a pact with 17 social networking providers including Facebook, MySpace and Google to improve safeguards against the bullying of teenagers online.
    (AP, 2/10/09)
2009        Feb 10, EU ministers demanded the reopening of negotiations with Liechtenstein on fighting fraud.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.53)

2009        Feb 19, Europe's highest human rights court has awarded Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher, euro2,800 ($3,550) for being held unlawfully by British authorities during an anti-terrorist probe. A day earlier Britain's highest court ruled that Abu Qatada could be deported to Jordan despite fears he could face torture there. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Qatada and 10 other detainees had their right to liberty violated when they were held in high-security conditions.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 22, The heads of Europe's largest economies agreed on the need for greater regulation of financial markets and of products such as hedge funds, as they met in Berlin to hammer out a joint European position for the G20 meeting in London on April 2.
    (AFP, 2/22/09)

2009        Feb 24, China’s state media reported that a Chinese delegation will buy as much as $15 billion worth of machinery, automobiles and food products while on a trip to Europe this week.
    (WSJ, 2/25/09, p.A11)

2009        Feb 25, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development said that it would invest a record 7.0 billion euros this year in the former Soviet bloc to combat an economic crisis in eastern Europe.
    (AFP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 27, Leading international financial institutions said Eastern Europe's struggling banks will receive euro24.5 billion ($31.1 billion) worth of emergency help to shore up their battered finances. Regional leaders were scheduled to meet this weekend. The Hungarian, Polish and Czech currencies strengthened on the news of the aid package.
    (AP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 5, The European Central Bank cut its main interest rate by a half percentage point to 1.5 percent, dropping the cost of borrowing in the 16 countries that use the euro to a new record low amid grim economic news.
    (AP, 3/5/09)
2009        Mar 5, The European Court of Justice said Britain's law requiring retirement at age 65 is legal under EU rules. The advocacy group Age Concern took the British government to court in 2006 to demand the reversal of the forced retirement rule.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 6, The EU and Kenya agreed to allow the country to prosecute suspected pirates captured by European forces on the high seas.
    (AP, 3/6/09)

2009        Mar 20, EU leaders pledged a 125 billion euros in support for eastern Europe and the IMF after rejecting calls to plough more taxpayer cash into their own faltering economies.
    (AFP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 25, Czech PM Mirek Topolanek, the current rotating president of the EU, slammed US plans to spend its way out of recession as "a road to hell."
    (AP, 3/25/09)
2009        Mar 25,  The EU laid out new labeling rules laid allowing Rose wine customers to know exactly how their grapes were treated to turn their tipple a blushing pink.
    (AP, 3/25/09)
2009        Mar 25, Romania was given a loan totaling 20 billion euros (27 billion dollars) by the IMF, the EU, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). An austerity program accompanied the loans.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Apr 6, The US Federal Reserve said it will supply new lines of credit worth up to $287 billion to the central banks of Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and EU.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 14, The EU started legal action against Britain for not applying EU data privacy rules that would restrict an Internet advertising tracker called Phorm from watching how users surf the Web.
    (AP, 4/14/09)

2009        Apr 15, A blockade by French fishermen angry at EU quotas cut ferry links with Britain for a second day as a union official threatened to block the Channel Tunnel in support of the movement.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 16, French fishermen allowed traffic to resume to three English Channel ports after receiving a government promise of euro4 million ($5.27 million) in aid, but they vowed to keep up their fight against European fishing quotas.
    (AP, 4/16/09)

2009        Apr 22, With almost all stocks overfished, the European Commission called for drastic cuts in the EU's 90,000-strong fishing fleet and subsidies to safeguard a sustainable and economically viable fishing industry.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 23, The EU development commissioner said an international conference has already pledged over 250 million dollars to help Somalia improve its security.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        Apr 27, Belarus' authoritarian Pres. Lukashenko met with Pope Benedict XVI on his first trip to Western Europe since the European Union lifted a travel ban imposed in 1999 over his dismal human rights record. The EU lifted the ban to allow Lukashenko to attend an East-West summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in May.
2009        Apr 27, In Kosovo Serbs protesting the building of homes for ethnic Albanians in northern Kosovo threw two hand grenades and fired gunshots at European Union police officers, who responded with tear gas and stun grenades to drive the crowd away.
    (AP, 4/27/09)
2009        Apr 27, America, Canada, Europe and Japan promised to cooperate on validating alternatives to using animals in medical research. An estimated 50-100 million animals were used in research annually around the world.
    (Econ, 5/9/09, p.18)

2009        May 3, Swine flu extended its reach through Europe and Latin America, with at least five countries reporting new cases. Health experts were investigating a case of the virus jumping from a person to pigs, trying to determine if the disease was reaching a new stage.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 4, The EU admitted that its previous forecasts were way off the mark. It now predicts "a deep and widespread recession" across the continent and said unemployment among the 16 nations that use the euro will rise to a postwar record of 11.5 percent in 2010.
    (AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 5, The European Parliament voted to update the rules on the use of animals in research and to ban imports of seal products, including fur coats and even omega-3 pills, trying to force Canada to end the annual seal hunt that animal rights groups call barbaric.
    (AP, 5/5/09)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.84)

2009        May 6, Canada and the EU signed an "open skies" pact under which airlines from the two trading partners will be able to fly freely between any airport in the 27-country EU and any in Canada.
    (Reuters, 5/6/09)
2009        May 6, New H1N1 flu cases across Europe and a second US death kept health officials on alert despite signs Mexico's epidemic had passed its peak. Mexican health officials said that testing of backlogged cases has increased the confirmed swine flu death toll from 31 to 42, including three new deaths in the past two days.
    (Reuters, 5/6/09)(AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 7, The European Union extended its hand to former Soviet republics, holding a summit to draw them closer into the EU orbit despite Russia's deep misgivings. Presidents, premiers and their deputies from 33 nations signed an agreement meant to extend the EU's political and economic ties. The six ex-Soviet republics to whom the “eastern partnership" would apply are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.49)
2009        May 7, The European Central Bank cut interest rates a quarter point and said it would buy euro-denominated bonds as well as offer longer-term credit to banks as it moves to get more money flowing through the 16-nation euro zone economy.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 13, The European Commission, after an eight-year investigation, fined Intel Corp a record 1.06 billion euros ($1.45 billion) and ordered it to halt illegal rebates and other practices it used to squeeze out its rival, AMD.
    (AP, 5/13/09)

2009        May 15, Among perks enjoyed by EU Parliament lawmakers: flying no-frills and expensing the cost of a full fare ticket, listing spouse or child as aides and paying them fat salaries, wining-and-dining friends at Michelin-starred restaurants and billing the taxpayer. Unprecedented reforms, agreed in long and difficult negotiations, mean the incoming 736 assembly members of the EU assembly will earn far less than their predecessors and face far stricter spending rules.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 20, EU and Chinese leaders met in Prague to tackle the economic crisis and turn the page on tensions over the Dalai Lama. Lingering differences cast a shadow over the talks.
    (AFP, 5/20/09)

2009        May 22, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev challenged EU leaders meeting at a summit in Khabarovsk to help Ukraine pay its gas bills in order to prevent disruption of Russian supplies to Europe.
    (Reuters, 5/22/09)

2009        May 25, Dairy farmers created traffic chaos in Berlin, blocked milk processing plants in France and protested at EU headquarters in Brussels, seeking more aid to cope with a sharp drop in milk prices.
    (AP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 28, In Senegal UN, African Union, EU and Arab League representatives met with Mauritian political parties in Dakar to discuss upcoming polls and a political stalemate since a coup.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 4, About 375 million voters across the 27-nation European Union began 4 days of voting, to appoint candidates to 736 seats on the assembly in the second-largest election in the world after India's. Voting began in Britain and the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 7, Europe leaned to the right as tens of millions of people voted in European Parliament elections, with conservative parties favored in many countries against a backdrop of economic crisis. Center-right parties won the most seats in the election. Only 43% of 375 million eligible voters cast ballots. In Bulgaria the xenophobic Ataka party won 12% of the vote.
    (AP, 6/7/09)(Reuters, 6/8/09)(SFC, 6/8/09, p.A5)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.58)

2009        Jun 8, Final results showed a British far-right party won its first-ever parliamentary seats in EU elections. The British National Party, which does not accept nonwhite members and calls for the "voluntary repatriation" of immigrants, won two of Britain's 72 seats in the European Parliament. Austria's Freedom Party, which also campaigned on an anti-Islam platform, more than doubled its share of the vote to 13.1%. Hungary's Jobbik party, which describes itself as Euro-skeptic and anti-immigration and wants police to crack down on what it calls "Gypsy crime," won three of the country's 22 seats and almost 15% of the vote. The Greater Romania Party, which is, among other things, pro-religion, anti-gay and anti-Hungarian, made surprise gains, winning almost 9% of the vote and taking two of Romania's 33 seats. A bloc of center-right parties remained the largest group.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 15, The European Union agreed to help the administration of President Barack Obama "turn the page" on Guantanamo, saying individual EU nations will take detainees from the American prison in Cuba.
    (AP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 19, EU leaders agreed to establish a European System Risk Board. It was intended to sound an alarm over the build up of risk and to create new European supervisory authorities to keep an eye on big cross-border financial institutions.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.73)

2009        Jun 23, US Trade Representative Ron Kirk said the United States is launching a World Trade Organization case against China over its export restrictions on raw materials. The EU said it was joining the US in the action, which follows failure to persuade China to reduce its export tariffs and raise quotas on materials such as zinc, tin, tungsten and yellow phosphorous.
    (Reuters, 6/23/09)

2009        Jun 25, The EU said it will give China up to euro50 million ($70 million) to build a carbon capture and storage plant that will test a technology aimed at limiting climate change.
    (AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Jun 29, The European Union Chamber of Commerce in China urged Beijing to reconsider implementing a controversial Internet filter, saying it raised serious concerns about security, privacy and user choice.
    (AP, 6/29/09)
2009        Jun 29, The European Commission said top mobile telephone suppliers have agreed to back an EU-wide harmonization of phone chargers, hailing the pact as good news for consumers and the environment.
    (AP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, Sweden took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.51)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Jul 14, The European Parliament elected ex-Polish Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek as its president, making him the first leader from a former Soviet bloc country to hold one of the top European Union posts.
    (Reuters, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 15, The EU urged Canada to restore visa-free travel for Czech visitors, removed by Ottawa after hundreds of Roma from the central European country sought asylum.
    (Reuters, 7/15/09)

2009        Jul 23, Iceland formally applied to join the European Union but said it would not accept a "rotten deal" for its fishing industry, a key sector of the island nation's troubled economy.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

2009        Jul 27, European Union nations gave their final approval to a ban on imports of seal products in an effort to force Canada to end its annual seal hunt.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Aug 13, The EU said it was extending its sanctions on Myanmar to cover members of the judiciary responsible for the verdict in the trial of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
    (Reuters, 8/13/09)

2009        Aug 22, The EU published a list of nearly 4,000 airlines that it says should reduce their impact on the environment from 2012 or face being banned from European airports.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 29, The EU signed a temporary trade pact with Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and Madagascar calling for tariffs on European goods to be removed over the next 15 years.
    (AP, 8/29/09)

2009        Aug 31, The European Commission said an EU-wide transition of power-draining light bulbs to more energy efficient ones will start Aug 1. The new rules follow an agreement reached by the 27 EU governments last year to phase out the traditional incandescent light bulb over three years starting this year to help European countries lower greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 8/31/09)

2009        Sep 3, EU regulators launched an antitrust probe into US software maker Oracle Corp.'s takeover of Sun Microsystems Inc., saying they wanted to make sure Oracle was committed to developing Sun's rival open-source database software MySQL.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 8, The EU said that a member states could be allowed to ban gambling websites if its intention was to stop crime.
    (Reuters, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 11, South Africa and the European Union started a summit expected to be dominated by calls from African nations for sanctions against Zimbabwe to be lifted.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 12, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe welcomed the first top-level European Union delegation to visit in seven years with "open arms" and said talks on implementing a power-sharing deal went well.
    (Reuters, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 13, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai accused President Robert Mugabe of violating a fledgling power-sharing deal. The EU said ties with Zimbabwe would only normalize once a unity accord is properly implemented, but pledged a further 90 million euro this year to assist the troubled nation.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)

2009        Sep 16, The European Parliament gave Jose Manuel Barroso another five-year term as European Commission president, but its vote reflected lingering misgivings about the conservative ex-Portuguese premier.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 17, In Brussels French Pres. Sarkozy said EU leaders have agreed to impose a cap on bankers’ pay.
    (SFC, 9/18/09, p.A2)

2009        Sep 22, A sharply divided EU failed to protect the threatened bluefin tuna, as the bloc's Mediterranean nations refused to back even a temporary a ban on catching the fish prized by sushi aficionados. Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain, France and Italy, with strong fishermen's lobbies at home, insisted on continuing the hunt despite the precarious state of the species. Conservation groups had earlier criticized the EU for not pushing to list the bluefin tuna under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
    (AP, 9/22/09)

2009        Sep 23, Europe laid out new proposals to police its banks and financial markets, seeking to set an example on the eve of a summit of G20 major economies.
    (AFP, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 24, Swiss lawmakers decided not to join the European Union's anti-piracy efforts, amid concern that participating in the mission off Somalia could violate the Alpine nation's long-standing neutrality.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 30, An EU-commissioned report said Georgia's attack on its breakaway South Ossetia region marked the start of last year's war with Russia, which retaliated with excessive force.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 2, Ireland voted 67% to 33% in favor of the EU's Lisbon Treaty, overturning a previous no vote and taking a key step towards ending the 27-nation bloc's deadlock.
    (AFP, 10/3/09)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.25)

2009        Oct 5, In Belgium hundreds of dairy farmers drove tractors into Brussels to pressure EU farm ministers on declining milk prices, as 20 of 27 member nations called for more protection from the volatile world market.
    (AP, 10/5/09)
2009        Oct 5, Drugmaker Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. said its new diabetes drugs, Onglyza, has been approved for sale in the European Union's 27 countries.
    (AP, 10/5/09)

2009        Oct 9, Czech Rep. Pres. Vaclav Klaus set out his terms for signing the Lisbon Treaty, demanding an exemption to protect Prague from post-war property claims and safeguard the sovereignty of the judiciary.
    (Reuters, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 10, Polish President Lech Kaczynski signed the EU’s reform treaty, the Lisbon Treaty, into law, leaving the Czech Republic as the only country still to ratify the document.
    (Reuters, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 15, Top EU and South Korean trade officials signed a free trade deal which the EU said could boost trade between the two by euro19 billion ($28 billion).
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 16, The European Commission called for sharp cuts in cod quotas, up to 25% in some areas, saying the prized fish is sliding toward commercial extinction in several historic Atlantic fishing grounds.
    (AP, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 18, The EU used the world's biggest book fair in Frankfurt to launch the EU Bookshop's digital library, making more than 50 years of documents in about 50 languages available for free on the Internet. The files dated back to 1952 when six countries created the High Authority of the Coal and Steel Community, the EU's precursor.
    (AFP, 10/18/09)

2009        Oct 19, The EU agreed to give the dairy sector an extra $420 million in special aid in an effort to quell a season of unrest in agriculture. Meanwhile angry farmer pelted riot police with eggs and buckets of milk in Luxembourg.
    (SFC, 10/20/09, p.A2)

2009        Oct 22, The EU's parliament awarded its annual Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought to three prominent Russian rights activists, in recognition of the difficult conditions they face in defending human rights in Russia today. The prize was awarded to Lyudmila Alexeyeva (82), Sergei Kovalyov (79) and Oleg Orlov (56) on behalf of the human rights organization Memorial and "all other human rights defenders in Russia."
    (AP, 10/22/09)
2009        Oct 22, The EU said it has launched an investigation into a prized Spanish wetland that has turned bone dry through mismanagement of water resources and is now on fire underground, white smoke now rising from areas where fish once swam. The EU wants the Spanish government to explain how it plans to save Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park in the central Castilla-La Mancha region. It is classified as a UNESCO biosphere site and an EU-protected area because of its birdlife.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 29, The EU's stalled reform treaty overcame a crucial hurdle after EU leaders agreed to last-minute demands from the Czech Republic in return for the country's ratification of the ambitious deal. Czech President Vaclav Klaus had refused to sign the treaty until his country was an offered an opt-out from its Charter of Fundamental Rights. The Czech leader asked for the option over worries of property claims by ethnic Germans stripped of their land and expelled after World War II.
    (AP, 10/29/09)

2009        Oct 30, European Union leaders agreed to contribute to a euro50 billion ($74 billion) annual aid fund that would help developing nations adapt to climate change, but failed to set a firm figure for exactly how much the EU would pay.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Nov 3, Europe's court of human rights ruled the display of crucifixes in Italian public schools violates religious and education freedoms under the continent's rights convention. The court ordered Italy to pay a $7,390 fine to a mother who has fought for 8 years to have crucifixes removed from public school classrooms. The Vatican denounced the ruling.
    (AP, 11/3/09)(SFC, 11/4/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 6, Turkey rebuffed an EU call to reconsider its decision to allow Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir, who is accused of war crimes in Darfur, to attend a summit in Istanbul. Turkey has not signed the Rome Statute which set up the ICC and has said previously the ICC arrest warrant for Beshir could hurt moves to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 16, The EU Commission said over 45 countries who catch tuna have agreed to cut catches of the threatened Atlantic bluefin tuna next year.
    (AP, 11/16/09)
2009        Nov 16, The Palestinians asked the European Union to support their plan to ask the UN to recognize an independent Palestinian state without Israeli consent.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 17, The European Union joined the US in discouraging Palestinian intentions to seek international recognition of an independent state, urging instead a return to stalled peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 19, Herman Van Rompuy, Belgium's Prime Minister and former economist, was named the European Union's first permanent President. Baroness Catherine Ashton, Britain's European Commissioner, was appointed as the EU’s Foreign Minister-designate, with the unwieldy title of High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
    (AP, 11/19/09)
2009        Nov 19, The European Commission signed a 677 million euro (one billion dollar) deal in Brussels to help Nigeria tackle challenges in its restive oil-producing region, promoting peace.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 26, European banks were hit by concern about potential exposure to debt problems in Dubai, while companies where Middle Eastern investors own big stakes also came under pressure.
    (Reuters, 11/26/09)

2009        Nov 30, The EU Council of Ministers for Interior and Justice abolished visa requirements for citizens of the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

2009        Dec 1, The new EU Treaty of Lisbon went into effect. It provided the EU with modern institutions and optimized working methods to tackle both efficiently and effectively today's challenges in today's world.
    (AP, 1/1/10)(http://europa.eu/lisbon_treaty/index_en.htm)
2009        Dec 1, Israel sternly warned the EU against recognizing east Jerusalem as the Palestinian capital, saying such a move would damage Europe's credibility as a Mideast mediator. Sweden, the current EU president, was floating an initiative to recognize east Jerusalem as the Palestinian capital.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 4, Major European public financial institutions launched a pan-European equity fund to boost key EU policies in areas such as climate change, energy security and transport networks.
    (AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 8, EU nations agreed that Jerusalem should be the capital of both Israel and a future Palestinian state, assuaging Israeli anger over earlier mention of east Jerusalem as the Palestinian capital. An earlier proposal by the Swedish EU presidency, to explicitly support the idea of east Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state, was dropped by the foreign ministers.
    (AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 11, EU leaders agreed to commit euro2.4 billion ($3.6 billion) a year until 2012 to help poorer countries combat global warming, as they sought to rescue their image as climate change innovators and bolster the talks in Copenhagen. A new draft agreement at the climate talks pulled together the main elements of a global pact but left gaping holes on financing and cutting greenhouse gas emissions for world leaders to fill in next week.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 15, Ecuador said that it had reached a deal with the EU aimed at ending a long-running dispute between Latin American nations and the EU over tariffs on bananas.
    (AFP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 17, Oxfam said some areas of East Africa had received less than 5% of the normal November rains and that many people are malnourished in Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. It was the sixth failed rainy season for war-ravaged Somalia and the worst drought there for 20 years. The European Commission announced that it would immediately release an extra $75 million to fund emergency relief for drought-stricken areas of East Africa. It estimated that 16 million people will need aid in the coming months.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 18, The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) recommended the withdrawal of all medicines containing benfluorex, a diabetes and weight-loss drug, in the European Union. In 2010 French officials said the drug, marketed as mediator, may have been linked to the deaths of 500 people over the 33 years it was on the market. Fenfluramine, a related drug, had been withdrawn from the market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, and development of cardiac fibrosis.
    (SFC, 11/17/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benfluorex)

2009        Dec 19, The European Union opened its borders unrestricted to more than ten million Serbs, Montenegrins and Macedonians after nearly 20 years, a major boost for the troubled region's hopes for closer ties with the 27-nation bloc.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 20, Tens of thousands of European travelers were stranded in rail stations, traffic jams and airports as heavy snow and ice caused massive disruption at the start of the Christmas holiday season.
    (AGFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 21, Eurostar halted services for a third day to probe a breakdown of trains through the Channel Tunnel that stranded thousands, prompting an angry French government to demand an explanation and call its own inquiry. President Nicolas Sarkozy summoned the head of the French train authority to the Elysee Palace and ordered him to get the Eurostar moving again after a three-day suspension of the cross-Channel train service that has wreaked havoc on the holiday travel plans of some 40,000 people. The death toll from winter storms across Europe rose to at least 80 as transport chaos spread amid mounting anger over the failure of high-speed trains.
    (AP, 12/21/09)(AFP, 12/21/09)(Reuters, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 22, Hansjoerg Haber, EU monitoring mission chief, said Russia has failed to fully observe an EU-brokered peace deal that ended last year's war with Georgia. He said Russia has not met an obligation to withdraw its forces to positions held before the August 2008 conflict.
    (AP, 12/23/09)
2009        Dec 22, The EU Court of Human Rights said Bosnia’s constitution discriminates against Jews and Roma because it does not allow them to run for parliament of president. Only Bosnians, Serbs and Croats are allowed to run for those offices.
    (SFC, 12/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 23, Thousands of Eurostar passengers anxious to get away for Christmas battled for train places out of London as heavy rains and freezing conditions sparked yet more travel chaos across Europe.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        Dec 28, Slovakia said that Russia had warned it might halt oil supplies through Ukraine to three European Union countries over a price dispute.
    (AFP, 12/28/09)

2009        Luuk van Middelaar, Dutch political philosopher, authored “The Passage to Europe: How a Continent Became a Union." In 2012 it won the European Book Prize. In 2013 it came out in English.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.86)

2010        Jan 1, Spain took over the presidency of the EU, with PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero promising to work to end the continent's economic crisis.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 7, Eurostar passengers faced further disruption after one of its high-speed trains got stuck for 2 hours in the Channel Tunnel again, weeks after a major breakdown due to the cold.
    (AFP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 8, The beleaguered Eurostar train service cancelled half of its trains between London and Paris because of freezing temperatures.
    (AP, 1/8/10)
2010        Jan 8, The EU said it will pursue a new deal on global warming through the Group of 20, since last month's UN climate conference of nearly 200 nations led to unwieldy negotiations that didn't accomplish much.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 9, Germans faced the cancellation of hundreds of flights as fresh snow blew in from the south, and Britons shivered through the country's longest cold snap in three decades as icy weather maintained its grip on Europe.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 10, Heavy snowfall caused havoc in parts of Europe, causing hundreds of traffic accidents, downing power lines in Poland, halting flights out of southern France and trapping more than 160 people overnight on a frozen highway in northeastern coastal Germany.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 12, The European Court of Human Rights condemned British anti-terror legislation allowing people to be searched by police without reasonable suspicion of wrongdoing.
    (AFP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 13, Major Inuit organizations said Canada's Inuit people have filed a lawsuit against the European Union in a bid to overturn an EU ban on imports of seal products. The EU ban was imposed in July after decades of protests from animal activists, who said the annual seal hunt was cruel and inhumane. The ban will go into effect in time for the 2010 hunting season.
    (Reuters, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 18, EU finance ministers began 2 days of talks with worries over Greece's swelling debt expected to dominate the session, as the euro fell to a ten-day low against the dollar.
    (AP, 1/18/10)
2010        Jan 18, The European Union said some 200,000 people may have been killed in the magnitude-7.0 quake, quoting Haitian officials who also said about 70,000 bodies have been recovered so far.
    (AP, 1/18/10)
2010        Jan 18, The OSCE, Europe's main security and human rights watchdog, said that Turkey was blocking some 3,700 Internet sites for "arbitrary and political reasons" and urged reforms to show its commitment to freedom of expression.
    (Reuters, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 21, General Motor Co.'s Opel unit will cut 8,300 jobs across Europe, including 4,000 in Germany, and close a plant in Antwerp, Belgium, cutting over 2,300 jobs.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2010        Jan 28, Toyota Motor Corp extended its safety recall of millions of its most popular cars to Europe and China in a further blow to the reputation of the world's largest auto maker.
    (Reuters, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 30, The European Union said Italy is to stop fishing for bluefin tuna, the lucrative but over-exploited species beloved of Japanese sushi fans, for 12 months.
    (AP, 1/30/10)

2010        Feb 3, The EU backed Greece's “stability and development" plan to shrink a massive budget gap as "achievable," but warned it would demand tougher cutbacks if Athens does not stick to promised spending curbs and reforms.
    (AP, 2/3/10)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.55)

2010        Feb 11, The Philippines launched a European-funded program to reduce the country's large number of extralegal killings and disappearances of activists, journalists and union workers. The EU has pledged euro3.9 million ($5.36 million) for the EU-Philippines Justice Support Program to provide technical aid and training to bolster the country's criminal justice system.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Libya suspended the issuing of entry visas to European citizens apart from British nationals. Italy's foreign ministry confirmed the measure and said it was in retaliation for Switzerland's recent decision to publish a blacklist of 180 Libyans banned from entering the country.
    (Reuters, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 16, In Austria 14 countries and the European Commission adopted the Danube River Basin Management Plan, a cleanup plan for the Danube River and its tributaries. Participating countries included Austria, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Feb 18, Microsoft won unconditional European Union approval for its planned search deal with Yahoo Inc to challenge market leader Google.
    (Reuters, 2/18/10)

2010        Feb 28, A violent late winter storm named Xynthia battered France, Spain, Portugal and Germany with fierce rain and hurricane-strength winds. The storm smashed sea walls and killed at least 62 people across western Europe.
    (AP, 2/28/10)(AP, 3/1/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 1, The European Union urged Greece to take extra austerity measures within days to tackle a debt crisis that has shaken the euro zone and promised to help Athens overcome the problem.
    (Reuters, 3/1/10)
2010        Mar 1, Ukraine’s Pres. Viktor Yanukovych visited Brussels saying "Our priorities will include integration into the European Union, bringing up constructive relations with the Russian Federation, and developing friendly relations with strategic partners such as the United States."
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 8, The EU said it plans to create a European Monetary Fund to better coordinate the economies of the 16 countries that use the euro and prevent financial debacles such as the Greek debt crisis from undermining the credibility of Europe's single currency.
    (AP, 3/8/10)

2010        Mar 23, Luxury goods manufacturers said a ruling from the EU's highest court will stop Google Inc. selling their brand names as advertising keywords to unauthorized sellers or counterfeiters.
    (AP, 3/23/10)
2010        Mar 23, The EU Naval Force said Somali pirates have hijacked the Malta-flagged MV Frigia, a Turkish ship with 21 crew on board.
    (AP, 3/23/10)

2010        Mar 25, Leaders of the 16 eurozone countries agreed to a plan to rescue Greece if it finds itself unable to borrow.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 27, Libya lifted a visa ban on citizens of 25 European countries after EU president Spain said a Swiss-instigated visa blacklist against 188 Libyans in those countries had been scrapped.
    (Reuters, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 30, Amnesty International said Europe had its first year without executions in 2009. But the London-based organization said the spell was recently broken by the execution of two men in Belarus.
    (AP, 3/30/10)

2010        Apr 8, The European Space Agency launched CryoSat 2 on a Russian rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The satellite was designed to measure the effects of climate change on the Earth’s polar ice caps.
    (SFC, 4/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 13, Ethiopian authorities and the European Union signed accords allowing EU observers to monitor May's general elections in the Horn of Africa country.
    (AFP, 4/13/10)

2010        Apr 15, British airport operator BAA Ltd. said all flights at London's Heathrow Airport have been suspended for the rest of the day, causing travel chaos as ash clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano halted air traffic across Europe.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 16, Volcanic ash blanketed parts of rural Iceland and left a widening arc of grounded aircraft across Europe, as thousands of planes stayed on the tarmac to avoid the hazardous cloud. Travel chaos engulfed major European cities and the UN warned of possible health risks from falling ash.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 17, A lingering volcanic ash plume forced extended no-fly restrictions over much of Europe, as Icelandic scientists warned that volcanic activity had increased and showed no sign of abating, a portent of more travel chaos to come. Nearly 17,000 flights to and from Europe were cancelled out of about 22,000 on a normal day.
    (AP, 4/17/10)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.63)

2010        Apr 20, Airplanes gradually took to the skies after five days of being grounded by a volcanic ash cloud that has devastated European travel. Only limited flights were allowed to resume at some European airports and UK authorities said London airports would remained closed for at least another day due to new danger from the invisible ash cloud.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, India’s trade ministry said it will launch a formal dispute against the EU at the World Trade Organization (WTO) over EU seizures of Indian generic drugs.
    (Reuters, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 22, European airports sent thousands of planes into the sky after a week of unprecedented disruptions, with airlines piling on more flights and bigger planes to try to get as many people home as possible.
    (AP, 4/22/10)
2010        Apr 22, Markets hammered Greece after the EU revised the debt-ridden country's deficit and debt figures upwards, sending the country's borrowing costs to unsustainably high levels and pushing Athens closer to calling for an expensive rescue.
    (AP, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 28, EU Pres. Herman Van Rompuy said he is fully confident that debt-laden Greece will receive the financial assistance it needs in time to address its debt problems and to preserve eurozone stability. Greece faced a May 19 deadline, when around euro 10 billion of debt comes due.
    (AP, 4/28/10)

2010        Apr 29, Thailand's "Red Shirt" protesters called on the European Union to send observers to prevent a crackdown by the army, but the government warned others not to meddle in its internal affairs. Theo-establishment activists demanded military action against anti-government protesters and an end to "anarchy" in the capital.
    (AFP, 4/29/10)(AP, 4/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, The EU's foreign affairs chief Catherine Ashton said that China is willing to discuss sanctions on Iran as long as they are carefully targeted and bolster efforts to curb the Iranian nuclear program.
    (AP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 2, Greece reached agreement with the EU and the International Monetary Fund on rescue loans, a lifeline worth $146 billion, to keep Athens from defaulting on its debts, a deal that will impose harsh cuts on the county's 11 million people for years.
    (AP, 5/2/10)(SFC, 5/3/10, p.A2)

2010        May 4, Iceland's volcanic ash renewed its threat to European air space, forcing Ireland to shut services temporarily for the first time in 12 days. Ireland and Britain lifted flight restrictions after temporarily closing airspace due to the return of ash.
    (AP, 5/4/10)(AFP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 8, Hundreds of flights between Europe and North America were either delayed or canceled due to the spreading cloud of volcanic ash stretching across much of the northern Atlantic. Spain shut 19 northern airports including Barcelona because of the cloud of ash.
    (AP, 5/8/10)(Reuters, 5/8/10)

2010        May 9, European Union leaders agreed to provide $572 billion in new loans and $78 billion under an existing lending program to contain its spreading government debt crisis and keep it from tearing the euro currency apart and derailing the global economic recovery. An IMF contribution of $325 million would raise the amount to over $975 million. The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) fund was conjured up as a backstop for Eurozone countries should they shut out of bond markets. On Sep 20 it was given a AAA grade by the three major ratings agencies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Financial_Stability_Facility)(AP, 5/10/10)(SFC, 5/10/10, p.A2)(SFC, 5/11/10, p.D2)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.83)
2010        May 9, A plume of volcanic ash snaked its way through southern France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, shutting down airports and disrupting flights across Europe.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 10, EU finance ministers agree to a €500 billion “stabilization fund" for euro-zone countries.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.83)

2010        May 12, The European Union set out plans to vet member state budgets before national parliaments do in a power-grab that could trigger a divisive referendum in Britain and provoked Swedish anger. Spain announced big public sector wage cuts and market sentiment buoyed by positive growth figures as several states shook off recession.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 18, Britain’s new chancellor George Osborne called for a freeze to the EU's 2011 budget, saying it was "unacceptable" for Brussels to demand a huge increase.
    (AFP, 5/18/10)
2010        May 18, Greece received a 14.5 billion euro ($18 billion) loan from the EU and can now repay its immediate debt, but still faces a mammoth task to claw its way out of recession.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 21, European Union finance ministers started laying out new, tougher rules for their public finances in the hopes of winning back market confidence and preventing a repeat of the debt crisis that is threatening the euro.
    (AP, 5/21/10)

2010        May 29, The 55th annual Eurovision song competition was expected to be watched by more than 120 million viewers in 39 European countries as well as in Burma, Australia and New Zealand. Norway's public broadcaster NRK spent 200 million kroner (25 million euros, 30 million dollars) to host the show.
    (AFP, 5/29/10)

2010        Jun 3, The European Commission announced it has sent a final warning to Britain over its failure to comply with EU air quality rules, due to the levels of dangerous airborne particles in London and Gibraltar.
    (AFP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 17, European Union leaders agreed tighter sanctions against Iran, including measures to block oil and gas investment and curtail its refining and natural gas capability.
    (Reuters, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 24, The Strasbourg-based European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled that European law does not require countries to grant same-sex couples the right to marry, even if some states have already done so. The ECHR is part of the Council of Europe, which promotes democracy and the rule of law among its 47 member states.
    (Reuters, 6/25/10)
2010        Jun 24, Noorsat, the operator which handles the broadcasting of Al-Aqsa TV to parts of Europe and throughout the Middle East, shut down the broadcasts of Al-Aqsa TV, a Gaza-based television station accused of inciting hatred of Jews and Israel.
    (AFP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jul 6, EU foreign affairs chief Catherine Ashton urged Iran to stop the execution of three people including a woman who faces death by stoning for adultery. Ashton said she was "deeply concerned" about reports that the executions of Mohammad Reza Haddadi, who was sentenced to hang for a murder he committed when he was a minor, and the woman, Sakineh Mohammadi-Ashtiani, "may be imminent." She also renewed her call for Iran to drop the death sentence against Zeynab Jalalian, a Kurd who awaits execution for being an "enemy of God."
    (AFP, 7/6/10)
2010        Jul 6, An EU lawmaker urged member governments to open their secret files on UFOs. Mario Borghezio, an Italian member of the European Parliament, said that the EU needs its own "X Files" archive where anyone can see information on UFOs, including data gathered by the military.
    (AP, 7/6/10)
2010        Jul 6, The EU banned most of Iran Air's jets from flying to Europe because of safety concerns, emphasizing that the move was not related to UN sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program.
    (AP, 7/06/10)

2010        Jul 7, European Union lawmakers voted overwhelmingly to cap bankers' short-term cash bonuses from next year, a move that European leaders hope other parts of the world will follow.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 23, Seven out of 91 banks failed European stress tests, which were organized in hope of reviving investor confidence in Europe's embattled banking sector. German state-owned lender Hypo Real Estate, five regional savings banks in Spain and ATEBank of Greece failed the test of whether they could resist a new financial shock. All have been ordered to recapitalize or take state aid.
    (AFP, 7/24/10)

2010        Jul 26, The EU adopted tighter sanctions on Iran over its disputed nuclear program, with steps to block oil and gas investment and curtail Tehran's refining and natural gas capability.
    (Reuters, 7/26/10)

2010        Aug 14, The EU told military-run Myanmar that its Nov. 7 elections, the first in two decades, will not be considered legitimate in the eyes of the world unless it can ensure the vote is free and fair.
    (AP, 8/14/10)

2010        Aug 20, The European Union's high court temporarily exempted Inuit hunters in Canada and Greenland from the bloc's new trade ban on seal products, while asking European Parliament and EU governments to justify the ban.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 26, The archbishop of Paris joined the tide of criticism over France's crackdown on Gypsies, calling it a "circus," while the EU's justice commissioner denounced French officials' discriminatory tone about the vulnerable minority.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Sep 3, Finland and Sweden urged the European Union to create an independent peace institute to broaden the scope of the bloc's peacekeeping efforts around the world.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 7, The EU condemned the stoning to death sentence passed against Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, an Iranian woman convicted for adultery, saying it was "barbaric."
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 9, The European Parliament called on France to suspend its expulsion of gypsies. The rare criticism of an EU state was backed by 337 lawmakers meeting in Strasbourg, France, with 245 opposed and 51 abstentions. To date France had deported 8,000 people to Romania and Bulgaria this year alone.
    (AP, 9/9/10)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.73)

2010        Sep 12, In Kosovo a French Gendarme was shot and wounded during clashes between ethnic Albanians and Serbs in the ethnically divided city of Mitrovica as European Union police fired tear gas to disperse the violent crowd.
    (AP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 14, The European Commission threatened legal action against France over its crackdown on Roma minorities, drawing a parallel between their treatment and World War II-era deportations.
    (AFP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 22, The European Union Parliament approved new financial oversight institutions aimed at preventing another financial crisis like the one that led to massive bank bailouts at taxpayer expense.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 24, European coastal nations agreed to review rules for offshore drilling, but said each country should decide individually on how to improve safety oil rig safety to avoid disasters like the Gulf of Mexico spill.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 29, The European Union decided to launch legal action against France over its expulsions of Gypsies, or Roma, to poorer EU nations.
    (AP, 9/29/10)
2010        Sep 29, Anti-austerity protests erupted across Europe. Greek doctors and railway employees walked out, Spanish workers shut down trains and buses, and one man even blocked the Irish parliament with a cement truck to decry the country's enormous bank bailouts.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 1, European oil majors resisted pressure from the US to stop all business with Iran, in spite of Washington's drive to isolate Tehran over a nuclear program the West suspects is aimed at making bombs.
    (Reuters, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, The European Commission said it has decided to more than double its Pakistan flood aid to 150 million euros (205 million dollars). The UN has issued a record two-billion-dollar appeal for funds to cope with the disaster, which UN agencies say affected 21 million people and left 12 million in need of emergency food aid.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 4, In Belgium European and Asian leaders opened a formal summit amid high security and palace opulence, hoping to agree on commitments to keep the global financial system on an even keel and find a better balance on the Europe-dominated IMF.
    (AP, 10/4/10)
2010        Oct 4, The European Commission offered Libya up to 50 million euros (70 million dollars) in aid to stop the flow of illegal migrants to Europe and protect refugees. Cecilia Malmstroem, EU home affairs commissioner, and European neighbourhood policy commission Stefan Fuele signed a migration cooperation agenda with Libya.
    (AFP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 6, The US and EU said that UN climate talks in Ttianjin, China, were making less progress than hoped due to rifts over rising economies' emission goals, while China pushed back and put the onus on rich nations.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 8, Organizers said a ticket-holder in Britain has won a record 129 million euros (181 million dollars) on the Euromillions lottery, although nobody has yet come forward to claim the prize. The Euromillions lottery, launched in 2004, is now played by nine countries across western Europe.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 18, Germany, yielding to French pressure, softened its stance on stricter eurozone budget rules, angering governments that counted on Berlin to force through sanctions for nations living beyond their means.
    (AP, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 19, European Union finance ministers sealed a deal to regulate the trillion-dollar hedge fund industry after Britain and France settled a long-running conflict.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, The European Commission said it will temporarily suspend its human rights complaint against France for its expulsions of Gypsies, or Roma, after Paris promised to alter some of its laws to match EU regulations.
    (AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, The EU announced plans for a five-year ban on animal cloning for food production as well as a traceability system for imports of semen and embryos of clones.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, Iran said some Western companies were refusing to refuel its planes in Europe and warned it would "confront" such measures, which it deemed illegal under international law.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 21, The European Parliament awarded its annual human rights prize to Guillermo Farinas (48), the Cuban dissident whose 134-day hunger strike helped draw attention to the plight of political dissidents jailed in a 2003 crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 23, The European Commission warned Italy that it may face sanctions if it doesn’t remove some 2,400 tons of trash piled up in the streets of Naples.
    (SSFC, 10/24/10, p.A6)

2010        Oct 29, Britain’s PM David Cameron claimed that the days of "crazy" European Union spending are finished after a deal to keep Brussels in line with reduced national budgets.
    (AFP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 29, Iran notified the EU that it is willing to restart international negotiations over its nuclear program after Nov. 10, potentially reviving talks that foundered a year ago.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

2010        Nov 4, European computer guards battled against a simulated attempt by hackers to bring down critical Internet services in the first pan-continental test of cyber defenses. All 27 of the EU member nations as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland took part in the simulation. The USA held its own major exercise against a large-scale cyber attack on critical infrastructure in late September with 12 international partners and 60 private companies. Cyber security will be one of the top issues that NATO leaders will tackle at a summit of the 28-nation military alliance in Lisbon on November 20-29.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 10, Human rights groups said they have filed a complaint with the EU accusing the Czech government of failing to comply with a court order that it stop placing thousands of healthy Roma children in schools for the mentally disabled.
    (SFC, 11/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 11, An EU indictment revealed that at least seven people, including former Kosovo senior health ministry official Ilir Rrecaj, were suspected of involvement in an international network that falsely promised poor people payment for their kidneys and then sold the organs for as much as euro100,000 ($137,000). Five Kosovo nationals, Turkish doctor Yusuf Sonmez and Moshe Harel, an Israeli citizen, were listed as wanted by Interpol.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 16, The European Union issued a stark assessment of the Irish debt crisis, warning that the future of the 27-nation bloc was at risk as ministers headed for talks on an increasingly probable rescue.
    (AFP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 17, Ireland agreed to work with an EU-IMF mission on urgent steps to shore up its shattered banking sector.
    (Reuters, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 22, Ireland's the government said banks will be pruned down, merged or sold as part of a massive EU-IMF bailout taking shape. Ireland's Greens pulled the plug on the deeply unpopular coalition government by calling for a national election in January after an EU/IMF bailout package is in place.
    (AP, 11/22/10)(Reuters, 11/22/10)

2010        Nov 23, The European Union urged Ireland to adopt an austerity budget on time to unlock promised EU/IMF funding, responding to a deepening political crisis that threatens to derail the financial rescue.
    (Reuters, 11/23/10)
2010        Nov 23, The EU’s anti-piracy naval force said that have caught 16 suspected Somali pirates over the past 5 days in the Indian Ocean with the help of the Seychelles coast guard.
    (SFC, 11/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 25, The EU high court ruled that there is no such thing as "pure chocolate," ending an EU-Italy food fight over chocolate labels. It also said the EU's 1999 chocolate labeling rules make no room for a "pure chocolate" reference like the one Italy enacted in a 2003 law.
    (AP, 11/25/10)
2010        Nov 25, European lawmakers voted in favor of an independent, UN-backed investigation into violence in Western Sahara that has left up to 11 people dead in the disputed territory.
    (Reuters, 11/25/10)

2010        Nov 28, The EU's finance ministers agreed in an emergency meeting in Brussels to give Ireland a euro67.5 billion bailout to help it survive its massive banking crisis, and sketched out new rules for future emergencies to restore faith in the euro currency.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov 30, The EU announced that Iran has agreed to discuss its nuclear program at a meeting next week in Geneva.
    (AP, 11/30/10)

2010        Nov, A Eurobarometer survey showed that faith in the courts was the lowest in Lithuania among 27 European Union member states.
    (AP, 6/11/12)

2010        Dec 6, European nations wrestled over whether to commit more money to help stabilize the euro, as finance ministers gathered in Brussels to find ways to fight the debt crisis that has rocked the currency bloc.
    (AP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, The EU conceded that its previous bank stress tests were not stringent enough as it confirmed that it will start a new round in February, while the continent's strongest economies bet they can sort out the region's debt crisis without the need to top up bailout funds.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, The EU competition watchdog fined 5 Taiwanese and South Korean electronics companies euro649 million ($857 million) for fixing prices on LCD panels between 2001 and 2006. Samsung Electronics Co., also participated in the price fixing but escaped a fine because it blew the whistle on the cartel.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 10, EU banking supervisors agreed on finalized mandatory guidelines for awarding bank bonuses, saying key requirements can be "neutralized" for less risky firms and staff.
    (Reuters, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 13, The EU said it will impose sanctions on Ivory Coast unless the incumbent president recognizes his rival as the winner of last month's election, as panic spread in Abidjan after shots were briefly fired.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 14, EU Parliament President Jerzy Buzek said that Guillermo Farinas, whose 134-day hunger strike helped draw attention to the plight of Cuban political dissidents, would be represented by an empty chair at the midweek ceremony to award the Sakharov Prize for the Freedom of Thought.
    (AP, 12/14/10)
2010        Dec 14, Amnesty International accused the European Union and Libya of cooperating to prevent migrants from Africa from reaching Europe.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 15, Cuban dissident Guillermo Farinas (48) used a video address at today’s award of the EU's main human rights prize, to call for the release of political prisoners in his homeland and for the government to end attacks on the opposition. Farinas was not allowed by Cuba to travel to receive the prize in Strasbourg, France.
    (AP, 12/15/10)

2010        Dec 16, Human Rights Watch urged the EU to stop returning migrants and asylum seekers to Ukraine, saying that they faced abuse and torture in the former Soviet republic.
    (Reuters, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 18, Fresh snow brought much of Britain to a standstill, on what is traditionally the busiest weekend for shopping and travel in the run-up to Christmas. Blizzards and freezing temperatures shut down runways, train tracks and highways across Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/18/10)(AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 19, Europe saw little respite from the Arctic conditions that have closed airports and disrupted travel on the weekend before Christmas.
    (Reuters, 12/19/10)

2010        Dec 20, Snow and frigid temperatures caused disruption across northern Europe for a third day, stranding travelers, snarling traffic and shutting schools, and the bad weather is likely to run through Christmas.
    (Reuters, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 23, The EU and the US jointly threatened to review ties with Belarus following an opposition crackdown after elections that kept President Alexander Lukashenko in power.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, Heavy snow stranded thousands of Christmas travelers in Europe, with Belgium's main airport closed for landing and icy roads in Sweden choked with traffic.
    (AP, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 29, The spokesman for the EU's anti-piracy force said Somali pirates over the Christmas weekend unsuccessfully targeted two ships, going farther south than ever before to attack vessels.
    (AP, 12/29/10)

2011        Jan 1, The new European External Action Service (EEAS) came into being.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.64)
2011        Jan 1, In Hungary a new media law went into effect the same day Hungary took over the rotating EU presidency from Belgium. The law greatly expanded the state's power to monitor and penalize private news outlets, including on the Internet. Publications deemed to be unbalanced or offensive in their coverage could face large fines.
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 11, Japan said it plans to buy at least a fifth of the initial installment of the bonds being sold to finance Europe's bailout fund, which is aimed at rescuing Ireland.
    (AP, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 15, The EU raised pressure on Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo to step down, freezing assets of the country's cocoa-exporting ports, its state oil firm and three banks.
    (Reuters, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 19, The European Commission, which regulates the trading of carbon emissions certificates, shut the carbon credit trading system down following a spate of computer attacks that stole certificates worth about $62 million. The shutdown was expected to last a week.
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.D3)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.88)

2011        Jan 26, The European Union's top competition regulator blocked the merger between Greek airlines Olympic Air and Aegean Airlines SA, saying a combined carrier could monopolize Greek air travel.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, The European Commission launched legal action against Sweden for allowing hunters to shoot 20 wolves this year even though the species is threatened with extinction.
    (AFP, 1/27/11)

2011        Jan 30, Israel signed an agreement with the European Space Agency for cooperation on space technology and exploration of the solar system.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2011        Jan 31, The EU said that the World Trade Organization found US aid to Boeing violated international rules, confirming a preliminary ruling in the long-running subsidy battle between the Chicago-based plane maker and European rival Airbus.
    (AP, 1/31/11)
2011        Jan 31, European Union foreign ministers agreed to freeze the assets of Tunisia's former President Zine-al Abidine Ben Ali and his wife.
    (Reuters, 1/31/11)
2011        Jan 31, The US and the EU imposed sanctions against Belarus Pres. Lukashenko and scores of other officials for a broad crackdown on the opposition following fraudulent elections last year.
    (SFC, 2/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 1, Maj. Gen. Buster Howes, commander of the EU Naval Force, said Somali pirates have begun systematically torturing hostages and using them as human shields.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 4, European leaders launched a trillion-euro bid to slash dependency on Middle East oil and Russian gas, clearing the way to place nuclear power at the center of 21st century needs.
    (AFP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 11, Canada asked the World Trade Organization to set up a panel to resolve its dispute with the European Union over the EU's ban on trade in seal products.
    (Reuters, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 12, Greece slammed EU and the IMF inspectors overseeing efforts to reform its debt-crippled economy. The IMF, the European Central Bank and the European Commission said Greece must privatize $68 billion in state assets and speed up structural reforms. Unemployment was at 13.5% and was forecast to reach 15%.
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.A4)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.62)

2011        Feb 14, European ministers in Brussels fought over the best way to combat the debt crisis that has crippled the eurozone over the past year.
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 15, The European Union said it is extending visa bans and an asset freeze against President Robert Mugabe and 163 individuals and 31 companies in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 21, Egypt asked Britain for its support in seeking debt forgiveness from Europe, in the latest push to boost an economy bruised by weeks of protests that toppled Pres. Mubarak. Egypt owed the EU member states about $9 billion. According to central bank figures the country's total foreign debt stood at about $34.7 billion as of the end of September 2011.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 22, A French creator of specialized search engines filed a new complaint with the European Union about alleged anticompetitive behavior by Google Inc.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 28, The European Union slapped its own arms embargo, visa ban and other sanctions on Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's regime.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, The European Court of Justice said insurers must stop setting prices based on gender, in a move that could raise costs for women drivers, cut male pensions, and prompt more legal challenges to insurance pricing practices.
    (Reuters, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 8, The European Union agreed to slap new sanctions on Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's regime, notably targeting the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA), the overseas investment vehicle for Tripoli's oil revenues.
    (AFP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 11, Euro-zone leaders began a 2-day summit to launch the “pact for the euro," a pledge to align members’ economic policies and enhance their competitiveness.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.62)

2011        Mar 16, Europol said police in several countries have arrested 184 alleged members of an online pedophile ring and rescued 230 children in one of the biggest operations of its kind. Dubbed Operation Rescue, Europol said the probe started three years ago.
    (AFP, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 18, The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg France, ruled that crucifixes in public schools do not violate a student’s freedom of conscience.
    (SFC, 3/19/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 21, The European Union froze the assets of ousted Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak and 18 people in his inner circle.
    (AFP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, The European Union agreed new economic sanctions against Moamer Kadhafi's regime, targeting both individuals and economic entities.
    (AFP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 25, European leaders agreed a new package of anti-crisis measures at a two-day summit, but were forced to delay increasing their rescue fund and acknowledged they faced new threats from a government collapse in Portugal.
    (Reuters, 3/25/11)
2011        Mar 25, European Union leaders called for worldwide stress testing of nuclear plants and committed to putting their 143 reactors through the toughest security checks possible.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Apr 8, According to a study about one in 10 cancers in men and one in 33 in women in western European countries are caused by current and past alcohol consumption.
    (AP, 4/8/11)
2011        Apr 8, Europe's top financial officials said that debt-ridden Portugal will need around euro80 billion ($114 billion) in rescue loans and that negotiations over a full, multiyear bailout program will begin immediately.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 11, The European Union agreed to impose sanctions on 32 Iranian officials for human rights abuses.
    (AP, 4/12/11)

2011        Apr 17, A train carrying Tunisian immigrants from Italy was halted at the French border in an escalation of an international dispute over the fate of North African migrants fleeing political unrest for refuge in Europe, unprecedented since the introduction of the Schengen travel-free zone.
    (AP, 4/17/11)

2011        May 3, Portugal announced a bailout of 78 billion euros by the IMF, the EU and the European Central Bank to avoid default. The conditions as well as the key reaction of opposition parties remain unclear.
    (AFP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 4, The European Union said six Zimbabwean state-media journalists are on a sanctions list because they incite hatred in their reporting. The journalists who fiercely support President Robert Mugabe are among some 200 individuals linked to Mugabe's party who face banking and travel bans from the EU, the US and Britain.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 6, The EU agreed to place sanctions on Syrian officials next week as it tries to halt a government crackdown against protesters.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 7, Europe faced the specter of Greek calls for new financial aid as Athens' "catastrophic" finances returned to haunt stressed eurozone states, despite efforts to prevent panic. The Greek public deficit for 2010 was recently revised upwards, from 9.4 percent of gross domestic product to 10.5 percent.
    (AFP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 10, The Court of Justice of the EU ruled that gay couples in civil partnerships should enjoy the same rights as heterosexual married couples.
    (SFC, 5/11/11, p.A2)
2011        May 10, Iran said it has accepted the European Union's proposal for more talks about the country's controversial nuclear program.
    (AP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 22, The European Union established formal diplomatic contact with the opposition seeking to topple Moammar Gadhafi by opening an office in the eastern rebel stronghold of Benghazi and promised support for a democratic Libya.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, EU foreign ministers decided to impose asset freezes and travel bans on more Iranian officials and companies with links to the nuclear program. It was not yet clear how many officials and companies were involved.
    (AP, 5/23/11)
2011        May 23, The EU imposed sanctions on Syrian President Bashar Assad because of his government's continuing crackdown on anti-government protesters, condemning the violence in which more than 900 people have reportedly been killed.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 26, African leaders demanded an outright end to NATO air strikes on Libya. Spain says it and other European governments have received a message from Libyan PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi proposing an immediate cease-fire in his country's war. Global Witness said Goldman Sachs and HSBC together held $335 million of the Libyan oil fund's assets, while Societe Generale held $1 billion in structured products for the fund.
    (AFP, 5/26/11)(AP, 5/26/11)(Reuters, 5/26/11)

2011        May 28, Japan and the EU agreed at a summit meeting to begin negotiations on a free trade agreement that would deepen economic ties between two of the world's largest economies. As a bloc, the EU is the world's largest economy; Japan is number four.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 30, European anti-trust regulators launched in-depth probes into proposed US takeovers of South Korean and Japanese businesses manufacturing computer hard disk drives (HDD). The planned acquisitions of the hard disk drive operations of South Korean electronics giant Samsung by Seagate Technology, and the storage business of Japan's Hitachi by Western Digital Corporation in a sector with just five manufacturers worldwide have raised concerns. Brussels officials have until October 10 to decide what action if any they will take.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, Europe's human rights court ruled that Russia was guilty of violations in its jailing of former oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, but found no firm proof that the case was politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 2, Spain's prime minister hit out at the European Commission and Germany for singling out the country's produce as a possible source of a deadly bacterial outbreak in Europe, and said the government would demand explanations and reparations. The World Health Organization said the E. coli bacteria responsible for a mysterious outbreak that has left 18 people dead and sickened hundreds is a new strain that has never been seen before. The illness had now spread to at least 10 European countries and fanned uncertainty about eating tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 7, The EU imposed sanctions on 6 ports still held by Colonel Qaddafi. Russian President Dmitri Medvedev sent an envoy to Libya For the first time to meet with rebel leaders in the city of Benghazi and promise support. At least 40 NATO strikes hit Tripoli as Khadafy spoke in an audio address and vowed never to surrender.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.53)(AFP, 6/7/11)(SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 16, Palestinian foreign minister Riyad al-Malki urged Spain and the rest of the EU to recognize a Palestinian state with borders from before the 1967 Six Day War.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)(AFP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 19, European aerospace giant EADS unveiled its "Zero Emission Hypersonic Transportation" (Zehst) rocket plane it hopes will be able to fly from Paris to Tokyo in 2.5 hours by around 2050.
    (AFP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, Euro zone finance ministers applied intense pressure on Greece, saying it had to approve stricter austerity measures before a final decision is made on a further 12 billion euros in loans.
    (Reuters, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 22, Russia and the EU signed a deal agreeing conditions for the resumption of EU fresh vegetable imports to Russia, which banned them because of a deadly E.coli outbreak.
    (Reuters, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 24, European Union leaders appointed Italy's Mario Draghi as the next president of the European Central Bank, a move that gives investors much-needed certainty over who will lead the institution in its pivotal role in the fight against the crippling debt crisis.
    (AP, 6/24/11)
2011        Jun 24, EU officials said Croatia will become a European Union member in two years, making it the first new country to join the bloc since 2007 and offering hope to other nations from the former Yugoslavia seeking to join.
    (AP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jul 1, Poland took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.66)

2011        Jul 4, The European Union said it will restart food aid to North Korea after the country's repressive communist regime agreed to an unprecedented monitoring system as it suffers through its worst food crisis in years. The WFP will check delivery at every stage and pay more than 400 visits a month to distribution sites, hospitals, child-care facilities and households.
    (AP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 5, The EU announced action against Egyptian bean and seed imports, after tests indicated that a 15-ton batch of Egyptian fenugreek seeds imported in 2009 to Germany and then distributed elsewhere was at the root of an E.coli outbreak that killed 50 people.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 5, Moody’s Investor Service cut Portugal’s debt to junk status, a decision condemned by all of Europe. Europe Central Bank pres. Jean-Claude Trichet called for a European-based rating agency.
    (SSFC, 7/10/11, p.A4)

2011        Jul 6, The EU Parliament passed a resolution calling for EU-wide legislation stipulating that at least 40% of seats on listed companies’ supervisory boards be reserved for women by the year 2020.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.61)

2011        Jul 11, The European Union signed an agreement to provide 2.5 million euros ($3.5 million) to help care for rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 14, Switzerland suspended imports of some seeds, beans and sprouts from Egypt, after the EU blamed Egyptian fenugreek seeds for E.coli outbreaks in Germany and France. The temporary ban would expire in October 31, 2011, in line with the EU's suspension.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 19, The European Commission resumed aid to Niger, releasing 25 million euros ($35 million) after the west African nation returned to democracy this year following a coup.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 21, Eurozone leaders agreed to give Greece euro109 billion ($156 billion) in new financing in a complex package that includes new loans, buybacks of Greek debt, and credit guarantees under the deal agreed.
    (AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Aug 16, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel called for greater economic and political unity among the 17 nations that share the euro.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 18, Four EU countries (Austria, Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia) said they want hundreds of millions of euros in collateral as security for a bailout of Greece. Finland had just struck a deal with Greece for cash collateral on Aug 16.
    (SFC, 8/19/11, p.A2)
2011        Aug 18, Stock markets around the world plunged as rising signs of a US recession combined with renewed worries over the financial health of Europe's banks.
    (AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 18, Syrian President Bashar Assad told the UN chief that military operations in his country have ended. The EU urged Syria's President Assad to resign amid a mounting crackdown on an anti-government revolt. Activists reported intense shooting around noon in the flashpoint city of Latakia.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 24, The EU announced that it was leveling sanctions against Iran’s Al Quds military force, saying it had given technical and material aid to Pres. Assad of Syria in his efforts to quell a 5-month old uprising against his rule.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain introduced bans to prevent the short selling of financial stocks. The EU banned naked shorting of shares in October, effective in Nov, 2012.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.88)

2011        Sep 2, The EU banned oil imports from Syria in a move that will cost the embattled regime millions of dollars each day as it uses deadly force to try to crush a 5-month-old uprising. Activists said at least six people were killed in the crackdown.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 5, The EU's counter-terrorism coordinator said Al-Qaeda's north African branch has acquired a stockpile of weapons in Libya, including surface-to-air missiles threatening air travel.
    (AFP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 16, The EU said helicopters are being used to ferry staff and supplies to border crossings in the north after minority Serbs blocked main roads in anger over Kosovo's efforts to take over customs posts. Both northern crossings remained closed for commercial goods, but Kosovo's trade minister Mimoza Kusari said Serbian goods started entering Kosovo's eastern border with Serbia minutes after the EU mission took over control.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Oct 11, Slovakia's parliament rejected a bill that would have strengthened the powers of the regional rescue fund to help bail out strapped economies in the eurozone. Outgoing PM Iveta Radicova and her main opponent said they will work to try to get the bill through Parliament.
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 12, Serbia received European Union notice for recommendation to become an official EU candidate. The recommendation must formally be approved by the EU's Council of Ministers on Dec 9. A date to begin formal accession talks depended on the country and neighboring Kosovo to improve relations.
    (AP, 10/12/11)(AP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 18, The EU’s top court ruled that scientists cannot patent stem cell techniques that use human embryos for research.
    (SFC, 10/19/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 27, Europe sealed a last-ditch deal to fix its festering debt crisis by shoring up its bailout fund, pledging new funds for Greece and pushing banks to share the pain at a summit vital to the health of the global economy. Greece was provided with a second bailout package worth €130 billion ($184 billion) to stave off bankruptcy.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)(AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 27, Five Arab Spring activists won the European parliament's Sakharov prize awarded to campaigners for freedom. They include Mohamed Bouazizi of Tunisia, awarded posthumously, Egyptian militant Asmaa Mahfouz, Libyan dissident Ahmed al-Zubair Ahmed al-Sanusi, Syrian lawyer Razan Zeitouneh and Syrian cartoonist Ali Farzat.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 28, Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe opened Medicrime convention for signature. It aimed to punish drug counterfeiters and speed information sharing. As of 2012 it was signed by 18 European countries, but ratified only by Ukraine.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.74)(www.edqm.eu/en/the-medicrime-convention-1470.html)

2011        Oct 31, In Zimbabwe a $430 million fund was launched with the help of the EU and UNICEF to give children and pregnant women free medical care at public hospitals.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 1, Mario Draghi succeeded Jean Claude Trichet as president of the European Central Bank.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.16)

2011        Nov 3, Officials close to the Greek PM Papandreou said he has scrapped his plan to hold a referendum on the latest European debt deal for Greece after the main opposition leader said would back it. A spokesman for Greece's government says it is prepared to discuss an opposition demand for the creation of a transitional government to approve the latest European bailout deal and secure the next installment of rescue loans for the country.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 12, EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton officially opened a delegation in Tripoli before holding talks with Libya's interim leaders as the bloc moved to cement relations.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 14, EU foreign ministers decided to impose additional sanctions on 18 Syrians in response to the killings of protesters by Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime. The sanctions also include suspending the disbursement of European Investment Bank loans.
    (AP, 11/14/11)

2011        Nov 15, Europe's top court barred Britain from enacting a corporate tax reform in its tiny territory of Gibraltar, ruling the scheme would amount to illegal state aid for offshore companies.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 15, The EU said it has tightened controls on imports of Chinese rice products after a growing number of shipments were contaminated by unauthorized genetically-modified rice.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 18, The European Commission said an extra 10 million euros ($13.5 million) in humanitarian funding will go on addressing "major shortfalls" in food in the Sahel region. The crisis is affecting 7 million people in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria.
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 22, The European Commission announced that it will send additional aid to Afghanistan to help drought victims in need of food for themselves and their animals before winter snows block roads. That brings the total commission response to the Afghan drought to euro4.5 million, or about $6.1 million.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 24, The EU said that protecting civilians caught up in Syria's crackdown on anti-government protests "is an increasingly urgent and important aspect" of responding to the bloodshed there. At least three more people were killed by Syrian security forces. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and the Local Coordination Committees said 15 defectors were either killed or wounded in clashes near Rastan. 6 elite pilots and 4 technical officers were killed in an ambush in Homs. The Arab League gave Syria 24 hours to agree to an observer mission or face sanctions.
    (AP, 11/24/11)(AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amid fears of a eurozone collapse, central banks of the United States, the eurozone, Britain, Japan, Canada and Switzerland said that they would cut the cost of providing dollars to banks. The move pushed the DJIA up 490 points, its biggest gain since March 2009.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)(SFC, 12/1/11, p.D1)

2011        Dec 1, Berlin-based Transparency International (TI) said corruption is hampering efforts to tackle the eurozone debt crisis, as Greece (80) and Italy (69) scored badly in a list of nations seen to be the most sleaze-ridden. Nepal ranked 154th out of 183 countries. New Zealand ranked the cleanest, while the US ranked 24th.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)(cpi.transparency.org/cpi2011/results/)

2011        Dec 2, Britain’s PM David Cameron held emergency talks with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, while France and Germany tried to drum up support for a new EU treaty to enforce budget discipline.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)
2011        Dec 2, Kosovo and Serbia have agreed on normalizing border procedures, one of the thorniest issues in current talks between the two rivals. An EU statement said, "The parties will gradually set up the joint, integrated, single and secure posts at all their common crossing points."
    (AP, 12/3/11)
2011        Dec 2, In Syria hours of intense shooting and clashes killed at least four people and wounded dozens more, including an 11-year-old girl who was struck by stray bullets that whizzed across the border into Lebanon. The European Union released the names of Syrian officials and companies to be added to a growing sanctions blacklist.
    (AP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 5, France and Germany reached a compromise agreement to seek mandatory limits on budget deficits among debt-laden European governments.
    (SFC, 12/6/11, p.A9)

2011        Dec 8, The European Central Bank (ECB) lowered its benchmark rate from 1.25 to 1 percent, the second quarter point cut in as many months.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.127)

2011        Dec 9, The EU said that 26 of its 27 member countries are open to joining a new treaty tying their finances together to solve the euro crisis. Only Britain remained opposed, creating a deep rift in the union. Britain's leaders argued that the revised treaty would threaten their national sovereignty and damage London's financial services industry.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 13, European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso said that a demand by Britain for its financial services industry to be exempted from EU regulation threatened to break up the single market.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 14, European Parliament lawmakers blocked a deal allowing special access for EU fishermen to Moroccan waters, prompting Rabat to issue an immediate ban on European fishing boats. European lawmakers said they wanted to wanted to wait until the interests of Western Sahara trawlers were taken on board before agreeing to a 12-month extension.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 16, Europol said police have arrested 112 people in 22 countries after a yearlong investigation into child pornography, warning that technology is making combating the spread of child abuse images ever more difficult.
    (AP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 20, The European Court of Human Rights ordered Russia to pay more than €1 million ($1.3 million) to dozens of plaintiffs over the country's bungled efforts to end a 2002 Moscow theater siege by Chechen militants.
    (AP, 12/20/11)

2012        Jan 1, As of today the EU began billing all the world’s airlines for the carbon emissions into and out of the EU.
    (Econ, 1/7/12, p.58)

2012        Jan 6, French President Nicolas Sarkozy vowed to push ahead with a new tax on financial transactions, also known as a Tobin tax, even without France's EU partners, in the face of stiff British resistance. The EU's executive European Commission adopted plans last September for a financial transaction tax under which stock and bond trades would be taxed at the rate of 0.1 percent, with derivatives taxed at 0.01 percent.
    (Reuters, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 8, Britain’s PM David Cameron said he would veto a European-wide financial transaction tax unless it was imposed globally, deepening a confrontation with European Union heavyweights France and Germany. Cameron also suggested that legislation to curb excessive executive pay, including giving shareholders new voting powers, could be set out in the spring.
    (Reuters, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 17, The European Union and Hungary brought their fight over democratic rights fully into the open, with the EU Commission launching legal challenges against the former Soviet-bloc country many fear may be slipping back into authoritarianism.
    (AP, 1/17/12)
2012        Jan 17, The European Court of Human Rights blocked Britain from extraditing Abu Qatada (aka Omar Mohammed Othman), an alleged top aide of Osama bin Laden to Jordan, saying evidence against him may have been obtained through torture.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 18, The EU said it is doubling humanitarian aid to Africa's Sahel area to 95 million euros in a "race against time" to lift two million people facing food shortages out of danger.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 20, The European Medicines Agency said it is investigating a multiple sclerosis drug made by Novartis after at least 11 patients taking the drug died. The drug, Gilenya, was licensed last year in the EU to treat patients with a severe type of multiple sclerosis.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 22, Croatians voted in a referendum on whether to join the European Union. 68% approved the referendum with a turnout of 47% of eligible voters. Croatia signed an EU accession treaty last year and is on track to become a member in July 2013.
    (AP, 1/22/12)(SFC, 1/23/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 25, The Haitian government and European Union signed an agreement for building a road to connect the capital with the country's second largest city.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, Fitch ratings downgraded the debt of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Slovenia and Spain even as European finance chiefs gathering in Davos sought to reassure global business leaders that Europe is on track to solve its debt crises.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A4)

2012        Jan 30, Across eastern Europe heavy snow and a severe cold snap have killed at least 36 people and many areas were under emergency measures as schools closed down, roads became impassible and power supplies were cut off.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 31, Ukrainian authorities said that the number of people who died of hypothermia in recent days has reached 30 as the country grapples with an unusually severe cold spell. In all, at least 58 people have died from the cold in Europe over the last week.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, The death toll from a severe cold spell in Eastern Europe rose to 71, including 43 in the Ukraine, most of them homeless people.
    (AP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 2, At least 11,000 villagers have been trapped by heavy snow and blizzards in Serbia's mountains, as the death toll from Eastern Europe's weeklong deep freeze rose to 122, many of them homeless people.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 3, The death toll from a severe cold spell in Eastern Europe rose to 222, including 101 in the Ukraine, 37 in Poland, 24 in Romania and 16 in Bulgaria.
    (AFP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 8, A senior European Union official said the EU will impose harsher sanctions on Syria, as Russia tried to broker talks between the vice president and the opposition to calm violence. Activists reported at least 50 killed in military assaults targeting government opponents in Homs.
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 11, In Europe snow drifts reaching up to rooftops kept tens of thousands of villagers prisoners in their own homes as the death toll from the big freeze rose past 550. On the French Mediterranean island of Corsica snow was up to one meter thick in the higher villages and all flights were cancelled from Bastia airport.
    (AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 14, China's Premier Wen Jiabao said his country was ready to increase its participation in efforts to resolve Europe's debt crisis, after meeting EU president Herman Van Rompuy and European Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso in Beijing.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, China's top central banker expressed confidence in the euro and pledged to continue buying European sovereign debt, as the Asian giant seeks to shore up support for its biggest trading partner.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)
2012        Feb 15, United Nations and EU aid chiefs called for "urgent" assistance for West Africa's drought-hit Sahel region, saying it needed $725 million (552 million euros) this year.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, The European Parliament approved a divisive new fishing and farming accord with Morocco that will reduce customs costs and boost trade across the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 17, The EU partially lifted sanctions on Zimbabwe to encourage further progress in political reforms but kept restrictions on veteran President Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 21, Greece reached an agreement on a $172 billion in loans through 2014 from the EU governments and the IMF.
    (SFC, 2/22/12, p.A4)

2012        Feb 27, European Union foreign ministers said they were increasingly appalled by the Syrian government's ruthless campaign of repression against civilians, and imposed new sanctions in hopes of pressuring the regime to change course.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 28, The EU announced the withdrawal of its envoys from Belarus, hours after Belarus asked the head of the EU's delegation in Minsk and the Polish ambassador to leave and said it was withdrawing its own from Brussels and Warsaw. The tit-for-tat followed EU sanctions passed a day earlier on Belarus over repression of the political opposition.
    (AP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 1, The European Union formally granted Serbia the status of a candidate for membership in the bloc during their summit in recognition of its government's efforts to round up war crimes suspects and normalize relations with Kosovo, its former province.
    (AP, 3/1/12)(http://tinyurl.com/7scyr3k)

2012        Mar 2, Leaders of 25 EU countries signed a new treaty in Brussels designed to limit government overspending. Spain’s PM Mariano Rajoy said he would miss deficit targets this year to spare his country from austerity overload.
    (SFC, 3/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 5, The Institute of International Finance, the group representing private creditors in talks on Greek debt, said a dozen banks, insurers and investment funds holding Greece's bonds will participate in a massive debt relief plan for the country.
    (AP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 13, Japan, the EU and the US brought a case to the World Trade Organization (WTO) alleging that China was exporting too little of tungsten, molybdenum and 17 rare earth elements.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.86)

2012        Mar 15, European Union nations agreed to ban financial transfers such as SWIFT payments to hundreds of Iranian firms and individuals blacklisted by the bloc over Tehran's contested nuclear drive.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 19, EU nations backed a complete ban on removing shark’s fins before throwing them into the sea to die.
    (SFC, 3/20/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 21, European Union anti-trust regulators approved British government plans to provide pension relief and slash the debt of Royal Mail Group as part of its privatization.
    (AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 29, The European Parliament voted through the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR).
    (Econ, 4/7/12, p.83)

2012        Apr 2, The Eurozone reported that unemployment now totaled 17.1 million, its highest level since the Euro was introduced in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 3, The European Commission prohibited Conviasa, Venezuela’s state airline, from flying into the EU due to safety concerns. Venezuela called the decision unfair.
    (SFC, 4/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 10, Europe's human rights court ruled that Britain can extradite radical Muslim cleric Mustafa Kamal Mustafa, also known as Abu Hamza al-Masri (53), and four other suspects to the United States to face terrorism charges.
    (AP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 19, The European Union said it will suspend most sanctions against Myanmar for a year while it assesses the country's progress toward democracy.
    (AP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 20, The Council of Europe's 47 member states agreed to a declaration aimed at making the European Court of Human Rights more efficient.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, The European Union parliament condemned Argentina's move to seize control of the YPF division of Spanish oil and gas giant Repsol and demanded that EU takes action against Buenos Aires at the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, European regulators recommended approval of a new type 2 diabetes drug from AstraZeneca, Britain's second biggest drugmaker, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, in a decision that contrasts starkly with its failure to win approval in the United States.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 21, The EU missions in Jerusalem and Ramallah condemned the recent eviction of a Palestinian family from its east Jerusalem home, ahead of its inhabitation by Jewish settlers.
    (AFP, 4/21/12)

2012        Apr 30, The EU announced a further €20 million in aid to victims of Pakistan's 2011 monsoon floods, as well as people displaced by conflict, bringing funding this year to €55 million.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        May 3, The European Union slapped an assets freeze and travel ban on six coup leaders in Guinea-Bissau.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 15, The EU naval force patrolling the Indian Ocean carried out its first air strikes against pirate targets on shore, with a pirate reporting that the raid destroyed speed boats, fuel depots and an arms store.
    (AP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 19, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved investment of 1.0 billion euros for expansion into north Africa and the Middle East under its first British president, Suma Chakrabarti, who a day earlier replaced Thomas Mirow from Germany. The EBRD is planning to invest specifically in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Jordan.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 31, The EU strengthened its sanctions against Guinea-Bissau's military junta, slapping an asset freeze and visa ban on a further 15 people.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 9, Euro zone finance ministers agreed to lend Spain up to 100 billion euros ($125 billion) to help its battered banks.
    (Reuters, 6/10/12)(SSFC, 6/10/12, p.A6)

2012        Jun 18, European leaders at the G-20 summit in Mexico struggled to reassure the world that they were on the path to solving their continent's relentless economic crisis.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 25, The European Union imposed fresh sanctions on President Bashar al-Assad's regime, targeting six government ministries as well as a bank and television company. This was the 16th round of sanctions agreed by the bloc's foreign ministers since the repression of anti-Assad protests began in March 2011.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 29, Leaders of the full 27-member EU, following an all night session, agreed they will let funds intended to bail out indebted governments funnel money directly to struggling banks as well. They also agreed to a long-term framework toward tighter budgetary and political union, though those plans will require treaty changes and won't be realized for years.
    (AP, 6/29/12)(SFC, 6/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 1, An EU embargo on Iranian oil went into effect, provoking anger in Tehran which said the measure will hurt talks with world powers over its sensitive nuclear activities.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 4, The European Parliament in Brussels overwhelmingly defeated the international ACTA anti-piracy trade agreement after concern that it would limit Internet freedom mobilized broad opposition across Europe.
    (AP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 5, Capital Economics, a British-based consultancy, scooped the Wolfson Economics Prize for coming up with the best method for an "orderly exit" of one or more member countries wishing to leave the European Monetary Union.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, The European Central Bank cut its key interest rate a quarter point to 0.75%. Its rate on deposits dropped to zero percent.
    (SFC, 7/6/12, p.A2)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.66)

2012        Jul 16, The EU formally agreed to a two-year mission from next month to help Niger fight organized crime and terrorism in the Sahel, where armed groups are threatening regional stability.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 18, The Council of Europe released a report showing the Vatican had received compliant or largely compliant grades on nine of the 16 "key and core" internationally recognized recommendations to fight money laundering and terrorist financing. The Vatican had submitted itself to the Moneyval evaluation process more than two years ago after it signed onto the 2009 EU Monetary Convention.
    (AP, 7/18/12)

2012        Jul 20, Finance ministers from the 17 countries that use the euro unanimously approved the terms for a bailout loan for Spanish banks of up to €100 billion ($122.9 billion).
    (AP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 23, The European Union said it was ready to back the deployment of an African stabilization force under UN mandate in Mali, and threatened sanctions against those posing a threat to democratic change.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, The European Union promised to lift most of the sanctions slapped against Zimbabwe a decade ago if the country holds a "credible" vote on a new constitution.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 26, Mauritania and the European Union signed a new fishing accord after months of heated debate to agree on the EU's exact financial contribution.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Sep 6, The European Union launched an anti-dumping probe into Chinese solar panels after an industry association claimed the products were being exported for less than it costs to make them.
    (AP, 9/6/12)
2012        Sep 6, The European Central Bank unveiled a new bond-buying program that is largely designed to keep a lid on Spain’s borrowing rates.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 11, Russia’s Gazprom accused the European Commission of pressuring the Russian firm into slashing gas prices for its customers soon after President Vladimir Putin signed a decree that could hinder the EU probe. Putin signed a decree barring strategic Russian enterprises from disclosing information to foreign regulators, changing contracts and selling property abroad without government permission.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, The European Union was named as winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for fostering peace on a continent ravaged by war.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 15, The European Union, concerned by what it called Iran's refusal to come clean on its nuclear program, imposed a new range of sanctions intended to hit the country's treasury and increase pressure on its Islamic regime. German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said the EU is banning the import of Iranian natural gas into European Union countries.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 18, The European Court of Justice ruled that Britain faces large fines for breaching EU law on water treatment after plants in northern England and London dumped raw sewage into waterways.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 19, The EU mediated the first official talks between the leaders of Serbia and Kosovo, the bitter Balkan rivals, and Serbian PM Ivica Dacic said he is ready for a "historic compromise."
    (AP, 10/19/12)

2012        Oct 26, The European Parliament awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to Iranian film director Jafar Panahi and imprisoned dissident lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh.
    (AP, 10/26/12)

2012        Nov 14, Workers across the European Union sought to present a united front against rampant unemployment and government spending cuts with a string of strikes and demonstrations across the region. In Belgium a 24-hour rail stoppage and scattered strikes through the south of the nation disrupted daily life. A Spanish strike shut down most schools and while hospitals operated with a skeleton staff. In Portugal the second general strike in eight months left commuters stranded as trains ground to a virtual halt.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 22, European leaders gathered in Brussels for what promised to be a turbulent and lengthy summit on the 7-year budget for the 27-country European Union.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Brussels a summit of the European Union's 27 national leaders, charged with agreeing on a long-term budget for the bloc, broke up without being able to reach a deal.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 27, The 17 European Union nations that use the euro struck an agreement with the International Monetary Fund on a program to reduce Greek debt and put Athens on the way to get the next installment of its bailout loans. The first disbursement is set to take place Dec 13.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Dec 10, EU foreign ministers approved the concept of an EU training mission for an attempt by Malian and other African troops to deprive the Islamists of a haven and training sites in north Mali.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 16, The EU and Singapore signed a regional trade agreement.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.118)

2012        Dec 21, The European Union said it has agreed to re-launch €174.3 million in development funds to Guinea.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Ann Glover (b.1956), Scottish molecular biologist, became the EU’s first chief scientific advisor. She continued to 2014 when her mandate expired without renewal.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.83)

2013        Jan 8, A European court ruled that Italy's woefully overcrowded prisons violate the basic rights of inmates, fined the government €100,000 ($131,000) and ordered it to make changes within a year. The finding came three years after Italy's government recognized the problem itself but failed to pass legislation designed to correct it.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 15, Europe's top court said religious freedom is a right but not an absolute one, ruling that British Airways discriminated against a devoutly Christian employee by making her remove her crucifix, but backing a UK charity that fired a marriage counselor who refused to give sex therapy to gay couples.
    (AP, 1/15/13)
2013        Jan 15, Russian authorities charged Yelena Kotova, a former Russia director at the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, with conspiracy to take a $1.4 million bribe.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 17, EU foreign ministers approved sending a military training mission to Mali, to shore up the Malian army and enable the country's government to regain control of all its territory.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 22, Eleven EU countries received the green light to plan a financial transaction tax that could generate billions of dollars in revenue for cash-strapped governments.
    (SFC, 1/23/13, p.A4)

2013        Jan 23, British PM David Cameron promised to give Britons a referendum choice on whether to stay in the European Union or leave if he wins an election in 2015.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Feb 4, The EU police organization Europol said a wide-ranging match-fixing investigation has uncovered more than 380 suspicious matches, including World Cup and European Championship qualifiers and two Champions League games, and found evidence that a Singapore-based crime group is closely involved in match-fixing.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, European Union regulators gave approval for Britain's 600 million pounds of public support for the "Green Deal" energy-efficiency scheme. Britain's Green Deal permits loans to homeowners to help them pay for efficiency measures such as loft insulation, modern boilers, draught proofing and other materials.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 8, EU leaders agreed to a significantly reduced 7-year budget worth €960 billion ($1.28 trillion) — the first cut in spending in the 27-country group's history.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 12, President Obama made his State of the Union address. He announced plans with the EU to pursue talks aimed at achieving an overarching trans-Atlantic free trade deal. Obama also said that the first 34,000 troops will leave Afghanistan within a year and more in 2014, when all foreign combat forces are to leave the country.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 13, The EU and the US announced that they have agreed to pursue talks aimed at achieving an overarching trans-Atlantic free trade deal.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 15, The EU agreed to begin random DNA checks on meat products in a bid to put a lid on a spreading scandal over horsemeat.
    (SFC, 2/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 18, The European Union officially launched a training mission with the goal of making the disparaged Malian army good enough to patrol the whole country.
    (AP, 2/18/13)
2013        Feb 18, EU finance ministers, condemning the Feb. 12 nuclear test by North Korea, imposed more trade and economic sanctions on the Asian nation.
    (AP, 2/18/13)
2013        Feb 18, EU foreign ministers announced that they are keeping current sanctions against Syria in place for three months, rejecting any attempt to ease the arms embargo so military aid could be funneled to rebel forces.
    (AP, 2/18/13)
2013        Feb 18, The European Union said it has removed 21 loyalists of Zimbabwe's president from a sanctions list of people facing travel and banking bans. It said the decision to remove those restrictions was a result of a "step forward" in finalizing a draft constitution which is set to go voted on in a national referendum on March 16.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Mar 5, EU finance ministers decided that European bankers’ bonuses should be capped at a meximum of one times their base salary, rising to two times if shareholders explicitly agree.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.72)

2013        Mar 16, In Cyprus anxious depositors drained cash from ATMs after European officials ruled that part of a new 10-billion-euro bailout must be paid for directly from the bank accounts of ordinary savers. An emergency deal in Brussels set a one-time levy of 9.9% on Cypriot bank deposits of more than 100,000 euros. Deposits under that would be taxed at 6.75%.
    (SSFC, 3/17/13, p.A3)

2013        Apr 6, In Kazakhstan Iran and six world powers failed to reach agreement on an approach to reducing fears that Tehran might use its nuclear technology to make weapons. The EU's foreign policy chief declared that the two sides "remain far apart on substance."
    (AP, 4/6/13)

2013        Apr 12, European Union finance ministers said they've agreed to extend the repayment of emergency loans to Ireland and Portugal for a further seven years, easing the pressure on both countries to exit their bailout programs and resume normal borrowing.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 15, The EU took to task member states for not implementing new rules on human trafficking. Only 6 countries had translated the rules into national legislation by the April 6 deadline.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 16, A European court blocked Britain from extraditing a mentally ill suspect accused of trying to set up a terrorist training camp in Oregon. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that sending Haroon Aswat to a prison in the United States would breach his human rights due to the "severity of his mental condition." Aswat was arrested on a US warrant in 2005, and has been fighting extradition ever since.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 16, EU officials said that over 7,000 tests of food products across the EU have shown that nearly 5% of food labeled as beef contained horse meat.
    (SFC, 4/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 19, Kosovo and Serbia reached a potentially historic agreement to normalize relations between the Balkan neighbors, end years of acrimony and put them both on a solid path to EU membership.
    (AP, 4/19/13)

2013        May 11, Marcin Skowronek, an investigator at Europol's European Cybercrime Center in The Hague, said "We are seeing an unprecedented number of cyberscams that include phishing for financial data, viruses, credit card fraud and others." Police Maj. Gen. Pisit Paoin, chief of Thailand's Technology Crime Suppression Division, said in a telephone interview that Thai police have arrested more than 20 suspects involved in the recent $45 million cyber heist including those from Bulgaria, Bangladesh and eastern Europe.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 14, The European Court of Human Rights found that Swiss laws on passive assisted suicide are unclear and need revising to clarify when people are entitled to a medical prescription for a lethal dose of drugs.
    (AP, 5/14/13)
2013        May 14, The European Union's executive arm, the Commission, said it had raided the offices of a number of oil industry companies for possible price-fixing.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 15, The recession across the economy of the 17 EU countries that use the euro extended into its sixth quarter, longer than the calamitous slump that hit the region in the financial crisis of 2008-9.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 24, The EU approved restrictions on 3 pesticides to better protect dwindling bee populations.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.A2)

2013        May 29, The European Union granted France, Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia more time to bring their budget deficits under control to support the bloc's shrinking economy.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        May 30, The EU agreed to drastically reform its fishing policy, aiming to end decades of overfishing that has depleted many species in its Atlantic and Mediterranean waters.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 31, Eurostat, the EU's statistics office, said that the unemployment rate rose to 12.2% in April from the previous record of 12.1% the month before. Unemployment across the 17 EU countries appeared to be on course to hit 20 million this year.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 4,  The European Union said it is imposing anti-dumping levies on imports of Chinese solar panels. The 27-country bloc will impose a tariff of about 12% immediately. It will increase that to 47% starting in August.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, The EU gave approval to Latvia to become the 18th member of the troubled euro currency union — despite doubts among many of its people and international concerns about its banking system. A final decision will be made by eurozone finance ministers July 9.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 14, EU trade ministers at a meeting in Luxembourg agreed to France's demand to keep its movie and television industry out of the hotly anticipated trans-Atlantic talks.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 24, The European Commission confirmed approval of InterContinental Exchange's proposed $8.2 billion takeover of NYSE Euronext, saying the two are not direct competitors in most markets and will continue to face strong competition.
    (AP, 6/24/13)

2013        Jun 27, Top EU officials hashed out a last-minute deal on a 960 billion euro ($1.3 trillion) budget for the bloc for the next seven years.
    (AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jul 1, Croatia became the 28th EU member, the bloc's first addition since Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. In its first day as an EU member, Croatia pledged to help other Balkan countries move closer to the bloc and to help bring lasting stability to a region which was engulfed in conflict 20 years ago.
    (AP, 6/30/13)(AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, The German government said if media reports of large-scale US spying on the European Union were confirmed, it would be unacceptable Cold War-style behavior between partners who require mutual trust to forge a new transatlantic trade area.
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, Lithuania took the reigns for its six-month presidency of the European Union.
    (AP, 8/20/13)

2013        Jul 8, The US and 28 countries of the EU began negotiations on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
    (SFC, 7/8/13, p.D1)

2013        Jul 9, EU finance ministers in Brussels officially agreed to make Latvia the 18th member of the eurozone currency union. Latvia will start using the new currency on Jan 1, 2014.
    (AP, 7/9/13)

2013        Jul 11, Malta's PM Joseph Muscat called for a regional approach to tackle the flood of African immigrants landing on the shores on the tiny island after meeting EU and Libyan officials.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)

2013        Jul 16, Israel condemned new guidelines by the European Union which ban EU funding and cooperation with Israeli institutions that operate in territory captured by the Jewish state in the 1967 Mideast war.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 18, The European Union's top court ruled that EU authorities unfairly froze assets of Yassin Kadi, a Saudi businessman who was accused of financing al-Qaida, by failing to explain why he was targeted.
    (AP, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, The European Union published new guidelines explicitly banning any EU funding of Israeli institutions operating in territories occupied since the 1967 Mideast war, amid vigorous Israeli objections.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 22, The EU agreed to put the armed wing of Hezbollah on its terrorism blacklist, a move driven by concerns over the Lebanese militant group's roles in a bus bombing in Bulgaria and the Syrian war.
    (Reuters, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 24, The EU said it will give Kenya 40 billion shillings ($458.45 million) between 2014 and 2020, for use in agriculture and other sectors, extending an aid program to the African country.
    (Reuters, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 27, China and the EU announced a truce on solar panel and related component tariffs. The EU planned to set a minimum sales price and a quota. An August 8 deadline loomed on the dispute.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.36)

2013        Aug 6, The EU said the Maltese government, which has refused entry to a tanker carrying 102 African migrants, had a "humanitarian duty" to allow them to land as soon as possible. Malta faced a record influx of African migrants, with 1,000 arriving in the past month.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 9, European scientists reported their finding of traces of antibodies against the MERS virus in dromedary, or one-humped, camels, but not the virus itself. Some experts think bats might be infecting other animals like camels with MERS before passing it to humans. Since the virus was first identified last September, there have been 94 illnesses, including 46 deaths, from MERS, or Middle East respiratory syndrome.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 21, The EU decided to suspend exports of weapons and goods that could be used for internal repression but did not halt aid programs for fear of hurting ordinary Egyptians already hit hard.
    (AP, 8/21/13)

2013        Sep 7, The European Union's foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said the EU's 28 nations agreed that available information seemed to show strong evidence that the Syrian government carried out a chemical attack on civilians in August.
    (Reuters, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 11, The European Union rejected Russian pressure to deter Ukraine and other former Soviet republics from deepening trade ties with Europe, saying any kind of retaliation was unacceptable.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 13, Lithuania made a formal protest to Russia over extra border checks imposed over the last month that are hampering trade as the countries spar over trade relations with Ukraine. Russia and the EU, of which Lithuania holds the rotating presidency, are each trying to convince Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine to join their respective trade blocs.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 19, In Kosovo gunmen shot dead an EU police officer from Lithuania in a mainly Serb region, dealing the mission its first fatality since deploying in 2008 and shaking a fragile accord between the Balkan country and its former master Serbia.
    (AP, 9/19/13)

2013        Sep 25, Amnesty Int’l. said more than 10,000 Roma, also known as Gypsies, have been evicted from French squatter camps from January to August, with many forced to return to Romania and Bulgaria despite EU rules requiring free movement for all EU citizens.
    (SFC, 9/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 2, Albania said it has signed on former British PM Tony Blair as an adviser and lobbyist in its uphill struggle to join the 28-nation EU.
    (AP, 10/3/13)
    (AP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 9, The head of the European Commission announced during a visit to Lampedusa that Italy would receive an additional 30 million euros ($40 million) in EU funds to help settle and receive new refugees, after the sinking of a migrant boat off the Sicilian island killed at least 297 people.
    (AP, 10/9/13)

2013        Oct 10, Pakistani teenager Malala Yousafzai, shot in the head by the Taliban for campaigning for education for girls, won the European Union's annual human rights award, beating fugitive US intelligence analyst Edward Snowden.
    (Reuters, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 14, Germany blocked the introduction of tougher EU emissions rules for cars. A week earlier Chancellor Angela Merkel's party received a large donation from three major BMW shareholders.
    (AP, 10/15/13)

2013        Oct 18, Canada and the EU struck a tentative Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) meant to boost growth and employment.
    (AP, 10/18/13)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.18)

2013        Oct 21, Europe's top human rights court ordered Spain to release a Basque separatist militant, saying her extended detention was illegal, a ruling victims groups warned would let dozens of prisoners walk free. Ines del Rio was jailed in 1989 for her role in 23 assassinations and car bombings carried out by the Basque independence movement ETA.
    (Reuters, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 21, The party of Ukraine's jailed opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko (52) rejected President Viktor Yanukovich's terms for her release and European envoys said time was running out to solve a row threatening agreements with the EU.
    (Reuters, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 24, An Austrian student group fighting for online privacy in Europe got the go-ahead for a legal challenge in Ireland's High Court over the transfer of personal data to a US spy agency.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 25, Italian vessels rescued another 700 migrants while the two-day EU summit was going on. EU leaders failed to take new action to ease the plight of thousands of boat refugees trying to cross from North Africa.
    (AP, 10/25/13)

2013        Nov 2, Europe's heaviest-ever cargo carrier to the International Space Station burned up in Earth's atmosphere in a controlled manoeuver after a five-month mission. It was filled with about six tons of garbage and waste produced on board the ISS.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 5, The European Union resumed membership talks with Turkey. They were stalled for 3½ years mainly because of the country's ongoing dispute with Cyprus.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 7, The EU’s top court ruled that refugees facing imprisonment in their home country because they are gay may have grounds to be granted asylum in the European Union.
    (AP, 11/7/13)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.59)
2013        Nov 7, The European Central Bank startled investors with a surprise cut in its benchmark interest rate aimed at boosting a hesitant recovery in the 17 countries that use the euro.
    (AP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 8, A European Union prosecutor indicted 15 former ethnic Albanian rebels suspected of torturing, mistreating and murdering civilians detained in central Kosovo during the 1998-99 war against Serbia.
    (AP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 11, The EU and United States began a second round of talks on the world's largest free-trade accord despite damaging revelations of US spying on its allies.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)
2013        Nov 11, The European Space Agency says one of its research satellites re-entered the Earth's atmosphere early today on an orbit that passed over Siberia, the western Pacific Ocean, the eastern Indian Ocean and Antarctica. The Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was launched in 2009. Most of the 2,425 lb satellite disintegrated, but about 25% slammed into the Atlantic Ocean a few hundred miles from the Falkland Islands.
    (AP, 11/11/13)(SFC, 11/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Nov 11, Japan switched on the first turbine at a wind farm 12 miles off the coast of Fukushima, the site of the March, 2011, earthquake and tsunami.
    (SFC, 11/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 12, The Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, a leading human rights body, urged President Vladimir Putin to overhaul Russia's creaking judicial system, long criticized as vulnerable to political meddling and as an obstacle to business.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 14, EU officials welcomed the end of bailout support for Spain and Ireland, saying that showed the effectiveness of more than four years of efforts to cut excessive government debt.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 15, The EU executive said it had found no proof of British claims that Spain had violated European Union rules on border and customs checks at Gibraltar's border.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 19, The European Union's parliament finally approved the first spending cut in the history of the 28-nation group.
    (AP, 11/19/13)
2013        Nov 19, Bosnia's state war crimes court said it had freed 10 convicted war criminals and would give them new trials after the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled their legal rights had been violated.
    (Reuters, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 20, European Union lawmakers overwhelmingly voted to meet only in Brussels and avoid costly monthly treks to Strasbourg, France. The proposal must be approved by the 28 EU governments and France is certain to nix any change under the current conditions.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, The European Commission said Austria should pay a daily fine of more than 40,000 euros ($54,000) for breaking EU policy on renewable energy.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 22, Russia's space agency successfully launched three European Space Agency's satellites intended to study Earth's magnetic field. A Rokot booster rocket at the Plesetsk launchpad in northwestern Russia put the three Swarm satellites into their designated orbits.
    (AP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 25, The EU expressed strong disapproval of Russian pressure on Ukraine to reject an EU trade deal, while police fired tear gas at pro-Europe protesters in the former Soviet republic.
    (Reuters, 11/25/13)

2013        Nov 28, EU leaders meeting in Vilnius sought to revive a stalled agreement with Ukraine after the former Soviet republic shocked the 28-country bloc last week by opting for closer ties with Russia instead.
    (AP, 11/28/13)

2013        Dec 4, The European Commission fined a group of major global banks a total of 1.7 billion euros ($2.3 billion) for colluding to profit from the manipulation of key interest rates. The banks named as participating in cartels were Barclays, Deutsche Bank, Royal Bank of Scotland, Societe Generale, Credit Agricole, HSBC, JPMorgan, UBS and Citigroup.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 15, In Ukraine about 200,000 anti-government protesters converged on the central square of Kiev in a dramatic show of morale after nearly four weeks of daily protests. The EU said it has suspended association talks with Ukraine until it receives a firmer commitment from Yanukovych that Ukraine was serious about the deal.
    (AP, 12/15/13)(AFP, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 16, European Union foreign ministers pledged "unprecedented" amounts of political, financial and security support for Israel and the Palestinians if they come to a peace agreement.
    (AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, More than 50 top European and US scientists wrote to the European Commission President urging him to press ahead with a plan to label tar sands as more polluting than other forms of oil, in defiance of intensive lobbying from Canada.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)
2013        Dec 16, Turkey signed a long-awaited deal with the European Union to send back people who enter the bloc illegally from its territory in exchange for talks on visa-free travel for its citizens.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, The European Union said it has warned Israel against any new West Bank settlement construction following an upcoming Palestinian prisoner release, saying it will be held responsible for any resulting failure of the ongoing peace talks.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 18, EU finance ministers reached a banking union accord which will hand Brussels unprecedented new powers to prevent failing banks from wrecking the economy.
    (AFP, 12/18/13)
2013        Dec 18, The heads of the UN and European Union aid agencies called for a "humanitarian ceasefire" in Syria to allow convoys to deliver help to areas that aid workers cannot reach.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 19, The European Space Agency launched its star-surveying satellite Gaia into space, hoping to produce the most accurate three-dimensional map of the Milky Way and to better understand the evolution of our galaxy.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 23, The European Union banned the export of arms and the sending of mercenaries to Central African Republic.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        David Marsh authored “Europe’s Deadlock: How the Euro crisis Could Be Solved – And Why It Won’t Happen."
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.73)

2014        Jan 1, The European Commission said Romanians and Bulgarians now have the right to work in any of the European Union's 28 countries but "no major increase" in emigration is expected.
    (AFP, 1/1/14)

2014        Jan 8, Greece formally assumed the European Union's rotating six-month presidency with a ceremony attended by EU commissioners.
    (AP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, A European Parliament committee voted to invite Edward Snowden to testify via video link in its investigation of US surveillance practices.
    (AP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 14, The European Investment Bank (EIB) said it has raised a further 350 million euros ($477.9 million) on its Climate Awareness Bond (CAB), making it the largest ever "green bond" at 1.5 billion euros.
    (Reuters, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 20, The EU foreign ministers decided to send up to 1,000 soldiers to help stabilize Central African Republic, deploying its first major army operation in six years.
    (Reuters, 1/20/14)
2014        Jan 20, Iran halted production of 20 percent enriched uranium, marking the entry into force of an interim deal with world powers on its disputed nuclear program. The United States eased some sanctions on Iran, pausing efforts to reduce Iranian crude oil exports, as part of a nuclear deal between Tehran and world powers that went into effect. The EU also agreed to suspend some economic sanctions against Iran as part of the ground-breaking nuclear deal.
    (AFP, 1/20/14)(Reuters, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 21, Serbia began accession talks with the EU.
    (Econ, 1/11/14, p.44)

2014        Jan 27, The EU announced the release of 140 million euros in aid to Guinea, its first development package to the West African nation after a five-year suspension.
    (AFP, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 28, The UN Security Council authorized the deployment of an EU force to bolster French and African troops in the Central African Republic.
    (SFC, 1/29/14, p.A2)
2014        Jan 28, European Union officials demanded Croatia slash its budget shortfall and reduce spending to bring the country's deficit back under the bloc's allowed ceiling.
    (AP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, Europe's top human rights court in Strasbourg, France, ruled that Ireland's government failed in its duty to protect children in the case of a woman sexually abused by a lay teacher at a state-backed Roman Catholic school in 1973. Louise O'Keeffe (48) said she was abused by her teacher during lessons in his classroom when she was 9 years old. She argued that the Irish state failed to put in place appropriate measures to stop "systematic abuse" at the Dunderrow National School.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 3, An official EU report said corruption affects all member countries of the European Union and costs the bloc's economies around 120 billion euros ($162.19 billion) a year.
    (AP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 5, The European Union's antitrust watchdog accepted "far-reaching" concessions offered by Google to settle allegations it is abusing its dominant position in Internet searches, bringing the three-year-old case close to an end.
    (AP, 2/5/14)
2014        Feb 5, Uke Rugova, a Kosovo lawmaker who is also a son of late President Ibrahim Rugova, was arrested by European Union police and justice workers for alleged involvement in organized crime and fraud.
    (AP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 7, German Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed outrage over a leaked phone conversation in which Victoria Nuland, a top US diplomat, used the f-word regarding the European Union's handling of the crisis in Ukraine. An angry US State Department pointed the finger at Russia for allegedly bugging the diplomats' phones.
    (AFP, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 9, Swiss voters narrowly backed proposals to reintroduce immigration quotas with the European Union. 50.3% backed the so-called "Stop mass immigration" initiative.
    (Reuters, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 10, The EU agreed to launch negotiations with Cuba to increase trade, investment and dialogue on human rights in its most significant diplomatic shift since Brussels lifted sanctions on the island in 2008.
    (Reuters, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 19, Poland's deputy foreign minister said consensus has been reached among EU states about imposing sanctions on Ukrainian officials over the violence in Kiev that has killed dozens of people.
    (Reuters, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 25, Members of the European Parliament voted through the world's toughest carbon dioxide standards for new cars, prompting a cautious welcome from environmental campaigners.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, EU lawmakers voted for the larger warning labels with the inclusion of gruesome pictorials plus a ban on most flavored tobacco products and tighter regulation of e-cigarettes.
    (AP, 2/26/14)
2014        Feb 26, Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet told EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton in a phone call that the Ukrainian opposition to president Viktor Yanukovych may have been involved in sniper attacks. News of the call was leaked in early March and prompted Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov to call for an OSCE investigation.
    (AFP, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 5, The EU prepared a $15 billion aid package to Ukraine and froze the assets of 18 people blamed for looting the treasury of the nearly bankrupt country.
    (AP, 3/5/14)

2014        Mar 6, European leaders said Russia will face sanctions over its military incursion in Ukraine's Crimean peninsula unless it withdraws its troops or engages in credible talks to defuse the situation. The EU froze the assets of ousted Ukraine leader Viktor Yanukovych, ex-premier Mykola Azarov and 16 former ministers, businessmen and security chiefs, all on grounds of fraud.
    (AP, 3/6/14)(AFP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 8, EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton arrived in Tehran to discuss issues including Iran's disputed nuclear program, before another round of talks between Iran and world powers.
    (Reuters, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 11, The European Commission agreed to extend nearly 500 million euros worth of trade benefits to Ukraine, removing duties on a wide range of agricultural goods, textiles and other imports in an effort to support the Ukrainian economy.  G7 leaders called on Russia to stop all efforts to "annex" Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)(Reuters, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 12, European Union member states agreed on the wording of sanctions on Russia, including travel restrictions and asset freezes against those responsible for violating the sovereignty of Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 14, EU officials said they have drawn up a list of 120-130 names of Russians who could be hit with travel bans and asset freezes to punish Russia for its seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 17, Ukraine's Crimean peninsula declared itself independent after its residents voted overwhelmingly to secede and join Russia, while the United States and the European Union slapped sanctions against some of those who promoted the divisive referendum. Ukraine recalled its ambassador to Russia for consultations on the international ramifications of the situation in its Crimea region.
    (AP, 3/17/14)(Reuters, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, The United States and European Union (EU) accused China of using arrests and harassment to silence human rights activists, also voicing consternation at the death in custody of a prominent dissident.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 19, The European Union said it has fined two EU and four Japanese companies a total of nearly 1 billion euros ($1.4 billion) for rigging the market of key components in the car and truck industry at the expense of consumers.
    (AP, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 20, Pro-Russian crowds seized two Ukrainian warships and Ukraine said its troops were being threatened in Crimea as the European Union considered new sanctions against Russia for its annexation of the Black Sea peninsula.
    (AP, 3/20/14)

2014        Mar 21, The European Union and Ukraine signed a landmark political cooperation accord, committing to the same deal former president Viktor Yanukovich rejected last November, a decision that led to his overthrow.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 24, The EU approved sanctions and said it will no longer import any fish caught by vessels from Cambodia, Belize and Guinea, accusing their governments of failing to cooperate in fighting illegal fishing.
    (AP, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 26, In Brussels Pres. Barack Obama and EU leaders presented a unified front against Russia's annexation of Crimea, promoting trans-Atlantic trade as an antidote to Russia's influence in the region and a way to help Europe become less dependent on Moscow for energy.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Apr 1, The EU’s economy chief Olli Rehn's said the EU will make a swift payment of financial aid to Ukraine and dismissed the possibility of economic sanctions against Russia unless it takes more action.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 2, The EU and the US sought ways to reduce the political clout Russia gets from its vast energy reserves by promising to wean Ukraine and the rest of the continent off those supplies.
    (AP, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, The European Union's antitrust authority said it is imposing a 302 million-euro ($416 million) fine against 11 producers of high voltage power cables for operating a cartel. Six European companies, three Japanese and two South Korean producers reportedly colluded to allocate customers between themselves from 1999 for about 10 years on an almost worldwide scale.
    (AP, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, A study by Europe’s Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said almost a quarter of Europe's bumblebees are at risk of extinction due to loss of habitats and climate change, threatening pollination of crops worth billions of dollars.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, The Swiss government said it has decided not to adopt European Union sanctions against 33 people in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea, but will prevent them from using Switzerland to get around the visa bans and asset freezes.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 3, The European Parliament voted to stop Internet providers from charging for preferential access to their networks, a step cheered by consumer groups but bemoaned by the telecommunications industry.
    (AP, 4/3/14)
2014        Apr 3, The European Space Agency launched its Sentinel 1A satellite on a Russian Soyuz rocket from French Guiana. It was the first of six satellites for a new system designed to better monitor climate change, environmental disasters and catastrophes like floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
    (AP, 4/3/14)(SFC, 4/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 4, European Union foreign ministers gathered in Athens for two days of an informal meeting where attention focused on the crisis in Ukraine and the civil war in Syria.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 5, The European Union said it plans to set up an international court in Kosovo to deal with alleged crimes committed by ethnic-Albanian guerrillas during the war with Serbia.
    (AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 8, The European Union's highest court overthrew a rule that required telecoms companies to store the communications data of EU citizens for up to two years, on the grounds that it infringed on basic rights.
    (Reuters, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, The EU published new rules on green energy designed to replace subsidies with market-based schemes. The rules take effect from July 1 this year and from 2017 all member states will have to hold tenders to support new green power facilities following a pilot phase from 2015-16.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 10, Europol, the EU police organization, said law enforcement authorities have arrested 70 people at airports around the world in a meticulously coordinated crackdown targeting criminals using fake or stolen credit cards to buy airline tickets.
    (AP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 10, President Vladimir Putin warned European leaders Russia would cut natural gas supplies to Ukraine if it did not pay its bills and said this could lead to a reduction of onward deliveries to Europe.
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 14, The EU threatened Russia with more sanctions over its actions in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 15, The EU's Parliament completed the biggest overhaul of the bloc's financial system since the introduction of the euro currency, passing laws to minimize the risk and cost posed by failing banks.
    (AP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Ukraine 3 pro-Russian protesters were killed and 13 injured during an attempted raid overnight on a National Guard base in the Black Sea port of Mariupol. High-level talks aimed at calming soaring tensions over the crisis in Ukraine went into overtime with top diplomats from the United States, European Union, Russia and Ukraine attempting to forge a common position on how to de-escalate the situation. Ukrainian town councilor Volodymyr Rybak and a second man disappeared. He was seen being bundled into a car by masked men in camouflage. His body was found on April 29 near Slaviansk.
    (AP, 4/17/14)(Reuters, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 28, The European Union added 15 more officials to its Russian sanctions list to protests Moscow's meddling in Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/28/14)
2014        Apr 28, Moldovans with biometric passports — containing a chip with a photo and fingerprint data — began traveling without visas across 26 European nations, the so-called Schengen area. The European Parliament had approved visa-free travel across most of Europe for Moldovan citizens in February.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        Apr 29, The EU released the names of 15 new people it is targeting for sanctions because of their roles in the Ukraine crisis.
    (AP, 4/29/14)

2014        Apr 30, The Council of Europe said Hungary's prison system needs to reduce overcrowding, stop discrimination against Roma prisoners and offer inmates work or recreational activities so they don't spend 23 hours a day in their cells.
    (AP, 4/30/14)

2014        May 1, The EU as of today banned imports of Indian mangoes including the Alphonso, considered the king of all the mango varieties grown in South Asia, because a large number of shipments were contaminated with fruit flies. The pests are considered a threat to crops grown in Europe.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 6, Austrian Finance Minister Michael Spindelegger said a group of 11 European Union countries have agreed to introduce a financial transaction tax from 2016 onward.
    (AP, 5/6/14)

2014        May 12, A European human rights monitor urged Georgia to improve its justice system, promote tolerance and avoid the selective prosecution of officials who served former president Mikheil Saakashvili.
    (Reuters, 5/12/14)

2014        May 13, Europe's highest court said people should have some say over the results that pop up when they conduct a Google search of their own name online.
    (AP, 5/13/14)
2014        May 13, Ukraine's PM Arseny Yatseniuk and EU officials signed a deal for 1 billion euro ($1.37 billion) in EU aid for Kiev's beleaguered government as well as for assistance to help build Ukrainian institutions.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 14, Azerbaijan took over as chairman of the Committee of Ministers, the Council of Europe’s decision-making body which brings together the member states' foreign ministers.
    (AP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 19, European law enforcement officials  announced that police worldwide, acting on an FBI tipoff, have arrested 97 people in 16 countries suspected of developing, distributing or using malicious software called BlackShades that allows criminals to gain surreptitious control of personal computers. French detectives said they arrested more than two dozen people during their May 13 raids.
    (AP, 5/19/14)

2014        May 20, EU regulators charged banks JPMorgan, HSBC and Credit Agricole with colluding to manipulate the price of financial products linked to interest rates.
    (AP, 5/20/14)
2014        May 20, The European Commission paid out a first loan tranche of 100 million euros ($137 million) to Ukraine, launching a 1.6 billion euro macro-financial assistance loan program to prop up the beleaguered economy.
    (Reuters, 5/20/14)

2014        May 22, Britain voted in local and European elections. An opinion poll exposed a paradox: The anti-EU UK Independence Party was forecast to win the vote yet public opinion favored staying inside the EU.
    (Reuters, 5/22/14)
2014        May 22, EU parliamentary elections began in Britain and the Netherlands at the start of 4 days of balloting across the 28 members.
    (SFC, 5/23/14, p.A5)

2014        May 23, Europe's main human rights and democracy forum accused Azerbaijan of intimidating and repressing its critics.
    (Reuters, 5/23/14)

2014        May 25, European elections culminated today as the remainder of the EU's 28 countries went to the polls. Official but still partial returns from the European Parliament elections showed an unprecedented surge by Euroskeptics and outright anti-EU politicians.
    (Reuters, 5/25/14)(AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 30, The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe lost contact with a five-member team in east Ukraine, where four members of another OSCE mission are still being held by pro-Russian rebels.
    (AP, 5/30/14)

2014        Jun 3, The European Union told Bulgaria to suspend preparatory work on the Russian gas pipeline South Stream, which will bypass Ukraine to bring supplies into the heart of Europe. The EU said that work on the line should not proceed until the Bulgarian government gives clear answers on antitrust concerns over ownership.
    (AP, 6/3/14)

2014        Jun 4, Lithuania welcomed a preliminary decision by the European Union to accept the Baltic country's application to adopt the joint currency.
    (AP, 6/4/14)

2014        Jun 9, In Spain a Eurofighter jet crashed while landing at the Moron air base near Seville. Media reported that the pilot had died in the crash.
    (AFP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 10, The European Commission delivered a formal warning to the Philippines and Papua New Guinea over illegal fishing, a step that could lead to a ban on exporting to the EU.
    (Reuters, 6/10/14)

2014        Jun 11, Taxi drivers staged protests in London, Berlin, Barcelona, Madrid and Paris. Cabbies and train workers walked off the job, leaving traffic snarled, as they protested changes to the travel industry that they say could endanger passengers and give untested upstarts an unfair advantage.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, The European Union said it will finance projects worth 50 million euros ($68 million) in Moldova as the former Soviet republic prepares to sign an association agreement with the 28-nation bloc amid protests from Moscow.
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 17, Ukraine received 500 million euros ($680 million) from the EU to help stabilize the country and shore up its ailing economy.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 20, European Union finance ministers in Luxembourg agreed on a reform to close a loophole that allowed companies to shift some of their profits between different country divisions to avoid taxation.
    (AP, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 23, The European Union said it is suspending all official visits to and from Thailand and shelving important agreements, to protest last month's military coup. It is putting on hold the signing of an agreement to deepen political and business ties with Thailand "until a democratically elected government is in place."
    (AP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jun 24, The EU set Albania on the road to membership, granting the small Balkan state the status of candidate to join in recognition of recent reforms, while warning the government that progress was conditional on further efforts.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 27, European Union leaders nominated former Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker (59) to become the 28-nation bloc's new chief executive. He was chosen by an indirect system known as Spitzenkandidaten (lead candidate). Juncker still needed to be confirmed by the European Parliament before taking office on Nov 1.
    (AP, 6/27/14)(SFC, 6/28/14, p.A2)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.47)
2014        Jun 27, European Union leaders signed broad trade and economic deals with non-member countries Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia.
    (AP, 6/27/14)
2014        Jun 27, EU leaders set June 30 as the deadline for the release of prisoners in east Ukraine and for the terms of a lasting ceasefire, warning Moscow they were ready to impose further sanctions.
    (Reuters, 6/27/14)
2014        Jun 27, In Ukraine pro-Russian separatist leaders and mediators for the Kiev government met in the city of Donetsk in new consultations on ending the fighting in Ukraine's Russian-speaking east. President Petro Poroshenko told EU leaders he was extending a ceasefire in east Ukraine for three days. Rebels in the southeast released four out of eight OSCE observers, captured over a month ago.
    (Reuters, 6/27/14)

2014        Jul 1, The European Court of Human Rights upheld France's law banning face-covering Muslim veils from the streets.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 3, A European Union court annulled sanctions placed by the 28-nation bloc on a leading Iranian university because of its alleged involvement with the country's nuclear program due to insufficient evidence. An asset freeze will remain in place for another two months to hinder Tehran's Sharif University of Technology from instantly withdrawing its frozen funds.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 7, In an open letter, more than 190 neuroscience researchers on called on the EU to put less money into the effort to "build" a brain, and to invest instead in existing projects. The 10-year $1.6 billion Human Brain Project is largely funded by the European Union.
    (AP, 7/7/14)

2014        Jul 10, A European Union court ruled that Germany can't require the spouses of Turkish immigrants to show basic knowledge of the German language as a condition for being granted a visa.
    (AP, 7/10/14)
2014        Jul 10, The European Union slapped a travel ban and asset freeze on two South Sudanese military leaders for committing atrocities and obstructing the peace.
    (AFP, 7/10/14)

2014        Jul 12, The EU moved to impose sanctions on 11 leaders of Ukraine’s pro-Moscow rebellion. Targets of the asset freeze and travel ban included two Russian spin doctors, Alexander Borodai, prime minister of the separatist Donetsk People's Republic, and his counterpart in the Luhansk People's Republic, Marat Bashirov.
    (AP, 7/12/14)

2014        Jul 15, Jean-Claude Juncker, former Luxembourg PM, won broad endorsement from the European Parliament to be the next head of the executive European Commission.
    (Reuters, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 17, A European court ordered Russia to pay damages for putting defendants in metal cages in court, a practice it condemned as "degrading treatment." The enclosures have held opposition figures, Greenpeace activists and untold numbers of less-prominent suspects across the country.
    (AP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 18, The European Union took the next step towards imposing tougher sanctions on Russia for its role in the Ukraine crisis by agreeing the legal basis for widening its list of targets.
    (AFP, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 22, The EU agreed to impose new sanctions against officials deemed responsible for Russia's actions in Ukraine, amid mounting international anger after a Malaysia Airlines plane was shot down over rebel-held territory.
    (AP, 7/22/14)

2014        Jul 23, The European Union gave Lithuania the green light to adopt the euro currency starting next year.
    (AP, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 24, Europe's aviation regulator said it will cancel its warning that recommends airlines do not fly to Israel, after the Federal Aviation Authority cleared US carriers to resume flights.
    (Reuters, 7/24/14)
2014        Jul 24, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Poland violated the rights of two terror suspects by allowing the CIA to secretly imprison them on Polish soil in 2002 and 2003 and facilitating conditions for torture. Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, a Palestinian terror suspect, and Abu Zubaida, a Saudi national charged with orchestrating the 2000 attack on the USS Cole, were currently imprisoned at Guantanamo.
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.A5)

2014        Jul 25, The European Union extended its Ukraine-related sanctions to target top Russian intelligence officials and leaders of the pro-Russia revolt in eastern Ukraine. The action brought the total number of people under EU sanction in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea and the revolt in eastern Ukraine to 87.
    (AP, 7/26/14)

2014        Jul 29, US officials said that roughly 30 percent of Russia's banking sector assets are now constrained by sanctions. The West halted future sales to lucrative Russian economic sectors, with the US announcing plans to block future technology sales to the oil industry and Europe approving an arms embargo. The Europeans also backed sanctions against state-owned banks and the energy sector.
    (AP, 7/30/14)

2014        Jul 30, The EU targeted Russian President Vladimir Putin's inner circle for the first time for the Kremlin's actions in Ukraine.
    (AP, 7/31/14)

2014        Aug 6, After a journey of 6.4 billion km (4 billion miles), Europe's unmanned Rosetta probe reached its destination, a milestone in mankind's first attempt to land a spacecraft on a comet.
    (AP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 14, Agricultural officials from all 28 European Union countries began emergency talks to weigh the impact of Russia's ban on Western food imports and whether to compensate EU farmers.
    (Reuters, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 15, The EU sought to forge a unified response to the rapid advance of Islamic militants in Iraq and the resulting refugee crisis, with several nations pledging more humanitarian aid and raising the possibility of directly arming Kurdish fighters battling Sunni insurgents.
    (AP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 22, Serbia said it would not subsidize exports to Russia, after the European Union urged the Balkan country - a candidate for accession to the bloc - not to exploit the Kremlin's ban on Western food imports.
    (Reuters, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 27, The European Commission agreed to Italian demands to replace the “Mare Rostrum" refugee rescue operation with an EU-wide project.
    (SFC, 8/28/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 30, EU leaders agreed to ask the executive European Commission to draw up more sanctions measures against Russia, as armored columns of Russian troops came to the aid of the rebellion in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 30, EU leaders chose Polish PM Donald Tusk as the new president of their Council and Italian Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini as the bloc's new foreign policy chief.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Aug 31, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for immediate talks on "statehood" for southern and eastern Ukraine, although his spokesman said this did not mean Moscow now endorsed rebel calls for independence for territory they have seized.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, Slovakia's PM Robert Fico slammed EU sanctions on Russia as "meaningless and counterproductive" and threatened to veto additional measures, highlighting the internal divide within the EU over its tough stance on Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Sep 3, The EU said it is deploying dozens of experts to Ukraine to help reform police forces and bolster the new West-leaning government's commitment to the rule of law.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 5, NATO leaders meeting in Wales approved plans to create a rapid response force headquartered in Eastern Europe that could quickly mobilize if an alliance country in the region were to come under attack.
    (AP, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 11, The EU slapped more sanctions on Russia for helping separatists in Ukraine.
    (SFC, 9/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 22, The UN, the EU and 13 countries, including those suspected of supporting rival sides in Libya, signed an agreement that calls for an end to any "outside interference" in the country that is plagued by violence and torn between two governments and parliaments.
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 24, Europol Director Rob Wainwright said law enforcement agencies across the EU have arrested more than 1,000 people in a closely coordinated nine-day sweep. Operation Archimedes targeted almost all kinds of crime ranging from drug trafficking to illegal immigration, tax fraud, counterfeiting and theft.
    (AP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 26, European Union leaders said a major trade agreement with Canada has the backing of all 28 EU countries after last minute opposition from Germany had threatened to scuttle the deal.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 30, The European Commission announced a new set of measures, worth up to 165 million euros, to help fruit and vegetable producers hit by a Russian ban on agricultural imports.
    (Reuters, 9/30/14)
2014        Sep 30, The EU published a warning to Ireland that the country had granted Apple tax advantages the could amount to illegal state aid.
    (SFC, 10/1/14, p.C1)

2014        Sep, The European RoboLaw project, set up in 2012, presented a report titled “Guidelines on Regulating Robotics" to a special session of the European Parliament.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, TQ p.7)

2014        Oct 3, The EU's antitrust authority says it has approved Facebook's proposed $19 billion takeover of the messaging service WhatsApp.
    (AP, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 7, Kurdish protesters clashed with police in Turkey and forced their way into the European Parliament in Brussels, part of Europe-wide demonstrations against the Islamic State group's advance on a town on the Syrian-Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 8, The EU approved Britain's bid to heavily subsidize a new nuclear power plant, overriding opposition from environmentalists and questions over the project's 24.5 billion pound ($39 billion) price tag.
    (AP, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 16, EU judges struck down anti-terrorism sanctions against the Tamil Tigers that were imposed by the EU inm 2006 but said that the assets of the Sri Lankan group should remain frozen for the time being.
    (Reuters, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 22, The European Parliament awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to Congolese gynaecological surgeon Dr. Denis Mukwege (59) for risking his life to treat women and end the use of mass rape as a weapon of war.
    (SFC, 10/23/14, p.A4)

2014        Oct 23, The EU came up with another 24.4 million euros ($31 million) to fight Ebola and agreed to up its aid for the fight against Ebola in west Africa to one billion euros. Christos Stylianides, the incoming Cypriot Humanitarian Aid Commissioner,  was named an Ebola "czar".
    (AP, 10/23/14)(AFP, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 23, EU leaders overcame deep divisions to agree on cutting greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent compared to 1990 levels. They also agreed on 27-percent targets for renewable energy supply and efficiency gains.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 24, Britain’s PM David Cameron furiously rejected a surprise demand from Brussels for more than two billion euros in backdated charges, setting up a new showdown over Britain's place in the EU.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 24, Russia’s agricultural safety agency said some 600 tons of banned meat from Europe were discovered disguised as other items such as frozen mushrooms, juice, fruit jellies and chewing gum.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 27, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced at the start of a visit to Ethiopia that the EU and several regional development banks have pledged $8 billion in development aid for projects across eight countries in the Horn of Africa. Countries targeted are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda.
    (AFP, 10/27/14)(AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Oct 30, Moscow, Kiev and the European Union clinched an agreement to resume supplies of Russian gas to Ukraine over the winter and secure transit of gas via Ukraine to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Oct 31, The EU said it will take another step towards normal relations with Zimbabwe by ending restrictions on aid, paving the way for 234 million euros ($293 million) of new funding.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Nov 6, The European Court of Justice upheld a decision against Italy over toxic waste treatment, ruling it had failed to act against illegal dumps dotting the countryside around the southern city of Naples.
    (Reuters, 11/6/14)

2014        Nov 7, The EU said Britain will have to pay only around 1 billion euros, rather than more than 2 billion, more to the European Union budget as a result of a Europe-wide revision of statistics, because the British rebate will also increase.
    (Reuters, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 12, Global regulators announced $4.3 billion in fines against six major US and European banks for attempting to manipulate foreign exchange markets. UBS, Royal Bank of Scotland, JPMorgan, Citigroup, HSBC and Bank of America were nabbed tinkering with a widely used benchmark for trading currencies.
    (AFP, 11/12/14)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.78)
2014        Nov 12, Europe’s Rosetta spacecraft released its Philae lander toward the icy, dusty surface of a speeding comet. Rosetta was launched a decade ago to study the 4-km-wide (2.5-mile-wide) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet. Philae bounced and came to rest in the shadow of a cliff, posing a potential problem for its solar panels. Data was sent for about 60 hours before the solar batteries were depleted. On June 13, 2015, Philae began sending more data as the solar panels recharged.
    (AP, 11/12/14)(AP, 11/13/14)(Econ, 11/22/14, p.76)(SFC, 6/15/15, p.A3)

2014        Nov 25, Pope Francis spoke before delegates of the EU Council in Strasbourg, France. He warned them that Europe had become too fearful and self-absorbed urged them to focus on poverty, immigration and joblessness.
    (SFC, 11/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 27, EU governments agreed to add 13 Ukrainian separatists and five organizations to the bloc's sanctions list.
    (Reuters, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 28, European Union police coordination agency Europol said police around the world have arrested 118 suspects in a global investigation into online fraud that targets the travel industry, a crime said to cost airlines $1 billion a year.
    (AP, 11/28/14)

2014        Dec 11, The EU banned Libya's seven airlines from operating in European skies, citing safety concerns linked to the ongoing fighting there.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 12, EU governments agreed to ban the export of jet fuel to Syria from Dec 14, saying it was being used by the Syrian air force for indiscriminate attacks against civilians.
    (Reuters, 12/12/14)

2014        Dec 17, An EU court ruled that the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas should be removed from the EU terrorist list, saying the decision to include it was based on media reports not considered analysis.
    (Reuters, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 18, The European Court of Justice ruled that obesity can be a disability, a decision that could have widespread consequences across the 28-nation bloc for the way in which employers deal with severely overweight staff.
    (AP, 12/18/14)
2014        Dec 18, The EU's top court found Britain at fault for demanding that non-EU citizens with resident permits issued in other member states must obtain a visa before entering the country.
    (AFP, 12/18/14)
2014        Dec 18, The EU imposed additional sanctions on Crimea, banning all investment and cruise ships from its ports to force home the message the bloc will not recognize Russia's "illegal annexation" of Ukraine territory.
    (AFP, 12/18/14)

2015        Jan 8, The European Union offered to lend Ukraine a further 1.8 billion euros ($2.12 billion) on the condition that Kiev respects the terms of an international bailout and continues its reform program.
    (AP, 1/8/15)

2015        Jan 13, The European Parliament lifted the EU-wide ban on genetically modified (GM) crops allowing national governments to impose their own restrictions.
     (Econ, 1/17/15, p.52)

2015        Jan 15, The EU parliament condemned Russia as a "potential threat to the European Union itself" even as the EU foreign policy chief sought to resume dialogue with Moscow to help end the conflict in Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/15/15)

2015        Jan 22, The European Central Bank began 2015 with a QE (quantitative easing) stimulus, revealing plans for a massive trillion-euro bond purchase program to ward off deflation and end stagnation in the eurozone economy.
    (AFP, 1/22/15)
2015        Jan 22, A European Union high court annulled sanctions that the 28-nation bloc imposed on an Iranian bank and a shipping line and companies linked to it, over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 23, The European Union said it is withholding $37 million in aid slated for Guyana because the government of the South American country is operating without a Parliament.
    (AP, 1/24/15)

2015        Jan 26, The European Union blacklisted Sri Lanka for failing to combat illegal fishing, officially banning imports of fisheries products from Sri Lanka-flagged vessels into the EU.
    (AP, 1/26/15)
2015        Jan 26, Poland led EU criticism of bilateral farm deals with Moscow following a French accord with Russia to lift its ban on live pig and pork imports.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)

2015        Jan 27, EU finance ministers agreed to loan Ukraine 1.8 billion euros ($2.0 billion) to help save it from bankruptcy, leaving open the option of increasing aid at a later stage.
    (Reuters, 1/27/15)

2015        Jan 29, The EU extended by six months an existing set of sanctions against Russia and pro-Russian separatist officials because of continued fighting in the Ukraine.
    (SFC, 1/30/15, p.A7)

2015        Feb 10, The European Union said it is providing 100 million euros ($113 million) in loans to Jordan to help it deal with the fallout from crises like the conflicts in neighboring Syria and Iraq.
    (AP, 2/10/15)

2015        Feb 16, The European Union published a new sanctions list of individuals and entities. It added 9 more entities and 19 more individuals, including a Russian deputy minister of defense, for their actions linked to the fighting in eastern Ukraine. There was a week's lapse in the publishing of the list because of the negotiations which led to an agreement between Ukraine and Russia on Feb 12.
    (AP, 2/16/15)
2015        Feb 16, Greece offered to accept conditions on an extension to its loan agreements with the euro zone, and even an inspection by the European Commission, at a fraught meeting in Brussels.
    (Reuters, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 20, Greece and its creditors in the 19-nation eurozone reached an agreement to extend the country's rescue loans for four months.
    (AP, 2/21/15)

2015        Feb 23, Bosnia's parliament adopted an economic and social reform plan that could unblock the country's path toward EU membership.
    (AP, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 24, Eurozone finance ministers announced they have approved a list of reforms submitted by Greece in exchange for a four-month extension to its international bailout.
    (AFP, 2/24/15)

2015        Feb 25, The EU unveiled a vast plan to boost coordination between its 28 national energy markets to wean Europe off unstable Russian gas supplies and provide cheaper energy for consumers.
    (AP, 2/25/15)

2015        Mar 2, The EU approved new rules that clamp down on the use of flimsy plastic bags hazardous to the enviroment.
    (SFC, 3/3/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 8, The European Union said it has imposed sanctions on Syrian businessman George Haswani, who it says bought oil for the Syrian government from Islamic State militants who have seized wide areas of the country including its oil-producing regions.
    (Reuters, 3/8/15)

2015        Mar 9, The European Central Bank confirmed a 1.1 trillion euro ($1.2 trillion) stimulus program by starting to buy government bonds.
    (AP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 10, Israeli authorities demolished an EU-funded shelter in Arab east Jerusalem. The process was initiated by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority because the structures were in a national park within the jurisdiction of the Jerusalem municipality.
    (AFP, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 11, The euro fell to its lowest level against the dollar since April 2003, at $1.0557. The main reason is the European Central Bank has not only cut interest rates but also started creating more euros to put into the financial system.
    (AP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, The European Parliament called on Venezuela to release students and opposition figures "arbitrarily detained" during protests against left-wing President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)
2015        Mar 12, Iceland announced that it was suspending its application to join the 28-nation EU.
    (AFP, 3/13/15)

2015        Mar 16, The European Union gave the green light to a long-awaited pact with Bosnia, a first step toward possible membership of the bloc after years of political and economic stagnation.
    (Reuters, 3/16/15)

2015        Mar 19, European Union heads of state and government gathered in Brussels for a two day meeting to talk about economic and energy policies, and the crises in Ukraine and Libya.
    (AP, 3/19/15)
2015        Mar 19, Switzerland signed a preliminary agreement with the European Union that will make it much harder for the 28-nation bloc's citizens to evade taxes by hiding money in Swiss vaults.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 20, The EU and Balkan countries launched a campaign aimed at stemming the flow of fighters from southeastern Europe to join jihadists in the Middle East. The Balkans are generally considered to include Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, about half of Croatia, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, most of Serbia, and the European part of Turkey.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans)
2015        Mar 20, The EU committed 2 billion euros ($2.15 billion) to help Athens deal with what even EU leaders now call the "humanitarian crisis" hitting Greeks in the wake of the financial crisis that left the nation on the brink of bankruptcy.
    (AP, 3/20/15)
2015        Mar 20, EU leaders agreed to increase cooperation with Tunisia following an Islamist attack on tourists in the capital this week, saying they would also offer more economic assistance to the new Arab democracy.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)
2015        Mar 20, EU leaders, concerned about migrants using Libya as a jumping-off point to reach the continent, pledged to help the conflict-torn country regain stability but ruled out deploying any security operation.
    (AP, 3/20/15)

2015        Apr 15, The European Union charged Google with abusing its overwhelming dominance in Internet searches and opened a probe into its Android mobile system, massively raising the stakes in the five-year antitrust battle.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 22, Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s competition commissioner, sent Russia’s Gazprom a charge sheet alleging market abuses.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.59)

2015        Apr 23, EU leaders met to discuss possible military action against human traffickers in Libya in a desperate effort to halt the tidal wave of refugees trying to reach Europe by sea. EU leaders agreed in Brussels to treble funding for EU maritime missions and pledged more ships and aircraft.
    (AFP, 4/23/15)(Reuters, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 24, The European Union cleared the import of 10 new types of genetically modified crops and two more kinds of cut flowers, its first authorizations in more than a year after a review of its blocked approval process.
    (Reuters, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, Euro zone finance ministers warned Greece that its leftist government will get no more aid until it agrees a complete economic reform plan.
    (Reuters, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 28, The European Parliament approved rules to clamp down on the use of flimsy plastic bags that are hazardous for the environment, removing the last major hurdle to pass the legislation. 28 member nations have already approved the measure once and their final backing should be confirmed later this year.
    (AP, 4/28/15)
2015        Apr 28, Google says it will give European publishers 150 million euros ($162.33 million) to help them adapt to the challenge of selling news online.
    (AP, 4/28/15)

2015        May 4, The European Union approved 20 million euros ($22 million) in financial support and emergency aid to help Nepal deal with the April 25 earthquake.
    (AP, 5/4/15)

2015        May 7, Romania’s PM Victor Ponta said the European Union has suspended 1 billion euros ($1.13 billion) in funding for Romanian projects because of allegations of corruption and irregularities.
    (AP, 5/7/15)

2015        May 12, The European Central Bank raised the cap on emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) that Greek banks can draw from the country's central bank by 1.1 billion euros, taking the ceiling to 80 billion euros.
    (Reuters, 5/12/15)

2015        May 19, European governments agreed to synchronize their laws to bar citizens from going abroad to fight for the Islamic State group and other extremists.
    (AP, 5/19/15)

2015        May 27, In Kosovo EU judges sentenced 11 former Kosovo Albanian guerrillas, two of them close to ex-prime minister Hashim Thaci, to prison terms for war crimes committed during Kosovo's 1998-99 pro-independence uprising.
    (Reuters, 5/27/15)

2015        May 28, The EU added a high-ranking Syrian military official to its sanctions list as it extended measures against supporters of Pres. Bashar al-Assad for another year.
    (Reuters, 5/28/15)

2015        May 29, Japanese and European leaders agreed to step up defense and economic ties, and expressed concern about rising tensions in the South China Sea.
    (AP, 5/29/15)
2015        May 28, Moscow released a blacklist of 89 European Union politicians barred from Russia in response to EU sanctions over Crimea and Ukraine.
    (AFP, 5/29/15)

2015        Jun 5, Europe's rights court backed the decision of a French court to allow a man in a vegetative state to be taken off life support.
    (AFP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 6, The EU extended sanctions imposed on three people Ukraine suspects of having embezzled funds under former President Viktor Yanukovich. Asset freezes on ex-justice minister Olena Lukash, former education and science minister Dmytro Tabachnyk and Serhiy Klyuyev, the businessman brother of Yanukovich's former chief of staff, were to have expired today.
    (Reuters, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 10, The EU urged its 28 nations to swiftly endorse its plan to relocate 40,000 migrants as 1,000 more migrants arrived in Greece in just one day.
    (AP, 6/10/15)

2015        Jun 17, The EU’s tax watchdog unveiled a plan for tackling corporate tax avoidance. The EU’s executive commission published a blacklist of 30 countries it says are not doing enough to crack down on tax avoidance.
    (SFC, 6/18/15, p.A2)
2015        Jun 17, European Union governments agreed to extend economic sanctions on Russia over its actions in Ukraine by six months until Jan. 31.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)

2015        Jun 22, The EU extended economic sanctions against Russia until January to keep pressure on Moscow over the conflict in eastern Ukraine. Russia in turn planned to extend a ban on Western food imports for six months starting from early August.
    (AP, 6/22/15)(Reuters, 6/22/15)

2015        Jun 26, The EU decided to share 40,000 refugees landing in Greece and Italy.
    (SFC, 6/27/15, p.A3)

2015        Jun 29, China's Premier Li Keqiang said he wants to see Greece remain in the euro zone and promised that Beijing would make investments in the European Union's new infrastructure fund.
    (Reuters, 6/29/15)

2015        Jun 30, Greek Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis confirmed that the country will not make its 1.6 billion euro payment due today to the International Monetary Fund. Greece requested a two-year rescue deal with the EU to save the crisis-hit country, just hours before its international bailout expires.
    (AP, 6/30/15)(AFP, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 3, Slovakia's spy agency in its annual report said Russian agents have significantly increased their activities in Slovakia and all other NATO and European Union countries in connection with the crisis in Ukraine.
    (AP, 7/3/15)

2015        Jul 6, The European Central Bank maintained a key financial lifeline to Greek banks in the wake of Greece's historic referendum but with tougher conditions for liquidity. The IMF told Greece it could not provide funds to countries that had missed payments due to the international lender.
    (AFP, 7/6/15)(Reuters, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 7, The EU extended the suspension of sanctions on Iran until July 10 to allow ongoing talks on a long-term nuclear agreement with it to succeed.
    (AP, 7/7/15)

2015        Jul 8, The European Parliament approved a proposal to begin reform of the world's biggest carbon market in 2019.
    (Reuters, 7/8/15)
2015        Jul 8, Greece made a request for aid from Europe's bailout fund as it rushed to deliver details of its proposed economic reforms in time to secure the country's future in the euro and avoid a descent into financial chaos. Greece promised to implement pension and tax reforms as early as next week as the first step to securing a three-year rescue loan to cover debt obligations.
    (AP, 7/8/15)(Reuters, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 9, European Union chairman Donald Tusk joined growing international calls for Greece to be granted debt restructuring as part of any new loan deal if it delivers convincing reforms to avert imminent bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 7/9/15)

2015        Jul 10, The European Union extended a suspension of sanctions on Iran until July 13 to allow ongoing talks about the country's nuclear ambitions to succeed.
    (Reuters, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 12, Euro zone leaders told near-bankrupt Greece at an emergency summit on that it must restore trust by enacting key reforms before they will open talks on a new financial rescue to keep it in the European currency area.
    (Reuters, 7/12/15)

2015        Jul 13, Euro zone leaders made Greece surrender much of its sovereignty to outside supervision in return for agreeing to talks on an 86 billion euros ($95 billion) bailout to keep the near-bankrupt country in the single currency.
    (AP, 7/13/15)
2015        Jul 13, EU authorities fined Spain almost 19 million euros ($21 million) for manipulating economic statistics for one of its regions, the first penalty of its kind.
    (AP, 7/13/15)

2015        Jul 15, The European Commission published its assessment of Greece's bailout request, taking a different view of Athens' debt sustainability than the IMF, but also signaling a possibility of debt relief.
    (Reuters, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 16, Greek PM Alexis Tsipras won the backing of parliament in the early hours for the stringent reform measures demanded by creditors. Hours later Europe moved to re-open funding to Greece's stricken economy.
    (AP, 7/16/15)
2015        Jul 16, EU finance ministers agreed to use the European Financial Stability Mechanism for a 7 billion euro bridge loan to Greece until the country negotiates its next full bailout.
    (Reuters, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 17, The EU approved a short-term loan of 7.16 billion euros ($7.8 billion) to Greece allowing it to meet a huge payment to the ECB and repay the IMF while a new bailout is still being ratified.
    (AFP, 7/17/15)

2015        Jul 23, The European Union launched an antitrust case against six major US movie studios and British satellite broadcaster Sky UK, in a move that could profoundly shake up the highly lucrative pay-television market in Europe.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 27, EU foreign ministers formally approved the launch of the first phase of a military operation to target people smugglers in the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 7/28/15)

2015        Jul 28, Iran and the European Union said they have agreed to start talks on issues including confronting terrorism.
    (Reuters, 7/28/15)

2015        Aug 4, The EU and Vietnam announced a free trade deal removing nearly all tariffs, with Brussels calling it a "milestone" on the way to a region-wide agreement with Southeast Asia.
    (AFP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 7, The European Union appealed to member countries to live up to pledges to provide planes and other assets so that its border agency can help Greece and Hungary cope with a migrant influx.
    (AP, 8/7/15)

2015        Aug 10, The European Commission approved 2.4 billion euros ($2.6 billion) of aid over six years for countries including Greece and Italy that have struggled to cope with a surge in numbers of immigrants.
    (Reuters, 8/10/15)

2015        Aug 14, Eurozone finance ministers approved a third bailout worth up to 86 billion euros to keep Greece in the single currency in return for an unprecedented package of reforms that Athens had previously rejected.
    (AFP, 8/15/15)

2015        Aug 26, The Swedish ship Poseidon, working with the European Union's border control agency Frontex, found 51 migrants dead in the hold of a boat off the coast of Libya. Rescue operations saved over 700 other people.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)(SFC, 8/27/15, p.A4)

2015        Sep 1, In Hungary hundreds of angry migrants demonstrated outside Budapest's Eastern Railway Terminus demanding they be allowed to travel on to Germany, as EU asylum rules came close to collapse under the strain of unprecedented migration.
    (Reuters, 9/1/15)

2015        Sep 3, France and Germany agreed that the European Union, facing an unprecedented influx of migrants, should impose binding quotas on the numbers member states take in.
    (AFP, 9/3/15)

2015        Sep 4, In a joint statement the prime ministers of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia rejected any quota system for accepting migrants in the European Union's 28 members.
    (AP, 9/4/15)

2015        Sep 7, The EU announced it will release 500 million euros to aid European farmers suffering plunging milk and meat prices partly blamed on a Russian embargo, as thousands of farmers protested outside EU headquarters in Brussels to demand more aid and higher prices for their milk and pig meat.
    (AFP, 9/7/15)(AP, 9/7/15)

2015        Sep 8, European lawmakers voted overwhelmingly to strengthen an EU ban on seal products, narrowing exceptions made for Canada's indigenous Inuits.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)
2015        Sep 8, Tens of thousands of migrants massed on Greek islands as EU President Donald Tusk warned the refugee crisis would last for years.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 9, EU leader Jean-Claude Juncker proposed a plan to distribute 160,000 people throughout the member nations, even while acknowledging that the plan was inadequate to the depth of the crisis.
    (SFC, 9/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 14, EU member states approved plans for military action against people smugglers in the Mediterranean, seizing and if necessary destroying boats to break up the networks operating out of Libya.
    (AFP, 9/14/15)
2015        Sep 14, The Netherlands said police will carry out spot border checks in response to a surge in asylum seekers into the European Union.
    (Reuters, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 15, Germany called for an EU summit on Europe's biggest migrant crisis since World War II as Hungary's right-wing government shut the main land route for migrants into the EU, taking matters into its own hands to halt Europe's influx of refugees. Berlin called for financial penalties against countries that refused to accommodate their share of migrants, drawing a furious response from central Europe.
    (Reuters, 9/15/15)(AFP, 9/15/15)
2015        Sep 15, Switzerland said it is ready to accept a migrant quota on the lines proposed by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, providing the EU accepts the plan.
    (Reuters, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 17, The EU announced its leaders would hold an emergency summit on Sept. 23 to try to resolve the migration crisis.
    (Reuters, 9/17/15)

2015        Sep 22, EU interior ministers approved plans that require all to take their share of the hundreds of thousands of migrants who have overwhelmed states such as Greece and Italy, overriding opposition from eastern states.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)

2015        Sep 23, EU leaders agreed to boost border controls and to send $1.1 billion to int’l. agencies helping refugees at camps near their home countries.
    (SFC, 9/24/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 1, The UN refugee agency said it expects 700,000 migrants and refugees to reach Europe via the Mediterranean this year and projected at least the same amount again in 2016.
    (AFP, 10/1/15)

2015        Oct 4, The European Commission said nineteen EU member states have requested opt-outs for all or part of their territory from cultivation of a Monsanto genetically-modified crop, which is authorized to be grown in the European Union.
    (Reuters, 10/5/15)

2015        Oct 6, Europe's top court ruled that data stored on US servers is potentially unsafe because of government spying, a blow to companies such as Facebook that might need to change the way they handle private data from the region. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) struck down the “safe-harbor" privacy pact between the European Union and America. It was originally signed in 2000 to bridge cultural and political differences regarding online privacy.
    (AP, 10/6/15)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.61)
2015        Oct 6, The European Union's 28 finance ministers agreed to share details of tax deals their countries reach with big multinational companies. The rule would be enacted across the 28 member states by the start of 2017.
    (AP, 10/6/15)   

2015        Oct 8, European Union governments agreed to step up deportations of illegal immigrants and discussed creating a border guard force among measures to cope with a surge in refugees from Syria's civil war.
    (Reuters, 10/8/15)

2015        Oct 12, The EU demanded the "immediate" halt of Russian air strikes against moderate Syrian rebel groups and warned a lasting peace was impossible under Moscow-backed President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 10/12/15)

2015        Oct 13, European lawmakers rejected a proposal that would have allowed countries to restrict or ban the use of imported GM crops that have secured EU approval.
    (Reuters, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 15, The European Court of Human Rights ruled Switzerland had violated Turkish politician Dogu Perincek's right to freedom of speech by convicting him for denying that the killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks in 1915 amounted to genocide.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)
2015        Oct 15, Turkey demanded that the European Union start easing restrictions next year on Turks traveling to the European Union if it wants full cooperation to stem the flow of Syrian refugees.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 21, The European Union demanded that Starbucks and Fiat repay up to 30 million euros ($34 million) each in back taxes.
    (AP, 10/21/15)

2015        Oct 25, Central and eastern European leaders met in Brussels to draw up a common approach to dealing with the thousands of migrants streaming into the EU every day from the Middle East, North Africa and Afghanistan. The leaders committed to bolster the borders of Greece as it struggles to cope with the wave of refugees from Syria and beyond who cross over through Turkey.
    (Reuters, 10/2515)(AP, 10/2615)

2015        Oct 27, Kosovo took a step towards possible European Union membership, signing a trade and political pact with Brussels less than a decade after unilaterally declaring independence from Serbia.
    (Reuters, 10/27/15)
2015        Oct 27, The UN said more than 700,000 refugees and migrants have reached Europe's Mediterranean shores so far this year, amid the continent's worst migration crisis since World War II.
    (AFP, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 29, The EU said it will suspended most sanctions against Belarus for four months as of Oct 31, citing "improving relations" after authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko released all remaining political prisoners.
    (Reuters, 10/29/15)

2015        Oct 30, The European Parliament narrowly adopted a nonbinding measure urging the 28 EU members to recognize Edward Snowden as a whistleblower and int’l. human rights defender.
    (SFC, 10/30/15, p.A4)

2015        Nov 2, The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) charged in a damning report that Turkey's election was marred by a media crackdown, violence and other security concerns.
    (AFP, 11/2/15)

2015        Nov 10, The EU accused Ankara of backsliding on rule of law, rights and the media and urged it to react swiftly, in a sensitive report on Turkey's candidacy for the bloc that Brussels had delayed until after elections.
    (AFP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 11, The European Union backed the labelling of products from Israeli settlements, sparking fresh tensions with a furious Israel, which said the move could harm the peace process with the Palestinians.
    (AFP, 11/11/15)

2015        Nov 12, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) said glyphosate is unlikely to cause cancer in humans. It nevertheless proposed limits on the amount of residue of the weedkiller widely used by farmers deemed safe to consume.
    (Reuters, 11/12/15)

2015        Nov 17, France made an unprecedented demand that its EU allies support its military action against the Islamic State group. EU nations unanimously backed the French request. French police named two of the Nov 13 French attackers as Ismael Omar Mostefai, 29, from Chartres, southwest of Paris, and Samy Amimour, 28, from the Paris suburb of Drancy.
    (AP, 11/17/15)(Reuters, 11/17/15)(AFP, 11/17/15)

2015        Nov 20, EU interior and justice ministers in Brussels pledged solidarity with France in the wake of the Paris attacks a week ago and agreed a series of new measures on surveillance, border checks and gun control.
    (Reuters, 11/20/15)

2015        Nov 26, Ten European governments signed a letter to the European Commission calling for a summit-level debate on the Nord Stream II project, Russia's plans to extend its gas link to Germany.
    (Reuters, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 27, Slovakia's economy minister said his country will join forces with other Central and Eastern members of the European Union to protest a recent deal to expand a pipeline that delivers natural gas directly from Russia to Germany.
    (AP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 29, Turkish PM Ahmet Davutoglu struck a deal with EU leaders to prevent migrants from traveling to Europe in return for 3 billion euros (dollars) in cash, a deal on visas and renewed talks on joining the 28-nation bloc.
    (Reuters, 11/30/15)

2015        Dec 2, The EU and Vietnam signed a free trade deal that removes nearly all tariffs between Europe and one of the world's last communist states.
    (AFP, 12/2/15)
2015        Dec 2, Slovakia filed a lawsuit at the European Court of Justice against a European Union decision to redistribute 120,000 asylum seekers among member countries.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)

2015        Dec 3, EU member Denmark voted in a referendum on adopting the union's justice rules, with the Paris terror attacks and immigration both major issues in the campaign.
    (AFP, 12/3/15)

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