Timeline Great Britain (K) 2020 - Present

Return to home

2020        Jan 2, Britain's Greggs launched a vegan version of its popular steak bake, aiming to capitalize on the success of the meatless sausage roll that has boosted the baker's profits and helped fuel an 80% rise in its share price last year.
    (Reuters, 1/2/20)

2020        Jan 6, British authorities sentenced Reynhard Sinaga (36) to 30 years in prison following his conviction for sexual offenses against 48 men. He was described as the most prolific rapist in British legal history. Sinaga had arrived in Britain from Indonesia in 2007 on a student visa and received two degrees from the Univ. of Manchester.
    (SFC, 1/7/20, p.A2)

2020        Jan 8, The Duke and Duchess of Sussex announced that they intend to divide their time between North America and the UK to carve out a "progressive new role" and step back from their senior positions.
    (Reuters, 1/9/20)

2020        Jan 9, Britain's PM Boris Johnson urged Iran's President Hassan Rouhani to end the confrontation with the US and underlined Britain's commitments to Tehran's nuclear agreement.
    (The Telegraph, 1/9/20)
2020        Jan 9, Britain's parliament gave finally approve to Brexit, allowing the traumatized country to become the first to leave the European Union on January 31.
    (SFC, 1/10/20, p.A2)

2020        Jan 10, Authorities in Britain formally requested the extradition of Anne Sacoolas, the wife of an American diplomat, who was charged in the death of a British teenager.
    (ABC News, 1/11/20)

2020        Jan 12, Roger Scruton (75), one of Britains most prominent conservative philosophers, died after a six-month battle with cancer. Scruton was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2016 for services to philosophy, teaching and public education. His more than 50 books on morality, politics, culture and aesthetics included The Meaning of Conservatism, The Aesthetics of Architecture and England: An Elegy.
    (AP, 1/13/20)
2020        Jan 12, World leaders traveled to Oman to meet the country's new sultan, named just a day earlier after the death of the nation's longtime ruler Sultan Qaboos bin Said. British PM Boris Johnson and Prince Charles were among those who arrived in Muscat to meet Sultan Haitham bin Tariq Al Said. Leaders from Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Yemen also visited. Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif traveled to Muscat as well to meet Sultan Haitham.
    (AP, 1/12/20)

2020        Jan 14, Britain, France and Germany triggered a dispute resolution mechanism under the already tattered 2015 nuclear deal, prompting Iran to warn them of unspecified "consequences".
    (AFP, 1/14/20)
2020        Jan 14, Iran declared British ambassador Robert Macaire "persona non grata," calling for him to be expelled for his alleged role in recent anti-government protests. A judiciary spokesman said Macaire had played a provocative role when he attended a vigil at the weekend for passengers killed in the passenger jet crash last week.
    (The Telegraph, 1/14/20)

2020        Jan 15, It was reported that Pakistan has arrested Piran Ditta Khan (71) in the 2005 killing of Sharon Beshenivsky (38), a British police officer who was gunned down as she responded to a robbery in the city of Bradford in 2005. Six men were later arrested in Britain but Khan, who was suspected of being the armed gang's organizer, had fled abroad.
    (AP, 1/15/20)

2020        Jan 16, It was reported that Donald Trump threatened the UK last week with a 25 per cent tariff on its cars unless the British government officially accused Iran of breaking the 2015 nuclear deal, it has been reported.
    (The Independent, 1/16/20)

2020        Jan 21, PM Boris Johnson's government suffered a fourth defeat on its Brexit legislation when members of parliament's upper chamber voted to ensure protections for child refugees after Britain leaves the European Union.
    (Reuters, 1/21/20)
2020        Jan 21, Britain's Sainsbury said it plans to cut hundreds of management jobs as it seeks to bring its main supermarket operation and its Argos general merchandise arm closer together.
    (Reuters, 1/21/20)

2020        Jan 22, The lower house of Britain's parliament overturned changes made by the upper house to the legislation needed to ratify the country's divorce agreement with the EU.
    (Reuters, 1/22/20)
2020        Jan 22, Terry Jones (77), one of the British Monty Python comedy team and director of religious satire "Life of Brian", died after a long battle with dementia.
    (Reuters, 1/22/20)

2020        Jan 23, Queen Elizabeth II gave her formal assent for Britain to end its decades-long involvement in the EU and seek a more independent but uncertain future at the end of the month. Britain's Brexit bill became law.
    (AFP, 1/23/20)(SFC, 1/24/20, p.A2)
2020        Jan 23, British supermarket group Morrisons said it plans to cut 3,000 management jobs as part of a workforce restructuring that will create 7,000 frontline jobs in its stores.
    (Reuters, 1/23/20)
2020        Jan 23, The US denied an extradition request for Anne Sacoolas, the wife of an American diplomat who police say fatally struck a British teenager with her car as he was walking on the side of the road last August.
    (ABC News, 1/23/20)

2020        Jan 26, Britain unveiled a new 50 pence coin minted to mark the country's departure from the European Union, which bears the inscription "Peace, prosperity and friendship with all nations" and the Brexit date of 31 January 2020.
    (Reuters, 1/26/20)

2020        Jan 28, Britain gave the green light to a limited role for Chinese telecoms giant Huawei in the country's 5G network, in a decision it said was necessary for developing its future digital economy but one that left the United States "disappointed" after it called for a total ban.
    (AFP, 1/28/20)

2020        Jan 29, Boris Johnsons UK government said it will take the troubled Northern Rail franchise back into state ownership from March 1, in the latest sign that his Conservative administration is willing to intervene in the running of ailing private companies.
    (Bloomberg, 1/29/20)
2020        Jan 29, The BBC said it will axe 450 jobs from its news division in a cost-saving plan that will result in cuts at the World Service and its 5Live radio station and in fewer reports being made by analysis show Newsnight.
    (Reuters, 1/29/20)
2020        Jan 29, British Airways announced that it has suspended all flights to and from mainland China "with immediate effect," as the country struggles to contain the outbreak of the new coronavirus.
    (Good Morning America, 1/29/20)

2020        Jan 30, Brexit cleared its final formal hurdle as the 27 European Union member states that Britain will leave behind approved the withdrawal agreement reached last October after more than three years of tortuous negotiations.
    (Reuters, 1/30/20)

2020        Jan 31, The United Kingdom left the European Union with a mixture of joy, anger and indifference, casting off into the unknown in one of the biggest blows yet to Europe's attempt to forge unity from the ruins of World War Two.
    (Reuters, 1/31/20)
2020        Jan 31, It was reported that British PM Boris Johnson is preparing to impose full customs and border checks on all European goods entering the UK after Brexit, in an attempt to ramp up pressure on the bloc in trade talks. Thousands of pro-Brexit supporters in central London erupted in cheers, sent balloons into the sky and sang "Rule Britannia", as Britain left the European Union.
    (Reuters, 2/1/20)(AFP, 2/1/20)

2020        Feb 1, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia confirmed they would not extradite their nationals to the UK during the 11-month transition period which starts tomorrow.
    (Business Insider, 2/1/20)

2020        Feb 2, The UKs departure from the European Union this weekend led to a reallocation of 27 of the countrys 73 seats in the EU assembly among 14 member nations.
    (Bloomberg, 2/2/20)
2020        Feb 2, London police officers shot and killed a suspect after at least two people were stabbed in what authorities investigated as a terror attack. The suspect was soon identified as recently released convict Sudesh Amman (20).
    (AP, 2/2/20)(SFC, 2/3/20, p.A7)

2020        Feb 3, Britain and the EU laid down their red lines for post-Brexit trade talks, offering contrasting visions for their future relationship that raise the prospect of clashes to come.
    (AFP, 2/3/20)

2020        Feb 4, PM Boris Johnson formally launched the UN COP26 process in London with a pledge to bring forward the UKs target to end the sale of new petrol and diesel cars by five years to 2035, in a bid to cut greenhouse gas pollution. COP26 is the abbreviated name of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. COP26 will be held in Glasgow in November.
    (Bloomberg, 2/4/20)(AFP, 2/4/20)

2020        Feb 7, Shamima Begum (20), a UK woman who as a teenager ran away to join the Islamic State group in 2015, lost a legal challenge Friday aimed at restoring her citizenship, which was revoked on national security grounds.
    (AP, 2/7/20)

2020        Feb 9, Storm Ciara battered the UK and northern Europe with hurricane-force winds and heavy rains, halting flights and trains and producing heaving seas that closed down ports.
    (AP, 2/9/20)

2020        Feb 11, Britain's PM Boris Johnson committed tens of billions of pounds for a controversial new high speed rail line linking London with cities to the north, despite soaring costs and mounting anger from his own Conservative Party colleagues.
    (Bloomberg, 2/11/20)

2020        Feb 12, Britain's Foreign Office said it was putting the annual $6.1 million contribution to the Commonwealth Secretariat on hold following accusations cronyism.
    (SFC, 2/13/20, p.A2)
2020        Feb 12, BP set one of the oil sector's most ambitious targets for curbing carbon emissions as new chief executive Bernard Looney began the biggest revamp in its 111-year history.
    (Reuters, 2/12/20)

2020        Feb 13, British Finance Minister Sajid Javid resigned just weeks before the publication of the government's annual budget, in a shock move provoked by PM Boris Johnson's attempts to shake up his cabinet after Brexit.
    (AFP, 2/13/20)

2020        Feb 15, British rescuers found a body in rough seas following an extensive search off the coast of southeast England, as the UK faced a second straight weekend of wild winter weather and flooding. The body of a second man was pulled from the sea in the afternoon. The fourth named storm of the season, dubbed Dennis by Britain's Met Office weather service, was expected to deepen through the weekend.
    (AP, 2/15/20)
2020        Feb 15, Caroline Flack (b.1979), English television and radio presenter, was found dead at her London apartment. In August a coroner ruled that she had killed herself while facing an assault trial she feared would end her career.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Flack)(SFC, 8/7/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 16, Storm Dennis roared across Britain with high winds and heavy rains, prompting authorities to issue a record number of flood warnings and alerts for England and a rare red warning" for extremely life-threatening flooding in Wales.
    (AP, 2/16/20)

2020        Feb 17, The UK said it will spend 1.2 billion pounds ($1.6 billion) on developing the most powerful weather and climate supercomputer in the world. Britain issued severe flood alerts, warning of life-threatening danger after Storm Dennis dumped weeks' worth of rain in some places. One woman swept away by the floodwaters was feared dead.
    (Bloomberg, 2/17/20)(AP, 2/17/20)

2020        Feb 18, The British Meat Processors Association (BMPA) said British producers will not be able to export processed meat like sausages and burgers to Europe after Brexit unless they get a specific European Union health certificate which currently does not exist.
    (Reuters, 2/18/20)

2020        Feb 19, Boris Johnsons government unveiled plans to end what it called Britain's dependence on cheap low-skilled labor and deliver on its pledge to halt freedom of movement from the European Union after Brexit.
    (Bloomberg, 2/19/20)

2020        Feb 20, In London Daniel Horton (29) stabbed muezzin Raafat Maglad (70) in the neck at the London Central Mosque. Horton was soon charged with grevious bodily harm.
    (SSFC, 2/23/20, p.A4)

2020        Feb 21, British entrepreneur Richard Branson (69) heralded his first cruise ship "Scarlet Lady" as targeting a younger generation of holidaymakers with a range of attractions that he believes will outweigh any fears around coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 2/21/20)
2020        Feb 21, Vietnam's state media said seven people have been charged with the deaths of 39 Vietnamese migrants who bodies were found in a trailer near London last Oct. 23.
    (SFC, 2/22/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 23, Four passengers tested positive for coronavirus in England after being evacuated from the Diamond Princess cruise ship in Japan. This brought the total number of cases in the UK to thirteen.
    (Reuters, 2/23/20)

2020        Feb 25, Generic drugmaker Mallinckrodt, based in England, said it has a tentative $1.6 billion deal to settle lawsuits over its role in the US opioid crisis.
    (SFC, 2/26/20, p.A5)
2020        Feb 25, Tesco, Britain's biggest supermarket chain, opened its first high street cashless store, marking a shift among shoppers to electronic payments from coins and notes.
    (Reuters, 2/25/20)

2020        Feb 27, The British Court of Appeal ruled that a plan to build a third runway at London's Heathrow Airport was unlawful because it violated Britain's commitments to climate change.
    (SFC, 2/28/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 29, It was reported that Philip Rutnam, one of the UKs most senior civil servants, quit his job at the government department responsible for policing, counter-terrorism and immigration over what he claims was an orchestrated campaign against him.
    (Bloomberg, 2/29/20)
2020        Feb 29, The number of people infected with coronavirus in the United Kingdom rose to 23, after three more patients tested positive.
    (Reuters, 2/29/20)

2020        Mar 1, Britain announced a jump in coronavirus cases, with 12 new infections taking the total to 35.
    (AP, 3/1/20)

2020        Mar 2, Britain's Foreign Office said Germany, France and the UK have offered a 5 million-euro ($5.6 million) package to Iran to help fight coronavirus in the country.
    (Reuters, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 4, In Britain the number of confirmed coronavirus cases rose to 87 in the biggest daily jump since it was first detected in the country.
    (Reuters, 3/4/20)(Econ., 3/7/20, p.53)

2020        Mar 5, Britain's HSBC sent more than 100 staff home after a worker tested positive for coronavirus, the first known case at a major company in London. Britain counted 90 cases.
    (AP, 3/5/20)
2020        Mar 5, It was reported that a British judge has ruled that Dubai's ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum (70) ordered the abduction of two of his daughters and orchestrated a campaign of intimidation against Princess Haya (45), his former wife.
    (Reuters, 3/5/20)

2020        Mar 6, Gilbert Khoo, a seafood salesman in the UK, received a two-year suspended sentence for six offenses related to the transport of $7 million worth of endangered eels.
    (Business Insider, 3/8/20)
2020        Mar 6, Japanese carmaker Nissan said it is pushing on with plans to build its new Qashqai sports utility vehicle at its British factory despite warnings over Brexit. Nissan announced a 52-million pound investment in a new press line at the site.
    (Reuters, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 9, In Britain a sixth person in the UK has died from coronavirus. There were 319 confirmed cases.
    (Reuters, 3/9/20)(AP, 3/10/20)

2020        Mar 11, Britain announced a $39-billion war chest to soften the economic impact of the coronavirus after the Bank of England cut interest rates.
    (Reuters, 3/11/20)

2020        Mar 12, Michel Roux (b.1941), the French-born chef who had a profound influence on elevating Britain's dining habits, died in England. Roux and his brother, Albert, are widely credited with revolutionizing Britain's staid and old-fashioned culinary scene, notably with their opening of Le Gavroche in London in 1967.
    (AP, 3/12/20)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.78)
2020        Mar 12, It was reported that a supercomputer, donated by Britain and based in Kenya, is boosting efforts in East Africa to control a locust outbreak that raises what the UN food agency calls "an unprecedented threat" to the region's food security. The UN recently raised its aid appeal relating to locusts to $138 million, up from $76 million, saying the need for more help is urgent. Experts have warned that if the number of locusts is unchecked they could grow 500 times by June, when drier weather is expected in East Africa.
    (AP, 3/12/20)

2020        Mar 13, Britain's number of confirmed coronavirus cases rose to 590. Ten people have died.
    (Reuters, 3/13/20)

2020        Mar 14, US Vice President Mike Pence said that new travel bans would be implemented on the United Kingdom and Ireland as the novel coronavirus pandemic spreads.
    (The Daily Beast, 3/14/20)

2020        Mar 15, The British government announced England will join a growing list of countries offering HIV-prevention pill to all those at high risk of catching the virus. More than 100,000 people were estimated to be living with HIV in the UK in 2018.
    (Reuters, 3/15/20)
2020        Mar 15, Airlines called on the British government to help ensure their survival during the coronavirus crisis after the US extended restrictions on European travelers to include Britain.
    (Reuters, 3/15/20)

2020        Mar 16, Britain's PM Boris Johnson advised people to avoid all unnecessary contact due to coronavirus pandemic.
    (Econ., 6/20/20, p.46)
2020        Mar 16, Britain's Fred Olsen Cruise Lines wrote in a statement that its cruise ship Braemar, that was turned away from several ports in the Caribbean after five passengers were confirmed to have the new coronavirus, has set sail to Cuba which is allowing it to dock.
    (Reuters, 3/16/20)

2020        Mar 17, Britain's health ministry said cases of coronavirus rose 26% to 1,950 from 1,543 the day before. The National Health Service (NHS) announced plans to cancel all routine surgery for three months and to send home as many patients as possible to free up staff and beds to deal with the spread of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/17/20)
2020        Mar 17, The BBC reported that Hashem Abedi, the brother of the bomber who blew himself up at the end of an Ariana Grande concert in the English city of Manchester in May 2017, has been found guilty of murdering the 22 victims.
    (Reuters, 3/17/20)

2020        May 18, Britain expanded its testing scheme to allow anyone aged over five with COVID-19 symptoms to book a test to see if they have the virus. PM Boris Johnson announced that schools would close due to coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 5/18/20)(Econ., 6/20/20, p.46)
2020        Mar 18, Wales closed its schools due to the coronavirus pandemic. Scotland and Wales soon followed.
    (Econ, 3/21/20, p.17)

2020        Mar 20, Britain ordered the closure of pubs and restaurants to slow the spread of the coronavirus. This came weeks after similar measures by the rest of Europe.
    (Econ, 3/28/20, p.51)
2020        Mar 20, GlaxoSmithKline's HIV treatments division said it has received approval for its long-acting HIV injection from Canada's healthcare regulator, in a major win for the British drugmaker after a US rejection late last year.
    (Reuters, 3/20/20)

2020        Mar 21, Britain told people who were panic-buying and hoarding food due to the coronavirus outbreak to calm down, pointing to a video on social media showing an exhausted nurse driven to tears by finding shelves bare after her shift.
    (Reuters, 3/21/20)

2020        Mar 22, Britain warned it will impose tighter restrictions if citizens fail to follow government calls to stop non-essential travel and gatherings to curb the spread of the coronavirus. The UK reported 281 total deaths due to COVID-19. The government said there are 5,683 confirmed cases, with London hardest hit.
    (Bloomberg, 3/22/20)(Reuters, 3/22/20)(Reuters, 3/23/20)

2020        Mar 23, Scientists at Britain's Oxford University said they have started a clinical trial to investigate the effects of an HIV medicine and a steroid drug in UK patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus. It will test AbbVie's Kaletra: a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir which is normally used to treat the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS - and the steroid dexamethasone, which is used to reduce inflammation in a wide range of conditions.
    (Reuters, 3/23/20)
2020        Mar 23, PM Boris Johnson brought Britain into alignment with lockdowns across Europe, closing all nonessential shops and requiring people to stay in their homes, except for trips for food or medicine due to the coronavirus pandemic.
    (NY Times, 3/24/20)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.41)

2020        Mar 25, Britain passed the Coronavirus Act, granting the government emergency powers to handle the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_Act_2020)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.46)
2020        Mar 25, It was reported that nearly half a million people in Britain have filed welfare benefit claims in the past nine days, a sign of how the government's shutdown of much of the economy to slow the spread of coronavirus is hitting incomes.
    (Reuters, 3/25/20)
2020        Mar 25, Britains Prince Charles (71) of Wales became the latest high-profile infection of a pandemic that has infiltrated all walks of life and paralyzed a continent.
    (AP, 3/25/20)

2020        Mar 26, The number of people in the UK who have died from coronavirus increased by 31% to 759.
    (AP, 3/27/20)
2020        Mar 26, It was reported that Mologic, a British company behind a 10-minute coronavirus antibody test, has begun sending prototypes to laboratories for validation, which could be a game-changer in the fight against the pandemic. The test would cost about a $1.
    (Reuters, 3/26/20)
2020        Mar 26, In Morocco hundreds of mostly British tourists who were traveling in motorhomes have found themselves stranded in a parking lot near a Tangier highway that authorities have turned into a makeshift quarantine center. Morocco has identified 225 cases of COVID-19.
    (AP, 3/26/20)

2020        Mar 27, British PM Boris Johnson (55) said he has tested positive for the coronavirus. Health Secretary Matt Hancock was also confirmed to have the virus. British fatalities due to the coronavirus jumped by 260, to 1,019. Some 14,579 people in the UK have tested positive, an increase of about 25%, above the five-day average of 20%.
    (Bloomberg, 3/27/20)(AP, 3/27/20)(Bloomberg, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 28, Britain reported 17,089 confirmed cases of the coronavirus and 1,019 deaths and the peak of the epidemic in the country is expected to come in a few weeks.
    (Reuters, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 30, British drugmaker AstraZeneca Plc said US regulators have approved its Imfinzi treatment for use against an aggressive type of lung cancer in previously untreated patients, as it moves to expand its specialization in tackling the disease.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)
2020        Mar 30, Guinness World Records confirmed 112-year-old Bob Weighton of the United Kingdom as the newest title holder, just one day after his birthday.
    (Good Morning America, 4/3/20)
2020        Mar 30, Romek Marber (b.1925), graphic designer and Holocaust survivor, died in Essex, England. His wartime memoir "No Return: Journeys in the Holocaust" was published in 2010.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romek_Marber)(Econ., 5/2/20, p.73)

2020        Mar 31, The death toll in England from the coronavirus outbreak rose 29% to 1,651. Scotland said 60 people had died. Wales said 69 people had died.
    (Reuters, 3/31/20)

2020        Apr 1, The United Kingdom's death toll climbed to a total of 2,352 -- an increase of 563 in the past 24 hours. Some 29,474 people have been diagnosed with COVID-19 in the U.K.
    (ABC News, 4/1/20)

2020        Apr 4, Britain's main opposition labor Party elected lawyer and lawmaker Keir Starmer (57) as party leader.
    (SSFC, 4/5/20, p.A3)
2020        Apr 4, In Britain cases of coronavirus rose to 47,806 from 41,903. Total deaths rose by 708 to 4,934.
    (Bloomberg, 4/5/20)

2020        Apr 5, Britain's PM Boris Johnson, infected with the coronavirus, went to St. Thomass hospital in central London as a precaution.
    (Bloomberg, 4/6/20)

2020        Apr 6, British PM Boris Johnson was transferred to intensive care as his COVID-19 symptoms worsened significantly after he was admitted to a London hospital for tests. Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab was designated as his replacement if he becomes incapacitated.
    (The Week, 4/7/20)
2020        Apr 6, British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline Plc said it will invest $250 million in Vir Biotechnology Inc and collaborate to develop potential treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus.
    (AP, 4/6/20)

2020        Apr 8, Britain's confirmed death toll from the coronavirus reached 7,097, an increase of 938 from 24 hours earlier. PM Boris Johnson remained in intensive care with the disease. Transit union s demanded more protection following the deaths of 14 London transport staff.
    (AP, 4/8/20)(SFC, 4/9/20, p.A5)

2020        Apr 9, Britain's PM Boris Johnson came out of three nights of intensive care at St Thomas' Hospital as he continued COVID-19 recovery.
    (Reuters, 4/10/20)
2020        Apr 9, Home rental firm Airbnb blocked British bookings on its platform for the vast majority of customers, allowing only key workers to stay in properties for as long as emergency government coronavirus restrictions are in place. The move came after hosts using the site had been criticized for advertising "isolation retreats." Airbnb put pressure on other online booking platforms to follow suit.
    (Reuters, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 10, British hospitals reported 980 more deaths. The number of confirmed coronavirus cases surpassed 74,000 and the death toll neared 9,000.
    (Reuters, 4/11/20)

2020        Apr 11, Britain's COVID-19 death toll neared 10,000 after health officials reported another 917 hospital deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/11/20)

2020        Apr 12, Britain recorded 737 additional coronavirus deaths in the last 24 hours,. PM Boris Johnson was discharged from a London hospital where he was treated in intensive care for the virus. The UK reported 84,279 positive test results for COVID-19 and 10,612 deaths.
    (ABC News, 4/12/20)
2020        Apr 12, Britain said it was pledging 200 million pounds ($248 million) to the World Health Organization (WHO) and charities to help slow the spread of the coronavirus in vulnerable countries and so help prevent a second wave of infections.
    (Reuters, 4/12/20)

2020        Apr 13, In Britain confirmed cases of the coronavirus rose by 4,342 to a national tally of 88,621. The death toll in British hospitals rose to 12,107.
    (Reuters, 4/13/20)(Reuters, 4/14/20)

2020        Apr 14, In Britain a further 778 people have died in hospitals from the coronavirus, up from 717 a day earlier. Confirmed cases rose to 93,873 from 88,621.
    (Bloomberg, 4/14/20)(AP, 4/14/20)

2020        Apr 15, Britain's death toll from COVID-19 in hospitals rose 861 to 13,729, as of 1600 GMT. It was the biggest daily rise in five days. Deaths in English hospitals rose by 740 to 12,396.
    (Reuters, 4/16/20)

2020        Apr 16, Britain's hospital death toll due to the coronavirus rose to 14,576. The government extended a nationwide lockdown for three more weeks.
    (Reuters, 4/17/20)(SFC, 4/17/20, p.A5)

2020        Apr 17, Oxford scientists said a million doses of a potential COVID-19 vaccine being developed by British scientists are already being manufactured and will be available by September, even before trials prove whether the shot is effective. The experimental product, called "ChAdOx1 nCoV-19", is a type known as a recombinant viral vector vaccine and is one of at least 70 potential COVID-19 candidate shots under development by biotech and research teams around the world.
    (Reuters, 4/17/20)
2020        Apr 17, A new report said that cites modeling from Imperial College London said Africa could see 300,000 deaths from the coronavirus this year even under the best-case scenario.
    (AP, 4/17/20)

2020        Apr 18, Britain's daily deaths rose by 888 to 15,464. The number of cases reached more than 114,000. It was reported that Britain has paid $20 million for new coronavirus antibody test kits from two Chinese companies, AllTest Biotech and Wondfo Biotech. The testing kits in fact proven unsuccessful.
    (Bloomberg, 4/18/20)(NY Times, 4/18/20)

2020        Apr 19, In Britain a further 596 deaths linked to the coronavirus were recorded in hospitals, the lowest daily number since April 6. Total fatalities climbed to 16,060.
    (Bloomberg, 4/19/20)

2020        Apr 21, Britain's health ministry data a total of 17,337 people who tested positive for coronavirus have died in hospitals in Britain, an increase of 828 on the figure published 24 hours earlier. The number of confirmed cases of the new coronavirus has risen to 129,044.
    (Reuters, 4/21/20)

2020        Apr 22, In Britain the number of people who have died in hospitals after testing positive for the coronavirus rose by 616 to 18,738 in the last 24 hours. The number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 rose to 133,495.
    (Reuters, 4/23/20)

2020        Apr 23, Britain's death toll from the new coronavirus in hospitals across the United Kingdom rose to 19,506, an increase of 684 in 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 24, Britain now has 143,464 confirmed cases of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 25, The British government said that 20,319 people with COVID-19 have died in British hospitals, an increase of 813 from the death toll reported the day before. The figure does not include deaths in nursing homes, which are likely to number in the thousands.
    (AP, 4/25/20)

2020        Apr 29, Britain's official death toll from the coronavirus jumped to 26,097 after deaths in nursing homes were added to the daily total for the first time.
    (SFC, 4/30/20, p.A4)

2020        May 1, Hungarian budget carrier Wizz Air flew into London's Luton airport from Sofia, becoming one of the first European airlines to restart routes during the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 5/1/20)

2020        May 2, It was reported that a top British hospital will use blood plasma treatment for COVID-19 patients as part of a trial that transfuses plasma from recovered people into sick people to give their immune systems a boost to fight the virus.
    (Reuters, 5/2/20)

2020        May 4, Britain as of today had recorded nearly 190,000 coronavirus cases and almost 28,500 deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/4/20)

2020        May 5, Britain and the United States agreed to conduct talks on a trade deal at an accelerated pace.
    (Reuters, 5/5/20)
2020        May 5, Britain became the first country in Europe to confirm more than 32,000 coronavirus deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/5/20)

2020        May 7, It was reported that Liberty Global and Telefonica have agreed to merge their British businesses in a $38 billion deal that will create a powerhouse in mobile and broadband to take on market leader BT.
    (Reuters, 5/7/20)
2020        May 7, British physicians in The Lancet reported that a rare, life-threatening condition is developing in some children after exposure to the new coronavirus that researchers are calling "Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome Potentially Associated with COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 5/8/20)

2020        May 8, Britain's COVID-19 death toll rose to 31,241.
    (Reuters, 5/9/20)

2020        May 9, It was reported that the British government has told airlines it will introduce a 14-day quarantine period for most people arriving from abroad to try to avoid a second peak of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 5/9/20)

2020        May 10, Britain's PM Boris Johnson announced a modest easing of the country's coronavirus lockdown and outlined his government's roadmap for further lifting restrictions.
    (SFC, 5/11/20, p.A4)

2020        May 11, The British government published its plan for exiting the coronavirus lockdown. The 51-page document, entitled "Our Plan to Rebuild: The UK Governments COVID-19 recovery strategy", gives an outline of how the United Kingdom could return to normal life.
    (Reuters, 5/11/20)

2020        May 13, British PM Boris Johnson said that the deaths of 144 health care workers and 131 social care workers had been reported as involving COVID-19. The United Kingdom's total COVID-19 death toll now exceeds 40,000, by far the worst yet reported in Europe. England tentatively began easing its coronavirus lockdown, with some people who cannot do their jobs at home urged to return to work.
    (Reuters, 5/13/20)

2020        May 15, In Britain government scientific advisers said the reproduction ('R') rate of the coronavirus in the United Kingdom is now somewhere between 0.7 and 1.0.
    (Reuters, 5/15/20)
2020        May 15, London's Mayor Sadiq Khan said cars will be banished from miles of streets in central London to encourage more walking and cycling and help public transport cope with social distancing restrictions.
    (AP, 5/15/20)
2020        May 15, Britain's wildlife charity the RSPB said it has been "overrun" by reports of birds of prey being illegally killed since the lockdown started six weeks ago. All birds of prey are protected by the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981).
    (BBC, 5/15/20)

2020        May 18, Britain expanded its testing scheme to allow anyone aged over five with COVID-19 symptoms to book a test to see if they have the virus.
    (AP, 5/18/20)
2020        May 18, Climate activists placed more than 2,000 pairs of children's shoes in neat rows across London's Trafalgar Square to demand the British government stop bailing out carbon intensive industries that pollute the environment.
    (Reuters, 5/18/20)
2020        May 18, Experts warned that the Oxford University vaccine tipped as a "front runner" in the race to develop a coronavirus jab does not stop the virus in monkeys and may only be partially effective.
    (The Telegraph, 5/18/20)

2020        May 19, Britain's EasyJet said that hackers had accessed the email and travel details of around nine million customers, as well as the credit card details of more than 2,000 of them, in a "highly sophisticated" attack. Hacking tools and techniques used to access the travel records of millions of customers of easyJet pointed to a group of suspected Chinese hackers thought to be behind multiple attacks on airlines in recent months.
    (Reuters, 5/19/20)
2020        May 19, Britain's COVID-19 death toll neared 43,000.
    (Reuters, 5/19/20)

2020        May 19, World-leading British medical journal The Lancet challenged a key claim in US President Donald Trump's May 18 four-page diatribe against the World Health Organization (WHO), saying the US leader cited academic research that did not exist.
    (South China Morning Post, 5/20/20)

2020        May 20, England-based airline engine maker Rolls-Royce announced plans to cut 9,000 workers as it grapples with the collapse in air travel due to the pandemic.
    (AP, 5/20/20)
2020        May 20, Britain's death toll from confirmed cases of COVID-19 rose by 338 to 36,042 according to the health ministry. Broader figures based on suspected COVID-19 deaths put the toll at over 43,000.
    (Reuters, 5/21/20)

2020        May 21, A spokesman for PM Boris Johnson said Britain has agreed a deal to acquire antibody tests for the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 5/21/20)

2020        May 22, A British court ruled that Farhad Azima, an Iranian-American aviation magnate and gunrunner tied to the CIA and the Iran-Contra scandal, must pay Ras al-Khaimah, a sheikhdom in the United Arab Emirates, over $4.1 million over a series of business disputes.
    (AP, 5/22/20)

2020        May 26, J.K. Rowling published the first chapters of a fairy tale about a monster known as the Ickabog, an allegory about truth and abuse of power that is free online so that children can read it during coronavirus lockdown.
    (AP, 5/26/20)

2020        May 27, Britain closed its embassy in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang and ordered its staff to leave the country. The surprise closure was linked to coronavirus-related restrictions in place since earlier this year.
    (The Telegraph, 5/27/20)
2020        May 27, Police in Belgium and France announced the arrests of 26 people suspected of human trafficking in the deaths of 39 Vietnamese migrants who were found in a refrigerated truck in Britain last October.
    (AP, 5/27/20)

2020        May 28, It was reported that British drugmaker AstraZeneca last week started phase 2 and 3 trials of a coronavirus vaccine, looking to recruit around 10,000 adults and children in Britain. AstraZeneca revealed that new data showed that its drug Tagrisso reduced the risk of relapse in some early-stage lung cancers by 83%.
    (Reuters, 5/28/20)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.57)
2020        May 28, Oxford Biomedica said it has signed a one-year clinical and commercial supply agreement with AstraZeneca to provide multiple batches of a coronavirus vaccine, called AZD1222, and that the majority of the batches would be produced throughout 2020.
    (Reuters, 5/28/20)

2020        May 29, It was reported that AstraZeneca and Daiichi Sankyo's Enhertu helped patients with three different types of cancer live longer in trials, pointing to potential broader use of the breast cancer treatment.
    (Reuters, 5/29/20)

2020        May 31, Thousands gathered in central London to offer support for American demonstrators. Chanting "No justice! No peace!" and waving placards with the words How many more? at Trafalgar Square, the protesters ignored UK government rules banning crowds because of the pandemic. Police didn't stop them.
    (AP, 5/31/20)

2020        Jun 3, Thousands of protesters gathered in Londons Hyde Park to demonstrate against police violence and racial injustice following the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis, which has set off days of unrest in the United States.
    (AP, 6/3/20)

2020        Jun 4, In East London two men were shot in broad daylight as they drove through Barking, a stronghold of the Hellbanianz, a notorious Albanian crime group. This followed the murders of five Albanians in the past year as Albanian gangs tighten their grip on the UK cocaine market.
    (The Telegraph, 6/13/20)
2020        Jun 4, Rupert Hine, a prolific English producer and songwriter, died at his home in Wiltshire, England. He thrived in the synth-pop heyday of the 1980s making hits with Tina Turner, the Fixx and Howard Jones.
    (NY Times, 6/16/20)

2020        Jun 5, Brussels and London pledged to step up the pace of Brexit trade talks to try to strike a deal by the end of October, after the latest round of negotiations ended with no major breakthrough. David Frost, Britain's chief Brexit negotiator, said that progress was limited at talks with the European Union on a free trade deal though the tone had been positive.
    (AFP, 6/5/20)(Reuters, 6/5/20)
2020        Jun 5, British scientists halted a major drug trial after it found that the anti-malarial hydroxychloroquine, touted by US President Donald Trump as a potential "game changer" in the pandemic, was "useless" at treating COVID-19 patients.
    (Reuters, 6/5/20)
2020        Jun 5, The UK became the second country to officially record more than 40,000 coronavirus-related deaths as more than 100 scientists wrote the British government to urge it to reconsider lifting virus lockdown restrictions.
    (AP, 6/5/20)

2020        Jun 6, In central London 14 officers were injured during clashes with protesters that followed a largely peaceful Black Lives Matter demonstration attended by tens of thousands.
    (AP, 6/7/20)

2020        Jun 7, British protesters in Bristol toppled a statue of slave trader Edward Colston (b.1636) and threw it into the harbor. The bronze memorial had been in place since 1895.
    (AP, 6/7/20)

2020        Jun 9, Britain has seen the deadliest coronavirus outbreak in Europe, with nearly 40,700 confirmed deaths. Official statistics released today suggested that thousands more have died in the pandemic, and the true toll could be over 50,000 dead.
    (AP, 6/9/20)
2020        Jun 9, AstraZeneca received $23.7 million in funding from a US government agency to advance the development of antibody-based COVID-19 treatments as the British drugmaker ramps up efforts beyond its potential vaccine to combat the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 6/9/20)

2020        Jun 10, It was reported that scientists have used human embryonic stem cells to create an embryo-like research model to help them study some of the earliest stages of human development. Gastruloids have no potential to develop into fully-formed embryos. Alfonso Martinez-Arias, a professor at Britain's Cambridge University, co-led the project.
    (Reuters, 6/10/20)

2020        Jun 11, Emergent BioSolutions Inc said it has signed an $87 million deal to make AstraZeneca Plc's experimental COVID-19 vaccine in the United States, boosting the British drugmaker's efforts to bring a vaccine to the market.
    (Reuters, 6/11/20)

2020        Jun 12, Britain said it would introduce border controls in stages on European Union goods after the end of the Brexit transition period, to try to soften the blow for companies already battling the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 6/12/20)

2020        Jun 15, An American fighter jet crashed into the North Sea off the coast of England. Pilot 1st Lt. Kenneth Allen was soon found and confirmed to be dead.
    (Good Morning America, 6/16/20)

2020        Jun 16, British PM Boris Johnson said the Department for International Development is to be scrapped and the Foreign Office handed direct control of the 14 billion aid budget.
    (The Telegraph, 6/16/20)
2020        Jun 16, Researchers in England said they have the first evidence that a drug can improve COVID-19 survival: A cheap, widely available steroid called dexamethasone reduced deaths by up to one third in severely ill hospitalized patients. Japan-based Nichi-Iko Pharmaceutical Co was among those that produce dexamethasone.
    (AP, 6/16/20)(Reuters, 7/21/20)
2020        Jun 16, Charles Webb (81), author of the novel The Graduate (1963), died in East Sussex, England. The novel was the basis for the hit 1967 film.
    (NY Times, 6/29/20)

2020        Jun 18, Vera Lynn (103), British singer, died. She became a symbol of hope in Britain during World War Two and again during the coronavirus pandemic with her song "We'll Meet Again".
    (Reuters, 6/18/20)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.78)

2020        Jun 19, British actor Ian Holm (88), best known for his roles in "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy and "Alien", died from a Parkinson's related illness.
    (AP, 6/19/20)

2020        Jun 20, One in seven Britons live in London, an int'l. travel hub which prior to the pandemic received nearly 1,500 flights a day.
    (Econ., 6/20/20, p.45)
2020        Jun 20, Anti-racism demonstrators held a fourth weekend of protests across the UK, despite a ban on large gatherings because of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 6/20/20)
2020        Jun 20, In England three people were killed and three others seriously wounded in a stabbing attack that came out of the blue in Forbury Gardens park in Reading. Unarmed officers from the Thames Valley Police force arrested a local man at the scene. The Press Association named him as Khairi Saadallah (25), a Libyan asylum-seeker. Police soon declared the stabbings a terror attack. Saadallah (25) faced three counts of murder and three of attempted murder over the knife attack.
    (AP, 6/21/20)(AP, 6/29/20)

2020        Jun 24, Africa's first participation in a COVID-19 vaccine trial started today as volunteers received injections developed at the University of Oxford in Britain. The large-scale trial is being conducted in South Africa, Britain and Brazil.
    (AP, 6/24/20)

2020        Jun 25, Unilever, a British-Dutch consumer products giant, said it is aiming for a more inclusive vision of beauty in its skin care products and will remove words such as fair, whitening and lightening from its products, a move that comes amid intense global debate about race sparked by the Black Lives Matter movement.
    (AP, 6/25/20)

2020        Jun 26, Britain's official death toll from confirmed COVID-19 cases rose by 186 to 43,414.
    (Reuters, 6/26/20)

2020        Jun 28, Online accounts provided by lender Morses Club have been frozen following action by British regulators against the UK unit of Wirecard, a collapsed payments services firm. Several other UK fintech firms have been forced to suspend services after the Germany-based firm's collapse.
    (Reuters, 6/28/20)

2020        Jun, Anglo-Dutch firm Eat Takeaway.com bought Grubhub, an American firm, for $7.3 billion.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.56)

2020        Jul 1, Britain announced that it was extending residency rights for up to 3 million Hong Kongers eligible for the British National Overseas passport, stressing that it would uphold its historic duty to the former British colony after Beijing imposed a sweeping new national security law in the city.
    (AP, 7/1/20)

2020        Jul 2, A British judge refused a request by Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro who sought the return of $1.8 billion in gold bars sitting in the Bank of England to help his nation fight the coronavirus pandemic. The UK has recognized Juan Guaido as Venezuela's legitimate leader.
    (SFC, 7/2/20, p.A4)(SFC, 7/3/20, p.A2)

2020        Jul 3, It was reported that distressed British satellite constellation operator OneWeb, which had entered bankruptcy protection proceedings at the end of March, has completed a sale process, with a consortium led by the UK Government as the winner. The group includes funding from India's Bharti Global.
    (TechCrunch, 7/3/20)

2020        Jul 4, Pubs and movie theaters across England reopened as part of Britains biggest step toward post-outbreak normal.
    (AP, 7/4/20)

2020        Jul 6, British online fashion retailer Boohoo said it will end relationships with any supplier found to have breached its code of conduct, following a media report about dire working conditions in one English factory. The Sunday Times newspaper had reported that workers in a factory in Leicester, central England, making clothes destined for Boohoo were being paid as little as 3.50 pounds ($4.38) an hour.
    (Reuters, 7/6/20)
2020        Jul 6, Britain used a new legislation drafted in the memory of a killed Russian tax adviser to sanction 25 Russian nationals linked to prosecution and mistreatment of tax adviser Sergei Magnitsky as well as 20 Saudis involved in the murder of a journalist in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (The Telegraph, 7/7/20)

2020        Jul 7, Britain said it would resume arms sales to Saudi Arabia, halted last year after a UK court ruling over the Gulf kingdom's bombing campaign in neighboring Yemen.
    (AFP, 7/7/20)
2020        Jul 7, Britain's GSK said that an injection of its cabotegravir drug given every two months was found to be 66% more effective in preventing HIV infections than Gilead's Truvada daily oral pills.
    (Reuters, 7/7/20)
2020        Jul 7, UK-based Reckitt Benckiser Group Plc said that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved use of its Lysol Disinfectant Spray against COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 7/7/20)

2020        Jul 11, A new UK study, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, found that COVID-19 antibodies may start to decline 20 to 30 days after the onset of symptoms and that detectable amounts of antibodies fell rapidly in the weeks afterward.
    (Yahoo News, 7/19/20)

2020        Jul 14, Britain and France moved to make face coverings compulsory in more places as both countries try to get their economies going while at the same time seeking to prevent further coronavirus outbreaks.
    (AP, 7/14/20)
2020        Jul 14, Britain became one of the few countries to agree to ban the Chinese technology company Huawei from making equipment for Britains high-speed wireless network. US officials fear China could use such equipment to spy or launch a cyberattack.
    (NY Times, 7/15/20)

2020        Jul 16, Britain, the United States and Canada accused Russia of trying to steal information from researchers seeking a COVID-19 vaccine.
    (AP, 7/16/20)
2020        Jul 16, Shamima Begum, a UK woman who as a teenager ran away to join the Islamic State group, won the right to return to Britain to fight for the restoration of her citizenship, which was revoked on national security grounds. She is one of three east London schoolgirls who traveled to Syria in 2015.
    (AP, 7/16/20)
2020        Jul 16, Officials in the English city of Bristol removed a statue of Jen Reid, a Black Lives Matter activist, that was installed on a pedestal once occupied by a monument to a 17th-century slave trader. It was erected before dawn a day earlier without the approval of city authorities.
    (AP, 7/16/20)

2020        Jul 17, It was reported that British ministers are making plans to distribute millions of free coronavirus antibody tests after a version backed by the UK government passed its first major trials. The fingerprick tests, which can tell within 20 minutes if a person has ever been exposed to the coronavirus, were found to be 98.6% accurate in secret human trials held in June.
    (Reuters, 7/18/20)

2020        Jul 18, Britain has registered more than 45,300 COVID-19 deaths, the highest toll in Europe. But the government said it will halt issuing daily updates to that toll while authorities investigate the way the statistics are compiled.
    (AP, 7/18/20)

2020        Jul 20, The British government suspended its extradition treaty with Hong Kong and blocked arms sales to the former British territory following China's imposition of a new national security law.
    (SFC, 7/21/20, p.A3)
2020        Jul 20, Britain said it had agreed in principle to buy 60 million doses of the Valneva vaccine, with an option to purchase 40 million more if it proved safe, effective and suitable. France's Valneva is aiming for clinical trials of the vaccine to start in November or December this year. The vaccine uses an adjuvant, or booster, by Dynavax.
    (Reuters, 7/20/20)
2020        Jul 20, Synairgen shares rose almost sixfold after the British drugmaker said its medicine helped reduce the risk of severe cases in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, but some experts have cautioned against too much optimism in the market.
    (Reuters, 7/20/20)

2020        Jul 21, In Britain Kevan Jones, a member of the House of Commons Intelligence and Security Committee ((ISC), published his report into Russian interference in British politics.
    (Econ., 7/25/20, p.36)


2020        Jul 22, It was reported that the US and UK have agreed to end an "anomaly" that allowed Anne Sacoolas, the wife of an American diplomat accused of running over British teenager Harry Dunn last year, to claim diplomatic immunity.
    (ABC News, 7/22/20)
2020        Jul 22, Britains opposition Labour Party agreed to pay substantial damages to seven whistleblowers who sued for defamation after they voiced concerns last year of anti-Semitism within the party.
    (AP, 7/22/20)

2020        Jul 23, Britain and the EU broke up their latest round of post-Brexit trade negotiations by ruling out a quick deal but voicing hope for agreement in the coming months.
    (AFP, 7/23/20)
2020        Jul 23, London-based Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult (CGT Catapult), a firm backed by the UK government, said it has purchased a vaccine manufacturing facility from healthcare company Benchmark Holdings for 16 million pounds ($20.36 million) in cash, as the country ramps up efforts to produce potential coronavirus vaccines.
    (Reuters, 7/23/20)

2020        Jul 24, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said the US FDA has approved its drug Breztri Aerosphere to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.
    (AP, 7/24/20)

2020        Jul 25, It was reported that British rap artist Wiley (41) is facing a police investigation after a string of anti-Semitic comments appeared on his social media accounts, prompting his management to drop him. Wiley, whose real name is Richard Cowie, released a number one single in Britain in 2012 and had several other top 10 hits. He received a UK government honor for his contribution to music in 2018.
    (Reuters, 7/25/20)
2020        Jul 25, Peter Green (73), British blues guitarist, died on Canvey Island, England. He helped form Fleetwood Mac, which made its debut at the British Blues and Jazz Festival in 1967.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Green_(musician))

2020        Jul 26, Britain's government said passengers arriving from Spain will have to self-isolate for two weeks, after a surge in cases in the Mediterranean country, with health officials pointing to nightlife as a possible culprit.
    (AFP, 7/26/20)

2020        Jul 27, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said that Farxiga, which is used for the most common form of diabetes, helped to improve renal function or reduced the risk of death compared with a placebo in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in a study.
    (Reuters, 7/27/20)
2020        Jul 27, UK-based clinical diagnostics company Novacyt announced more new products to test for the presence of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 7/27/20)

2020        Jul 28, It was reported that the UK government has given the green light for the export of British tear gas and rubber bullets to the US despite the continuing use of force against protesters and warnings from the United Nations.
    (The Independent, 7/28/20)

2020        Jul 29, Britain said it has signed a deal for up to 60 million doses of a potential coronavirus vaccine being developed by Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), its latest such arrangement as the race to tame the pandemic heats up.
    (Reuters, 7/29/20)

2020        Jul 31, Britain's PM Boris Johnson put some planned measures to ease the UK's lockdown on hold, just hours before they were due to take effect, saying the number of new coronavirus cases in the country is on the rise for the first time since May.
    (AP, 7/31/20)
2020        Jul 31, British PM Boris Johnson named 36 new members to Parliaments unelected House of Lords, including his brother, a slew of prominent Brexit supporters and a Russia-born newspaper owner whose father was a KGB agent.
    (AP, 7/31/20)
2020        Jul 31, British film director Sir Alan Parker (b.1944) died in London following a long illness. His films included "Fame" (1980), Mississippi Burning" (1988), "The Commitments" (1991), and "Angela's Ashes" (1999).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Parker)(SFC, 8/1/20, p.A3)
2020        Jul 31, In Florida Graham Clark (17) of Tampa was arrested "for being the mastermind behind" a July 15 Twitter hack that saw high-profile accounts, including those belonging to former President Obama and former Vice President Joe Biden, taken over to promote a Bitcoin scam, which involved asking followers to send money to a Bitcoin address while claiming double that amount would be returned. The DoJ announced charges against two alleged co-conspirators, Mason Sheppard (19) and Nima Fazeli (22), of Orlando, Florida, who goes by the hacker name Rolex. Sheppard, from Bognor Regis (UK), faces three charges in connection with the apparent cyber scam targeting around 130 accounts on the social media site.
    (The Week, 7/31/20)(The Independent, 8/1/20)

2020        Aug 1, London police arrested a Conservative Party lawmaker after a former parliamentary aide accused him of rape and sexual assault while they were in a relationship. The man was not named and was soon released on bail.
    (AP, 8/2/20)

2020        Aug 3, Indian drugmaker Wockhardt Ltd said it will supply millions of doses of multiple COVID-19 vaccines, including that being developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University, under a deal with the UK government.
    (AP, 8/3/20)

2020        Aug 5, Britain's all-party home affairs committee said the Governments inexplicable decision to lift restrictions on some one million people who arrived in the UK between March 13 and lockdown on March 23 contributed to the pace and scale of the Covid-19 outbreak in Britain.
    (The Telegraph, 8/5/20)

2020        Aug 6, British drugmaker AstraZeneca Plc said Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products will produce the company's potential COVID-19 vaccine in mainland China.
    (Reuters, 8/6/20)

2020        Aug 8, Britains military said it has been asked by the government to help prevent people from reaching the UK from France in small boats, after a surge in the number of vessels making the dangerous journey.
    (AP, 8/8/20)
2020        Aug 8, Health care workers rallied in British cities demanding hefty pay raises for their hard work during the pandemic.
    (SSFC, 8/9/20, p.A11)

2020        Aug 10, A Royal Air Force surveillance plane flew over the English Channel as the British government sought to curb the number of people crossing from France in small boats. An inflatable dinghy carrying about 20 people was met by a UK Border Force boat and escorted to the port of Dover.
    (AP, 8/10/20)

2020        Aug 11, A British appeals court ruled that the use of facial recognition technology violated human rights and data protection laws. Civil rights campaigner Ed Bridges had his face scanned while shopping in 2017 and again as he attended a peaceful anti-arms protest in 2018.
    (SFC, 8/12/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 12, Britain reported a total of 1,009 new cases of COVID-19, taking the cumulative number of cases in the country to 313,798.
    (Reuters, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 13, It was reported that at least 782 American guns have been discovered by British police since 2017.
    (NY Times, 8/13/20)

2020        Aug 14, Britain extended lockdown restrictions on regions of northwest England, saying there was no evidence that the COVID-19 infection rate in the area had fallen.
    (Reuters, 8/14/20)
2020        Aug 14, Julian Bream (b.1933), British champion of the classical guitar and lute, died in England.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Bream)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.74)

2020        Aug 15, Thousands of British tourists beat a hasty retreat from France, packing out planes, trains and ferries to return to the UK by the early hours of this morning to avoid a mandatory 14-day quarantine at home.
    (AP, 8/15/20)

2020        Aug 20, In London Hashem Abedi, the brother of the suicide bomber who set off the May 17, 2017, explosion at a 2017 Ariana Grande concert in Manchester, England, was sentenced to a minimum of 55 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/20/20)

2020        Aug 21, It was reported that Britain's AstraZeneca has received regulatory approval to conduct part of a Phase III trial of its potential COVID-19 vaccine in Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/21/20)

2020        Aug 22, Britain recorded 1,288 new positive cases of COVID-19, up from 1,033 a day earlier.
    (AP, 8/22/20)

2020        Aug 27, British police said a man (45) has been arrested in London on suspicion of war crimes relating to the first and second Liberian civil wars between 1989 and 2003.
    (AP, 8/27/20)

2020        Aug 30, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said its Farxiga drug improved survival chances for patients suffering from kidney disease, underscoring the medicine's role outside its established field of diabetes.
    (Reuters, 8/30/20)

2020        Aug 31, It was reported that British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline and partner Vir Biotechnology have started testing their experimental antibody on early-stage COVID-19 patients, entering the race to find a winner in a promising class of antiviral drugs to combat the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 8/31/20)

2020        Sep 1, British drugmaker AstraZeneca Plc said its Imfinzi medication has been approved in the EU to treat an aggressive form of lung cancer in previously untreated adult patients.
    (Reuters, 9/1/20)
2020        Sep 1, Britain, China, France, Germany, and Russia, dubbed the "4+1," defeated US efforts to restore international sanctions on Iran.
    (AFP, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 2, The British government re-imposed local COVID-19 restrictions on parts of the Greater Manchester area in northern England, just as they were being lifted, the latest in a series of abrupt reversals.
    (Reuters, 9/2/20)
2020        Sep 2, French drugmaker Sanofi and Britain's GlaxoSmithKline said they had started a clinical trial of their protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate, and aimed to reach the final testing stage by December.
    (Reuters, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 3, AstraZeneca Plc signed a manufacturing deal with privately held Albany Molecular Research Inc to produce millions of doses of the British drugmaker's experimental coronavirus vaccine annually.
    (Reuters, 9/3/20)

2020        Sep 4, Britain appointed Australia's former prime minister Tony Abbott (62) as a trade adviser as it seeks to agree new post-Brexit deals. The appointment sparked criticism from the opposition Labour party and campaign groups due to his past use of sexist language, skepticism of man-made climate change, and opposition to same-sex marriage.
    (AFP, 9/4/20)
2020        Sep 4, Virgin Atlantic announced 1,150 more job cuts due to the coronavirus crisis, saying its 1.2 billion pound ($1.6 billion) rescue deal alone was not enough to secure its future.
    (Reuters, 9/4/20)

2020        Sep 6, In Britain one man was killed and at least five people were injured after a series of stabbings in Birmingham early today. Police said they are still hunting a single suspect. Zephaniah McLead (27) was arrested a day later. He was soon charged with murder and seven counts of attempted murder.
    (AP, 9/6/20)(SFC, 9/8/20, p.A2)(SFC, 9/10/20, p.A2)

2020        Sep 8, Britain's government admitted that it may break international law by not applying parts of its Brexit divorce deal relating to Northern Ireland, as a top legal adviser quit, reportedly over the plans.
    (AFP, 9/8/20)
2020        Sep 8, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said it has paused global trials of its experimental coronavirus vaccine after an unexplained illness in a participant, a move seen as dimming prospects for an early rollout.
    (Reuters, 9/9/20)

2020        Sep 9, Britain's Internal Market Bill was published. It became contentious as it overrides parts of the EU's legal divorce deal, known as the Withdrawal Agreement, which came into effect on 31 January 2020.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y5lnu988)(Econ., 9/12/20, p.46)
2020        Sep 9, Shere Hite (77), author of the landmark 1976 book on womens sexuality, The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality, died in London. Her work enraged some men and Christian groups, and criticism and threats drove her to leave the US.
    (NY Times, 9/14/20)

2020        Sep 10, BP entered the offshore wind market with a $1.1 billion deal to buy 50% stakes in two US developments from Norway's Equinor, a significant step by the oil firm towards its energy transition goals.
    (Reuters, 9/10/20)
2020        Sep 10, British actress Diana Rigg (82) died in London. She had enthralled London and New York theater audiences with her performances in classic roles for more than a half-century. She remained best known as the quintessential new woman of the 1960s on the television series The Avengers and found new fans later playing Lady Olenna Tyrell on Game of Thrones.
    (NY Times, 9/11/20)

2020        Sep 11, Britain announced its first major post-Brexit trade agreement -- a deal with Japan -- as its negotiations with the European Union become increasingly fractious.
    (AFP, 9/11/20)

2020        Sep 12, AstraZeneca announced that it received confirmation from the United Kingdom's Medicines Health Regulatory Authority that it was safe to resume clinical trials for the company's coronavirus vaccine in the UK after they were paused over safety concerns earlier this week.
    (The Week, 9/13/20)

2020        Sep 14, Vietnam jailed four people over their roles in the death of 39 migrants found in a refrigerated truck in Britain last October.
    (The Telegraph, 9/14/20)

2020        Sep 15, Former British lawmaker Charlie Elphicke was sentenced to two years in prison for sexually assaulting two women a decade apart. Elphicke was convicted in July at London's Southwark Crown Court of three counts of assault against two victims.
    (AP, 9/15/20)

2020        Sep 16, Britain reported 3,991 new coronavirus cases up from 3,105 a day earlier.
    (SFC, 9/17/20, p.A4)

2020        Sep 17, It was reported that a British COVID-19 test known as DnaNudge, that gives results in just over an hour and which requires no laboratory, was accurate in almost all cases.
    (Reuters, 9/17/20)

2020        Sep 18, It was reported that Britain's Queen Elizabeth II has ordered that the disgraced movie mogul Harvey Weinstein be stripped of the 2004 prestigious CBE honor he received for services to the British film industry.
    (NBC News, 9/18/20)
2020        Sep 18, The British government targeted more areas in an attempt to suppress a sharp spike in new coronavirus infections.
    (AP, 9/18/20)
2020        Sep 18, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) said Europe's health regulator has recommended the approval its cancer treatment Zejula as a first option to keep advanced ovarian cancer at bay in women who have responded to chemotherapy.
    (AP, 9/18/20)

2020        Sep 19, Police in London clashed with protesters at a rally against coronavirus restrictions, even as the mayor warned that it was increasingly likely that the British capital would soon need to introduce tighter rules to curb a sharp rise in infections. Demonstrators took the streets of London, Tel Aviv and other cities to protest coronavirus restrictions as the global death toll approached 1 million.
    (AP, 9/19/20)
2020        Sep 19, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said its top-selling drug Tagrisso has been shown to slow the spread of a certain type of lung cancer to the brain when diagnosed at an early stage.
    (AP, 9/19/20)

2020        Sep 21, Britains top medical advisers painted a grim picture of exponential growth in illness and death if nothing is done to control the second wave of coronavirus infections, laying the groundwork for the government to announce new restrictions later this week.
    (AP, 9/21/20)
2020        Sep 21, It was reported that Britain's government will fine people up to 10,000 pounds who refuse to self-isolate if they test positive for the coronavirus or are traced to a close conact. The rule goes into effet on Sept. 28.
    (SFC, 9/21/20, p.A6)
2020        Sep 21, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has recommended approval for Lynparza in patients with a form of prostate cancer and as a first-line maintenance treatment for a form of advanced ovarian cancer.
    (Reuters, 9/21/20)

2020        Sep 22, Britain's PM Boris Johnson warned that Britons should not expect to return to a normal social or work life for at least six months, as he ordered new restrictions that his government hopes will suppress a dramatic surge in confirmed coronavirus cases.
    (AP, 9/22/20)
2020        Sep 22, Britains National Trust, which looks after hundreds of the countrys well-loved historic sites, detailed in a new report how dozens of its properties have links to slavery and colonialism.
    (AP, 9/22/20)
2020        Sep 22, Britain turned over to US authorities evidence against two members of an alleged terror cell known as the Beatles, ending a drawn out legal battle to block the handover of the information.
    (AP, 9/23/20)

2020        Sep 24, Britain recorded its highest number of daily cases of COVID-19 at 6,634, reflecting a second wave of infections sweeping through the country but also a much higher level of testing than during the first wave.
    (Reuters, 9/25/20)

2020        Sep 25, The British charity People's Dispensary for Sick Animals (PDSA) said Magawa, a giant African pouched rat, has been awarded its Gold Medal for his "lifesaving bravery and devotion after discovering 39 landmines and 28 items of unexploded ordinance in the past seven years in Cambodia. Before Magawa, all the recipients were dogs.
    (AP, 9/25/20)

2020        Sep 26, British PM Boris Johnson said that the coronavirus pandemic has frayed the bonds between nations, and urged world leaders to unite against the common foe. London police clashed with demonstrators as they broke up a protest in Trafalgar Square against COVID-19 restrictions.
    (AP, 9/26/20)(SSFC, 9/27/20, p.A9)

2020        Sep 28, A British judge restored Ubers transportation license in London, one of the ride-hailing companys most important global markets, where regulators had threatened to ban its cars for safety concerns.
    (NY Times, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep 29, Britain and Canada imposed sanctions on Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, his son and other senior government officials following the disputed presidential election and a crackdown on protesters in Belarus.
    (AP, 9/29/20)
2020        Sep 29, British broadcaster David Attenborough led a call from conservation groups for the world to invest $500 billion a year to halt the destruction of nature, warning that the future of the planet was in "grave jeopardy."
    (Reuters, 9/29/20)

2020        Sep 30, The British government hailed a historic fisheries treaty with Norway and offered Brussels a three year transition period on fishing during trade negotiations with the EU.
    (The Telegraph, 9/30/20)
2020        Sep 30, England's chief medic said outbreaks of COVID-19 are accelerating quite rapidly in the north west and north east of England and there has been a significant uptick in the number of people being admitted to intensive care. Britain reported 7,108 new COVID-19 cases, the second day in a row there have been over 7,000 cases as COVID-19 infections spike.
    (Reuters, 9/30/20)

2020        Sep, Britain-based Birdlife International, an umbrella group of NGOs, expelled its longstanding member from Taiwan, the Chinese Wild Bird Federation (CWBF). The CWBF had refused not to take any "political" stances regarding Taiwan's int'l. status.
    (Econ., 9/26/20, p.41)

2020        Oct 1, Britain, France, Germany, Estonia and Belgium wrote in a letter to the United Nations Security Council that the poisoning of Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny "constitutes a threat to international peace and security."
    (Reuters, 10/1/20)
2020        Oct 1, The EU launched legal proceedings in response to the British government's attempt to overturn parts of the Brexit withdrawal agreement.
    (AFP, 10/1/20)

2020        Oct 4, It was reported that Cineworld, the world's second-biggest cinema operator, will close all its screens in the United States, Britain and Ireland this week after studios pulled major releases such as the latest James Bond film.
    (Reuters, 10/4/20)

2020        Oct 6, Britain's Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) said it would ban the sale to retail investors of products tracking the price of crypto assets like Bitcoin, arguing that most people lost money on them. The ban, which prompted surprise and anger in the sector, will come into force on Jan. 6, 2021.
    (Reuters, 10/6/20)

2020        Oct 8, Britain's Chancellor Rishi Sunak warned that some businesses will be "legally shut" again as he set out his new support for jobs ahead of Boris Johnson's next address to the country on Oct. 12. Sunak confirmed that businesses forced to close under the new traffic light system will have two thirds of their workers wages paid for by the Government.
    (The Telegraph, 10/9/20)
2020        Oct 8, A study showed that people who were asymptomatic accounted for 86% of the people who tested positive for COVID-19 in a UK sample population during lockdown, meaning the current policy of testing people with symptoms might miss many cases.
    (Reuters, 10/8/20)

2020        Oct 9, It was reported that Tara Hanlon (30) was traveling through London's Heathrow Airport on her way to Dubai when authorities discovered about 2 million pounds, or about $2.6 million, in her suitcases. Hanlon was charged with money laundering and could spend up to 14 years behind bars if she's convicted.
    (Insider, 10/11/20)
2020        Oct 9, The largest study on prevalence of the coronavirus in the population said there are as many as 45,000 new COVID infections in England each day, adding that a resurgence in the north of the country could be replicated elsewhere in weeks.
    (Reuters, 10/9/20)

2020        Oct 11, It was reported that the widely used BCG tuberculosis vaccine will be tested on frontline care workers in Britain for its effectiveness against COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 10/11/20)

2020        Oct 12, The British government announced new restrictions on business and socializing in major northern England cities with high infection rates. But pubs, restaurants and other businesses pushed back, arguing that they are not to blame for a resurgent outbreak.
    (AP, 10/12/20)

2020        Oct 13, Britain reported 17,234 new confirmed cases and 143 new deaths from COVID-19, the highest daily figure since June, as parts of the country were facing tougher social distancing restrictions under a new three-tiered alert system. Total deaths reached 43,018.
    (Reuters, 10/13/20)

2020        Oct 14, A British royal navy vessel seized 450 kg (990 pounds) of methamphetamine in the northern Arabian Sea in the largest-ever bust by a joint maritime operation in the region.
    (AP, 10/21/20)
2020        Oct 14, Herbert Kretzmer (95), a lyricist and a song writer from South Africa, died at his home in London. In 1985 he was asked to reimagine an obscure French musical, Les Misrables. He wrote the English lyrics and turned it into one of the most successful and longest-running theater productions.
    (NY Times, 10/14/20)
2020        Oct 14, Wales announced that it intended to ban people living in areas with high rates of COVID-19 infections in the rest of the United Kingdom from entering the country, in a bid to prevent the spread of the disease.
    (Reuters, 10/14/20)

2020        Oct 15, London and seven other areas will face further restrictions after the British government raised their coronavirus risk levels in an effort to slow the exponential rise in infection rates across the country.
    (AP, 10/15/20)
2020        Oct 15, Scientists from Britain's University of Oxford said they have developed a rapid COVID-19 test able to identify the coronavirus in less than five minutes.
    (Reuters, 10/15/20)
2020        Oct 15, European Union leaders agreed to keep on talking to Britain to get a new trade agreement "in the coming weeks" but also decided to step up their contingency preparations should the troubled negotiations fail.
    (Reuters, 10/15/20)
2020        Oct 15, The cabless trailer of an articulated lorry, known as the Pod, ran the Dunsfold test track in Surrey at over 80 mph. The vehicle was made by Einride, a Swedish firm founded in 2016 by Robert Falck.
    (Econ., 10/24/20, p.72)

2020        Oct 16, British PM Boris Johnson's spokesman said talks to agree a Brexit trade deal with the European Union are over, saying there was no point carrying on unless the bloc fundamentally changed its stance.
    (Reuters, 10/16/20)
2020        Oct 16, GlaxoSmithKline Plc said an injection of its cabotegravir drug given every two months, in combination with Johnson & Johnson's rilpivirine, was recommended for approval to treat HIV infections by a panel of the European health regulator.
    (Reuters, 10/16/20)
2020        Oct 16, UK data showed that a further 136 people died within 28 days of testing positive for coronavirus, bringing the total official toll to 43,429.
    (AP, 10/17/20)

2020        Oct 18, Mauritian PM Pravind Jugnauth labelled the British and Americans "hypocrites" and "champions of double talk" for the way they have behaved over the Chagos Islands.
    (BBC, 10/19/20)

2020        Oct 19, British drugmaker AstraZeneca Plc said the European medicines watchdog has recommended approving its Forxiga and Trixeo Aerosphere treatments for a form of heart failure and a lung disorder.
    (Reuters, 10/19/20)

2020        Oct 20, Imperial College London and a group of researchers said they are preparing to infect 90 healthy young volunteers with the coronavirus in an effort to potentially speed up development of a vaccine that could help end the pandemic.
    (SFC, 10/21/20, p.A5)

2020        Oct 21, Britains Court of Appeal ruled that a government policy that gave migrants as little as 72 hours notice before they are deported is unlawful.
    (AP, 10/21/20)
2020        Oct 21, A British scientist on the government's advisory committee for the pandemic said the coronavirus will be around for "evermore" as it is unlikely it will be eradicated.
    (Reuters, 10/21/20)

2020        Oct 22, European Union negotiators headed to London to resume Brexit trade talks after Britain called off a boycott, with both sides vowing to work round the clock to seal a deal in the slender time left.
    (AP, 10/22/20)

2020        Oct 24, A police force in England says it will try to stop people from leaving Wales, which has started a 17-day lockdown to slow a surging rate of coronavirus infections.
    (AP, 10/24/20)

2020        Oct 25, The UK military seized control of an oil tanker that dropped anchor in the English Channel after reporting it had seven stowaways on board who had become violent.
    (AP, 10/26/20)

2020        Oct 26, British high-street pharmacy chain Boots said it was launching in-store COVID-19 testing at 120 pounds ($156) per test for asymptomatic people, and that a 12-minute test would be launched within weeks.
    (Reuters, 10/26/20)

2020        Oct 27, London's Metropolitan Police said thousands of prints by popular London street artist STIK that he wanted to give to his local community as a gesture of solidarity during the COVID crisis have been stolen. STIK, known internationally for his distinctive stick figures, had arranged for 100,000 prints of a work entitled "Holding Hands" to be distributed to residents of Hackney, the east London neighborhood where he lives and works.
    (AP, 10/27/20)
2020        Oct 27, A study found that antibodies against the novel coronavirus declined rapidly in the British population during the summer, suggesting protection after infection may not be long lasting and raising the prospect of waning immunity in the community.
    (Reuters, 10/27/20)
2020        Oct 27, Britain recorded a further 22,885 new COVID-19 cases.
    (Reuters, 10/27/20)
2020        Oct 27, At least four people, including two young children, died when a boat carrying at least 19 migrants capsized off France while trying to cross the English Channel to Britain.
    (AP, 10/27/20)

2020        Oct 30, Britain's data watchdog said it has fined Marriott International 18.4 million pounds ($23.98 million) in a six-year old cyber attack on its Starwood hotels reservation system in one of the largest data breaches in history.
    (Reuters, 10/30/20)
2020        Oct 30, AstraZeneca Plc said it would sell commercial rights for two of its drugs to a German pharmaceutical company for $400 million as the British drugmaker looks to focus on newer medicines in new therapy areas.
    (Reuters, 10/30/20)

2020        Oct 31, Britain announced expansive new restrictions that effectively establish a national lockdown to try to keep their hospitals from being overwhelmed amid vast second-wave surges in coronavirus infections.
    (NY Times, 10/31/20)

2020        Nov 2, Sterling fell to an almost four-week low against the dollar after England announced a new national lockdown, but analysts said hopes for a Brexit deal prevented a bigger drop for the currency.
    (Reuters, 11/2/20)
2020        Nov 2, Britain said it confirmed H5N8 bird flu at a chicken farm near Frodsham in Cheshire, England, but said the risk to public safety from the virus was "very low."
    (Reuters, 11/2/20)
2020        Nov 2, Johnny Depp lost his court case against a British newspaper that called him a wife beater and claimed there was overwhelming evidence that he had assaulted the actress Amber Heard repeatedly during their marriage.
    (NY Times, 11/2/20)

2020        Nov 3, Britain reported 397 new deaths from COVID-19, the highest daily figure since May 27. Government data showed 20,018 new confirmed case.
    (Reuters, 11/3/20)
2020        Nov 3, Kenya and Britain said they have agreed in principle the text of a new trade agreement to safeguard annual trade, estimated at 200 billion shillings ($1.84 billion), after Brexit.
    (Reuters, 11/3/20)

2020        Nov 4, British PM Boris Johnson said his government would roll out new types of COVID-19 testing "on a scale never seen before" to stem the growing pandemic when a new lockdown in England expires on Dec. 2.
    (Reuters, 11/4/20)

2020        Nov 5, PM Boris Johnson ordered England back into lockdown. Britain has the highest death toll in Europe and has passed the milestone of 1 million cases. A second wave of infections threatened to overwhelm its national health service.
    (NBC News, 11/7/20)
2020        Nov 5, Geoffrey Palmer (93), British character actor, died at his home in Buckinghamshire. His career had peeked during the long run of "As Time Goes By," the romantic BBC sitcom in which he and Judy Dench played lovers reunited after 38 years apart.
    (SSFC, 11/29/20, p.C14)

2020        Nov 7, Lord Jonathan Sacks (72), the former chief rabbi in the UK (1991-2013) who reached beyond the Jewish community with his regular broadcasts on radio, died.
    (AP, 11/8/20)(Econ., 11/21/20, p.82)

2020        Nov 10, British nurse Lucy Letby (30) was taken ionto custody again and faced eight charges of murder and 10 charges of attempted murder related to infant deaths at the Countess of Chester Hospital from march 2015 to July 2016.
    (SFC, 11/13/20, p.A4)
2020        Nov 10, An English study said high levels of so-called "T cells" that respond to the coronavirus could be sufficient to offer protection against infection, adding to the evidence of the crucial role they play in immunity to COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 11/10/20)

2020        Nov 11, Britain reported a total of 50,365 deaths due to COVID-19, making it the fifth country to pass the 50,000 mark.
    (SFC, 11/12/20, p.A6)
2020        Nov 11, Britain's Agricultural Act received royal assent. It allows the agricultural dept. to phase out per-hectare payments over the next seven years, and spend more on public goods.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.53)
2020        Nov 11, Britain's environment department said the H5N8 bird flu has been identified in a small number of wild birds in southwest England.
    (AP, 11/11/20)

2020        Nov 12, The United Kingdom reported 33,470 new cases of COVID-19, the highest daily total to date, as the government struggles to control a second wave of infections going into the winter.
    (Reuters, 11/12/20)

2020        Nov 13, It was reported that Nigel Farage's new political party already has more than 3,000 applicants to stand as candidates in May's local elections, in a move which will alarm Conservatives. Reform UK, renamed from the Brexit Party, was setup 11 days ago.   
    (The Telegraph, 11/13/20)
2020        Nov 13, Britain reported 27,301 new COVID-19 cases, a slight fall from the previous day's all-time high but the second-highest daily figure recorded.
    (Reuters, 11/13/20)
2020        Nov 13, Peter Sutcliffe (74), the British serial killer known as the Yorkshire Ripper," died at a hospital in Yorkshire. He was serving concurrent life sentences for killing 13 women in Yorkshire and northwest England between 1975 and 1980.
    (AP, 11/13/20)

2020        Nov 18, In Northern Ireland police arrested a man (65) in connection with the Nov. 21, 1974, bombings of two pubs that killed 21 people and injured more than 200 in Birmingham, England.
    (AP, 11/18/20)
2020        Nov 18, RSA Insurance, one of the UK's oldest insurance companies, agreed to a takeover by Canadian and Danish buyers in a cash deal that values it at 7.2 billion pounds ($9.4 billion).
    (AP, 11/18/20)

2020        Nov 19, Douglas Stuart won the Booker Prize for his autobiographical novel Shuggie Bain, the story of the lonely gay son of an alcoholic mother in 1980s Scotland.
    (NY Times, 11/20/20)

2020        Nov 20, A British study reported that people who've had COVID-19 are highly unlikely to contract it again for at least six months after their first infection.
    (Reuters, 11/20/20)
2020        Nov 20, It was reported that GHB, the club and party drug, is to be reclassified to increase the penalties to up to five years in jail for possession after British Government advisers uncovered a concerning increase in the harm it causes. Reynhard Sinaga, the UK's most prolific rapist, was jailed earlier this year for drugging and raping more than 40 men, with his trials hearing that he laced his victims' drinks with drugs like GBH to render them unconscious.
    (The Telegraph, 11/20/20)
2020        Nov 20, Jan Morris, British author, journalist and transgender movement leader, died in Wales. A procedure in 1972 permanently altered her body. Her books included the best-selling memoir "Conundrum" (1974).
    (SSFC, 11/22/20, p.C7)(Econ., 11/28/20, p.82)

2020        Nov 21, Britain and Canada struck a continuity trade deal to maintain the flow of goods and services worth $27 billion between the two countries after Brexit, and vowed to deepen ties with talks on a bespoke agreement next year.
    (Reuters, 11/21/20)

2020        Nov 23, British-Swedish company AstraZeneca became the third major vaccine developer to announce promising results, saying that its coronavirus vaccine is 70.4 percent effective on average. AstraZenecas vaccine is expected to come with relatively simple storage requirements. AstraZeneca said its COVID-19 vaccine could be as much as 90% effective, giving the world's fight against the global pandemic a new weapon, cheaper to make, easier to distribute and faster to scale-up than rivals.
    (NY Times, 11/23/20)(Reuters, 11/23/20)

2020        Nov 24, Cambridge Univ. launched an appeal to find two valuable notebooks written by Charles Darwin that have been missing since 2000.
    (SFC, 11/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Nov 25, Britain unveiled plans for more massive state spending despite soaring debt on coronavirus fallout, including pay rises for nurses to support the ravaged economy as the nation embarks on its post-Brexit future.
    (AFP, 11/25/20)
2020        Nov 25, Iran released Kylie Moore-Gilbert, the British-Australian academic who has been detained in the country for over two years on espionage charges, in exchange for three Iranian prisoners who were being held abroad.
    (AP, 11/25/20)
2020        Nov 25, AstraZeneca acknowledged a key mistake in the vaccine dosage received by some study participants, adding to questions about whether the vaccines apparently spectacular efficacy will hold up under additional testing.
    (NY Times, 11/26/20)

2020        Nov 26, Britain defended swingeing cuts planned to its overseas aid budget after an outpouring of protests that it marks a life-threatening retreat on the government's ambitions to play a global role after Brexit.
    (AP, 11/26/20)
2020        Nov 26, Britain's 100-year-old charity hero Captain Tom Moore and motor racing champion Lewis Hamilton have topped GQ magazine's Men of the Year Awards at a virtual ceremony broadcast via GQ's YouTube channel.
    (Reuters, 11/26/20)
2020        Nov 26, AstraZeneca CEO Pascal Soriot said the company is likely to run an additional global trial to assess the efficacy of its COVID-19 vaccine, after questions over the results from its late-stage study.
    (Reuters, 11/26/20)

2020        Nov 27, British scientists said anti-inflammatory colchicine will be tested as a possible COVID-19 treatment in one of the world's biggest trials, the latest effort to repurpose existing medicines to fight the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 11/27/20)
2020        Nov 27, Britain's National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) said North Korea authorized a state-sponsored cyber gang to pose as headhunters in an attempt to steal Britain's Covid-19 vaccine secrets.
    (The Telegraph, 11/27/20)
2020        Nov 27, Priti Patel, Secretary of State for Britain's Home Department, hit back at attempts by 82 black public figures to halt the deportation of up to 50 Jamaican criminals next week, saying she was "unapologetic" about removing people who posed a risk to the public.
    (The Telegraph, 11/28/20)

2020        Nov 28, The British government appointed a vaccines minister as it prepares to inoculate millions of people against the coronavirus, potentially starting within days. Conservative lawmaker Nadhim Zahawi will oversee the countrys biggest vaccine program in decades.
    (AP, 11/28/20)
2020        Nov 28, A new Anglo-French deal to prevent Channel migrant crossings was signed this evening, as France agreed to double police beach patrols but continued to resist taking back arrivals.
    (The Telegraph, 11/28/20)
2020        Nov 28, David Prowse (85), the English actor who played Darth Vader in the original Star Wars films, died in London. The champion weightlifter-turned-actor starred as the body, but not the voice, of one of cinema's best-known villains.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Prowse)(Reuters, 11/29/20)

2020        Nov 29, The British government said H5N8 bird flu has been found at a turkey farm in northern England. All 10,500 birds at the farm would be humanely culled to limit the spread of the disease.
    (AP, 11/29/20)

2020        Nov 30, A large-scale study of more than 100,000 volunteers showed that COVID-19 infections have fallen by 30% during England's month-long national lockdown and the virus is now in retreat.
    (Reuters, 11/30/20)

2020        Nov, British mobile phone operator Vodafone said it would use a technology called Openran to replace some gear made by Hauwei, a Chinese firm whose products are considered to much of a security risk to be used in the new 5G mobile networks.
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.16)

2020        Dec 1, The British government said a type of COVID-19 test that can be taken without the need for a nose or throat swab has been found to be highly effective in identifying infectious cases, including for people not showing symptoms. The RT-LAMP tests, made by privately-held British company OptiGene, have been studied in a pilot program in the southern English city of Southampton.
    (Reuters, 12/1/20)
2020        Dec 1, AstraZeneca said it would sell rights to its erstwhile blockbuster cholesterol drug, Crestor, to German pharmaceutical company Gruenenthal GmbH for an upfront payment of $320 million as the British drugmaker focuses on its cancer treatments portfolio.
    (Reuters, 12/1/20)

2020        Dec 2, Britain approved Pfizers vaccine, making it the first Western country to allow mass inoculations against Covid-19. BNT162b2 was developed by Pfizer, an American pharmaceutical giant, and BioNTech, a smaller German firm.
    (NY Times, 12/2/20)(Econ., 12/5/20, p.78)

2020        Dec 3, A London ceremony announced that this year's Global Teacher Prize has been awarded to Ranjitsinh Disale (32) for his work helping girls, most of then from poor tribal communities, at a village school in western India. Disale immediately announced he would share the $1 million prize money with the nine other finalists.
    (Reuters, 12/3/20)
2020        Dec 3, In Britain four people died following an explosion at a waste water treatment plant near the southwest England city of Bristol.
    (AP, 12/3/20)
2020        Dec 3, The UK became the fifth country to officially record more that 60,000 coronavirus-related deaths. 414 new deaths took the confirmed total to 60,013.
    (SFC, 12/4/20, p.A5)

2020        Dec 4, Liverpool Mayor Joe Anderson (62) was arrested on suspicion of witness intimidation and conspiracy to commit bribery in connection with a long-running police investigation into fraud in the city. Merseyside Police said five men had been arrested as part of an investigation into building and development contracts in Liverpool.
    (The Telegraph, 12/4/20)
2020        Dec 4, Britain's government reported the highest daily number of new COVID cases since Nov. 26, after the number of new positive test reports rose to 16,298 from 14,879 the day before.
    (Reuters, 12/4/20)
2020        Dec 4, Hargobind Tahilramani (41) of Indonesia, suspected of being the "Con Queen of Hollywood", appeared in court in London. He was arrested last week and is alleged to have swindled hundreds of thousands of dollars out of hopeful actors. The US has made a provisional application for his extradition.
    (BBC, 12/4/20)
2020        Dec 4, Switzerland said it has approved an agreement to allow free movement of service workers between the country and Britain after Brexit.
    (Reuters, 12/4/20)

2020        Dec 5, The prehistoric monument of Stonehenge in southern England was closed to visitors after dozens of protesters staged a trespass against the British government's road-building plans, including a new tunnel near the World Heritage Site.
    (AP, 12/5/20)

2020        Dec 6, British negotiators arrived in Brussels for a last-ditch attempt to strike a Brexit trade deal with the European Union and avert a chaotic parting of ways at the end of the year.
    (Reuters, 12/6/20)

2020        Dec 7, Britain reported 14,718 new cases of COVID-19, down from 17,272 cases a day earlier. The United Kingdom has recorded a total of 1.738 million cases of the disease and 61,434 deaths within 28 days of a positive test.
    (Reuters, 12/7/20)
2020        Dec 7, Doug Scott (79), part of the first British team to climb Mount Everest in 1975, diedat his home in the Lake District in northern England.
    (AP, 12/8/20)

2020        Dec 8, Britain became the first country in the world to roll out the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer Inc and BioNTech SE, initially making the shot available at 50 hospitals. The vaccine begins conferring some protection after the first shot and reaches full effectiveness about a week after the second shot, which follows the first after three weeks.
    (Reuters, 12/8/20)
2020        Dec 8, Peer-reviewed data published in The Lancet showed that AstraZeneca and Oxford University have more work to do to confirm whether their COVID-19 vaccine can be 90% effective, potentially slowing its eventual rollout in the fight against the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 12/8/20)

2020        Dec 9, Britain's medicine regulator has advised that people with a history of significant allergic reactions do not get Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine after two people reported adverse effects.
    (Reuters, 12/9/20)

2020        Dec 10, Britain signed a free trade deal with Singapore. The deal came as PM Boris Johnson and EU chief Ursula von der Leyen tried to seal a new trade pact and avert what some fear will be a chaotic end to the five-year Brexit process.
    (The Telegraph, 12/10/20)
2020        Dec 10, England's COVID test and trace system said it is making a 500 pound ($665) support payment available for people who self-isolate after receiving a notification via its app.
    (Reuters, 12/10/20)

2020        Dec 11, Britain and Vietnam finalized a free trade agreement, the second deal London has reached in Southeast Asia in as many days while deadlock continues over post-Brexit European Union arrangements.
    (AFP, 12/11/20)

2020        Dec 12, Britain's AstraZeneca said it has agreed to buy US drugmaker Alexion Pharmaceuticals for $39 billion in its largest ever deal, diversifying away from its fast-growing cancer business in a bet on rare-disease and immunology drugs.
    (Reuters, 12/12/20)
2020        Dec 12, John le Carr (89), the best-selling British author of Cold War spy thrillers, including Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, died in Cornwall, England. Graham Greene described le Carr's best-selling novel The Spy Who Came in From the Cold (1963), the best spy story I have ever read.
    (NY Times, 12/13/20)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.126)

2020        Dec 13, PM Boris Johnson said that Britain and the European Union remained very far apart on key issues in Brexit trade talks so people should be prepared for a no-deal on Dec. 31.
    (Reuters, 12/13/20)
2020        Dec 13, It was reported that hundreds of senior employees at British banks HSBC and Standard Chartered have been members of the Chinese Communist Party.
    (The Telegraph, 12/13/20)

2020        Dec 14, Britain reported that over 1,000 cases of a new coronavirus variant have been identified in the past few days in England, predominantly in the south of the country where it could be connected to a surge in cases. Health Secretary Matt Hancock said the variant is more likely to cause serious disease, and the latest clinical advice is that it's highly unlikely that this mutation would fail to respond to a vaccine.
    (Reuters, 12/14/20)
2020        Dec 14, A single-patient study conducted by British scientists has found that Gilead's antiviral drug remdesivir could be highly effective against COVID-19, raising questions about previous studies that found it had no impact on death rates from the disease.
    (Reuters, 12/14/20)
2020        Dec 14, Codagenix Inc and India's Serum Institute said they have received regulatory approval in the United Kingdom to begin an early-stage trial of their single-dose, intranasal COVID-19 vaccine.
    (AP, 12/14/20)

2020        Dec 15, British PM Boris Johnson repeated to his top ministers that the most likely outcome of post-Brexit trade talks with the European Union was no deal, but that his team would still try to reach agreement.
    (Reuters, 12/15/20)
2020        Dec 15, British scientists said they are trying to establish whether the rapid spread in southern England of a new variant of the virus that causes COVID-19 is linked to key mutations they have detected in the strain.
    (Reuters, 12/15/20)

2020        Dec 16, Britain's Supreme Court overturned a Court of Appeal judgement that had stopped the expansion of Heathrow Airport.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.89)

2020        Dec 17, The British government extended its salary support program by another month through to the end of April as it tries to keep a lid on unemployment as coronavirus restrictions slam businesses.
    (AP, 12/17/20)
2020        Dec 17, Oxford University said its COVID-19 vaccine candidate, licensed to AstraZeneca, has a better immune response when a two full-dose regimen is used rather than a full-dose followed by a half-dose booster.
    (Reuters, 12/17/20)
2020        Dec 17, The European Parliament has issued a three-day ultimatum to Brexit negotiators to strike a trade deal, warning that MEPs won't have time to ratify an agreement this year unless it is ready by the end of Dec 20.
    (AP, 12/17/20)

2020        Dec 18, The British Office for National Statistics said the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in England has risen sharply and is back above 500,000 infections in the latest weekly data, after dropping in the three previous weeks.
    (Reuters, 12/18/20)
2020        Dec 18, OneWeb, the satellite firm rescued by the British government and India's Bharti Group, resumed flights in its push to provide global broadband coverage as 36 of its satellites blasted off into orbit from Russia's Far East. The launch was the first fully commercial flight from Russia's new Vostochny cosmodrome.
    (AP, 12/18/20)
2020        Dec 18, The Channel Tunnel remained clogged with queues at Dover stretching back 20 miles, as business leaders warned they had run out of time to prepare for no-deal.
    (AP, 12/18/20)

2020        Dec 19, British PM Boris Johnson imposed tighter coronavirus controls on millions of people in England and drastically scaled back plans to ease restrictions over Christmas, seeking to curb a new more infectious strain of the virus.
    (Reuters, 12/19/20)
2020        Dec 19, England's Chief Medical Officer Chris Whitty said a new strain of COVID-19 identified in the United Kingdom can spread more quickly and urgent work is under way to confirm that it does not cause a higher mortality rate.
    (Reuters, 12/19/20)
2020        Dec 19, Apple Inc said it has temporarily shut all of its 53 stores in California because of a coronavirus outbreak and 16 stores in the United Kingdom following restrictions introduced by the government in London.
    (AP, 12/19/20)

2020        Dec 20, Several European countries, including Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Belgium, and the Netherlands, imposed bans on flights and ferries from the United Kingdom, after reports that a new, more infectious variant of the coronavirus is spreading in southeast England.
    (The Week, 12/20/20)
2020        Dec 20, Canada joined a growing number of European countries late today and banned passenger flights from Britain, effective as of midnight, as southern England grapples with a new variant of COVID-19. The ban will be in place for 72 hours.
    (The Week, 12/20/20)
2020        Dec 20, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Oman said they are closing their borders and suspending commercial flights over fears about a new coronavirus strain.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 21, A virulent new coronavirus strain (the B.1.1.7 lineage) in the UK prompted a London lockdown and widespread travel restrictions against Britons. Supermarkets warned that supplies of fresh produce could run short within days. French borders closed, signs on roads approaching the English Channel port of Dover flashed, steering truck drivers away as traffic backed up.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)(AP, 12/21/20)
2020        Dec 21, Australia said it had detected cases of the new fast-spreading coronavirus strain identified in the UK, while Hong Kong and India said they would suspend flights from Britain. Authorities say a new strain of the coronavirus in Sydney's north most likely originated in the United States, but how it got from the airport to the community remains a puzzle.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)
2020        Dec 21, AstraZeneca Plc said that the US drug regulator had approved Tagrisso, the British drugmaker's top selling treatment for another type of lung cancer when diagnosed at an early stage, pushing its potential sales higher.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)
2020        Dec 21, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said British Airways has agreed to allow only passengers who test negative for the novel coronavirus to fly to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, as international leaders reacted to news of a highly infectious new strain.
    (AP, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 22, British PM Boris Johnson's government was working with France in an attempt to find a way to lift border closures that have snarled one of Europe's most important trade routes just days before the Brexit cliff edge. Britain agreed late today to conduct mass coronavirus tests on truck drivers as part of a deal with France to reopen the border to some travelers and to freight trucks, raising hopes of relief for hundreds of drivers stuck near British ports and for supermarkets warning that they could soon run short of fruit and vegetables.
    (Reuters, 12/22/20)(NY Times, 12/22/20)
2020        Dec 22, It was reported that the mutation of the virus found in Britain appears to be up to 70 percent more contagious than earlier strains. Britain reported a record number of new COVID-19 infections.
    (NY Times, 12/22/20)(Reuters, 12/22/20)
2020        Dec 22, Britain and Canada said they struck a short-term deal to ensure that free trade between the two after Brexit can continue until the Canadian parliament approves a new bilateral agreement.
    (Reuters, 12/22/20)
2020        Dec 22, Stella Tennant (22), one of Britain's top models, died. Her unconventional, androgynous looks helped her break into the world of fashion in the 1990s.
    (Reuters, 12/23/20)

2020        Dec 23, British health minister Matt Hancock said more areas in England would be placed into the highest tier of coronavirus restrictions in a bid to curb the spread of a more transmissible variant of COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 12/23/20)
2020        Dec 23, Britain approved using a COVID-19 self-test kit endorsed by its state-run health service to detect asymptomatic cases, as it mulls further restrictions to stem the spread of a highly infectious variant of the virus.
    (Reuters, 12/23/20)
2020        Dec 23, Britain and Swiss drugmaker Roche offered reassurances that the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to detect COVID-19 was unlikely to be affected by a fast-spreading mutant strain of the virus.
    (Reuters, 12/23/20)

2020        Dec 24, Britain clinched a Brexit trade deal with the European Union, just seven days before it exits one of the world's biggest trading blocs in its most significant global shift since the loss of empire.
    (Reuters, 12/24/20)
2020        Dec 24, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said it was time for Scotland to become an independent, European nation after a trade deal was sealed with Brussels, and accused Boris Johnson of "cultural vandalism" for pulling out of the Erasmus student program.
    (The Telegraph, 12/24/20)
2020        Dec 24, Spanish PM Pedro Sanchez said Madrid and London would continue to negotiate an agreement on the British territory of Gibraltar on the Iberian peninsula.
    (Reuters, 12/24/20)
2020        Dec 24, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that as of Dec. 28 the US will require airline passengers from Britain to get a negative COVID-19 test before their flight.
    (AP, 12/24/20)

2020        Dec 25, Around 1,000 British soldiers spent Christmas Day trying to clear a huge backlog of truck drivers stuck in southeast England after France briefly closed its border to the UK, then demanded coronavirus tests from all amid fears of a new, apparently more contagious, virus variant. Rail operator Eurotunnel was also back in action, offering a way back into France.
    (AP, 12/25/20)

2020        Dec 27, Hurricane-force winds reaching up to 106 mph (170 kph) and heavy rainstorms battered parts of Britain, disrupting train services and stranding drivers in floodwaters.
    (AP, 12/27/20)
2020        Dec 27, The head of drugmaker AstraZeneca, which is developing a coronavirus vaccine widely expected to be approved by UK authorities this week, said that researchers believe the shot will be effective against a new variant of the virus driving a rapid surge in infections in Britain.
    (AP, 12/27/20)

2020        Dec 28, Britain said it will ban "buy one get one free" promotions for food high in fat, sugar or salt and free refills of sugary soft drinks in restaurants from April 2022.
    (Reuters, 12/28/20)
2020        Dec 28, COVID-19 deaths in Britain breached the 600-a-day mark.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.47)

2020        Dec 29, Britain and Turkey signed a free-trade agreement, effective Jan. 1, as the UK prepares to leave the European Union's economic orbit at the start of the new year.
    (AP, 12/29/20)

2020        Dec 30, Britains House of Commons voted resoundingly to approve a trade deal with the European Union, paving the way for an orderly break with the bloc that will finally complete the UKs long and divisive Brexit journey.
    (AP, 12/30/20)
2020        Dec 30, The British government said more areas of England would be placed under the strictest COVID-19 restrictions as a highly infectious variant of the virus is spreading across the country.
    (Reuters, 12/30/20)
2020        Dec 30, Britain approved the coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford, the first country to do so, clearing a path for a cheap and easy-to-store shot that much of the world may rely on.
    (NY Times, 12/30/20)

2020        Dec 31, PM Boris Johnson said that Britain would withdraw from Erasmus, citing its high costs. Since its introduction in 1987, Erasmus has sent millions of people abroad for study exchanges, work placements or traineeships.
    (NY Times, 12/31/20)
2020        Dec 31, The British government said it will allow people to be given shots of different COVID-19 vaccines on rare occasions, despite a lack of evidence about the extent of immunity offered by mixing doses.
    (Reuters, 1/2/21)
2020        Dec 31, Thirty-three migrants on four boats crossed the Channel under the cover of darkness in freezing temperatures this morning, in a desperate attempt to reach the UK before Brexit. Some 8,400 people arrived on British shores this year having left northern France.
    (The Telegraph, 12/31/20)
2020        Dec 31, Negotiators from the UK and Spain said they have reached a draft agreement on the post-Brexit future of Gibraltar. As part of the deal Gibraltar would be able to join European Union program and policies such as Schengen.
    (The Guardian, 12/31/20)

2020        The British economy suffered its biggest decline in more that 300 years due to the coronavirus pandemic.
    (SFC, 2/13/21, p.A4)

2021        Jan 1, London Mayor Sadiq Khan said the British government has decided to close all primary schools in London for the next two weeks to counter the rapid spread of a more infectious variant of the COVID-19 virus.
    (Reuters, 1/1/21)
2021        Jan 1, Britain became the latest country to abolish the so-called "tampon tax, eliminating sales taxes on women's sanitary products.
    (AP, 1/1/21)

2021        Jan 3, British PM Boris Johnson warned that more onerous lockdown restrictions in England are likely in the coming weeks as the country reels from a new coronavirus variant that has pushed infection rates to their highest recorded levels.
    (AP, 1/3/21)

2021        Jan 4, Britain ramped up its vaccination program by becoming the first nation to start using the shot developed by Oxford University and drugmaker AstraZeneca.
    (AP, 1/4/21)
2021        Jan 4, UK scientists expressed concern that COVID-19 vaccines being rolled out in Britain may not be able to protect against a new variant of the coronavirus that emerged in South Africa and has spread internationally.
    (Reuters, 1/4/21)
2021        Jan 4, A British judge ruled that WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange cannot be extradited to the US, giving him a victory against the American authorities who accused him of conspiring to hack government computers and releasing confidential documents.
    (NY Times, 1/4/21)
2021        Jan 4, It was reported that some EU specialist online retailers have said they will no longer deliver to the UK because of tax changes which came into force on 1 January.
    (AP, 1/4/21)

2021        Jan 5,  Britain began its third COVID-19 lockdown with citizens under orders to stay at home and the government calling for one last major national effort to stem the virus before mass vaccinations turn the tide. The UK recorded more than 60,000 COVID-19 cases in daily figures for the first time as the government struggles to deal with a more infectious variant of the virus.
    (Reuters, 1/5/21)

2021        Jan 6, British PM Boris Johnson warned parliament that ending England's latest lockdown would require a "gradual unwrapping" over time, pledging that schools would be the "very first things to reopen." The UK recorded more than 1,000 COVID-19 daily deaths for the first time since April as the government struggles to deal with a new, more infectious variant of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 1/6/21)
2021        Jan 6, Britain, France and Germany pressed Iran to reverse a decision to start enriching uranium to levels beyond the limits of a 2015 nuclear agreement, a move which they said risks compromising chances of diplomacy with the incoming US administration.
    (AP, 1/6/21)
2021        Jan 6, London-listed specialist investment firm Hipgnosis Songs Fund said singer-songwriter Neil Young has sold it a half share of the rights to his entire catalogue of 1,180 songs.
    (Reuters, 1/6/21)

2021        Jan 8, Britain reported 1,325 new deaths from COVID-19, its highest daily figure since the outbreak of the pandemic, with another 68,053 additional cases. The official death toll stood at 79,833, the highest in Europe. Britain's medical regulator approved Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine for use. The health ministry said that it had agreed to purchase an additional 10 million doses as it eyed a spring rollout of the shot.
    (Reuters, 1/8/21)(SFC, 1/9/21, p.A6)
2021        Jan 8, Logistics group DFDS said a high number of vehicles travelling from Britain to France have been refused entry or delayed due to having the incorrect paperwork after Brexit.
    (Reuters, 1/8/21)
2021        Jan 8, It was reported that the bee-killing pesticide Cruiser SB neonicotinoid, which is banned by the EU, has been approved for use by sugar beet farmers in England.
    (The Telegraph, 1/8/21)
2021        Jan 8, Afghanistan, Britain, Canada, Sweden and Ukraine said they want Tehran to provide a complete and thorough explanation of the events and decisions that led to this appalling plane crash, on the one-year anniversary of the Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 crash.
    (AP, 1/8/21)

2021        Jan 9, It was reported that British PM Boris Johnson has secretly ordered civil servants to strip references to the EU from tens of thousands of laws to stop Labour reversing Brexit after the next general election in a plan known by some in Whitehall as Operation Bleach.
    (The Telegraph, 1/9/21)

2021        Jan 10, David Barclay (86), one of the billionaire identical twins whose business empire includes Britains Daily Telegraph newspaper, died.
    (AP, 1/13/20)
2021        Jan 10, The foreign ministers of Australia, Britain, Canada and the USA issued a joint statement expressing "serious concern" about the arrest of 55 democracy advocates in Hong Kong last week.
    (SFC, 1/11/21, p.A4)
   
2021        Jan 11, The British government said that as of tomorrow Britons will be able to apply for a new global health insurance card, a post-Brexit replacement offering emergency healthcare to those travelling in the EU.
    (Reuters, 1/11/21)
2021        Jan 11, In London Khairi Saadallah (26), a Libyan man who stabbed three friends to death as they sat in an English city park on a summer evening, was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole. Friends James Furlong (36), David Wails (49) and Joseph Ritchie-Bennett (39) were stabbed to death last June 20 in Reading.
    (AP, 1/11/21)

2021        Jan 12, The UK's foreign secretary said British companies will face fines unless they meet new government requirements showing their supply chains are free from forced labor, as he announced measures aimed at tackling human rights abuses against the Uighur minority in Chinas Xinjiang region.
    (AP, 1/12/20)
2021        Jan 12, It was reported that Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the British computer scientist who was knighted for inventing the internet navigation system known as the World Wide Web, wants to re-make cyberspace once again with a new startup called Inrupt.
    (Reuters, 1/12/20)

2021        Jan 13, Britain's Food and Drink Federation has warned that Brexit red tape is likely to increase food supply chain costs. The UKs biggest supermarket chains warned that food supplies in Northern Ireland face disruption because of new checks imposed by Britains departure from the European Union.
    (BBC, 1/13/20)(AP, 1/13/20)
2021        Jan 13, Britain reported 1,564 new deaths within 28 days of a positive test for COVID-19, a record daily toll.
    (AP, 1/13/20)

2021        Jan 14, PM Boris Johnson's spokesman said Britain's government is looking to compensate those in the fishing industry which have been impacted by post-Brexit trade changes. He described the problems as temporary.
    (Reuters, 1/14/20)
2021        Jan 14, DB Schenker, owned by national rail firm Deutsche Bahn, said that for the time being, it was not accepting new UK-bound consignments. The German company said "enormous bureaucratic regulations" linked to post-Brexit trading arrangements were to blame.
    (BBC, 1/14/20)

2021        Jan 15, British transport minister Grant Shapps said a Brazilian variant of the coronavirus is significant enough to justify stopping flights from South America as a precaution.
    (Reuters, 1/15/21)
2021        Jan 15, Britain recorded 55,761 new cases of COVID-19, an increase on the 48,682 cases recorded the previous day, as the number of infections rises despite hopes that lockdowns across the country could start to help push rates down.
    (Reuters, 1/15/21)

2021        Jan 16, Britain, France and Germany pressed Iran to back off the latest planned violation of its 2015 nuclear deal with world powers, saying that Tehran has no credible civilian use for uranium metal.
    (AP, 1/16/21)

2021        Jan 18, British seafood haulers descended on roads near 10 Downing Street today, saying they were being "tied in knots with paperwork" by the Brexit fishing deal. Metropolitan Police confirmed that 14 people had been issued with fines for making unnecessary journeys. PM Boris Johnson said the fishing industry is being hamstrung "in large part" by the pandemic. Johnson unveiled a 23 million fund to compensate the fishing industry for losses caused by Brexit red tape as Scottish seafood haulers descended on Downing Street to protest.
    (The Telegraph, 1/18/21)
2021        Jan 18, British drugmaker said AstraZeneca and Daiichi Sankyo's breast cancer drug has been approved as a treatment for a certain type of advanced gastric cancer in the US. AstraZeneca made a $7-billion bet on the treatment, Enhertu, when it partnered with Daiichi in 2019 in a direct challenge to Roche.
    (Reuters, 1/18/21)

2021        Jan 19, Britain reported a record number of deaths from COVID-19 with 1,610 people dying within 28 days of positive coronavirus test, exceeding the previous peak set last week. Britain said it would give COVID-19 shots to up to 2,000 people working in vaccine supply chains, after AstraZeneca requested protection for its workers trying to deliver an ambitious vaccine rollout program.
    (Reuters, 1/19/21)

2021        Jan 20, Britain reported a record number of deaths from COVID-19, with 1,820 people dying within 28 days of positive coronavirus test, surpassing the previous peak set a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 1/20/21)

2021        Jan 21, It was reported that Britain has sparked a post-Brexit spat with the EU by declining to grant the blocs first-ever ambassador to the country full diplomatic status. The British government says the EU is an international organization, rather than a country, and has not given Vale de Almeida the full rights accorded to ambassadors under the Vienna Convention, including immunity from taxation and prosecution.
    (AP, 1/21/21)
2021        Jan 21, Britain's foreign secretary announced that his government would offer more than $50 million to help poor Sudanese families as their government embarks upon major austerity measures to revive its battered economy.
    (AP, 1/21/21)
2021        Jan 21, London's metropolitan police officers found 150 people packed into the Yesodey Hatorah Senior Girls' School with blacked-out windows for a wedding despite a nationwide lockdown that bars households from mixing.
    (AP, 1/22/21)(SFC, 1/23/21, p.A4)
2021        Jan 21, UK prosecutors said day trader Walid Choucair, who was convicted of insider trading along with a UBS Group AG compliance official, agreed to forfeit 3.9 million pounds ($5.4 million). The sum also included the money Choucair had made in 15 other trades.
    (AP, 1/21/21)
2021        Jan 21, The death toll from COVID-19 in the United Kingdom hit 94,580 after the country recorded another 1,290 fatalities, while official data showed medics had delivered a new high of 363,508 vaccines in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/21/21)
2021        Jan 21, Britain's health minister Matt Hancock said data supports the country's decision to move to a 12-week dosing schedule for Pfizer's COVID vaccine, adding details on efficacy gathered during the rollout would be published as soon as possible.
    (Reuters, 1/21/21)

2021        Jan 22, A survey showed that Britain's relapse into a third national COVID-19 lockdown has sparked the sharpest drop in business activity since May, with services companies hit hardest.
    (AP, 1/22/21)
2021        Jan 22, Japanese carmaker Nissan confirmed that it will maintain its operations in Britain in the wake of the post-Brexit trade deal between the country and the European Union.
    (AP, 1/22/21)

2021        Jan 24, Britain said it is expanding a coronavirus vaccination program that has seen almost 6 million people get the first of two doses, even as the countrys death toll in the pandemic approached 100,000.
    (AP, 1/24/21)

2021        Jan 25, Around 25,000 UK retailing jobs remained under threat even as it emerged that online fashion firm Boohoo has bought Debenhams, one of the country's oldest department store chains, and rival ASOS confirmed it wants to pick up parts of Arcadia Group.
    (AP, 1/25/21)

2021        Jan 28, The maritime law tribunal of the UN ruled that Britain has no sovereignty over the Chagos Islands and criticized London for its failure to hand the territory back to Mauritius. The decision confirmed a ruling by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and a vote in the UN General Assembly. The ruling should enable Mauritius to start settling its new maritime borders.
    (BBC, 1/28/21)

2021        Jan 29, The UK instituted a travel ban barring direct flights to the UAE over the spread of a South African variant of the coronavirus.
    (AP, 1/29/21)

2021        Jan 31, The United Kingdom opened applications for a new visa scheme that provides eligible Hong Kong residents the right to live, work, and study in the country for five years before eventually applying for citizenship.
    (AP, 1/31/21)

2021        Jan, Exports from Britain to the European Union reportedly fell by 68% this month as trade was disrupted after the end of a transition period following Britain's departure from the EU.
    (Reuters, 2/7/21)

2021        Feb 1, Activists from Palestine Action and Extinction Rebellion chained the gates of the Israeli-owned Elbit Ferranti factory in Greater Manchester early today, where they claim deadly weapons are made.
    (AP, 2/1/21)

2021        Feb 2, Politicians in Britain, Northern Ireland and the European Union condemned threats against border staff that prompted authorities to suspend checks at ports and underscored the tremors Brexit has sent through Northern Ireland's peace process.
    (AP, 2/2/21)
2021        Feb 2, A British study said the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine may be less able to protect against infection with a South African variant of the virus that has a worrying mutation.
    (Reuters, 2/2/21)
2021        Feb 2, It was reported that the UK variant, E484K, of the coronavirus has developed a new, concerning mutation in a small number of cases, which scientists said makes it similar to the South African and Brazilian variants and could reduce the efficacy of vaccines.
    (Reuters, 2/2/21)
2021        Feb 2, Britain's Captain Tom Moore, the World War Two veteran who lifted a nation's spirits by raising millions of pounds for health service workers battling the coronavirus, died aged 100 after he contracted COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 2/2/21)

2021        Feb 3, The BBC reported that Britain has asked for an extension until 2023 of a grace period on checks that would be conducted on trade moving between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom to soften the Brexit impact on the province.
    (Reuters, 2/3/21)
2021        Feb 3, It was reported that Kameel Ahmady, an academic renowned for researching child brides and female genital mutilation (FGM) in Iran, has returned to the UK after fleeing Iran in a daring escape across the mountainous border to Turkey. He was arrested in August 2019 and sentenced last November for "seeking to undermine Iran" by advocating an increase to the legal age for marriage.
    (The Telegraph, 2/3/21)

2021        Feb 5, Britain said it had agreed on a deal with German biotech firm CureVac to work to develop vaccines against coronavirus variants, placing an initial order for 50 million doses in case they are needed.
    (AP, 2/5/21)
2021        Feb 5, Oxford university said AstraZeneca and Oxford University's COVID-19 vaccine has similar efficacy against the British coronavirus variant as it does to the previously circulating variants.
    (Reuters, 2/5/21)
2021        Feb 5, Foreign ministers of the Britain, France, Germany and the US secretary of state held virtual talks on topics that included Iran, China, Russia, Myanmar, climate change and the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 2/5/21)

2021        Feb 7, Britain's vaccine deployment minister said a COVID-19 booster in the autumn and then annual vaccinations are very probable. A lead researcher for the Oxford team said developers of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine expect to have a modified jab to cope with the South Africa coronavirus variant by autumn.
    (Reuters, 2/7/21)(AP, 2/7/21)

2021        Feb 8, The British government said migrants living in Britain will be eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines regardless of whether they have the legal right to live and work in the country, adding that getting the shot would not trigger immigration checks.
    (Reuters, 2/8/21)
2021        Feb 8, Royal Dutch Shell and renewables firm Eneco, owned by Japan's Mitsubishi Corp, said they will provide Amazon.com Inc's European facilities with electricity from an offshore wind farm off the Dutch coast.
    (Reuters, 2/8/21)
2021        Feb 8, It was reported that nearly five million EU citizens, more than all the people who live in Croatia, have applied for settled status in Britain after Brexit.
    (The Telegraph, 2/9/21)

2021        Feb 9, Police in the UK arrested eight men as part of an international investigation into a gang that's been hacking celebrities and stealing their cryptocurrency.
    (Business Insider, 2/11/21)

2021        Feb 10, It was reported that David Wilson (36), one of Britain's most prolific pedophiles, has been jailed for 25-years. He used fake Facebook profiles to blackmail children into sending indecent images of themselves.
    (The Telegraph, 2/10/21)
2021        Feb 10, The EU police agency Europol said police have arrested 10 people in the UK, Belgium and Malta for allegedly hijacking mobile phones belonging to US celebrities including internet influencers, sports stars and musicians to steal personal information and millions in cryptocurrency.
    (AP, 2/10/21)

2021        Feb 12, Britains Supreme Court ruled that a group of Nigerian farmers and fishermen can sue Royal Dutch Shell PLC in English courts over pollution in a region where the Anglo-Dutch energy giant has a subsidiary.
    (AP, 2/12/21)
2021        Feb 12, Britain registered 15,144 new coronavirus cases to surpass 4.0 million. Another 768 deaths raised the official death toll to 116,287. Britains scientific advisers said they are confident the coronavirus outbreak is shrinking across the country for the first time in more than six months.
    (AP, 2/12/21)
2021        Feb 12, At The Hague member states of the International Criminal Court elected British barrister Karim Khan the next prosecutor of the war crimes tribunal. He will replace incumbent Fatou Bensouda when her nine-year term expires later this year.
    (AP, 2/12/21)(The Telegraph, 2/12/21)

2021        Feb 14, The UK government said that it reached its goal of giving at least one COVID-19 vaccine shot to the most vulnerable people in the country, increasing pressure on ministers to clarify when they will ease a lockdown imposed in early January.
    (AP, 2/14/21)

2021        Feb 15, Britain's luxury car brand Jaguar said it will be fully electric by 2025 as it outlined a plan to phase out internal combustion engines.
    (AP, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 16, The British government said health authorities in England have identified 38 cases of a new coronavirus variant which has a key mutation that is thought to reduce the effectiveness of vaccines. The variant, known as B.1.525, has the E484K spike protein mutation, which is also present in the South African variant.
    (Reuters, 2/16/21)

2021        Feb 19, British PM Boris Johnson opened the Group of Seven virtual leaders meeting on by calling for a plan to rebuild the global economy after the ravages of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (Reuters, 2/19/21)
2021        Feb 19, The head of Britains MI6 intelligence service apologized to gay spies and aspiring agents who were fired or denied jobs because of their sexuality.
    (AP, 2/19/21)
2021        Feb 19, Buckingham Palace confirmed that Prince Harry and his wife, Meghan, will not be returning to royal duties. Harry will give up his honorary military titles. 
    (SFC, 2/20/21, p.A2)
2021        Feb 19, A peer-reviewed study published in The Lancet medical journal showed that AstraZeneca and Oxford University's COVID-19 vaccine is more effective when its second dose is given three months after the first, instead of six weeks.
    (Reuters, 2/19/21)
2021        Feb 19, The European Commission said Britain's data protection laws were in line with the European Union's despite Brexit and it would start a process to allow a continued flow of police and financial data from the EU to Britain for the next 4 years.
    (Reuters, 2/19/21)

2021        Feb 22, Britain's foreign secretary Dominic Raab denounced torture, forced labor and sterilizations that he said were taking place against Muslim Uighurs on an "industrial scale" in China's Xinjiang region.
    (Reuters, 2/22/21)
2021        Feb 22, GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi said they had started a new clinical trial of their protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate, reviving their efforts against the pandemic after a setback in December delayed the shot's launch.
    (Reuters, 2/22/21)

2021        Feb 23, Ahmed Zaki Yamani (90), Saudi Arabias powerful oil minister (1962-1986) and architect of the Arab worlds drive to control its own energy resources in the 1970s and its subsequent ability to affect oil production, fuel prices and international affairs, died in London.
    (NY Times, 2/23/21)

2021        Feb 24, It was reported that women now hold more than a third of the seats on the boards of Britains biggest companies, meeting a government target set five years ago.
    (AP, 2/24/21)

2021        Mar 3, Sarah Everard (33) vanished while walking home in London. Her body was found a week later. Metropolitan Police officer, Wayne Couzens (48), was later charged with the kidnap and murder. On March 13 hundreds defied coronavirus restrictions to gather and protest violence against women, but the event ended with clashes between police and those attending.  In June Couzens pleaded guilty to her kidnap and rape.
    (AP, 3/14/21)(AP, 6/8/21)

2021        Mar 4, The European Court of Justice said the UK has "systematically and persistently" broken air pollution laws in its first ruling against the UK since Brexit.
    (The Telegraph, 3/4/21)
2021        Mar 4, The US agreed to suspend millions of dollars' worth of tariffs for four months on UK exports including Scotch whisky as part of an effort to resolve a long-running trans-Atlantic trade dispute over aerospace subsidies.
    (AP, 3/4/21)

2021        Mar 5, Britain said it would require people travelling abroad from March 8 to carry a new form setting out why their trip was permitted under strict lockdown restrictions.
    (Reuters, 3/5/21)
2021        Mar 5, It was reported that preliminary data from a study conducted at the University of Oxford indicates that the COVID-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca PLC is effective against the P1, or Brazilian, variant.
    (Reuters, 3/5/21)

2021        Mar 9, The UK promised to return to Nigeria 4.2m ($5.8m) which was stolen by a former governor. Former Delta State Governor James Ibori was convicted of money laundering in the UK in 2012. He is thought to have stolen around 50m from the oil-rich state.
    (BBC, 3/9/21)

2021        Mar 11, Britain delayed the introduction of a range of post-Brexit import checks on goods from the European Union by around six months, saying businesses needed more time to prepare because of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 3/11/21)
2021        Mar 11, The UK's medicine regulator said that Britons should keep on getting their COVID-19 vaccines, including the shot developed by Oxford and AstraZeneca, after Denmark and some other countries restricted their use of it.
    (Reuters, 3/11/21)
2021        Mar 11, Public Health England (PHE) said a new coronavirus variant had been identified in the UK in two people who had recently been in Antigua, adding that it shared some traits of others but would not be categorized as concerning for now.
    (Reuters, 3/11/21)

2021        Mar 12, It was reported that Britains military is to get an 80 billion upgrade as the Government announces a modernization drive this month to get the Armed Forces ready for the wars of the future.
    (The Telegraph, 3/12/21)

2021        Mar 13, Britain's foreign secretary Dominic Raab criticized China for continuing to violate the Sino-British Joint Declaration as Beijing further tightens control over Hong Kong.
    (AP, 3/13/21)
2021        Mar 13, The British government admitted for the first time that Uighurs are being targeted by China on British soil "in an effort to intimidate them into silence".
    (The Telegraph, 3/13/21)

2021        Mar 15, Britain said it was imposing new sanctions on Bashar al-Assads regime, including asset freezes and travel bans on the Syrian dictators close allies.
    (AP, 3/15/21)
2021        Mar 15, The European Union launched legal action against Britain for unilaterally changing trading arrangements for Northern Ireland that Brussels says breach the Brexit divorce deal agreed with London last year.
    (Reuters, 3/15/21)

2021        Mar 16, PM Boris Johnson said Britain will grow its nuclear warhead stockpile by more than 40% to ensure its security in a more risky global environment and as it faces new technological threats. The government said it would create a new homeland security headquarters as part of plans to improve its response to the "major threat" from terrorism, saying a successful chemical, biological or nuclear was likely by the end of the decade.
    (Reuters, 3/16/21)
2021        Mar 16, Britains financial regulator said National Westminster Bank has been charged with violating money laundering laws in relation to 365 million pounds ($505 million) deposited into a single customers accounts over a period of five years.
    (AP, 3/16/21)
2021        Mar 16, Uber is giving its UK drivers the minimum wage, pensions and holiday pay, following a recent court ruling that said they should be classified as workers and entitled to such benefits.
    (AP, 3/16/21)

2021        Mar 18, Britain's medicines regulator said there had been five cases of a rare type of blood clot in the brain among 11 million given AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine but said that it found the benefits of the shot far outweighed any possible risks.
    (Reuters, 3/18/21)

2021        Mar 21, Protests continued across the UK against a proposed law that would increase police powers. Clashes between some demonstrators and police in the city of Bristol left 20 officers injured, two of them seriously.
    (CBS News, 3/22/21)

2021        Mar 22, UK defence minister Ben Wallace said Britain will reduce the size of the army from 76,500 to 72,500 by 2025.
    (Reuters, 3/22/21)

2021        Mar 23, A Banksy painting showing a boy playing with a toy nurse as a superhero sold for more than $20 million, setting an auction record for the elusive British street artist.
    (Reuters, 3/23/21)
2021        Mar 23, EU ministers agreed to extend to the end of July temporary EU catch limits for fish stocks shared with Britain, to ensure fishing can continue uninterrupted while Brussels and London seek a full-year deal.
    (Reuters, 3/23/21)

2021        Mar 25, British lawmakers agreed to prolong coronavirus emergency measures for six months. Britain has recorded more than 126,000 coronavirus deaths.
    (SFC, 3/26/21, p.A5)
2021        Mar 25, Britain unveiled a new 50-pound note featuring WWII codebreaker Alan Turing. The bank note will be formally issued on June 23, Turing's birthday.
    (SFC, 3/26/21, p.A4)

2021        Mar 26, Britain's Office for National Statistics (ONS) said the prevalence of COVID-19 infections in England is no longer falling and has levelled off at an estimated 1 in 340 people.
    (Reuters, 3/26/21)
2021        Mar 26, In Britain over 1,000 protesters demonstrated in Bristol against a new policing bill. A minority showed hostility to police later in the evening. Police in riot gear beat back crowds of protesters with shields and batons and 10 people were arrested.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Mar 27, Japan-based Honda said it has agreed to sell its only British car plant at Swindon in southern England to logistics giant Panattoni, as the new owner reportedly plans to make a large investment at the sprawling site.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Mar 29, England's stay-at-home lockdown order ended with people allowed to meet up outside in groups of six for the first time in nearly three months, though PM Boris Johnson urged caution due to rising cases in Europe.
    (Reuters, 3/29/21)
2021        Mar 29, Britain's HSBC said it is banning customers of its online share-trading platform from buying or moving into their accounts MicroStrategy Inc stock. While HSBC will allow the holding, sale and outgoing transfer of MicroStrategy shares, it will forbid new purchases or incoming transfer. MicroStrategy has along with Tesla Inc and payments firm Square Inc become one of several publicly listed US companies to buy large amounts of bitcoin for its treasury.
    (Reuters, 4/12/21)

2021        Mar 30, Britain accused China of breaching the joint declaration guaranteeing Hong Kongs freedoms after Beijing passed a law that would bar candidates from elections on the grounds of insufficient patriotism.
    (The Telegraph, 3/30/21)
2021        Mar 30, Britain cut humanitarian funding to Syria by nearly a third at a major United Nations donor conference, a reduction which aid agencies working in the conflict-wracked country said will put lives at risk.
    (The Telegraph, 3/30/21)

2021        Apr 1, UK charity Oxfam said it has suspended two members of staff in the Democratic Republic of Congo over allegations of sexual exploitation and bullying.
    (BBC, 4/1/21)

2021        Apr 2, Britain's Department for Transport said the number of countries on its red list will reach 39 when the latest restrictions take effect in England beginning April 9. International arrivals will be banned from four more countries Bangladesh, Kenya, Pakistan and the Philippines amid concerns over new virus variants.
    (AP, 4/2/21)

2021        Apr 7, Britain's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI) said Britain should not give Oxford/AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine to under 30s where possible, due to a very rare side effect of blood clots in the brain.
    (Reuters, 4/7/21)
2021        Apr 7, It was reported that HSBC is moving more than 1,200 staff in Britain to permanent working from home contracts, in one of the strongest indications yet of how banks are locking in changes to employees' work patterns as a result of the pandemic to cut costs.
    (Reuters, 4/7/21)
2021        Apr 7, European and British medicine regulators said they had found possible links between AstraZeneca's coronavirus vaccine and reports of very rare cases of brain blood clots, in a setback for inoculation campaigns. An official said that the European drug regulator has received reports of 169 cases of a rare brain blood clot in people who received AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine, as the agency continued to stress that the benefits of the vaccination outweigh the risks.
    (Reuters, 4/7/21)

2021        Apr 8, It was reported that the UK's COVID-19 vaccination program is beginning to break the link between infection and serious illness or death. Britain's death toll from the pandemic is the highest in Europe at over 127,000.
    (AP, 4/8/21)

2021        Apr 9, Prince Philip (99), Queen Elizabeth's husband for more than seven decades, died. He helped to modernize the British monarchy and steer the royal family through repeated crises.
    (Reuters, 4/9/21)
2021        Apr 9, Britain said it had given 545,511 COVID vaccine doses on April 8, the highest daily total since April 1, while a further 60 people had died within 28 days of a positive test for the disease, raising this death toll to 127,040.
    (Reuters, 4/9/21)

2021        Apr 11, Nomadland director Chlo Zhao continued her award sweep when she became the first woman of color to win the best director prize at the annual British Academy Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) awards.
    (CBS News, 4/11/21)

2021        Apr 12, UK trial results showed that treating COVID-19 patients at home with a commonly-used inhaled asthma drug called budesonide can speed up their recovery.
    (AP, 4/12/21)

2021        Apr 12, Shops, outdoor dining, gyms and hairdressers reopened across England for the first time in months.
    (NY Times, 4/12/21)

2021        Apr 13, Britain began offering coronavirus vaccinations to anyone over 45 after hitting its target of giving at last one dose to everyone over 50 by the middle of April.
    (AP, 4/13/21)
2021        Apr 13, London-based Reuters news service promoted Alessandra Galloni to be its new editor-in-chief, making her the first woman to take that role in the company's 170-year history. Reuters employs some 2,500 journalists in 200 locations around the world as part of the larger Thomson Reuters Corp.
    (AP, 4/13/21)
2021        Apr 13, It was reported that 20 EU states are refusing to guarantee that suspected criminals who are citizens of their country can be extradited to the UK, reflecting the fact that Brexit means the UK is no longer part of the European Arrest Warrant.
    (AP, 4/14/21)

2021        Apr 14, NATO members pledged to leave Afghanistan together as 750 British soldiers are set to leave the country along with American troops on September 11.
    (The Telegraph, 4/14/21)

2021        Apr 15, Britain reported 2,672 new COVID cases, up slightly from 2,491 a day earlier but taking the fall over the last seven days to almost 7% compared with a week earlier.
    (Reuters, 4/15/21)
2021        Apr 15, It was reported that nearly 15,000 anonymous accounts of sexual misconduct, including harassment, groping, and rape, have been shared online by students from schools across the U.K.
    (CBS News, 4/15/21)

2021        Apr 16, Britain gave out 119,306 first vaccine doses and 485,421 second doses. A further 35 people died from the virus within 28 days of a positive test, and 2,206 people tested positive.
    (Reuters, 4/17/21)
2021        Apr 16, Helen McCrory, the English actress who played Narcissa Malfoy in the Harry Potter franchise and Polly Gray in Peaky Blinders, died at her home after a battle with cancer.
    (The Week, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 17, Public Health England reported that 73 cases of the B.1.617 variant, which was first discovered in India, had been found, while a further four cases were identified in Scotland.
    (The Telegraph, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 19, Britain imposed a travel ban on most visitors from India as PM Boris Johnson called off a trip to New Delhi. The UK has recorded 103 cases of a new virus variant, B.1.617, first identified in India.
    (AP, 4/19/21)

2021        Apr 20, Britain lifted travel restrictions on truckers that were imposed to avoid border chaos after the countrys economic split from the European Union at the end of last year.
    (AP, 4/20/21)

r2021        Apr 22, The British government and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission apologized after an investigation found that at least 161,000 mostly Africans and Indians who died fighting for the British Empire during WWI weren't properly honored due to pervasive racism.
    (SFC, 4/23/21, p.A5)
2021        Apr 22, British lawmakers approved a parliamentary motion declaring that China's policies against its Uyghur minority population in the far western Xinjiang region amounted to genocide and crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 4/22/21)
2021        Apr 22, The United States, Norway and Britain joined forces with companies including Amazon and Nestle to launch a project aimed at protecting the world's tropical forests.
    (Reuters, 4/22/21)

2021        Apr 23, It was reported that Judges have quashed the convictions of 39 former postmasters after the UK's most widespread miscarriage of justice.
    (BBC, 4/23/21)
2021        Apr 23, Britain recorded 2,678 new cases of COVID-19, a drop on 2,729 recorded the previous day, while a further 40 people had died within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 test.
    (Reuters, 4/23/21)

2021        Apr 27, The European Parliament ratified the Brexit trade deal by a large majority in what Boris Johnson called the "final step" of years of negotiations over the UK leaving the EU.
    (AP, 4/28/21)

2021        Apr, British fund manager Ruffer Investment Management exited its bitcoin bet with a $1.1 billion profit amid worries over risk after quick gains in the cryptocurrency's price.
    (Reuters, 6/8/21)

2021        May 2, An unnamed Iranian official claimed that a deal had been finalized where Ms Zaghari-Ratcliffe would be released as soon as the UK repays a 1970s-era arms debt. He also claimed that Tehran and Washington have agreed on a deal to swap prisoners and to release Iranian funds held in the United States. The US promptly dismissed the reports as false.
    (The Telegraph, 5/2/21)

2021        May 4, Two former British paratroopers accused of the 1972 murder of Joe McCann (24), an Official IRA leader in Belfast, were formally acquitted after the veterans trial collapsed. A judge ruled that evidence implicating the former soldiers was not admissible and prosecutors said they would not offer further evidence at the trial.
    (AP, 5/4/21)
2021        May 4, Sotheby's said it would accept bitcoin and ethereum as payment for Banksy's iconic artwork "Love is in the Air", a first for a physical art auction and the latest sign of growing mainstream acceptance of cryptocurrencies.
    (Reuters, 5/4/21)
2021        May 4, Britain and India signed an accord on migration and mobility, as they look to deepen economic, cultural and other ties following the UK's departure from the EU.
    (Reuters, 5/4/21)
2021        May 4, Foreign ministers from the Group of Seven wealthy industrialized nations gathered in London - their first face-to-face meeting in more than two years - to grapple with threats to health, prosperity and democracy.
    (AP, 5/4/21)

2021        May 6, British PM Boris Johnson said that two Royal Navy vessels would remain off the British Channel island of Jersey amid an escalating row with France over post-Brexit fishing rights. Brussels rallied behind France in an escalating row over post-Brexit fishing rights.
    (Reuters, 5/6/21)(The Telegraph, 5/6/21)
2021        May 6, PM Boris Johnson's Conservatives scored a stunning election victory in an opposition stronghold, after Britain held its first major ballot box test since Brexit and the coronavirus crisis.
    (AFP, 5/7/21)
2021        May 6, UK government figures showed that alcohol-related deaths in England and Wales jumped by a fifth last year to reach their highest level in two decades.
    (AP, 5/6/21)
2021        May 6, Britain recorded a further 2,613 cases of COVID-19 in the last 24 hours, and 13 deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/6/21)

2021        May 9, A total of 1,770 new cases of COVID-19 were recorded in the United Kingdom, with the seven-day total of 14,659 cases down by 4.3% compared with the previous seven days.
    (Reuters, 5/9/21)

2021        May 10, The United Kingdom's chief medical officers agreed to lower the COVID alert level to 3, which means the epidemic is in general circulation, from 4, which means transmission is high or rising exponentially.
    (Reuters, 5/10/21)
2021        May 10, Public Health England said data from the rollout of AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine shows one dose of the shot results in 80% less risk of death from the disease.
    (Reuters, 5/10/21)

2021        May 11, British PM Boris Johnson promised to tackle inequality and "level up" the country with a post-pandemic raft of laws presented by Queen Elizabeth to parliament.
    (Reuters, 5/11/21)
2021        May 11, The British government announced contentious plans to toughen election voting rules by requiring photo identification at polling stations, a move it says will protect the democratic system against electoral fraud.
    (AP, 5/12/21)

2021        May 12, The British government said that former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic will serve his life sentence for war crimes in a UK prison.
    (AP, 5/12/21)

2021        May 13, Britain reported 11 new deaths from COVID-19 within 28 days of a positive test and a further 2,657 cases of the disease, up from 2,284 new cases the day before and the biggest daily increase since April 27.
    (Reuters, 5/13/21)

2021        May 14, Britain's health ministry said the estimated reproduction "R" rate in England edged up to between 0.8 and 1.1, and it is less clear that the epidemic is still shrinking compared to last week.
    (AP, 5/14/21)

2021        May 15, Britain deployed public health officials, supported by the army, to distribute coronavirus tests door-to-door in two northern England towns in an effort to contain a fast-spreading variant that threatens plans to lift all lockdown restrictions next month.
    (AP, 5/15/21)

2021        May 17, Thousands of UK pubs and restaurants opened for indoor service for the first time since early January. PM Boris Johnson sounded a cautious tone, warning about a more contagious COVID-19 variant that threatens reopening plans.
    (AP, 5/17/21)
2021        May 17, British vacationers began arriving in large numbers in southern Portugal for the first time in more than a year, after governments in the two countries eased their COVID-19 pandemic travel restrictions.
    (AP, 5/17/21)

2021        May 18, Nigerian authorities said some $5.8m (4.2m) recovered by UK agencies that was stolen by a Nigerian former governor and laundered in Britain have now been returned to Nigeria. Former Delta state Governor James Ibori was convicted of money laundering in the UK in 2012.
    (BBC, 5/18/21)

2021        May 20, Britain announced plans to bring the national rail network back under government control, reversing one of the most controversial elements of the privatization drive carried out by the Conservative governments of the 1980s and 90s.
    (AP, 5/20/21)
2021        May 20, Jane Goodall (b.1934), the conservationist renowned for her expertise on chimpanzees and her globe-spanning advocacy of environmental causes, was named as this years winner of the prestigious Templeton Prize, honoring individuals whose lifes work embodies a fusion of science and spirituality.
    (AP, 5/20/21)
2021        May 20, British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline said it has sold its entire stake in Innoviva back to the US-based biopharmaceutical company for about $392 million, as it simplifies operations ahead of a split into two businesses.
    (Reuters, 5/20/21)

2021        May 22, Animal rights protesters blockaded four McDonald's distribution centers in the UK in an attempt to get the burger chain to commit to becoming fully plant-based by 2025.
    (AP, 5/22/21)

2021        May 24, Britain barred Belaruss national airline and instructed UK aircraft to avoid Belarussian airspace after a Ryanair passenger jet was forced to land in Minsk.
    (AP, 5/24/21)

2021        May 25, Britain's Arm Ltd deepened its rivalry with Intel Corp by releasing a batch of new chip technology aimed at grabbing more market share among laptop computers.
    (Reuters, 5/25/21)
2021        May 25, Europe's top human rights court ruled that British mass surveillance and intelligence-gathering practices breached human rights laws, in a partial victory for civil rights groups that had challenged the practices exposed by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.
    (AP, 5/25/21)

2021        May 26, France declared a mandatory quarantine period for people coming from Britain due to the increasing prevalence there of a highly contagious coronavirus variant first detected in India.
    (Reuters, 5/26/21)

2021        May 27, GlaxoSmithKline of Britain and Sanofi of France launched a large trial for another potential COVID-19 vaccine.
    (SFC, 5/28/21, p.A5)

2021        May 28, The UK authorized for use the single-dose vaccine made by Johnson & Johnson amid growing concerns about a rise in new infections as the variant of the virus first identified in India spreads around the country.
    (AP, 5/28/21)
2021        May 28, It was reported that about 500 Belarusian farm workers recruited under a Government visa scheme to help Britain bring in its summer harvest are trapped in Belarus by the flight hijack crisis.
    (The Telegraph, 5/28/21)

2021        May 29, British PM Boris Johnson and his fiance Carrie Symonds married in a small private ceremony in London.
    (AP, 5/30/21)

2021        Jun 1, It was reported that Silicon Catalyst, an incubator of startup companies, has chosen Britain as the site of its first European operation.
    (Reuters, 6/1/21)

2021        Jun 2, Britain and the European Union agreed the first ever annual deal on the management of shared fish stocks after Brexit. It must still be approved by EU governments.
    (The Telegraph, 6/2/21)

2021        Jun 3, Britain said that it is removing Portugal from its list of COVID-safe travel destinations, meaning thousands of UK residents currently on vacation there face the prospect of 10 days' quarantine on return.
    (AP, 6/3/21)
2021        Jun 3, Workers at Britains largest grocery chain won the latest round in their equal pay lawsuit, when the European Unions Court of Justice ruled that more favorable EU rules governing comparisons between men and women apply to the case.
    (AP, 6/3/21)
2021        Jun 3, Alok Sharma, Britain's climate tsar, urged companies to join the United Nations' "Race to Zero" campaign and commit to science-based emissions-reduction targets, ahead of global climate talks in November.
    (Reuters, 6/3/21)
2021        Jun 3, Public Health England said the Delta variant of concern first identified in India is now dominant in Britain and might have an increased risk of hospitalization compared to the Alpha variant. There were 5,472 new cases of the Delta variant reported in latest weekly figures.
    (Reuters, 6/3/21)

2021        Jun 4, Britain's health ministry said the estimated reproduction "R" number in England remains at over 1 and the epidemic could be growing by as much as 3% each day. Britain's medicines regulator said it had approved the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech for use on 12- to 15-year-olds.
    (Reuters, 6/4/21)
2021        Jun 4, The UK announced a post-Brexit trade deal with Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.
    (BBC, 6/4/21)

2021        Jun 6, Britains health secretary says the delta variant, which is fast becoming the dominant coronavirus variant in the UK, is 40% more transmissible compared to the countrys existing strains.
    (AP, 6/6/21)

2021        Jun 7, The Bank of England said that payments with 'stablecoins' - a form of cryptocurrency usually pegged to a traditional currency - should be regulated in the same way as payments handled by banks if they start to become widely used.
    (Reuters, 6/7/21)

2021        Jun 9, A prominent UK epidemiologist said the Delta coronavirus variant of concern, first identified in India, is believed to be 60% more transmissible than the Alpha variant which was previously dominant in Britain.
    (AP, 6/9/21)

2021        Jun 10, President Joe Biden and British PM Boris Johnson met for the first time, looking to highlight their nations' famed special relationship but doing so against a backdrop of differences both political and personal. Biden and Johnson signed a new version of the 80-year old Atlantic Charter, using their first meeting to redefine the Western alliance and accentuate what they said was a growing divide between battered democracies and their autocratic rivals, led by Russia and China.
    (AP, 6/10/21)(NY Times, 6/11/21)

2021        Jun 11, British PM Boris Johnson greeted leaders from the Group of Seven nations and the European Union on a wooden boardwalk on the freshly raked sand of Carbis Bay to open the G-7 summit. G7 leaders were in broad agreement about the need to continue supporting their economies with fiscal stimulus after the ravages of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (AP, 6/11/21)(Reuters, 6/11/21)
2021        Jun 11, It was reported that EU fishermen have been granted the right to "plunder" UK waters of red mullet, scallops and lobster after Britain failed to set limits on the amount that can be caught in a post-Brexit agreement.
    (The Telegraph, 6/11/21)

2021        Jun 13, US Pres. Joe Biden and other Western leaders concluded the G7 summit with a joint declaration criticizing the Chinese and Russian governments. G7 leaders demanded that Russia take action and investigate the use of chemical weapons within its territory and hold accountable those behind ransomware attacks and other cyber crimes.
    (NY Times, 6/13/21)(Axios, 6/13/21)
2021        Jun 13, GB News launched on British television this evening with the aim of giving a voice to those who feel sidelined or silenced. Chairman Andrew Neil denied it will be the British equivalent of Fox News.
    (AP, 6/14/21)

2021        Jun 14, England delayed its full reopening by a month, to late July, because of a surge in coronavirus cases.
    (NY Times, 6/14/21)
2021        Jun 14, It was reported that Britain's GlaxoSmithKline Plc has agreed to pay up to $2 billion to Boston-based iTeos Therapeutics Inc to develop and sell a potential cancer treatment together.
    (Reuters, 6/14/21)

2021        Jun 15, Australia and Britain announced that they have agreed a trade deal - the first negotiated from scratch post-Brexit.
    (Reuters, 6/14/21)

2021        Jun 16, Britain's government said it will require COVID-19 vaccinations for nursing home workers in England, arguing that the need to protect vulnerable residents outweighed employees' right to choose whether to get the jab.
    (AP, 6/16/21)
2021        Jun 16, A junior finance minister said Britain's government said it will extend until March 2022 a ban on evictions of businesses that stopped paying rent due to the coronavirus crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/16/21)
2021        Jun 16, British lawyer Karim Khan was sworn in as the new chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, pledging to reach out to nations that are not members of the court in his quest to end impunity for atrocities and to try to hold trials in countries where crimes are committed.
    (AP, 6/16/21)

2021        Jun 17, Britain's medicine regulator extended the emergency use approval (EUA) for Innova's lateral flow COVID-19 tests, saying it was satisfied with a review of the tests after its US counterpart issued a warning about them.
    (Reuters, 6/17/21)
2021        Jun 17, Britain reported its biggest daily rise in new cases of COVID-19 since Feb. 19. Government figures showed 11,007 new infections, up from 9,055 the day before.
    (Reuters, 6/17/21)
2021        Jun 17, A UK-US trade deal suspended Scotch whisky tariffs for five years.
    (SFC, 6/18/21, p.B2)

2021        Jun 21, Dozens of people ignored advice not to travel to Stonehenge for the annual summer solstice celebrations, which were cancelled today due to coronavirus concerns.
    (AP, 6/21/21)

2021        Jun 23, Britain-based GSK set out plans to turn its consumer healthcare business into a separately listed company, aiming to strengthen drug development at its pharmaceuticals business with an 8 billion pound ($11 billion) windfall.
    (Reuters, 6/23/21)
2021        Jun 23, The United States, Britain and France accused Russian mercenaries of operating alongside Central African Republic forces and committing human rights violations against civilians and obstructing UN peacekeeping. The charges were immediately denied by Russia which denounced the Western nations for engaging in an anti-Russia political hit job. Russia has troops in CAR training its military at the invitation of the government.
    (AP, 6/24/21)

2021        Jun 24, British mobile operator EE said it was bringing back mobile roaming charges in the European Union for new and upgrading customers from next January, wiping out a benefit that has saved tourists and business travelers millions of pounds since the charges were abolished in 2017.
    (Reuters, 6/24/21)
2021        Jun 24, Researchers at Oxford University said they have developed a method to predict the efficacy of new COVID-19 vaccines based on a blood test, potentially offering a short-cut around massive clinical trials that are increasingly difficult to conduct.
    (Reuters, 6/24/21)

2040        In 2017 France's government unveiled a law to ban all production and exploration of oil and natural gas by this time on the country's mainland and overseas territories. In 2017 Britain and France said that by this year new cars reliant on petrol or diesel will be illegal.
    (AP, 9/6/17)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.65)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Britain
End of file.