Timeline Germany (B) 1821-1916

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1821        Apr 20, Franz K. Achard (67), German physicist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1821        Oct 13, Rudolf Virchow, German politician and anthropologist (cell pathology), was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1821        Nov 10, Andreas J Romberg (54), German violinist and composer (Der Rabe), died.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1821         Karl von Drais (1785-1851), German forest official and inventor, invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard.
1821        Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770-1831), Estonia-born German physicist, discovered that applying a temperature difference across two adjoined metals would give rise to a small voltage. This came to be called the Seebeck effect.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, TQ p.6)

1822        Jan 2, Rudolph J.E. Clausius (d.1888), German physicist (thermodynamics), was born.

1822        Jan 6, Heinrich Schliemann (d.1890), German businessman and amateur archeologist, was born. He began excavating Troy in 1870 following a visit to Hissarlik in 1868.

1822        Feb 22, Adolf Kuszmaul, German physician (stomach pump, Kuszmaul disease), was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1922        Jun 24, Germany's Jewish foreign minister was assassinated by the right-wing terrorist group Organisation Consul. Walter Rathenau (b.1867) was the foreign secretary of Germany’s Weimar Republic and one of the country’s most influential businessmen.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walther_Rathenau)(SFC, 11/14/18, p.A2)

1822        Jun 25, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (ETA) Hoffmann (46), German writer, judge, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1822        Aug 25, F. William Herschel (85), German astronomer (discovered Uranus), died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1822        Gebruder Heubach (Heubach Brothers) began a porcelain manufacturing operation in Lichte, Thuringia, Germany. The firm became known for manufacturing doll heads and in 2005 was still in operation as Lichte Porcelain.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)

1823        Apr 4, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, inventor (laid undersea cables), was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1823        Oct 5, Carl Maria von Weber visited Beethoven.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1823        Dec 7, Leopold Kronecker, German mathematician (Tensor of Kronecker), was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1823        Johann Adam Benckiser (1782-1851) founded a business in Pforzheim, Germany specializing in industrial and consumer goods industrial chemicals. Five years later, Karl Ludwig Reimann (1804-1872) joined Joh. A. Benckiser GmbH. Reimann married Benckiser’s daughter and eventually, inherited the company. By 1858, Reimann had relocated Benckiser to Ludwigshafen, Germany. Ludwig Reimann’s grandson, Albert Reimann (c. 1880-1954) eventually took over the company and was later joined by his son, Albert Jr. (1898-1984) in 1925.

1823        Johann Anton Ramboux, German artist, created "Merenda in the Farnesi Gardens in Rome" in pen and brown ink over pencil.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1823-1900 F.     Max Mueller, German philologist: "To think is to speak low. To speak is to think aloud."
    (AP, 10/14/97)

1824        Feb 9, Anna Katharina Emmerick (b.1774), a sickly, virtually illiterate German nun, died. Her gory visions of Jesus' last hours of suffering before his crucifixion drew pilgrims to her bedside in the years before her death. In 2004 she was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.vatican.va/news_services)

1824        Mar 26, 1st performance of Beethoven's "Missa Solemnis."
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1824        May 7, The Ninth Symphony by Beethoven had its premiere. The "Ode to Joy" lyric was originally written by Friedrich von Schiller as the "Ode to Freedom."
    (LGC, 1970, p.98)(WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A16)

1825        Beethoven composed his String Quartet No. 15 in A Minor.

1826        Jun 4, Karl Maria FE von Weber (39), German composer (Oberon), died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1826        Heinrich Schwabe, German amateur astronomer, began a systematic program of observing the Sun from his home in Dessau. He kept careful records of sunspots over 17 years and in 1843 noted an 11-year cycle in their frequency.
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, Par p.17)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.77)

1827        Mar 26, Ludwig von Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead "I shall hear in heaven." It was later determined that he suffered from lead poisoning. In 1995 Tia DeNora authored "Beethoven and the Construction of Genius." In 2000 Russell Martin authored "Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved." In 2014 Jan Swafford authored “Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph."
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A5)(AP, 3/256/97)(HN, 3/26/99)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/17/02, p.A12)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.78)

1827        August Marschner wrote his opera "Der Vampyr."
    (WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16)

1827        The Hanseatic city of Bremen, faced with the silting of its Weser River, bought land for Bremerhaven from the king of Hanover in order to maintain a link to the sea.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.60)

1828        May 22, Albrecht von Grafe, German eye surgeon, founder of modern ophthalmology, was born.
    (HN, 5/22/01)

1828        Jun 14, German Grand Duke Karl August (b.1757),  the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of Saxe-Eisenach, died. He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of his court.

1828        Nov 19, Franz Schubert (b.1797), Austrian composer, died of syphilis in Vienna. In this he composed his song cycle "Schwanengesang." His work included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and the C-Major String Quartet. Otto Erich Deutsch catalogued his work [hence the "D" numbers] and wrote a documentary biography. In 1997 Brian Newbould  wrote "Schubert: The Music and the Man."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.32)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)

1828        Dec 23, Mathilde Wesendonk, German writer, poet (Tagebuchblatter), was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1829        Jan 19, Johann von Goethe's "Faust, Part 1," premiered.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1830        Jan 7, Albert Bierstadt, painter (US landscapes), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1830        Jan 8, Hans von Bulow, pianist, virtuoso conductor, was born in Dresden.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1830        The Altes Museum was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the center of Berlin.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1831        Mar 4, Georg Michael Telemann (82), composer, died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1831        Jun 28, Joseph Joachim, violinist (Hungarian Concerto), was born in Kittsee, Germany.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1832        Feb 22, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (b.1749), poet, (Faust, Egmont) died in Weimar, Germany. Goethe had served as minister of mines under Bismarck. He completed "Faust" just before his death: "When Ideas fail, words come in handy." In 1988 Kenneth Weisinger authored "The Classical Facade: A Non-Classical Reading of Goethe's Criticism." In 2006 John Armstrong authored “Love, Life, Goethe: How to Be Happy in an Imperfect World."
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 8/7/03, p.A19)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/13/07, p.P10)

1832        Mar 11, Franz Melde, German physicist (Melde test), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1832        Apr 15, Wilhelm Busch, German artist, was born. He created the precursor to the cartoon strip.
    (HN, 4/15/02)

1832        May 14, Felix Mendelssohn's "Hebrides," premiered.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1832        Jul 5, The German government began curtailing freedom of the press after German Democrats advocated a revolt against Austrian rule.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1833        May 7, Composer Johannes Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, and died on Apr 3, 1897. His works number through Opus 122 and included: the "Hungarian Dances," the "Haydn Variations," the "Violin Concerto in D Major," "Lullaby" and compositions for the pianoforte, organ, chamber music, orchestral compositions, numerous songs, small and large choral works. A biography of his life and work was written by Karl Geiringer in 1934 titled: "Brahms: His Life and Work." In 1997 Jan Swafford published the biography: "Johannes Brahms." In 1998 Styra Avins published "Johannes Brahms: Life and Letters."
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.)(AP, 5/7/97)(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/4/98, p.A20)(HN, 5/7/99)

1833        Oct, The first Oktoberfest was held in Munich.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, p.T3

1833        Dec 12, Matthias Hohner (d.1902), German manufacturer (harmonica), was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1834-1896    Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian. Treitschke coined the word and concept of "lebensraum"-German for "living space"-which was later embraced by Hitler in his drive for domination of Europe. Von Treitschke believed Prussia should be a world power and should seize whatever land it needed.  German geographer Karl Haushofer took the idea to justify Germany’s need for more territory for a growing population, and that notion was subsequently taken up by Hitler and the Nazis.  Haushofer became one of Hitler’s closest advisers and his theories, known as "Weltpolitik" were among the cornerstones of Nazi expansion.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1509)(HNQ, 4/9/99)

1833-1905    Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, German geographer and geologist. He coined the expression "Silk Road" to describe the ancient trade routes between China and the West.
    (AM, 7/00, p.72)

1834-1919    Ernst Haeckel, German biologist, morphologist and philosopher. He coined the terms ecology and phylogeny and proposed the theory that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."
    (WUD, 1994, p.635)(NH, 12/98, p.4,56)

1835        Jul 1, German printer Carl Bertelsmann (1791-1850) founded Bertelsmann Verlag in Gutersloh, as a publisher and printer of religious books. In 2004 it was Europe’s largest media company.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.61)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/y8odb47)

1835        Oct 31, J.F.W. Adolf Ritter von Baeyer, German chemist (Nobel 1905), was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1835        Dec 7, The Adler, a steam engine built in Newcastle by British father and son George and Robert Stephenson, began running between Nuremberg and Furth, marking the birth of the German railway system.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.77)

1835        Karl Baedeker (1801-1859), German publisher, published "Travel on the Rhine." It was later widely considered as the 1st modern guidebook.
    (SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)

1838        Jan 6, Max Bruch, composer Scottish Fantasy), was born in Cologne, Germany.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1838        Apr 17, J. Schopenhauer (71), writer, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02

1838        Jul 8, Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (d.1917), German designer and manufacturer of airships, was born.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1660)

1838        Gustav Schwab, German historian, authored his compendium "Die Sagen des Klassischen Altertums" (Stories from Classical Antiquity). The 1st English version was published in 1946. It was republished in 2001 as "Gods and Heroes of Ancient Greece."
    (WSJ, 11/7/01, p.A20)

1838        Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, German astronomer and director of the Konigsberg Observatory, made the first reliable parallax measurement for a star known as 61 Cygni. This gave a distance from the sun of 10.9 light-years. Thomas Henderson, Scottish astronomer, measured the parallax of Alpha Centauri whose distance is calculated to be 4.3 light-years from the Sun.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.45)(SCTS, p.137)

1838-1840    Architect Gottfried Semper, designer of the Dresden Semper Opera House, designed the Dresden Jewish synagogue that was built over this time.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)

1838-1995    The Tirschenreuth Porcelain Factory operated in Tirschenreuth, Bavaria, during this period. In 1927 it was acquired by the L. Hutschenreuther Co.
    (SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)

1839        Oct 21, Georg von Siemens, founder of Deutsche Bank, was born.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1839        The London Treaty, in which all the European powers guaranteed Belgian neutrality, was signed.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)

1840        May, 7 Caspar David Friedrich (b.1774), German Romantic landscape painter, died in Dresden. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature.

1840        Aug 14, Baron Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (d.1902), German psychiatrist, was born. He was the author of the seminal work “Psychopathia Sexualis" (1886).

1840        Wilhelm Beer of Germany drew the first full map of Mars. It included dark "seas" and light "continents."
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1840        Caspar David Friedrich (b.1774), German Romantic painter, died.
    (WSJ, 9/21/01, p.W2)(WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A24)

1841        Mar 31, 1st performance of Robert Schumann's 1st Symphony in B.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1841        Aug, German poet Hoffman von Fallersleben (1798-1874) authored his poem "Das Lied der Deutschen" on the island of Heligoland. Its third stanza became the lyrics for the German national anthem.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)

1841        In Metlach, Germany, the firm of Villeroy & Boch Pottery was founded. They made many types of wares, including the famous Mettlach steins and are still in business.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, Z1, p7)

1842        May 5, City-wide fire burned for over 100 hours in Hamburg, Germany. The medieval center of Hamburg was virtually leveled.
    (www.ksfhh.de/comenius/aufsatz.php?bid=1&l=e)(SSFC, 2/17/13, p.M2)

1842        Sep 4, Work on Cologne cathedral resumed after 284-year hiatus.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1842        Oct 15, Karl Marx became editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1842-1912    Karl May, German writer, specialized in stories about noble Indians struggling to survive against the advance of modern society.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, DB p.35)

1843        Jan 2, Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Holländer" premiered in Dresden.

1843        Jul 2, Samuel Hahnemann (b.1755), German physician and founder of homeopathy, died in Paris. A renaissance for homeopathy started in the 1970s when it was rediscovered by West Germany’s glitterati, including Veronica Carstens, the wife of a former president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hahnemann)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.44)

1843        Dec 4, Robert Schumann's "Das Paradied und die Peri," premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1843        Dec 11, Robert Koch (d.1910), German physician, bacteriologist, and medical researcher, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905.

1843        Heinrich Schwabe, German amateur astronomer, published his results of a 17 year study on the number of sun spots. His results showed that sunspot activity varied over a period of eleven and a half years. Sunspot activity recorded since this time indicates the period to average 11.2 years and to vary from 7.5 to 16 years. This activity correlates to agricultural activity and the price of wheat.
    (SCTS, p.103)

1844        Oct 15, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (d.1900), German philosopher, poet, and critic, was born. He wrote 13 books and was driven to madness by a number of factors, but one was the bland, dishonest complacency of his contemporaries, who ignored him while honoring writers who seem like comic book figures today... He shrilled against Christianity and its empty moral claims. In 1998 two biographies were published: "Nietzsche in Turin: An Intimate Biography" by Lesley Chamberlain;  and "The Good European: Nietzsche’s Work Sites in word and Image" by David Farell Krell and Donald L. Bates. In 2000 Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins authored "What Nietzsche Really Said." "No one is such a liar as the indignant man." "In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule." "The time for me hasn't come yet. Some are born posthumously."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(SFEC, 2/8/98, BR p.9)(AP, 3/19/98)(HN,10/15/98)(AP, 12/3/98) (SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.4)

1844        Dec 18, Ludwig J. von Brentano, German economist, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1844-1845     The marriage of Friedrich V of Germany to and English Princess Elizabeth in Heidelberg is the nominal subject of a Turner oil painting.
    (WSJ, 1/15/96, p. A-10)

1844-1913    August Bebel was an outstanding political figure in Western European Socialism and co-founder of the German Social Democratic Party. Bebel participated in the foundation of the Social Democratic Party in 1869 and was sentenced to prison for treason in 1872. As head of the Social Democrats he was chief opposition leader in the Reichstag in the 1890s and 1900s.
    (HNQ, 2/15/99)

1845        Mar 3, Georg Cantor (d.1918), mathematician, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia. He grew up in Germany and developed the field of  transfinite numbers.

1845        Mar 13, Felix Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64, had its premiere in Leipzig, Germany.
    (BG, 3/13/16, p.B6)

1845        Mar 27, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (d.1923), German scientist, was born. He discovered X-rays (Nobel-1901).
    (HN, 3/27/99)(MC, 3/27/02)

1845        May 12, August Wilhelm Schlegel (77), German poet, interpreter, critic, died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1845        Aug 25, Ludwig II (d.1886), King of Bavaria (1864-86), was born at Nymphenburg. He was also called the "Mad King" for his extravagant castles.
    (HN, 1/7/99)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_II_of_Bavaria)

1845        Oct 19, Richard Wagner's opera "Tannhauser," premiered in Dresden.

1845        Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), German social scientist, authored in German “The Condition of the Working Class in England." It was not published in English until 1892.
1845        Der Struwwelpeter, a popular German children's book, was published by Heinrich Hoffmann. It comprises ten illustrated and rhymed stories, mostly about children. Each has a clear moral that demonstrates the disastrous consequences of misbehavior in an exaggerated way. The title of the first story provides the title of the whole book. Literally translated, Struwwel-Peter means Shaggy-Peter.
1845        Alexander von Humboldt (1769-, German explorer, authored “Cosmos," his 5-volume overview of the universe.
    (WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P8)

1845-1929    Wilhelm von Bode, art historian. He supervised the construction of a museum that later bore his name.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1846        Feb 9, Wilhelm Maybach, German engineer, was born. He designed the first Mercedes automobile.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1846        Mar 13, Friedrich Hebbel's "Maria Magdalena," premiered in Konigsberg.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1846        Sep 23, The planet Neptune was discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/23/97)

1846        Carl Zeiss founded an optical business in Thuringia, Germany.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.64)

1847        Feb 16, Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka, German composer (Album Polonaise), was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1847        May 14, Fanny Cacilia Mendelssohn Hensel (41), German pianist, composer and sister of Felix Mendelssohn, died of a stroke.
    (ON, 6/07, p.8)

1847        Jul 20, Max Liebermann, German impressionist painter, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1847        Oct 2, Paul von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I whose brilliant victories on the Eastern Front promoted him to become the second president of the Weimar Republic, was born.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1847        Oct, The German company Siemens was founded in a Berlin courtyard. Johann Georg Halske and Werner von Siemens formed their own company, Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske to develop a new design for the Wheatstone telegraph.
    (WSJ, 1/31/07, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/26xq4a)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.54)

1847        Nov 4, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (b.1809), German pianist and composer, died at age 38. His work included: "Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream."
    (WUD, 1994 p.895)(LGC, 1970, p.201)(ON, 6/07, p.8)

1847        Dec 30, John Peter Altgeld, US Gov-Ill, was born in Germany. He pardoned some of the Haymarket anarchists.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1847-1935    Max Lieberman, a Berlin artist, was influenced but not smothered by the Impressionists.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A16)

1848        Mar 20, King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicated to marry dancer Lola Montez.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1848        Mar 24, The First Schleswig War began. It was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question and contested the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The 3-year war lasted from 1848–1851.

1848        May 23, Helmuth J.L. von Moltke, German general, chief of staff (WW I), was born.

1848        The painter-poet Josef Victor von Scheffel published cynical poems with titles as 'Biedermann's Evening socializing' and 'Bummelmaier's Complaint' in the Viennese satirical magazine 'Fliegende Blätter' (Flying Leaves). These names were combined into the pseudonym 'Gottlieb Biedermaier' by Ludwig Eichrodt, who together with Adolf Kussmaul published poems by the schoolmaster Samuel Friedrich Sauter under this name. The spelling finally changed into 'Biedermeier' in 1869 when Eichrodt published 'Biedermeier's Liederlust'.

1849        Mar 19, Alfred von Tirpitz, Prussian admiral, was born. He commanded the German fleet in early World War I.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1849        Mar 24, Johann Dobereiner (b.1780), German chemist, died. He is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_D%C3%B6bereiner)

1849        Jul 23, German rebels in Baden capitulated to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1850        Jan 6, Franz Xaver Scharwenka, German pianist and composer (Mataswintha), was born.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1850        Jul 2, Prussia agreed to pull out of Schleswig and Holstein, Germany.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1850        Aug 28, Richard Wagner's opera "Lohengrin'' premiered at Weimar, Germany, under the direction of Franz Liszt.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lohengrin_(opera))(WSJ, 3/16/98, p.A20)

1850        Nov 9, Lewis Lewin, German toxicologist and father of psycho-pharmacology, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1851        Feb 6, Robert Schumann's 3rd Symphony "Rhenish," premiered in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1851        May 20, Emile Berliner, inventor of the flat phonograph record, was born in Germany.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1851        Dec 10, Karl von Drais (b.1785), noble German forest official and inventor, died in Karlsruhe. He invented the Laufmaschine ("running machine"), later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or draisienne (French), also nicknamed the hobby horse or dandy horse. It incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal transport. Drais also invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard (1821).

1851        Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899), a German-born immigrant, began transmitting stock-market quotes between London and Paris over the new Dover-Calais submarine telegraph cable.

1852        Apr 12, Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann (d.1939), German mathematician, was born.

1852        May 8, A war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years (1848–50) and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of 1852. This was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The 1852 London Protocol confirmed that the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein should remain undivided.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Protocol)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.20)

1852        Jun 9, Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff, German-Russian naturalist, physician and explorer, died of typhus in Germany. He first participated as naturalist and physician in the great Russian scientific circumnavigation expedition commanded by Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern, from 1803 to 1805. He returned from San Francisco by ship to Siberia and thence to Saint Petersburg by land, arriving in 1808.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigory_Langsdorff)

1852        Jun 21, Friedrich Frobel (b.1782), founder of the Play and Activity Institute (1837) in Germany, died. In 1840 he created the word kindergarten to describe the institute.

1853        Karl Gerhardt discovered aspirin.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1853        German physicist Heinrich Magnus (1802-1870) first described the phenomenon, which came to be called the Magnus effect, whereby a spinning object flying in a fluid creates a whirlpool of fluid around itself, and experiences a force perpendicular to the line of motion and away from the direction of spin. According to author James Gleick (b.1954) Isaac Newton described it and correctly theorized the cause 180 years earlier, after observing tennis players in his Cambridge college.

1854        Feb 6, Composer Robert Schumann was saved from a depression-induced suicide attempt of walking into the Rhine.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1854        Feb 17, Friedrich A. Krupp, German arms manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1854        Feb 27, Composer Robert Schumann was saved from a suicide attempt in Rhine.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1854        Sep 1, Engelbert Humperdinck, German opera composer (Hansel & Gretel), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1854        In Germany the Frankfurter Bank was founded. In 1970 it merged with Berliner Handels-Gesselschaft and became BHF-Bank.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BHF_Bank)

1855        Jul 30, Wilhelm von Siemens, German industrialist, was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1855        Dec 27, Paul Ehrenreich, German ethnologist and mythologist, was born.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1856        Feb 17, Heinrich Heine (b.1797), German journalist and poet, died in Paris. His prose work included a series of travel memoirs that began in 1826 with “The Harz Journey."

1856        May 20, Henri E. Cross (d.1910), French painter, was born. His real surname was Delacroix but was changed in 1881.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1856        Jul 29, Robert Schumann (46), German composer, died. He had starved himself to death in a madhouse. The 1947 film "Song of Love" was based on the Robert and Clara Schuman. In 2000 J.D. Landis authored "Longing" a novel based on the love affair between Robert Schuman and Clara Wieck.
    (BLW, 1963 ed. p.49)(WSJ, 9/22/00, p.W12)

1856        Jul 2, Prussian private bankers founded Berliner Handels-Gesselschaft. In 1970 the bank merged with Frankfurter Bank and became BHF-Bank.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.84)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Handels-Gesellschaft)
1856        Lothar von Faber of Germany bought a graphite mine in Siberia to secure raw material for his pencil manufacturing operations.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.73)

1857        Feb 18, Max Klinger, German graphic artist, painter, sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1857        Feb 22, Heinrich Hertz, German physicist, was born in Hamburg. He became the first person to broadcast and receive radio waves. The radio wave unit of frequency was named after him.
    (HN, 2/22/01)(AP, 2/22/07)

1857        Oct 29, Conrad Haebler, German historian (Early Printers of Spain and Portugal), was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1857        Dec 29, Franz Liszt's "Die Hunnenschlacht," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1857        H. Sichel & Sohne, the producers of the popular Blue Nun white wine, was founded.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.4)

1857        Franz Kruger (b.1797), Biedermeier artist of cityscapes and rural genre scenes, died.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1858        Jan 25, Britain's Princess Victoria (the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert), married Crown Prince Frederick William (the future German Emperor and King of Prussia) at St. James's Palace. The ceremony's tradition-setting music, personally selected by the Princess Royal, included the "Bridal Chorus" from Richard Wagner's "Lohengrin" and the "Wedding March" by Felix Mendelssohn.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

1858        Mar 18, Rudolf Diesel, German mechanical engineer, was born in Paris. He designed the compression-ignition engine (1893).
    (HN, 3/18/99)(AP, 3/18/08)

1858        Mar 31, Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen launched the SS New York, a passenger cargo vessel. It was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool in 1874 and later wrecked near Staten Island. In 1994 Edwin Drechsel (1914-2006) later authored a 2-volume history of the North German shipping line.

1858        Apr 23, Max K.E. Ludwig Planck, German physicist (Planck Constant, Nobel 1918), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1859        Jan 22, Brahms' 1st piano concerto (in D minor) premiered in Hanover.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1859        Jan 27, Kaiser Wilhelm II, German emperor (1888-1918) during World War I, was born. He was forced to abdicate in 1918.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(MC, 1/27/02)

1859        Mar 28, 1st performance of John Brahms' 1st Serenade for orchestra.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1859        May 6, Baron Freidrich von Humboldt (b.1769), German naturalist and explorer who made the first isothermic and isobaric maps, died. In 2015 Andrea Wulf authored “The Invention of Nature: Alexander von Humboldt’s New World."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_von_Humboldt)(Econ, 11/7/15, p.78)

1859        Oct 4, Karl Baedeker (b.1801), German travel writer and tour guide (Die Schweiz), died.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1859        Oct 19, Georg Knorr, German engineer (brake system trains), was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1859        Nov 22, Ludwig "Louis" Spohr (75), German violinist and composer (Faust), died.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1860        Sep 21, Arthur Schopenhauer (b.1788), German philosopher known for his pessimism and philosophical clarity, died. At age 25 he published his doctoral dissertation," On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason," which examined the four separate manifestations of reason in the phenomenal world.

1860-1870    Erdmann and Reinhold Schlegelmilch, apparently unrelated, began making dinnerware in the 1860s in central Germany.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)

1861        Jan 2, Frederik Willem IV (b.1795), king of Prussia (1840-61) and Germany (1849-61), died.

1861        May 18, Friedrich Hebbel's "Kriemhildes Rache" premiered in Weimar.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1861        Aug 10, Friedrich Julius Stahl (b.1802), conservative German jurist and publicist, died in Bruckenau. He developed the idea that Germans are a people based on descent.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Julius_Stahl)(Econ, 2/11/06, Survey p.13)

1861        Dec 26, Friedrich Engel, German mathematician (group theory), was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1861        Germany abolished a number of discriminatory laws including the Matrikel law, which allowed only the oldest son in a Jewish family to marry.
    (SFC, 3/19/17, p.C1)
1861        The first Archaeopteryx fossil was found in Germany in mid-Jurassic rocks dating to about 155-150 million BC. The very rare remains of the first bird, Archaeopteryx, was about the size of a dove, had a long, reptile-like tail but with real feathers, not scales, and it possessed teeth in its beak.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.101)(SFC, 7/28/11, p.A8)

1861-1871    In 2007 Michael Knox Beran authored “Forge of Empires: 1861-1871: Three Revolutionary Statesmen and the World They Made," a work of comparative history in which he focuses on the US, Russia and the unifying German states during the 1860s.
    (WSJ, 12/6/07, p.D7)

1862        Mar 19, F. Wilhelm von Schadow (73), German painter (Modern Vasari), died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1862        Aug 9, Hector Berlioz' opera "Beatrice et Benedict," premiered in Baden-Baden.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1862        Sep 23, Otto von Bismarck became the 9th Minister President of the Kingdom of Prussia.

1862        Nov 15, Gerhart Hauptmann, German author (Before Dawn- Nobel 1912), was born.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1863        Jun 2, Felix Weingartner, conductor (Zara, Dalmatia), was born in Germany.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1863        Jul 14, Jews of Holstein, Germany, were granted equality.
    (MC, 7/14/02)
1863        Sep 13, Franz von Hipper, German naval commander at the Battle of Jutland in World War I, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1863        Sep 30, Reinhard von Scheer, German admiral who commanded the German fleet at the Battle of Jutland, was born.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1863        May 23, In Germany the General German Workers’ Association (ADAV) was founded. In 1869 it became the Social Democratic Workers’ Party of Germany (SDAP). In 1875 it became the Social Democratic Party (SPD).

1863        Ludwig II (1845-1886) became king of Bavaria after his father died.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)

1864        Jan 13, Wilhelm K.W. Wien (d.1928), German physicist (Nobel 1911), was born.

1864        Apr 10, Eugene Francis Charles D'Albert, German pianist, composer (Golem), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1864        Apr 21, Max Weber (d.1920), German sociologist and political economist, was born. Weber drew strong connection between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism in "The Protestant and the Spirit of Capitalism" (1904). "He was the first sociologist to grasp that the universe has no true meaning." In 1996 "Max Weber: Politics and the Spirit of Tragedy" by John Patrick Diggins was published.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.167)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/21/01)

1864        Jun 11, Richard Strauss (d.1949), German orchestra conductor and composer, was born. His work included "Daphne" and "Ariadne auf Naxos," (1912).
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1405)

1864        Jun 14, Alois Alzheimer (d.1915), German psychiatrist, pathologist (Alzheimer Disease), was born.

1864        Prussia and Austria snatched Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The border was redrawn by plebiscite in 1920. After 1945 Germany and Denmark agreed to recognize the rights of minorities on both sides.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.66)
1864        Hertwig and Co. of Thuringia, Germany, introduced ceramic figurines called Snow Babies made from bisque (unglazed clay) covered with crushed bisque “snowflakes." The first Snow Babies had been made of sugar candy and used as Christmas decorations.
    (SFC, 9/12/07, p.G7)
1864        Lehmann Bernheimer opened a shop in Bavaria for textiles and oriental carpets before expanding to include Italian Renaissance furniture, French antiques, tapestries, porcelain and other objets d’art. In 2002 rth generation Konrad O. Bernheimer acquired the internationally renowned gallery Colnaghi, thus uniting two long-standing and distinguished art dealerships. Founded in 1760, Colnaghi soon received royal patronage and established itself as the premier dealership for prints.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/28d6tnh)

1865        Apr 9, Erich Ludendorff, German general during World War I, was born.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1865        Jun 10, The opera "Tristan und Isolde" by Richard Wagner premiered in Munich, Germany. Wagner had begun the work in 1857.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 3/12/99, p.W2)

1865        A commercial treaty was established between Britain and the German zollverein.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)

1865        BASF was founded in Germany as Badische Anilin & Soda Fabrik. Anilin was important in making dyes and soda was used in glass, soaps and textiles.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.80)

1866        May 7, German premier Otto von Bismarck was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1866        Jun 8, Prussia annexed the region of Holstein.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1866        Jun 15, Prussia attacked Austria.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1866        Jun 27, The Battle of Langensalza was fought near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the Prussians. The Hanoverians won the battle but were then surrounded by a larger and reinforced Prussian army, and, unable to link up with their Bavarian allies to the south, they surrendered. Hanover was annexed after losing a war with Prussia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Langensalza_%281866%29)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.61)

1866        The New Synagogue of Berlin was completed. It was able to seat 3,200 people for services.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A29)

1866          German zoologist Ernst Haeckel proposed that the embryonal development of an individual organism (its ontogeny) followed the same path as the evolutionary history of its species (its phylogeny).
1866        The word "ecology" was coined by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel from the Greek oikos, for house, and logos, for discourse. It meant the study of the relations between living organisms and their environment.
    (NH, 2/97, p.4)

1867        Feb 11, August W. Messer, German philosopher, educator, psychologist, was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1867        May 14, Kurt Eisner, German premier of revolutionary Bavaria (1918-19), was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1867        Oct, Karl Marx (1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, published Volume 1 of “Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie" (Capital: Critique of Political Economy). The first English edition was published in 1887. It is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production. Volumes II and III remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life and were published posthumously by Engels.

1867        Bismarck unified Germany.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)
1867        Lawyer and civil servant Heinrich Ulrichs addressed the Association of German Jurists calling for a repeal of antisodomy laws.
    (SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)
1867        German businessman named Augusto R. Berns purchased land across from Machu Picchu, Peru, and an 1887 document showed he set up a company to plunder the site.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

1868        Apr 10, 1st performance of Johannes Brahms' "Ein Deutches Requiem."
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1868        Jun 21, The first performance of Wagner’s opera Die Meistersinger took place in Munich.

1868        Dec 24, Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion (1894-21), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1868        Ludwig II (1845-1886) of Bavaria began the construction of his fairy-tale-style castle at Neuschwanstein.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)

1869        Jun 6, Siegfried Wagner, German opera composer, conductor, son of Richard Wagner (who composed "Siegfried Idyll" to commemorate his birth), was born.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1869        Sep 22, Richard Wagner's opera "Das Rheingold" premiered in Munich.

1869        Johannes Brahms  composed his "German Requiem."
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1869        Johann Friedrich Overbeck (b.1789), German Nazarene artist, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1869-1949    Hans Erich Pfitzner, composer and conductor. He became a Nazi sympathizer and an enthusiastic anti-Semite.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1078)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1870        Apr 9, Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert (1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored “Finding the Wall of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik."
    (www.lib.duke.edu/lilly/artlibry/dah/schliemannh.htm)(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)

1870        Jun 26, Richard Wagner's opera "Die Walküre" was first performed as a single opera in Munich.

1870        Jul 19, The Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war on Bismarck. Emperor Napoleon III of France declared war on Germany under Otto von Bismarck. Napoleon was defeated in three months and abdicated.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 7/19/07)

1870        Aug 18, Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1870        Aug 25, Richard Wagner married Cosima von Bulow. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter of Franz Liszt and had married Hans von Bulow. She and Wagner already had 3 children by the time they married.
    (LGC, 1970, p.266)

1870        Sep 1, The Prussian army crushed the French at Sedan, the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1870        Sep 2, Napoleon III capitulated to the Prussians at Sedan, France.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(HN, 9/2/98)

1870        Sept. 2, Napoleon surrendered to Prussia at Sedan.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)

1870        Oct 27, The French fortress of Metz surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1870-1871    Brahms composed his "Triumphlied" to celebrate Germany's victory over France and the foundation of the German Empire. It is dedicated to the German Emperor but is really written for Prince Bismarck.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed., p.107,318)

1870-1871    During the Franco-Prussian War there was a shortage of beef and horse meat began to be used. Germany annexed Alsace after the war.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1870-1919    Rosa Luxemburg, German socialist leader: "Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently."
    (AP, 11/28/98)

1871        Jan 8, Prussian troops began to bombard Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1871        Jan 18, The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich) was proclaimed in Versailles.  William I of Prussia was proclaimed "German Emperor" (which was not the same thing as "Emperor of Germany"). The unification of Germany was the greatest geopolitical transformation of the period. Germany went on to adopt the mark as its common currency.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(AP, 1/18/07)(WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A21)

1871        Jan 28, France, under a provisional republican government, continued the war against Germany, but was forced to surrender in the Franco-Prussian War. Surrounded by Prussian troops and suffering from famine, the French army in Paris surrendered. During the siege, balloons were used to keep contact with the outside world.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)

1871        Mar 1, Germans paraded down the Champs-Elysses, Paris, France during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 3/1/99)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)

1871        Mar 21, Otto von Bismarck became the 1st Chancellor of the German Empire.

1871        Mar 27, Heinrich Mann, Germany, novelist, essayist (Blue Angel); brother of Thomas Mann, was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1871        Apr 16, German Empire ended all anti-Jewish civil restrictions.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1871        Germany adopted the gold standard.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.57)
1871        Germany codified its antisodomy laws under “Paragraph 175" of the penal code.
    (SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)
1871        B. Bloch & Co. was founded in Eichwald, Germany, for the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain dinnerware, household items and decorative pieces. The name was changed after World War I to Eichwalder Porcelain and Stove Factory Bloch & Co.
    (SFC, 8/16/06, p.G7)

1872        Friedrich Nietzsche published his first book: "The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music," in which Greek tragedy was interpreted along Wagnerian lines with Appolonian and Dionysian opposites.
    ( LGC, 1970, p.266)(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)

1872        Adolf Baeyer, German organic chemist, combined phenol (from coal tar) and formaldehyde (from wood alcohol), while searching for a new synthetic dye. His student Werner Kleeberg in 1891, while searching for a shellac substitute, used the combination to create a new resinous substance. Hendrik Baekeland later expanded on the Kleeberg process and in 1907 filed for a US patent on his new material Bakelite.
    (ON, 9/05, p.11)

1873        Feb 2, Baron Konstantin von Neurath, German secretary of State (1932-38), was born.  After WW II he was tried as war criminal and received jail sentence.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1873        Mar 10, Jakob Wassermann (d.1934), novelist (My Life as German & Jew), was born in Germany. "In every person, even in such as appear most reckless, there is an inherent desire to attain balance."
    (AP, 3/25/97)(MC, 3/10/02)

1873        Mar 19, Max Reger, composer, pianist, prof. (Leipzig Univ), was born in Brand, Bavaria.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1873        Ludwig II of Bavaria began the construction of his palace at Linderhof.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)
1873        Rabbi Esriel Hildesheimer founded the Rabbinerseminar zu Berlin as German Orthodoxy’s answer to the Judisch-Theologische Seminar in Breslau. Its outlook was that although Jewish law, the halacha, was immutable, it had to be couched in contemporary language. In 1990 Rabbi David Ellenson authored a biography of Rabbi Hildesheimer.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, SR p.10,11)
1873        The Verein für Socialpolitik, Germany’s economic association, was founded.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.48)
1873        Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin began the conceptual work for his improved air machine. He planned a rigid structure with gas held at various intervals in the framework with engines for propulsion and a suspended gondola to house the engines, crew and passengers.
    (AHM, 1/97)
1873        Ernst Abbe (1840-1905), German physicist, noted that a microscope cannot properly see any object smaller than half the wavelength of the light it uses.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Abbe)
1873        German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann smuggled out treasures from the ancient city of Troy.
    (SSFC, 9/11/11, p.A4)

1873-1951     Fritz Thyssen, German industrialist: "When I rest, I rust."
    (AP, 7/29/97)

1874        Apr 15, Johannes Stark, Nobel Prize-winning German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1874        Jul 28, Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher, educator (Essay on Man), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1874        Aug 27, Karl Bosch, German chemist (BASF, Nobel 1931), was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1874        Oct 26, Peter Cornelius, German composer, died at 49.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1875        Feb 4, Ludwig Prandtl, physicist (father of aerodynamics), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1875        May 7, German SS Schiller sank near Scilly Islands and 312 were killed.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1875        Jun 6, Thomas Mann (d.1955), German novelist and essayist, was born. He was forced into exile by the Nazis. The major part of Mann’s oeuvre is concerned with problems of the artist per se, and no writer of our time and perhaps of any time has probed so deeply into the artistic personality  or described so brilliantly the workings of artistic genius. His work included Buddenbrooks (1901), Death in Venice (1912), Doctor Faustus (1947), and The Magic Mountain. Two biographies of Mann were published in 1995: Thomas Mann: A Biography by Ronald Hayman and Thomas Mann: A Life by Donald Prater. "Speech is civilization itself. The word, even the most contradictory word, preserves contact -- it is silence which isolates."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(AP, 10/19/98)(HN, 6/6/99)

1875        Jul 3, Ernst F. Sauerbruch, German Nazi surgeon, was born.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1875        Sep 3, Ferdinand Porsche, German automotive engineer, was born. He designed the Volkswagen in 1934 and the Porsche sports car in 1950.
    (HN, 9/3/00)(MC, 9/3/01)

1875        Dec 12, Karl R.G. von Rundstedt, German gen-field marshal (Normandy), was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1875-1926    Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet. He was born in Prague to German-speaking parents. His works include New Poems (1907), his autobiographical novel: "The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge," and his masterpieces the "Duino Elegies" and "The Sonnets to Orpheus." His mistress was Lou Andreas-Salome, a novelist, essayist and clinical psychologist.  Ralph Freedman wrote a biography of Rilke titled Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke in 1996. His complete works were published in 1966 and an annotated edition in 1996. In 1997 his early work was published: "Diaries of a Young Poet," translated by Edward Snow and Michael Winkler. On the new year day: "And now let us believe in a long year that is given to us, new, untouched, full of things that have never been, full of work that has never been done, full of tasks, claims, and demands; and let us see that we learn to take it without letting fall too much of what it has to bestow upon those who demand of it necessary, serious and great things."
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/15/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/1/98)

1875-1965    Albert Schweitzer, German-born missionary and Nobel laureate. "Man must cease attributing his problems to his environment, and learn again to exercise his will -- his personal responsibility in the realm of faith and morals."
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1876        Jan 5, Conrad Adenauer (d.1967), statesman and first chancellor of post-World War II West Germany, was born. He was chancellor of Germany from 1949-1963. "The good Lord set definite limits on man's wisdom, but set no limits on his stupidity -- and that's not fair!"
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)(AP, 7/1/98)(HN, 1/5/99)

1876        Aug 13, Richard Wagner's monumental epic, "Ring of the Nibelung" premiered with 4 operas on 4 consecutive nights) at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany. Wagner had begun writing the opera in 1848.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Der_Ring_des_Nibelungen)(Econ, 6/25/16, p.73)

1876        Sep 15, Bruno Walter, [B W Schlesinger], conductor (NY Phil), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 9/15/01)

1876        Aug 16, Wagner's Opera "Siegfried" premiered at Bayreuth. [See Aug 13]

1876        Aug 17, Wagner's opera "Gotterdammerung" was produced at Bayreuth. [see Aug 13]

1876        Sep 15, Bruno Walter (d.1962), [B W Schlesinger], conductor (NY Phil), was born in Berlin, Germany.

1876        Nov 4, Johannes Brahms' Symphony #1 in C, premiered at Karlsruhe.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1876        The Berlin Nationalgalerie was inaugurated by Kaiser Wilhelm I on Museum Island in the Spree River. It re-opened in 2002 after 4 years of renovation.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

c1876        In Frankfurt the Steigenberger Frankfurter Hof was built.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T6)

1876        A paper in the Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, a  Germany medical journal, suggested that salsalate could help diabetics control their blood sugar. Harvard researchers in the 1990s conducted studies that supported the claim.
    (WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A12)

1876        Carl von Linde (1842-1934), German engineer, invented refrigeration.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_von_Linde)

1876        Nikolaus Otto (1832-1891), German inventor, first demonstrated the four-stroke engine.

1877        Jan 22, Hjalmar Horace Greely Schacht, president of German Reichsbank, minister of Economics, was born.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1877        Jul 2, Herman Hesse (d.1962), German philosopher poet and author, was born in Switzerland. His work included "Steppenwolf" and he won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1946.
    (HN, 7/2/99)(WUD, 1994, p.666)(SC, 7/2/02)

1877        Dec 2, Camille Saint-Saens' opera "Samson et Dalila," premiered in Weimar.
    (WSJ, 2/20/98, p.A16)(MC, 12/2/01)

1877        In Germany the Steiff Toy Co. was founded. They made their first teddy bears in 1903 with black, shoe-button eyes.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, Z1 p.3)

1877        In Germany the S. Gunthermann manufacturer of metal vehicles and other toys was founded in Nuremberg about this time.
    (SFC, 9/20/06, p.G3)

1877-78     Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1878        Feb 8, Martin Buber, German-Israeli philosopher, theologist (Ich und Du), was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1878        Apr 1, Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion, Tabula Rasa), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1878        Jun 4, The Ottoman Empire turned over control of Cyprus to the British. The Congress of Berlin leased Cyprus to Britain.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.10)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. Austria-Hungary and Britain, alarmed at the possibilities of growing Russian power, concluded the Treaty of Berlin, reducing the military and political gains Russia had made with the San Stefano treaty.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(HNQ, 2/23/01)

1878        Jul 30, German anti-Semitism began during the Reichstag election.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1878        Oct 21, German republic chancellor Bismarck delegated the end of "Socialism."
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1878        Oct 29, Alex E. von Falkenhausen, German general (China, WW II), was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1878        Topf & Sons was founded in Erfurt, Germany, as a customized incinerator and malting equipment manufacturer. The firm was close to the Ettersberg hill, later the site of Buchenwald concentration camp. With the expansion of cremation in Germany as a burial rite in the 1920s, the firm's ambitious chief engineer Kurt Pruefer pioneered furnaces which complied with strict regulations on preserving the dignity of the body. In 1941 the firm agreed to build crematoria for Auschwitz and enable industrialized mass murder.
    (Reuters, 7/25/05)
1878        Carl Humann led a German team in excavating an archeological site in Bergama, western Turkey. The team discovered an altar of Zeus, dating from the 2nd century BC. It was sent to Germany and became the centerpiece of the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1879        Mar 8, Otto Hahn, German co-discoverer of nuclear fission, was born. He received a Nobel Prize in 1944.
    (HN, 3/8/98)(MC, 3/8/02)

1879        Mar 14, Physicist Albert Einstein, mathematician best known for his theories on relativity was born in Ulm, Germany. He received the Physics Nobel Prize in 1921.
    (CFA, ‘96,Vol 179,  p.42)(AP, 3/14/97)(HN, 3/14/02)(MC, 3/15/02)

1879        May 31, 1st electric railway opened at the Berlin Trades Exposition.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1879        Oct 2, A dual alliance was formed between Austria and Germany, in which the two countries agreed to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1879        Oct 9, Max von Laue, German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1879        Oct 29, Franz JHMM von Papen, German diplomat and chancellor (1932), was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1879        Dec 18, Paul Klee (d.1940), Swiss abstract painter best known for The Mocker Mocked, was born.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1879        Germany raised tariffs to limit agricultural and steel imports.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1879        Rosenthal began making porcelain plates in Selb, Germany. Limited edition Christmas plates were introduced in 1910.
    (SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)

1880        May 29, Oswald Spengler, German philosopher of history, was born. He maintained that every culture grows, matures and decays. He wrote the book "The Decline of the West."
    (HN, 5/29/99)

1880        Aug 14, Construction of Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248, was completed 633 years after it was begun.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1880        Nov 1, Alfred L Wegener, German meteorologist (continental shift), was born.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1880        Hans Hofmann (d.1966), abstract artist, was born and raised in Munich, Germany. He lived in Paris from 1904-1914 and moved to the US in 1931.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1880        In Berlin the Weissensee Jewish cemetery was opened.
    (SFC, 10/5/99, p.A10)

1880        Bavaria and Prussia introduced Spellingreform. Chancellor Bismarck threatened civil servants with increased fines if the new system was used.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.45)

1880-1889    Germany set up a vocational training system.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)
1880-1889    In Germany Louis Doberman, a night watchman and keeper of the local dog pound, refined the dog that bears his name into a fierce creature.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)

1881        Jan 4, The "Academic Festival Overture" by Johannes Brahms premiered in Breslau.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1881        Feb 14, Otto Selz, German psychologist, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1881        Mar 23, Hermann Staudinger, chemist, plastics researcher (Nobel '53), was born in Germany.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1881        May 14, Rudolph Karstadt founded his first store in Wismar, Germany. In 1999 Karstadt merged with Quelle, a mail-order business founded in 1927 by Gustav Schickedanz. By 2009 the venerable German chain, which  included the famous Berlin department store KaDeWe, faced bankruptcy after years of erratic management.
    (WSJ, 7/17/06, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quelle_(company))(AFP, 9/3/10)

1881        May 16, World's 1st electric tram went into service in Lichterfelder near Berlin.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1881        Aug 8, Paul L.E. von Kleist, German general-fieldmarshal (Eastern Front), was born.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1881        Oct 4, [Heinrich AH] Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1881        The Aug. Schatz & Sohne company was founded in Triburg, Germany, to produce clocks. These included anniversary clocks, also called 400-day clocks, because they could be wound to run for more than 365 days.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.G3)

1881        A German expedition to Chile that took 11 Kawesqar Indians to Europe to appear in what was later described as a human zoo. 5 of the Indians died in 1882 in Zurich, Switzerland. Their remains were repatriated in 2010.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

1881-1882    Dr. Muller of Germany was said to be working at the Swiss Geisenheim viticultural station when he made the crossing that joined the late-ripening Riesling and the early-ripening and prolific Silvaner. The grape became know as Muller-Thurgau. Müller-Thurgau entered the well-kept records of Germany's vineyards in 1921, but it was not until a major symposium on the crossing was held at Alzey in 1938 that it gained any widespread acceptance.

1881-1934    Ernst Paul Lehmann made tin toys over this period in Brandenburg. His toys included a toy mule that kicked while pulling a cart driven by a clown called "the balky mule."
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1882        Mar 24, German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1882        Jun 24, Joseph Joachim Raff (60), German opera composer, died.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1882        Jul 26, Richard Wagner's final opera "Parsifal," premiered in Bayreuth, Germany.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsifal)(WSJ, 7/2/99, p.W11A)
1882        Sep 10, The 1st international conference to promote anti-Semitism met in Dresden, Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests).
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1882        Sep 22, Wilhelm Keitel, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1882        Oct 3, Gunther von Kluge, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1882        Dec 16, Walther Meissner, German physicist (Meissner effect), was born.
    (MC, 12/16/01)

1882        The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra was founded.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.E6)

1882-1884    Norwegian adventurer Johan Adrian Jacobsen collected some 200 Chugach items from graves in caves on Chenega Island, Alaska, for Germany's Royal Museum of Ethnology. In 2018 a Berlin museum returned ancient wooden masks, an idol and other spiritually significant artifacts plundered from graves to indigenous Alaskans.
    (AP, 5/16/18)

1883        Feb 13, Richard Wagner (b.1813), revolutionary German composer, died in Venice. Composer Leon Stein (d.2002 at 92) later authored "The Racial Thinking of Richard Wagner." In 2007 Jonathan Carr authored “The Wagner Clan," The Saga of Germany's Most Illustrious and Infamous Family. In 2020 Alex Ross authored "Wagnerism: Art and Politics in the Shadow of Music."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner)(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(Econ., 9/8/07, p.85)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.81)

1883        Feb 23, Karl Jaspers, existentialist philosopher, was born in Oldenburg, Germany.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1883        Mar 14, Karl Marx (64), German political philosopher (Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital), died in London.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(MC, 3/14/02)

1883        Apr 29, Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (b.1808), German economist, died. He was responsible for organizing of the world's first credit unions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Hermann_Schulze-Delitzsch)(Econ, 5/24/14, p.79)

1883        May 18, Walter Gropius (d.1969), architect and founder of the Bauhaus school of design, was born in Berlin, Germany. "The human mind is like an umbrella. It functions best when open."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)(AP, 10/7/98)(SC, 5/18/02)

1883        Jul 27, Albert Franz Doppler (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1883        Nov 18, Wilhelm Siemens, German-British physicist (steam engine), died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1883        Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted the first compulsory health insurance program on a national scale.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1883        Richard Wagner, composer, died. Composer Leon Stein (d.2002 at 92) later authored "The Racial Thinking of Richard Wagner."
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)

1884        Apr 24, Otto von Bismarck cabled Cape Town that South Africa had become a German colony.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1884        May 18, Heinrich R. Göppert, German paleo-botanist, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1884        Jun 10, Johann Gustav Droysen (b.1808), German historian, died in Berlin. His books included “Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen" (1833), a study of Alexander the Great.

1884        Jul 7, Lion Feuchtwanger, German philosopher, writer (Jud Suss), was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1884        Aug 7, The German flag was raised in South West Africa. German South West Africa became a colony of the German Empire. This continued to 1915.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_South_West_Africa)(BBC, 12/3/20)

1884        Dec 30, Anton Bruckner's 7th Symphony in E, premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1884        Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference to work out joint policy on the African continent.
1884        Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted a national workman's compensation program.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1884        Germany legislated a dual board system of corporate governance.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)
1884        Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854-1899) of Germany invented the Linotype machine that produced newspaper type and was used until it was replaced by computers.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A21)
1884        Robert Koch, German microbiologist, rediscovered, isolated and cultured the cholera bacillus, Vibrio cholerae. Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the bacillus in 1854, but did not prove that it caused cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1884        Cameroon was colonized by Germany.
    (BBC, 5/10/20)

1885        Feb 26, The General Act of the Conference of Berlin was signed. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

1885        Mar 31, Franz Wilhelm Abt (65), German composer, choir conductor, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1885        Apr 3,  Gottlieb Daimler’s four-stroke, single-cylinder engine, was registered for patent. It was  prerequisite for the riding car and simultaneously the world’s first motorcycle.

1885        May 14, Otto Klemperer, conductor, composer, was born in Breslau, Germany.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1885        May 19, German chancellor Bismarck took possession of Cameroon & Togoland.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1885        Nov 18, Paul Daimler, son of Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new invention, Daimler Reitwagen, on a round trip of 5-12 km. The seat caught fire on that excursion.

1885        Nov 30, Albrecht (von) Kesselring, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1885        The 70-room Herrenchiemsee Castle of Ludwig II of Bavaria was built on an island in Lake Chiemsee.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T4)
1885        In Germany Berlin police Commissioner Leopold von Meerscheidt-Hullessem created the police Dept. of Homosexuals to prosecute cases under Paragraph 175.
    (SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)
1885        Bavaria issued measures aimed at controlling Gypsies and gathering information about them.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)

1886        Jan 25, Wilhelm Furtwangler, conductor, composer, was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1886        Jan 29, Karl Benz in Karlsruhe applied for a patent on his 1st successful gasoline-driven car. The date of the application became the patent date for the invention once the patent was granted, which occurred in November of that year.

1886        Mar 27, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, German-US architect (Bauhaus), was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1886        Apr 28, Erich Salomon, German photographer, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1886        Jun 13, King Ludwig II (40), King of Bavaria, drowned in Lake Starnberg. Bavarian leaders had conspired to remove Ludvig II from office and got a doctor, who never saw him, to declare him insane. He was captured and taken to a mansion on Lake Starnberg where he was found floating dead with his doctor. In 1996 Greg King authored "The Mad King."
    (AP, 6/13/97)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)

1886        Jul 3, In Germany Karl Benz drove the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1886        Jul 31, Franz Liszt, composer, died in Bayreuth. His work included the symphonic poem "Les Preludes" and the "Faust Symphony." Cosima-von-Bulow was a illegitimate daughter of Liszt and married to Richard Wagner. A 3 volume biography of Liszt (1977, 1983, 1996) was written by Alan Walker, Vol 3 was titled: "Franz Liszt: The final Years." Deszno Legany of Hungary earlier wrote: "Liszt and His country: 1874-1866."
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)

1886        Aug 20, Paul Tillich, German-US theologian and philosopher who wrote "Systematic Theology," was born.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)

1886        Gottlieb Daimler and lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach mounted a vertical cylinder version of their throttled engine onto a coach.
1886        The firm of Robert Bosch GmbH was founded. It later became a world leader in automotive electronics.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A30)
1886        A handful of German families, led by Elisabeth Nietzsche-Foerster (1935), founded the Aryan colony Nueva Germania in the jungles of Paraguay. The idea had been originally suggested by composer Richard Wagner in 1880. The colony fell apart in 1893 and Elisabeth Nietzsche-Foerster, described by her brother, Friedrich Nietzsche (d.1900), as a “vengeful anti-Semitic goose," returned to Germany where she edited and promoted the work of her brother.
    (SSFC, 3/13/05, p.C6)

1887        Jun 20, Kurt Schwitters (d.1948), German artist, was born. He spent a year and a half in an internment camp on the Isle of Man during WW II where he managed to create some 200 works of art from salvaged scraps.
    (WSJ, 8/19/97, p.A17)(HN, 6/20/01)

1887        Feb 11, Ernst "Putzi" Hanfstangl, German politician and confidante of Hitler, NSDAP & American school chum of Roosevelt ), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1887        Jul 22, Gustav Hertz, German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)

1887        Nov 10, Arnold Zweig, German antifascist and author (Erziehung vor Verdun), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1887        Nov 28, Ernst Roehm, early Nazi and German staff member, later Bolivian leader, was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1887-1891    German colonial administrators made Bagamoyo, Tanzania, their capital.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.C9)

1888        Jan 24, Ernst Heinrich Heinkel, German inventor (1st rocket-powered aircraft), was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1888        Feb 27, Lotte Lehmann, German opera singer, was born.
    (HN, 2/27/01)

1888        Mar 5, Friedrich Schnack, German journalist, writer (Rosewood), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1888        Jun 15, Wilhelm II became emperor of Germany.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1888        Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), German philosopher, authored “Twilight of the Idols." It included the phrase: "What does not destroy me makes me stronger," which unwittingly inspired 21st century musicians.
1888        German scientists discovered that small amounts of poison might actually do an organism good. The paradoxical effect was called hormesis.
    (WSJ, 12/19/03, p.B1)

1889        Mar, Friedrich Nietzsche entered an asylum 2 months after a mental collapse at age 44. Nietzsche's sister Elizabeth edited his writings from this time on.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)

1889        Apr 20, Adolf Hitler, leader of National Socialist Party (1921-1945), was born in Braunau, Austria. He was the dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933-1945 and started World War II by invading Poland. He committed suicide in his Berlin bunker. The German Fascist leader, promised to bring Germany to the promised land on one condition: that the state would have total control over all the organs, organizations, and citizens of the nation. Brigitte Hammann later authored "Hitler in Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship." In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum published "Explaining Hitler," a look at the various agendas and needs of different scholars in their examination of Hitler. In 1999 Ian Kershaw published "Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.309)(HN, 4/20/98)(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16) (AP, 4/20/99)(HN, 4/20/99)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A6)

1889        May 1, Bayer in  Germany introduced aspirin in powder form.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1889        Aug 16, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show star Annie Oakley, using a Colt .45, shot the ash off the end of a cigarette held in the mouth by a young German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Appearing at Berlin's Charlottenburg Race Course, Oakley asked in jest for a volunteer from the audience and, to her horror, the young ruler of the Reich stepped forward. A nervous Oakley successfully performed the trick shot. Years later, after the start of WWI, Oakley reportedly wrote to the Kaiser, asking for a second shot.
    (HNPD, 8/16/99)

1889        Sep 26, Martin Heidegger, existentialist philosopher and writer, was born in Germany. He wrote "Being and Time," and criticized the tyranny of modern technology over man.
    (WUD, 1994, p.657)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)(MC, 9/26/01)

1889        Prussia under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted old-age and invalidity pensions. Prussian average life expectancy was about 45.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.18)

1889-1945    Emmy Esther Scheyer was a promoter and collector of the Weimar artists known as the Blue Four. In 1998 the book "The Blue Four: Feininger, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Paul Klee" was edited by Vivian Endicott Barnett and Josef Helfenstein" to accompany an exhibition.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.12)

1890        Jan 4, Alfred G. Jodl, German Wehrmacht general and chief of staff, was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1890        Feb 15, Robert Ley, German chemist, MP (NSDAP), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1890        Mar 20, Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II fired republic chancellor Otto Von Bismarck.

1890        Dec 5, Berlioz' opera "Les Troyens," premiered in Karlsruhe.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1890        Dec 26, Heinrich Schliemann (86), German businessman and archaeologist, died. He excavated the site of ancient Troy in 1870-1871.
    (NH, 4/96, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Schliemann)

1890        Britain ceded the island of Heligoland to Germany in exchange for a free hand in the former slave-trading sultanate of Zanzibar.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)
1890        A conference in Brussels gave Rwanda and Burundi to the German Empire as colonial spheres of interest in exchange for renouncing all claims on Uganda. The Kingdom of Burundi, believed to date to the 17th century, came under German colonial rule, but was awarded by the League of Nations to Belgium after World War I.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rwanda)(AFP, 10/14/18)
1890        August Kuehne and Friedrich Nagel founded the forwarding and commissioning business in 1890 in Bremen, northern Germany, concentrating on cotton and consolidated freight. By 2006 the company was a world leader in arranging seaborne cargo.
    (www.kn-portal.com/about/)(Econ, 6/17/06, Survey p.12)
1890        German Kaiser Wilhelm II ended Bismarck’s secret Reinsurance treaty with Russia. This helped drive Russia into the arms of France.
    (Econ, 10/25/14, p.84)

1891        Jan 8, Walter Bothe, subatomic particle physicist (Nobel 1954), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1891        Jan 24, Max Ernst, German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, was born. [see Apr 2]
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1891        Apr 2, Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor, founder of surrealism, was born. [see Jan 24]
    (HN, 4/2/98)

1891        Apr 24, Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (b.1800), German Field Marshal, died. He was the chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years and became later regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter 19th century.

1891        May 18, Rudolf Carnap, philosopher (German Logical Positivist), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1891        Jun 21, Hermann Scherchen, conductor (Nature of Music), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1891        Sep 16, Karl Doenitz, German Admiral who succeeded Hitler in governing Germany, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1891        Nov 15, Erwin Rommel, field marshal in World War II, was born. He commanded the Afrika Korps in North Africa and defended the Normandy coast on D-Day.
    (HN, 11/15/99)

1892        Feb 8, Fritz Todt, German Reichs minister (Organization Todt) succeeded by Albert Speer, was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1892        May 2, Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron), was born. He was a German pilot and greatest ace of world War I with 80 planes to his credit.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1892        May 31, Gregor Strasser, German pharmacist, NSDAP-Reich organization founder, was born.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1892        Aug 30, The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United States.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1892        Dec 6, E. Werner von Siemens (75), German industrialist (Siemens AG), died.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1892        The neo-Baroque Theater am Schiffbauerdamm was built in East Berlin.
    (WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)

1892        Ernst von Mendelssohn Bartholdy acquired the mansion at Boernicke, Germany and 4,500 acres. The mansion was lost to the Nazis in the early 1930's and to the Soviets in 1945. In 1994 it passes to the control of a former Communist leader, Karl Heinz Posselt, the local deputy mayor. The Mendelssohn family is still seeking control.
    (WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-1)

1892        Count Zeppelin left the army and began work on his lighter-than-air ship.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1893        Jan 12, Hermann Goring, Reichsmarshal of the Third Reich and commander of the Luftwaffe, was born. He committed suicide before he was to be hung for war crimes.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1893        Jun 1, The opera "Falstaff" was produced (Berlin).
    (DT internet 6/1/97)

1893        Jul 26, George Grosz (d.1959), German satiric artist and illustrator, was born. He arrived in Berlin in 1911 and began drawing what he saw in a style of expressionism and the journalistic style of Heinrich Zille. A collection of his work was published in 1997 based on an exhibition catalog titled: "The Berlin of George Grosz: Drawings, Watercolors and Prints, 1912-1930."
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.10)(HN, 7/26/01)

1893        Sep 7, The Rhine river was officially closed for bathing. It had been determined the Rhine was infected with cholera.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1893        Dec 23, The Engelbert Humperdinck opera " Haensel und Gretel " was first performed, in Weimar, Germany.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

1893        Franz von Stuck, Franz von Lembach, and others were part of the Munich Secession movement in art.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)

1893        German artist Franz von Stuck painted "Sin," a shocking work of a bare-breasted woman whose shoulders were entwined with a gleaming-eyed snake.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)

1893        Rudolph Diesel, German engineer, developed his diesel engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1893-1939     Ernst Toller, German poet and dramatist: "History is the propaganda of the victors."
    (AP, 10/7/97)

1894        Apr 26, Rudolf Hess, Nazi leader, was born. He was the Hitler deputy who flew to England to negotiate an Anglo-German treaty.
    (HN, 4/26/99)(MC, 4/26/02)

1894        Jun 26, Karl Benz of Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1894        In Germany the Zum Auspannen der Pferde (Z.A.D.P.) was founded by Sophie von Sell as a society to honor the ex-chancellor Bismarck by unharnessing his horses and drawing his carriage on his return to Berlin after being dismissed by Wilhelm II.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.p.107)

1895        Feb 27, Rudolf von Eschwege, German fighter pilot with 20 victories in World War I, was born. He was the only German fighter pilot on the Macedonian Front.

1895        Mar 4, Gustav Mahler's 2nd Symphony, premiered in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1895        Apr 23, Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1895        Jul 10, Carl Orff, composer (Carmina Burana/Antigonae; Mozart prize 1969), was born in Munich, Germany.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1895        Sep 8, Adam Opel (58), German manufacturer of sewing machines and bicycles, died. In 1899 the firm acquired a car factory.
    (MC, 9/8/01)(www.histomobile.com)

1895        Oct 4, Richard Sorge, German spy for USSR in Tokyo (WW II), was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1895        Nov 8, Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (50), German physicist, discovered X-rays.
    (ON, 11/04, p.6)(www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf)

1895        Nov 16, Paul Hindemith (d.1963), composer and violinist, was born in Hanau, Germany. His work included "Cardillac."
    (WUD, 1994, p.672)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(MC, 11/16/01)

1895        Nov 25, Wilhelm Kempff, pianist (Unter dem Zimbelstern), was born in Juterbog, Germany.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1895        Theodore Fontane (1819-1898), German novelist and poet, authored Effi Briest, the last of the great 19th-century novels of adultery.

1895-1935    The C.A. Lehmann & son Co. ran a porcelain factory in Kuhla, Thuringia.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, Z1 p.6)

1896         Jan 5, An Austrian newspaper (Wiener Presse) reported the discovery by  German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen of a type of radiation that came to be known as "X-rays."
    (AP, 1/5/98)

1896        Apr 28, Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1896        Aug 9, Otto Lilienthal, German aerodynamic engineer, made his last glide when his glider No. 11 was upset by a sudden gust of wind and he was unable to regain control. Lilienthal broke his back in the crash and died the next day in a Berlin clinic. He had made more than 2,000 test flights in gliders and convinced many people that flight was possible and set the stage for early aviation. He once wrote that "we must fly and fall, fly and fall until we can fly without falling." He also influenced flight theory by using bird flight as a model for the basis of aviation.
    (HNPD, 8/9/98)

1896        Nov 27, Richard Strauss' "Also Sprach Zarathustra" (Thus Spake Zarathustra) debuted in Frankfurt.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1896        In Germany Magnus Hirschfield under a pseudonym published the pamphlet "Sappho und Sokrates," that examined same sex love.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, DB p.47)
1896        The Schafer & Vater porcelain factory began operating about this time in Rudolstadt, Germany, and continued operations to 1962.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.G3)
1896        German inventor Gottlieb Daimler constructed the world's first lorry.
    (Econ., 2/6/21, p.52)

1897        Mar 9, Premiere of (parts of) Gustav Mahler's 3rd Symphony in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1897        Apr 3, Johannes Brahms (63), German composer, conductor (Hungarian Dances), died.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(MC, 4/3/02)

1897        Jun 14, Dr. Karl Wolfert and his mechanic were killed in Germany when their dirigible, powered by a Daimler car engine, crashed on its 4th flight.
    (ON, 3/03, p.10)

1897        Jun 23, Winifred Wagner-William, German organizer (Bayreuth Wagner Festival), was born.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1897        Jul 31, The commercial treaty between Britain and the German zollverein (established in 1865) was denounced by Britain and pronounced to end in one year.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)

1897        Aug 10, Felix Hoffmann, a German worker for Bayer, rediscovered aspirin (acetyl salicyclic acid), the active ingredient of the willow plant’s (salicin). In 1832 a French chemist named Charles Gergardt had experiments with salicin and created salicylic acid. On March 6, 1899, Bayer registered Aspirin as a trademark.
    (http://didyouknow.org/aspirin/)(Econ, 12/11/10, p.100)

1897        Oct 28, Hans Speidel, Nazi chief-staff and NATO-supreme commander, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1897        Oct 29, Joseph G. Goebbels, German Nazi Propaganda Minister who died of suicide in Hitler’s bunker, was born.
    (HN, 10/29/98)

1897        Nov 13, The first metal dirigible was flown from Tempelhof Field in Berlin.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1897        In Germany Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (SHC) to study homosexuality and help win support for gay rights.
    (SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)

1898        Feb 10, Bertolt Brecht, German poet and dramatist, was born. He is best remembered for his plays Three Penny Opera and Mother Courage.
    (HN, 2/10/99)

1898        Mar 8, Richard Straus' "Don Quixote," premiered in Keulen.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1898        Jun 26, Wilhelm Emil Messerschmitt, German engineer, was born. He built fighters and jet aircraft for Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 6/26/99)

1898        Jul 30, Otto von Bismarck (b.1815), German-Prussian statesman and former "Iron" chancellor (1871-1890), died. He held the German social security system as his greatest accomplishment. In 1986 Lothar Gall authored “Bismarck." In 2011 Jonathan Steinberg authored “Bismarck: A Life."
    (WUD, 1994, p.151)(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.80)

1898        Sep 10, Empress Elisabeth of Bavaria (60), Queen of Hungary and wife of Emp. Franz Josef II, was assassinated in Geneva by the Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni. A 1997 German rock musical,  "Elisabeth," by Michael Kunze and Sylvester Levay was based on her life.
    (EWH, 1968, p.744)(WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A1,13)

1898        Sep 20, Theodore Fontane (b.1819), German novelist and poet, died. He is regarded by many to be the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.

1898        Dec, In Germany Emil and Joseph Berliner founded Deutsche Grammophon, dedicated to manufacturing the gramophone record and player invented by Emil.
    (SFEC,12/797, DB p.45)

1898        Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany visited Constantinople.
    (Econ, 9/2/17, p.43)

1899        Feb 23, Erich Kastner (d.1974), German poet, novelist and children’s author (Emil and the Detectives), was born. "The only people who attain power are those who crave it."
    (AP, 12/1/98)(HN, 2/23/01)

1899        In Berlin a tunnel was dug under the Spree River.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)
1899        Germany bought the Caroline Islands, a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, from Spain for 25 million pesetas.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)
1899        A treaty between American, Germany and Britain gave Western Samoa to the Germans and Eastern Samoa to the Americans. In an Anglo-German treaty the UK renounced its rights to the Samoan Islands
    (HN, 1/16/99)(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.45)
1899        Munich police established a central office for Gypsy affairs.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)

1900        Mar 2, Kurt Weill, composer (The Threepenny Opera), Brecht collaborator, was born in Dessau, Germany.
    (HN, 3/2/01)(SC, 3/2/02)

1900        Mar 6, Gottlieb Daimler (65), designer of the 1st motorcycle, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1900        Mar 23, Erich Fromm (d.1980), German-American psychologist (Sane Society), was born in Frankfurt, Germany. He wrote "The Sane Society." "Modern man thinks he loses something, time, when he does not do things quickly. Yet he does not know what to do with the time he gains, except kill it."
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)

1900        Apr 2, Heinrich Besseler, German musicologist, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1900        May 5, Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt, German composer, conductor (Hassan gewinnt), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1900        Jun 12, German Navy Law called for a massive increase in sea power.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1900        Jun 17, Martin Bormann, deputy Führer to Hitler, was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1900        Jul 2, Count Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin (1838-1917) made the 1st successful flight of his lighter-than-air ship LZ-1 in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The 400 foot craft stayed aloft 17 minutes before it crashed.
    (AHM, 1/97)(WSJ, 2/120/00, p.A1)(ON, 3/03, p.11)

1900        Aug 25, Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (55) died in Weimar, Germany. In 1999 Ronald Taylor translated into English the book "Nietzsche and Wagner" by Joachim Köhler. In 2002 Taylor translated Joachim Kohler’s "Zarathustra’s Secret: The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche." In 2004 Georges Liebert authored "Nietzsche and Music."
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(AP, 8/25/00)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.M5)(WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)

1900        Oct 7, Heinrich Himmler, chicken farmer who became the head of the German Gestapo in Hitler's Germany, was born. [see Oct 20, 1900]
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1900        Oct 8, Maximilian Harden was sentenced to six months in prison for publishing an article critical of the German Kaiser.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1900        Oct 20, Heinrich Himmler, head of SS, was born. [see Oct 7, 1900]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1900        Nov 7, Heinrich Himmler, Head of the Nazi SS and organizer of extermination camps in Eastern Europe, was born.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1900        Nov 19, Anna Seghers, [Netty Radvanyi-Reiling], German author (7th Cross), was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1900        Nov 30, A German engineer patented front-wheel drive for automobiles.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1900        Dec 1, Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1900        Dec 14, Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist, presented the quantum theory at the Physics Society in Berlin. Planck,  demonstrated that energy, in certain situations, can exhibit characteristics of physical matter. Planck was rewarded the Nobel Prize (1918) in Physics for his work on blackbody radiation.
    (HN, 12/14/98)(MC, 12/14/01)

1900s        The Blue Rider movement of expressionist painting centered in Munich in the early 1900s.
    (HNQ, 1/26/00)

1900-1901    Sai Jinhua (c1872-1936), Chinese courtesan and the acquaintance of German field marshal Alfred von Waldersee, was credited with influencing Waldersee to moderate the harsh treatment of Beijing residents during the Boxer Rebellion. Jinhua used her knowledge of German to save the Qing emperor from German troops.

1900-1949    The "Letters of Heinrich and Thomas Mann" of this period were translated to English and published in 1998.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.6)

1901        Feb 23, Britain and Germany agreed on a boundary between German East Africa [later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi] and Nyasaland [later Malawi].
    (HN, 2/23/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593,990)

1901        Mar 6, A would-be assassin tried to kill Wilhelm II in Bremen, Germany.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1901        Oct 15, Bernard von Brentano, German writer (Big Cats), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1901        Oct 15, Hermann Abs, director (Deutsche Bank) and Hitler's advisor, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1901        Oct 23, Georg von Siemens, founder of Deutsche Bank, died.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1901        Nov 21, Richard Strauss' opera "Feuersnot," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1901        Nov 25, Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (62), German composer and music theorist, died.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1901        Dec 5, Werner Heisenberg (d.1976), German physicist, was born. He discovered the uncertainty principle and won the Nobel Prize in 1932.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.337)(MC, 12/5/01)

1901        An elevated monorail, "hanging railway," was built in the Ruhr Valley.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)
1901        Wilhelm Maybach, a German engineer and industrialist was the chief designer of the first Mercedes and later went on to build power plants for Zeppelin airships with his son. Maybach had worked with Gottlieb Daimler since 1883 on developing efficient internal-combustion engines. The two formed the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1890 to build automobiles. In 1909, he organized a company with his son Carl to build aircraft engines, including power plants for the Zeppelin airships.
    (HNQ, 8/28/00)
1901        A conference of German-speaking countries in Berlin settled on a single German spelling system (orthography).
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.45)
1901        Emil von Behring (1854-1917), German physiologist, became the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for medicine for discovering how to employ antitoxins.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

1902        Mar 9, Alma Schindler (d.1964), daughter of landscape painter Emil Schindler, married composer Gustav Mahler (d.1911) in Vienna. He immortalized her in the first movement of his Symphony No. 6, and he dedicated Symphony No. 8 to her. After his death Alma became involved with Oskar Kokoschka, who painted her many times, most notably in "The Tempest" (1914; "Die Windsbraut"). In August 1915 she married the architect Walter Gropius. During her lifetime Alma Mahler became friends with numerous celebrated artists, including the painter Gustav Klimt (who made several portraits of her), composer Arnold Schoenberg, the writer Gerhart Hauptmann, and the singer Enrico Caruso. The composer Alban Berg dedicated his opera Wozzeck (1921) to her. In 1929 she married writer Franz Werfel.
    (MC, 3/9/02)(http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exiles/werfel.html)

1902        May 10, Joachim Prinz, author, Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1902        May 12, Heinrich Kirchner, German sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1902        Aug 13, Felix Wankel, inventory of the rotary engine which bears his name, was born in Germany.
    (HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)

1902        Aug 22, Leni Riefenstahl, [Helene Bertha Amalie], actress, Hitler's favorite cinematographer (Triumph of the Will, Tiefland), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1902        Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk (73), German author and poetess, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1902        Nov 1, Eugen Jochum, German conductor (Hamburg Orch), was born in Babenhausen, Bavaria.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1902        Dec 11, Matthias Hohner (b.1833), German clockmaker and harmonica manufacturer, died. He began making harmonicas in 1857. Exports to America began in 1862.
1902        Max Ophuls (d.1957), later film director, was born in the Rhine Valley of Jewish parents. He made films in Germany, France, Netherlands and the US.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)

1903        Jan 18, Berthold Goldschmidt, German-British (opera) composer (Beatrice Cenci), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1904        Jan 12, Anxious Germans opened fire on Ovaherero at Okahandja. The Herero people of Southwest Africa (Namibia) had risen in rebellion against German colonial rule. The deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe “peacekeeping regiment" quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the Herero and Nama peoples. In 1981 Jon M. Bridgeman authored “The Revolt of the Hereros."
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E5)

1904         Mar 7, Reinhard Heydrich, German SS Leader and Architect of the "final solution," was born.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1904        Mar 8, The Bundestag in Germany lifted the ban on the Jesuit order of priests.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1904        Apr 24, Friedrich Siemens (77), German industrialist, died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1904        Jun 11, German General Lothar von Trotha arrived in SW Africa (later Namibia) to take over from the colonial Governor, Theodor Leutwein, the direction of a campaign to quell a native uprising.

1904        Jul 5, Ernst Mayr, biologist, was born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1931. Mayr helped define the concept of species as a group of interbreeding populations. He helped found the modern evolutionary synthesis with Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley and George Gaylord Simpson, that brought together a genetic understanding of how species adopt to their environment.
    (NH, 5/97, p.8)(SFC, 7/5/04, p.A6)

1904        Aug 9, Friedrich Ratzel (59), German social-geographer (Lebensraum), died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1904        Aug 11, German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa. [see Namibia]
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1904        Aug 14, The cattle-herding Hereros, a tribe of Southwest Africa (later Namibia), became the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Lothar von Trotha to put down a Herero uprising along with the groups of rebellious Khoikhoi. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" (Schrecklichkeit) authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries. In 2004 a senior German government official apologized for the genocide during a ceremony in Namibia marking the 100th anniversary of the uprising. In 2005 a German minister acknowledged violence by German colonial powers and admitted that following uprisings, the surviving Herero, Nama and Damara were interned in camps and put to forced labor of such brutality that many did not survive.
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)(HNPD, 4/14/99)(AP, 8/14/04)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E5)

1904        Aug 29,  Werner Forssman, German urologist, was born. He was the first to catheterize his own heart and won a Nobel prize in 1956.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1904        Oct 2, General Lothar von Trotha: “I, the great General of the German soldiers, send this letter to the Herero people (SW Africa-Namibia). The Herero are no longer German subjects... The Herero nation must...leave the country. If they do not leave, I will force them out with the Groot Rohr (cannon). Every Herero, armed or unarmed...will be shot dead within the German borders. I will no longer accept women and children, but will force them back to their people or shoot at them."

1904        Oct 18, Mahler's 5th symphony premiered in Cologne.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1904        Nov 27, A German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa (later Namibia).
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1904        Dec 9, Von Schlieffen order von Trotha to pardon all Ovaherero, after tens of thousands had perished in the desert,  except those who were "directly guilty and the leaders."

1904        Dec 24, German SW Africa abolished the slavery of young children. [see Namibia]
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1904        Max Weber (1864-1920), German sociologist and political economist, authored "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." Weber wrote "the modern man is in general, even with the best will, unable to give religious ideas a significance for culture and national character which they deserve." Weber visited the US in this year.
    (WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 8/19/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)

1904        Reinhard Piper (d.1953) founded R. Piper Verlag, a publishing house grounded in philosophy, literature and the arts.
    (SFC, 3/30/00, p.C5)

1904        In Germany the O&M Hausser toy company was founded in Ludwigsberg. They used they "Elastolin" trade name for small composition figures that included soldiers of various countries.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, Z1 p.6)

1904-1908    In South West Africa (later Namibia) thousands of Herero and Nama were slaughtered, left to starve or died at concentration camps during this period, after the tribes rebelled against German rule.
    (Reuters, 3/7/19)

1905        Feb 1, Germany contested French rule in Morocco.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1905        Feb 21, France violated the 1880 Treaty of Madrid by demanding control in Morocco of the Sultan's army and police. These demands were made without consulting Germany. In the “Morocco Crisis" German Chancellor Bernhard von Bulow sent the Kaiser to visit Tangier on March 31 to see if France would mobilize.

1905        Mar 4, Gerhart Hauptmann's "Elga" premiered in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1905        Mar 15, Berthold Schenck von Stauffenberg was born. He later attempted to assassinate Hitler.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1905        Mar 19, Albert Speer, German architect, minister of Armament (NSDAP), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1905        Apr 1, Berlin and Paris were linked by telephone.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1905        Nov 9, Erika Mann, German-US author (Other Germany) and daughter of Thomas Mann, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1905        Sep 27, Annalen der Physik published a fourth paper by Albert Einstein, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?," in which Einstein developed an argument for arguably the most famous equation in the field of physics: E = mc². Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy, the "rest energy", distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies.

1905        Dec 9, Richard Strauss' opera "Salome," premiered in Dresden. Soprano Marie Wittich delegated the dance of the seven veils to a member of the corps de ballet.
    (http://operetta.stanford.edu/Strauss/Salome/main.html)(WSJ, 10/16/03, p.D8)

1905        Max Weber (1864-1920), German sociologist, authored “The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism." Weber argued that Protestants, in particular Calvinists, drove the emergence of capitalism due to a strong work ethic.
    (Econ, 11/16/13, p.73)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.57)
1905        The expressionist art group "Die Bruecke" (the Bridge) was formed by German painters that included Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A17)
1905        Einstein presented his theory of relativity declaring that the very measurement of time intervals is affected by the motion of the observer. He proposed that light is itself quantized, or particle-like, to explain how electrons were emitted when light hit certain metals. He presented four papers, the first on Brownian motion, the second was on the composition of light, the third proposed the Special Theory of Relativity, and the fourth established the equivalence of mass and energy (see Sep 27). Einstein presented 5 papers this year, one of which was titled “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend on its Energy Content?" This paper provided an incomplete proof of E=mc2, an equation that had already been know for a few years. In 2008 Hans C. Ohanian authored “Einstein’s Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius."
    (NH, 3/05, p.72)(www.aip.org/history/einstein/great1.htm)(WSJ, 9/5/08, p.A13)
1905        Adolph Menzel (b.1815), German painter, died. He combined elements of many styles and was considered the greatest artist in Germany at the time and was Prussia’s foremost historical artist. He was considered Germany’s French Impressionist.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1905        In Southwest Africa (later Namibia) the Nama tribe joined the Herero uprising against German settlers stealing their land, cattle and women.
    (AFP, 10/4/11)

1906        Feb 4, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (d.1945), German Protestant theologian, was born. "If you board the wrong train, it is no use running along the corridor in the other direction."
    (AP, 8/27/00)(HN, 2/4/01)

1906        Mar 19, Adolf Eichmann, Nazi Gestapo officer, was born. He was captured in Argentina and put on trial in Israel.
    (HN, 3/19/99)
1906        Mar 19, Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari's "Quattro Rusteghi," premiered in Munich.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1906        Mar 31, G.B. Shaw's German version of "Caesar and Cleopatra," premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1906        May 31, France and Germany signed an accord in which France agreed to yield control of the Moroccan police, but otherwise retained effective control of Moroccan political and financial affairs.

1906        Oct 3, The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopted SOS as warning signal.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1906        Oct 14, Hannah Arendt, historian (Origins of Totalitarianism), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1906        Nov 9, Arthur Rudolph, Nazi-turned-American rocket engineer, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1906        Nov, Aloysius Alzheimer (1864-1915), German psychiatrist, first described the symptoms of a progressive neurodegenerative disease that caused memory loss, dementia and ultimately death following the death of his patient, Auguste Deter (56). She was the first person to have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. 
    (WSJ, 5/13/97, p.B1)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.72)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.74)

1906        Dec 14, First U1 submarine was brought into service in Germany.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1906        The 1st gay periodical "Der Eigene" was published.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, DB p.66)

1906        Alfred Lothar Wegener (26), German meteorologist, joined an expedition to survey Greenland’s glacier-fringed coast.
    (ON, 9/04, p.8)

1907        May 9, Baldur von Schirach, German writer, Nazi Youth leader, convicted war criminal, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1907        Aug 13, Alfred Alwin Felix Krupp, arms manufacturer, was born in Essen, Germany.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1907        Aug 15, Hungarian violinist Joseph Joachim (b.1831), widely regarded as one of the most significant violinists of the 19th century, died in Berlin.

1907        Oct 27, The first trial in the Eulenberg Affair ended in Germany. Prince Philip Eulenberg was an aristocrat and former diplomat who was an old friend of the Kaiser's. Others were jealous of Eulenberg's position. Maximilian Harden, editor of the magazine Die Zunkunft, began to print a series of articles in the fall of 1906 which alleged that Eulenberg and other highly placed men were homosexuals.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1907        Nov 15, Count Claus Schenck von Stauffenberg, German anti fascist colonel, was born.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1907        Dec 28, Erich Mielke (d.2000), later head of the East German Stasi, was born in Berlin.
    (SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)

1907        Johannes Klepper licensed, improved and marketed a folding kayak.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.50)
1907        In Berlin the Hotel Adlon on the Unter den Linden was founded by Lorenz Adlon. It was burned to the ground during WW II and reconstructed in 1997.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)
1907        A 4-year German campaign ended against the cattle-herding Hereros of Southwest Africa (later Namibia). It was later estimated that tens of thousands of Hereros were butchered, with only some 15,000 surviving. Many historians called the killings the first genocide of the 20th century. Some 300 skulls were believed taken from the Herero and ethnic Nama who died in German-run prison camps over the four-year conflict. In 2011 a Namibian delegation reclaimed about 20 human skulls used by colonial-era scientists, who sought to prove the racial superiority of whites over blacks.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)
1907        Carl Hagenbeck established the world’s first zoo to free animals from cages in Hamburg, Germany.
    (Hem., Oct. ‘95, p.25)

1908        Apr 18, Joseph Keilberth, German conductor (Bayreuther Festspiele), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1908        Jun 10, Ernst B. Chain, German chemist, bacteriologist (penicillin, Nobel 1945), was born.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1908        Jun 12, Otto Skorzeny, German-Austrian SS colonel who led glider rescue of Mussolini, was born.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1908        Aug 11, Britain's King Edward VII met with Kaiser Wilhelm II to protest the growth of the German navy.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1908        Sep 5, Joaquin Nin-Culmell (d.2004), composer, was born in Berlin to Joaquin Nin, a Cuban pianist, and singer Rosa Culmell. His older sister was Anais Nin
    (SFC, 1/16/04, p.A1)

1908        Sep 20, Alexander Mitscherlich, German psychotherapist, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1908        Dec 9, A child labor bill passed German Reichstag forbidding work for children under age 13.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1909        Feb 9, France agreed to recognize German economic interests in Morocco in exchange for political supremacy.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1909        Mar 2, Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy asked Serbia to set no territorial demands.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1909        Jul 2, Fritz Haber (1868-1934) and Carl Bosch (1874-1940) of the BASF company succeeded in combining nitrogen from the air with hydrogen from coal to make ammonia. Haber and Bosch developed the Haber process (Haber-Bosch process), an artificial nitrogen fixation process that became the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia.
    (https://orgprints.org/15797/1/15797.pdf)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)

1909        Nov 4, Opera "Il Segreto di Susanna" was produced in Munich.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1909        Adolf Hitler painted a series of views around Linz, Austria, including the watercolor "Mountain Chapel."
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.D12)
1909        Milanese engineer Ettore Bugatti (1881-1947) founded a car factory in the then German town of Molsheim in the Alsace region, later part of France.
1909        Wilhelm Maybach, German engineer and industrialist, organized a company with his son Carl to build aircraft engines, including power plants for the Zeppelin airships.
    (HNQ, 8/28/00)

1910        Jan 3, The Social Democratic Congress in Germany demanded universal suffrage.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1910        May 27, Robert Koch (b.1843), German bacteriologist (TB, Cholera, Nobel), died.

1910        Jun 14, Rudolf Kempe, conductor, was born in Niederpoyritz, Germany.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1910        Jun 22, German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich announced a definitive cure for syphilis.
    (AP, 6/22/01)

1910        Sep 11, Gerhard Schroder, German chancellor, was born.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1910        Sep 12, Gustav Mahler's 8th Symphony premiered in Munich with 1028 musicians.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1910        In Germany there was an important show on Islamic art in Munich.
    (WSJ, 12/11/97, p.A21)

1910        Herman Lons, German writer, authored his novel “The Warwolf: a peasant chronicle." It was set in the time of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), during which some 10 million people died including 4 million Germans. In 2006 it was made available in English.
    (WSJ, 6/16/06, p.P8)

1911        Jan 10, Two German cruisers, the Emden and the Nurnberg, suppressed a native revolt on island of Ponape in the Carolina Islands [Caroline Islands, east of the Philippines] when they fired on the island and land troops.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1911        Jan 26, The Richard Strauss opera "Der Rosenkavalier" premiered in Dresden, Germany.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1911        Jan 31, The German Reichstag exempted royal families from tax obligations.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1911        Mar 16, Josef Mengele, MD, PhD, SS ("The Angel of Death at Auschwitz"), was born in Gunzburg, Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1911        Apr 1, Gunther Rennert, opera director, producer, was born in Essen, Germany.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1911        Apr, The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, or the Panthersprung, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco. France thus broke both with the Act of Algeciras that had ended the First Moroccan Crisis, and the Franco-German Accord of 1909. Germany reacted by sending the gunboat Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911.

1911        May 16, Zeppelin "Deutschland" was wrecked at Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1911        Jun 29, Klaus E.J. Fuchs, German nuclear physicist, spy, was born.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1911        Aug 1, Konrad Duden (b.1829), German philologist, died. His 1880 dictionary represents the start of the Duden series and included 28,000 words on 187 pages.

1911        Aug 31, Anthony Fokker's demonstrated the aircraft "Snip."
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1911        Nov 20, Gustav Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" premiered in Munich.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1911        Nov 29, German atomic physicist Konrad Fuchs, was born.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1911        Dec 23, Emmanuel Wolf-Ferrari's opera "I Giojelli Della Madonna" was produced in Berlin.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1911        Vasily Kandinsky painted "Compositions IV & V." "This airy, whitish, light-filled canvas abounds with imagery from Kandinsky’s Russian childhood..."
    (WSJ, 2/8/95), p.A-12)
1911        Vasily Kandinsky (45) and Franz Marc (31) formed Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a Munich artist group that included Paul Klee, Alexei Jawlensky, August Macke and Gabriele Munter.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.87)
1911        Munich police began fingerprinting all Gypsies.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)
1911        Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928), German physicist, won the Nobel Prize. In 1893 he used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

1912        Jan, Alfred Wegener, German scientist, suggested that the continents had drifted to their present positions from the break-up of a single primeval super-continent. He said that the break up of Pangaea came at the end of the Mesozoic era.
    (DD-EVTT, p.22,189)(ON, 9/04, p.8)

1912        Mar 23, Werner von Braun, rocket expert (I Aim at the Stars), was born in  Wirsitz, Germany. He led the development of the V-2 rocket during World War II.
    (HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)

1912        Mar 30, The Treaty of Fez was signed. Sultan Abdelhafid made Morocco a French protectorate, resolving the Agadir Crisis of July 1, 1911.

1912        May 2, Axel Springer, German newspaper magnate, was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1912        May 18, Georg von Opel, German auto manufacturer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        Jun 17, The German Zeppelin SZ 111 burned in its hanger in Friedrichshafen.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1912        Jun 28, Karl F. von Weisacker, German physicist, philosopher, was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1912        Sep 9, Kurt Sanderling, conductor (E Berlin Symph 1960-77), was born in Arys, Germany.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1912        Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France backed Serbia while Italy and Germany backed Austria.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1912        Dec 5, Italy, Austria, and Germany renewed the Triple Alliance for six years.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1912        German philosopher Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) introduced phenomenology, the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Husserl)(Econ, 3/26/15, p.94)
1912        German psychologist William Stern introduced the term "intelligence quotient" and abbreviation "IQ."
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A15)
1912        Heinrich Muller and Heinrich Schreyer started the Schreyer & Co. toy company in Nuremberg, Germany. The name was shortened to Schuco in the 1920. They began making “Yes/No" toys in 1921 and after WWII these were called “Tricky" toys.  In 1999 Schuco became part of the Simba Dickie Group.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.G6)
1912        Wilesco Schroeder Co. of Ludenscheid, Germany, was founded by Wilhelm Schroeder to manufacture aluminum utensils and carving sets. By the 1960s it expanded to produce toy tractors and fire engines.
    (SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)
1912        Merck chemists in Germany introduced methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), a euphoria-producing psychedelic. Documents from the time showed that MDMA emerged during the company's efforts to develop a potentially life-saving medicine that would help blood to clot. It later became known as "ecstasy."
    (SFC, 6/16/10, p.A10)(www.mdma.net/merck/history-ecstasy.html)
1912        Karl May (b.1842), German author of US Western novels, died. A third of his 80 books were set in the American West and included "Son of the Bear Hunter," "The Spirit of Llano Estacado" and the 4 Winnetou novels.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A1)

1913        Jan 12, Kiel and Wilhelmshaven became submarine bases in Germany.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1913        Jan 15, The first telephone line between Berlin and New York was inaugurated.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1913        Feb 18, Artur Axmann, Nazi youth leader, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1913        Mar 22, Martha Modl, German singer, soprano (Wagner), was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1913        Mar 29, The Reichstag announced a raise in taxes in order to finance the new military budget.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1913        Jul 14, Fritz Erler, German politician (SDP), was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1913        Sep 26, Ernst Schnabel, German sailor and dramatist (Anne Frank), was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1913        Oct 15, Klaus Barbie, gestapo chief (Lyon), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1913        Oct 17, Zeppelin LII exploded over London, killing 28.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1913        Dec 18, Willy Brandt, Mayor of Berlin and Chancellor of West Germany, was born as Herbert Frahm.  He was chancellor from 1969-74 and won a Nobel Prize in 1971.
    (HN, 12/18/98)(MC, 12/18/01)

1913        Dec, Konrad Preuss (1869-1938), German anthropologist, arrived in Colombia to study to pre-Columbian statues at San Agustin. He stayed until 1919 and brought back to Germany a number of the statues and a great quantity of ancient ceramics and other items, which he reproduced and documented in his book, “Arte Monumental Prehistórico" (1931).
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.38)(www.sanagustinstatues.org/libroen.pdf)

1913        An imperial edict based nationality on bloodlines rather than birthplace and laid the base for Germany’s citizenship law. The law was modified in 1993.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A9)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A13)(SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)
1913        Germany launched the SS Vaterland, a passenger ship. It happened to be in NY harbor when war broke out in 1914 and was not allowed to leave. The US Navy seized it in 1917 for a troop carrier as the US entered the war. After the war it served as an American passenger liner under the name Leviathan and continued service to 1938.
    (SFC, 8/8/07, p.G2)
1913        The MV Liemba, a 220-foot steamer, began its life in a shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, where it was named the Graf von Goetzen after German East Africa's former governor. It was dismantled, packed into 5,000 numbered crates, and shipped to Dar es Salaam and then taken by railway and porter to the shore of Lake Tanganyika where it was reassembled in 1915, armed with cannon, and put to work defending the waters against Belgian and British soldiers. It was scuttled and then dredged up by the Belgians but sank in a storm soon after. In 1921 Churchill ordered it recovered. In 1924 it was fished up and renamed MV Liemba, after the local name for the lake. It was put into service as a cargo and passenger ferry in 1927. It later inspired C.S. Forester’s novel "The African Queen" (1935).
    (AFP, 5/12/15)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.39)
1913        German newspaper editor Wolfgang Riepl formulated Riepl’s Law, which hypothesized that new, further developed types of media never replace the existing modes of media and their usage patterns. Instead, a convergence takes place in their field, leading to a different way and field of use for these older forms.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riepl%27s_law)
 1913        Franz Schneider patented a gun synchronizing device in Germany, France and Great Britain. In 1915 it was developed as the "Fokker Scourge" to fire bullets through an airplanes propellers.
    (ON, 10/02, p.8)
1913        The German Tendaguru expedition to East Africa (later Tanzania) yielded a huge collection of dinosaur bones from the late Jurassic. The collection was taken to the Berlin Museum of Natural History.
    (WSJ, 1/31/03, p.A1)

1914        July 27, Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries. German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg reportedly called the 1839 London Treaty, in which all the European powers had guaranteed Belgian neutrality, "a scrap of paper" not worth fighting over. Bethmann-Hollweg was trying to persuade Britain not to declare war based on the treaty. Unsuccessful in his efforts, Britain and Belgium declared war when German troops entered Belgium on August 4.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)

1914        Jul 31, German Kaiser Wilhelm II threatened war and ordered Russia to demobilize.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1914        Aug 1, France and Germany mobilized.
    (MC, 8/1/02)
1914        Aug 1, Germany declared war on Russia at the onset of World War I.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

1914        Aug 2, Germany invaded Luxembourg.
    (HN, 8/2/98)
1914        Aug 2, German press falsely reported that French bombed Nuremberg.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1914        Aug 2, In Joncherey, northeastern France, French corporal Jules-Andre Peugeot and German lieutenant Albert Mayer died in a firefight, the first official casualties of World War I.
    (AFP, 2/7/14)
1914        Aug 2, Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1914        Aug 3, Germany invaded Belgium and declared war on France at the onset of World War I. The German plan for victory in France was known as the Schlieffen Plan, and was based on a quick strike and the capture of Paris.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(AP, 8/3/08)(ON, 8/08, p.5)
1914        Aug 3, German Admiral Souchon, commander of the battle cruisers Goeben and Breslau, received an unexpected change in his orders. After attacking the Algerian coast he was no longer to sail west to the Atlantic Ocean. Instead, he was now ordered to turn around and sail east to Turkey. His new mission was to persuade the neutral Turkish government to enter the war on the side of Germany. The 2 ships were sold to Turkey and Souchon was made commander of the Turkish navy. He took the ships into the Black Sea, where he bombarded the Russian cities of Odessa, Sebastopol and Novorossiysk without the knowledge or consent of the Turkish government.
    (http://www.worldwar1.com/sfgb.htm)(ON, Dec, 1995)

1914        Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news of a run on the Bank of England.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)

1914        Aug 6, A German Zeppelin bombed Liege City and killed 9 people.
    (MC, 8/6/02)
1914        Aug 6, Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia and Serbia declared war against Germany.
    (AP, 8/6/00)

1914        Aug 10, At Luik, German 12"/16.5" guns reached Belgian boundary.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1914        Aug 16, Liege, Belgium, fell to the German army.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1914        Aug 18, Germany declared war on Russia.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1914        Aug 20, German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
1914        Aug 20, Russia won an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1914        Aug 22, Von Ludendorff and von Hindenburg moved into East Prussia enroute to Russia.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1914        Aug 23, Gen. von Hausen executed 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium. Felix Fivet (3 weeks old), Belgian baby, was among those executed by German troops.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1914        Aug 23, Japan sided with the Allies and declared war on Germany in World War I.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AP, 8/23/97)

1914        Aug 25, German army began 6 week plundering of Leuven, Belgium. German Zeppelins bombed Antwerp, Belgium, and 10 died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1914        Aug 25, German troops marched into France and pushed the French army to the Sedan.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1914        Aug 27, 2nd day of battle at Tannenberg: Germany bombed Usdau.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1914        Aug 28, Three German cruisers were sunk by ships of the Royal Navy in the Battle of Heligoland Bight, the first major naval battle of World War I. The Germans lost four ships and 1,000 sailors; British casualties were 33 killed.
    (HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1914        Aug 29, 4th day of Tannenberg: Russian Narev-army panics, Gen Martos caught.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1914        Aug 30, The 1st German plane bombed Paris and 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.E3)(MC, 8/30/01)

1914        Aug 31, Germany defeated Russia at the battle at Tannenberg. Some 30,000 Russians died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1914        Aug, Berlin stockyards were slaughtering 25,000 pigs a week. By September, 1916, the number dropped to 350 a week.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.73)

1914        Sep 4, General von Moltke ceased German advance in France.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1914        Sep 5, The First Battle of the Marne began during World War I. The German First Army was led by Gen. Alexander von Kluck.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A10)

1914        Sep 6, In the Battle of Marne German forces bypassed Paris to chase retreating allied forces. French Gen. Gallieni orchestrated an attack using the British Expeditionary Force along with the French 3rd, 5th and 6th armies.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 7, In the Battle of Marne French Gen. Gallieni commandeered some 600 hundred Paris taxicabs to deliver overnight 6,000 men of the 3rd army to reinforce the 6th Army at the Battle of the Marne, which allowed the French army to hold.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 9, In the Battle of Marne the German advance stalled and a retreat began back to the Aisne River.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 12, The First Battle of the Marne ended in an Allied victory against Germany. The German advance into France was stopped. 20th century history turned on this pivotal event.
    (WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A10)(AP, 9/12/06)

1914        Sep 15, The Battle of Aisne began between Germans and French during WW I.
    (MC, 9/15/01)

1914        Sep 18, Gen. von Hindenburg was named commander of German armies on the Eastern Front.
    (MC, 9/18/01)
1914        Sep 18, Battle of Aisne ended with Germans beating the French during WW I.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1914        Sep 22, The German cruiser Emden shelled Madras, India, destroying 346,000 gallons of fuel and killing only five civilians.
    (HN, 9/22/99)
1914        Sep 22, A German submarine sank 3 British ironclads, 1,459 died. The Aboukir, the Hogue, and the Cressy, were all sunk in just over one hour.  This loss alerted the British to the deadly effectiveness of the submarine, which had been generally unrecognized up to that time.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1914        Sep 22, The RNAS attempted their first air attack on the Zeppelins at Dusseldorf and Cologne. There was little damage done.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Sep 24, In the Alsace-Lorraine area between France and Germany, the German Army captured St. Mihiel.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1914        Oct 4, The first German Zeppelin raided London.
    (HN, 10/4/98)

1914        Oct 8, The RNAS attempted another air attack on the Zeppelins at Dusseldorf and Cologne. The dirigible shed at Dusseldorf was destroyed.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Oct 9, German troops took Antwerp after a 12-day siege in WW I crushing the resistance of over 100,000 Belgian troops and violating Belgian neutrality. 
    (HN, 10/9/98)(MC, 10/9/01)

1914        Oct 19, The German cruiser Emden captures her thirteenth Allied merchant ship in 24 days.
    (HN, 10/19/99)

1914        Oct 21, Battle of Warsaw ended with a German defeat.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1914        Oct 28, The German cruiser Emden, disguised as a British ship, steamed into Penang Harbor near Malaya and sank the Russian light cruiser Zhemchug.
    (HN, 10/28/99)

1914        Oct 29, A Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed the Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol and Theodosia. [see Aug 3] This marked Turkey’s full entry into WWI
    (PC, 1992, p.706)(ON, Dec, 1995)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.85)

1914        Nov 1, Von Hindenburg was named marshal of Eastern front.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
1914        Nov 1, A German squadron engaged the British fleet under Adm. Craddock near Coronel Bay, Chile. The ships Good Hope and Monmouth were sunk and 1,600 men were lost including Adm. Craddock.
    (MC, 11/1/01)(ON, 3/02, p.11)

1914        Nov 7, Japan attacked a German concession on Chinese peninsula of Shanghai.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1914        Nov 9, Lt. Captain Hellmuth Karl von Mucke (1892-1957) led a squad of men in 3 small boats from the German cruiser Emden to destroy the British telegraph station at Direction Island in the Cocos archipelago. Separated from the Emden von Mucke commandeered the old schooner Ayesha and led his men to Padang, where he sunk the Ayesha and took command of the German merchant SS Choising. They reached Yemen on Jan 8, 1915.
    (ON, 4/05, p.4)
1914        Nov 9, The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney wrecked the German cruiser Emden, forcing her to beach on a reef on North Keeling Island in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 11/9/99)

1914        Nov 21, The RNAS attempted an air attack on the Zeppelins at Friedrichshafen. They succeeded in doing considerable damage.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Nov 25, Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw, Poland. The Russians lost 90,000 to the Germans’ 35,000 in two weeks of fighting.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1914        Dec 4, The first Seaplane Unit formed by the German Navy officially came into existence and began operations from Zeebrugge, Belgium.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1914        Dec 6, German troops over ran Lodz.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1914        Dec 8, The German cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Leipzig were sunk by a British force under Adm. Sturdee in the Battle of the Falkland Islands. 1,800 German sailors were killed including Adm. Von Spee and his 2 sons. Over 2,500 lives were lost in a single day.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Leipzig)(ON, 3/02, p.11)(SSFC, 10/6/02, p.C12)

1914        Dec 24, 577,875 Allied soldiers were to spend Christmas as prisoners in Germany. World War I was only months old on Christmas Eve 1914 when an extraordinary unofficial truce occurred in many places along the Western Front. "We were all moved and felt quite melancholy," wrote one German soldier, "each of us taken up with his own thoughts of home." German and English troops, often less than one hundred yards from each other, set aside warfare to trade Christmas greetings and sing familiar carols in two languages. The truce, probably observed by two-thirds of the British and German troops, ended with the holiday, but reasserted the basic decency of ordinary men like these British and German soldiers caught up in war.
    (HN, 12/24/98)(HNPD, 12/24/98)

1914        Dec 25, German and British troops declared an unofficial truce to celebrate Christmas during World War I.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1914        Dec 25, The British Royal Navy Air Force attempted to bomb the German Zeppelin shed at Cuxhaven. Fog obscured the mission and the bombs were dropped on other sites, i.e. a seaplane base on Langeoog Island, the light cruisers Stralsund and Graudenz and the city of Wilhemshaven. An audacious British air attack on a Zeppelin base in northern Germany caught the Germans with their defenses down.
    (AHM, 1/97)(HN, 3/22/97)

1914        Dec 29, The production of Belgian newspapers was halted to protest German censorship.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1914        Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938), German Expressionist painter, created his “Potsdamer Platz."
    (WSJ, 5/25/04, p.d8)
1914        Ludwig Meidner (1884-1966), German expressionist artist, published his sequence of drawings titled “Krieg," a grotesque taste of the ghastliness of war to come.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.80)

1914        Gen’l. Ludendorf defeated the Russian army in a battle that he named after the 1410 battle of "Tannenberg," which was fought nearby.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

c1914        When WW I began New Zealand pried Western Samoa from the Germans.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.45)

1914        In 2002 "German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial" was published.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.72)

1914-1918    The German campaign in East Africa was directed by General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck. German looting and raiding caused at least 300,000 civilian deaths. By attacking Northern Rhodesia they invaded British territory. Of 1 million porters recruited by the British, 95,000 died. In 2007 Edward Paice authored “Tip and Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa. In 2008 Edward Paice authored “World War I: The African Front.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.87)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W8)

1914-1933    Sebastion Haffner (d.1999) covered this period of the Weimar in a memoir that was cut short by his death. The English version was published in 2002 as "Defying Hitler."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1915        Jan 1, German submarine U-24 sank the British battleship Formidable in the English Channel whilst on patrol and exercise with the 5th Battle Squadron. She sank rapidly with the loss of 547 crew. The 5BS had been steaming slowly (10knots), not zigzagging and were without destroyer escort. Admiral in charge Lewis Bayly was dismissed from his position over the loss.

1915        Jan 14, The French abandoned five miles of trenches to the Germans near Soissons.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1915        Jan 19, The first German air raids on Britain inflicted minor casualties. A Zeppelin attack over Great Britain killed 4 people.
    (HN, 1/19/99)(MC, 1/19/02)

1915        Jan 24, The German cruiser Blücher was sunk by a British squadron in the Battle of Dogger Bank.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1915        Jan 28, The German navy attacked the U.S. freighter William P. Frye, loaded with wheat for Britain.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1915          Jan 31, Germans used poison gas for the 1st time on the Russians at Bolimov.
     (HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)
1915          Jan 31, German U-boats sank two British steamers in the English Channel.
     (HN, 1/31/99)

1915        Jan, French and German soldiers faced off at the Hartmannswillerkopf peak in eastern France. Over the next year some 25,000 soldiers from both sides perished in the fighting there. In 2017 a museum was inaugurated at the peak.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

1915        Feb 4, Germans decreed British waters part of war zone; all ships were to be sunk without warning.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1915        Feb 7, Field marshal Paul von Hindenburg moved on Russians at Masurian Lakes.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1915        Feb 10, President Wilson blasted the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans. He also warned the Kaiser that he would hold Germany "to a strict accountability" for U.S. lives and property endangered. In Europe [Lithuania], the Germans encircled and captured 100,000 Russians near Nieman River. When the United States entered World War I, propagandist George Creel set out to stifle anti-war sentiment.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1915        Feb 14, The Kaiser invited the U.S. Ambassador Gerard to Berlin in order to confer on the war.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1915        Feb 22, Germany began "unrestricted" submarine warfare.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1915        Feb 23, Germany sank US ships Carib & Evelyn and torpedoed the Norwegian ship Regin.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1915        Feb 26, The 1st flame-thrower was used by the Germans at Malancourt, Argonnen.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1915         Mar 1, The Allies announced their aim to cut off all German supplies, and assured the safety of the neutrals.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1915        Mar 9, The Germans took Grodno on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1915        Mar 13, The Germans repelled a British Expeditionary Force attack at the battle of Neuve Chapelle in France.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1915        Mar 14, The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1915        Mar 22, A German Zepplin made a night raid on Paris railway stations.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1915        Apr 1, Roland Garros (d.1918), French aviator, shot down 2 German aviators over Belgium, with bullets shot through his propellers. Corp. August Spachholz and Lt. Walter Grosskopf became the 1st to be killed by an enemy pilot flying alone.
    (ON, 10/02, p.8)

1915        Apr 22, Germans made the first use of poison gas in World War I at the Second Battle Ypres. Chlorine gas was used along 4 miles of the French line at Ypres.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)(HN, 4/22/99)

1915        May 1, A German submarine sank the U.S. ship Gulflight I.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1915        May 5, German U-20 sank the Earl of Lathom.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1915        May 6, German U-20 sank Centurion SE of Ireland.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1915        May 7, In the 2nd year of WWI, the British Cunard ocean liner Lusitania, on a voyage from New York to Liverpool, sank off the coast of Ireland in only 18-21 minutes after being struck by a torpedo fired by the German U-boat U-20. Of 1,962 passengers and crew, 1,198 died. Of the fatalities, 128 were Americans. Even though the Germans maintained the liner was carrying arms purchased in America to Britain, the sinking of a passenger ship aroused intense anger against the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare and hastened America's entrance into the war. In 2002 Diana Preston authored "Lusitania: An Epic Tragedy" and David Ramsay authored "Lusitania: Saga and Myth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania)(AP, 5/7/97)(WSJ, 5/8/02, p.AD9)

1915        May 9, German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
    (HN, 5/9/98)

1915        May 15, In Germany Clara Immerwahr, chemist and wife of chemist Fritz Haber, shot herself in the heart with her husband’s service weapon in their garden, possibly in response to his having personally overseen the first successful use of chlorine at the Second Battle of Ypres on April 22, 1915. That same morning, Haber left for the Eastern Front to oversee gas release against the Russians.

1915        Jun 20, There was a German offensive in Argonne.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1915        Jun 21, Germany used poison gas for the first time in warfare in the Argonne Forest.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1915        Jun 22, Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreated.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1915        Jul 9, Germany’s South West Africa surrendered to Gen. Botha of the Union of South Africa.

1915        Aug 5, The Austro-German Army took Warsaw, in present-day Poland, on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1915        Aug 14, British transport Royal Edward was sunk a by German U boat and some 1000 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1915        Aug 19, The British ocean liner Arabic was sunk by Germany. After the sinking Germany promised that no more merchant ships would be torpedoed without warning. Two Americans were aboard and Germany feared U.S. entry into World War I. Earlier, in May 1915, a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania, killing 60 percent of those on board-some 1,198-of whom 128 were Americans. The threat of American intervention receded until the beleaguered Germans believed it was necessary to resume unrestricted submarine warfare to break the British blockade. On January 31, 1917, Berlin’s announcement that its submarines would "sink on sight" brought the United States into the war.
    (HNQ, 4/7/99)

1915        Aug 20, Paul Ehrlich (61), German genealogist (Chemotherapy, Nobel 1908), died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1915        Sep 2, Austro-German armies took Grodno, Poland.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1915        Sep 4, Rudolf Schock, German opera and operetta tenor, was born.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1915        Sep 6, Franz Josef Strauss, Germany, Nazi and minister of defense (1956-62), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1915        Sep 8, Germany began a new offensive in Argonne on the Western Front.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1915        Sep 25, An allied offensive was launched in France against the German Army.
    (HN, 9/25/98)
1915        Sep 25, At the Battle at Loos: 8,246 British and 0 German casualties.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1915        Oct 5, Germany issued an apology and promises for payment for the 128 American passengers killed in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1915        Oct 8, The WWI Battle of Loos ended with virtually no gains for either side. There was loss of over one hundred thousand French, British, and German lives in this battle. It marked the first use of poisonous gas by the British, which drifted back to the British trenches.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1915        Oct 12, British nurse Edith Cavell (47), despite international protests, was shot as a spy by a German firing squad in Brussels, Belgium. Cavell, the matron of a Brussels training school for nurses, was known for her compassion and sense of duty. As WWI broke out in Europe, Cavell helped 60 British student nurses return home but she remained in Belgium. Even though she knew that helping soldiers escape from German-occupied territory meant the death penalty, Cavell agreed when asked to participate in an escape ring that helped more than 200 fugitive Allied soldiers return home after the British Expeditionary Force's retreat from Mons. Such a large conspiracy could not long remain a secret and in August 1915, Cavell and 35 other members of her organization were arrested. At her hasty trial, she was condemned to death for "conducting soldiers to the enemy." Although their action may have been justified under the rules of war, the Germans seriously blundered when they shot Edith Cavell. Within days of her death, the selfless nurse was elevated to martyr status and the Germans were internationally condemned as "murdering monsters." A statue in St. Martin's Place, just off London's Trafalgar Square, is dedicated to Cavell. In 2010 Diana Souhami authored “Edith Cavell."
    (AP, 10/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Cavell)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.121)

1915        Oct 28, Richard Strauss' Alpine Symphony premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1915        Nov 25, Albert Einstein first presented his "General Theory of Relativity" to a group of scientists in Berlin. General Relativity was presented to the Prussian Academy of Sciences over the course of four lectures. In 2000 David Bodanis authored "E=MC²: A Biography of the World’s Most Famous Equation."
    (http://tinyurl.com/hbdgz9h)(SFC, 11/26/96, p.A7)(SFEC, 10/22/00, Par p.23)(Econ, 11/28/15, p.70)

1915        Dec 3, The U.S. expelled German attaches on spy charges.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1915        Dec 9, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, soprano (Der Rosenkavalier), was born in Jarotschin, Germany.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1915        Dec 19, Alvis Alzheimer (b.1864), German neurologist (Alzheimer Disease), died.

1915        Dec 31, The Germans torpedoed the British liner Persia without any warning; 335 are dead.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1915        Hans Leip, in training for the Prussian Guard, authored the poem “Song of a Young Sentry." It reflected his recent meetings with two women named Lili and Marlene. In 1938 Norbert Schultze of Berlin put it to music. The composition was recorded in 1939 by cabaret chanteuse Lale Anderson and became hugely popular as the song “Lili Marlene." In 2008 Liel Leibovitz and Matthew Miller authored “Lili Marlene: The Soldier’s Song of World War II."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lili_Marleen)
1915        Alfred Wegener, German scientist, published his evidence for the theory of continental drift in his book: "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" (The Origin of Continents and Oceans). This expanded on his theory that continents had drifted to their present positions from the break-up of a single primeval super-continent, Pangaea. He acknowledged the work of F.B. Taylor in 1908.
    (DD-EVTT, p.188)(ON, 9/04, p.8)
1915        Germany lost control of South West Africa to the British after brutally suppressing the indigenous people.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T4)
1915        Germany banned commercial baking on Sunday to limit bread sales due to WW I.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1915        Ingush and Chechen regiments led "the Brusilov breakthrough" on the Russian-German front. Their horse cavalry attacked an enemy force armed with heavy artillery.

1916        Jan 2, The U.S. instructed Ambassador Sharp to tell the Entente in Paris that America would reject the German peace offer.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1916        Jan 14, British authorities seized German attaché von Papen’s financial records confirming espionage activities in the U.S.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1916        Jan 29, 1st bombings of Paris by German Zeppelins took place.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1916        Feb 6, Germany admitted full liability for Lusitania incident and recognized the United State's right to claim indemnity.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1916        Feb 8, Demonstrators protested against food shortages in Berlin.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1916        Feb 21, The World War I Battle of Verdun began in France with an unprecedented German artillery barrage of the French lines; the French were able to prevail after 10 months of fighting. German Gen’l. Erich von Falkenhayn launched the attack.
    (AP, 2/21/98)(HN, 2/21/01)(Sm, 2/06, p.38)

1916        Feb 26, Germans sank the French transport ship Provence II, killing 930.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1916        Mar 1, Germany began attacking ships in the Atlantic.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1916        Mar 14, In the Battle of Verdun Germans attacked on Mort-Homme ridge, West of Verdun.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1916        Mar 18, On the Eastern Front, the Russians countered the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch. The Russians lost 100,000 men and the Germans lost 20,000.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1916        Mar 9, Germany declared war on Portugal.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1916        Apr 2, German troops overtook Bois de Caillette.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1916        Apr 6, German government OK’d unrestricted submarine warfare.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1916        Apr 9, The German army launched its third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1916        Apr 20, German-British sea battle off Belgian coast.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1916        May 4, Responding to a demand from President Wilson, Germany agreed to limit its submarine warfare, averting a diplomatic break with Washington.
    (AP, 5/4/97)

1916        May 11, Einstein's paper “The Basis of the General Theory of Relativity" was published.
1916        May 11, Max [Johann BJM] Reger (43), German composer, pianist, organist, died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1916        May 18, US pilot Kiffin Rockwell shot down German aircraft.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1916        May 22, French troops occupied parts of Fort Douaumont, Verdun. They surrendered to German forces after two days of fighting.

1916        May 24, US pilot William Thaw shot down a German Fokker.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1916        May 31, During World War I, British and German fleets fought the Battle of Skagerrak at Jutland off Denmark and 10,000 were left dead. There was no clear-cut victor, although the British suffered heavier losses.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jutland)(AP, 5/31/06)

1916        Jun 26, Russian General Aleksei Brusilov renewed his offensive against the Germans.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1916        Jul 1, In France at 7:30AM, a 5 day, continuous, British artillery bombardment of German lines stopped, and 11 British divisions (100,000 men) went "over the top" toward the Germans. By 9AM 22,000 were dead & another 40,000 were wounded in what became known as the Battle of the Somme. Some 57,500 British soldiers were killed or wounded on the first day of the battle. These attacks continued for another five months, costing the British over one million killed & wounded. Field Marshal Douglas Haig commanded the British forces. 4 months of stalemate cost 420,000 British casualties. In 2014 Joe Sacco authored “The Great War: July 1, 1916 – The First Day of the Battle of the Somme.
    (AP, 7/15/09)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.66)

1916        Jul 15, A series of engagements in the Battle of the Somme began at Delville Wood and continued to September 3 between the armies of the German Empire and the British Empire. A brigade of South Africans held the wood until 19 July at a cost of four-fifths of its men injured or killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Delville_Wood)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.46)

1916        Jul 19, In the WWI Battle at Fromelles, France, German machine guns and artillery left over 5,500 Australians and over 1,500 British killed, wounded or missing in less than 24 hours.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.A2)

1916        Jul 30, German saboteurs blew up a munitions pier on Black Tom Island, Jersey City, NJ. 7 people were killed. Damages totaled about $20-25 million. After much legal maneuvering a commission in 1939 ruled that Germany was guilty of sabotaging Black Tom and another plant in Kingsland, NJ, and awarded$50 million to the claimants. In 1953 the new Federal Republic of Germany began making payments. The last payment was made in 1979.
    (AH, 10/04, p.36,77)

1916        Aug 11, The Russia army took Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1916        Aug 27, Italy declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1916        Aug 28, Germany declared war on Romania.
    (MC, 8/28/01)
1916        Aug 28, Italy's declaration of war against Germany took effect during World War I.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1916        Aug 29, Gen Von Hindenburg became German Chief of Staff.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1916        Sep 3, The German Somme front was broken by an Allied offensive. Allies turned back the Germans in the Battle of Verdun.
    (HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)

1916        Oct 5, Corporal Adolf Hitler was wounded in WW I.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1916        Oct 25, German pilot Rudolf von Eschwege shoot down his first enemy plane, a Nieuport 12 of the Royal Naval Air Service over Bulgaria.
    (HN, 10/25/99)

1916        Nov 3, On the Baltic off of Finland a German U-boat under Captain Bruno Hoppe ordered Captain E.B. Eriksson of the Swedish schooner Jonkoping to halt for an inspection. Beverages headed for the Russians were discovered and the ship was evacuated and sunk. In 1998 some 1,000 bottles of 1907 Heidsieck Monopole champagne were recovered, of which 500 were preserved in drinking condition. Hoppe later sank the schooner Akir. The 66-ton Joenkoeping was sunk in the Baltic Sea by a German U-boat. It carried 44 creates of champagne, 67 barrels of cognac, and 17 barrels of port wine intended for the Russian army. Divers planned to recover the cargo in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A14)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A19)(AP, 9/21/98)

1916        Nov 8, Peter Ulrich Weiss, German novelist and dramatist, was born. His work included "Marat/Sade" and "The Investigation."
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1916        Nov 27, The German submarine UB-29 departed on its final mission with 22 sailors and soon went missing. In 2017 Belgian divers investigated the submarine's wreck off the coast of Belgium. Officials were able to identify it after finding the tag of the U-boat.
    (AP, 11/14/17)

1916        Nov 28, The first (German) air attack on London.
    (DT internet 11/28/97)

1916        Dec 18, The French defeated the Germans in the World War I Battle of Verdun. The 302-day Battle of Verdun ended with the French and Germans each having suffered more than 330,000 killed and wounded in 10 months.

1916        Albert Einstein published his book “Relativity: The Special and the General Theory," in an effort to make relativity understandable to the layman. His work predicted the existence of pulsars, which were first discovered in 1967.
    (ON, 6/07, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar)
1916        The opera "Die Toten Augen" (The Dead Eyes) by composer Eugen D'Albert (b.1864 in Glasgow) was first performed in Dresden under Fritz Reiner.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.33)

1916        Germany reduced its retirement age from 70, which was fixed by Bismarck, to 65.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.16)
1916        Germany adopted daylight saving time.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, Par p.15)
1916        The German firm BMW began life assembling aircraft engines.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.64)
1916        Oskar Dressel and Richard Kothe of Bayer, Germany, developed the drug suramin. For a long time it was used to treat the sleeping sickness spread by tsetse flies. In 2014 research suggested that the drug could alleviate the symptoms of autism in mice.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suramin)(Econ 6/3/17, p.72)
1916        Cameroon was a German colony until this year, when British and French troops forced the Germans out. The two countries divided it into separate spheres of influence that were later formalized by the League of Nations, the forerunner to the UN.
    (AFP, 9/29/18)

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