Timeline Germany (C) 1917-1938

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1917        Jan 5, Wieland Wagner, German opera director (grandson of Richard Wagner), was born.
    (MC, 1/5/02)
1917        Jan 5, Bulgarian and German troops occupied the Port of Braila in East Romania.
    (HN, 1/5/99)(WUD, 1994, p.178)

1917        Jan 10, Germany was rebuked as the Entente officially rejected a proposal for peace talks and demanded the return of occupied territories from Germany.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1917         Jan 19, The Zimmermann Note-a coded message sent to Germany's minister in Mexico by German Foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann, proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event war broke out between the U.S. and Germany. Intercepted by British naval intelligence, the note proposed, among other things, "We shall give generous financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona." The message was forwarded by the British to the U.S. State Department, which subsequently released it to the press on March 1.
    (HNQ, 7/15/98)

1917          Jan 31, Germany resumed unlimited sub warfare, saying that all neutral ships that are in the war zone would be attacked.
     (AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)

1917        Feb 1, Admiral Tirpitz (1849-1930) announced that Germany would attack all shipping in the North Atlantic with its feared U-Boats. [see Jan 31]
    (WSJ, 1/29/96, p. C-1)(WUD, 1994 p.1488)

1917        Feb 3, The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, which had announced a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. A German submarine sank the U.S. liner Housatonic off coast of Sicily.
    (AP, 2/3/97)(HN, 2/3/99)

1917        Feb 7, The British steamer California was sunk off the coast of Ireland by a German U-boat.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1917        Feb 8, The British steamship Mantola was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. All but seven crew members, who drowned when their lifeboat overturned, were rescued by the HMS Laburnum. The ship sank the next day. The British Ministry of War Transport paid a War Risk Insurance Claim for £110,000 (in 1917 value) for silver that was on board when the ship sank. In 2011 Odyssey Marine Exploration discovered the ship.     
    (SFC, 10/11/11, p.A6)(www.shipwreck.net/ssmantola.php)

1917        Feb 24, The British presented the decoded Zimmermann telegram, a German plot for Mexican help, to Pres. Wilson and an enraged Wilson released the document to the American public on March 1. On April 6, 1917, America formally declared war on Germany and her Allies.
    (HNPD, 2/24/99)(MC, 2/24/02)

1917        Feb 28, AP reported that Mexico and Japan would ally with Germany if US enters WW I.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1917        Mar 14, China broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1917        Mar 18, The Germans sank the U.S. ships, City of Memphis, Vigilante and the Illinois, without any type of warning.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1917        Mar 19, A German submarine in the Mediterranean Sea sunk the French battleship Danton. In 2009 the Danton was discovered on the seabed southwest of Sardinia.
    (SFC, 2/21/09, p.A2)(www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?16848)

1917        Apr 2, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war against Germany, saying, "The world must be made safe for democracy."
    (AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)

1917        Apr 6, The US Congress approved a declaration of war against Germany and entered World War I on the Allied side.
     (HN, 4/6/98)(AP, 4/6/04)

1917        Apr 9, Battle of Arras began as Canadian troops launched a massive assault on Vimy Ridge in France. The assault brought four Canadian divisions fought together for the first time and cost 10,600 lives. The Canadians succeeded in battling through snow and sleet to push out the Germans who had long held the strategic post.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_%281917%29)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(AP, 4/8/17)

1917        Aug 14, China declared war on Germany and Austria during World War I.
    (AP, 8/14/97)

1917        Apr 15, The British defeated the Germans at the battle of Arras.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1917        May 10, Atlantic ships got destroyer escorts to fend off German attacks.
    (HN, 5/10/98)

1917        May 15, British Lt. John Harold Pritchard was killed in a nighttime battle at Bullecourt, France. This was during the two week 2nd battle of Bullecourt on the Hindenburg Line. Thousands of dead were scattered on both sides. In 2013 Pritchard’s body was found on a farm that covered the battleground.
    (SFC, 4/24/13, p.A5)

1917        May 26, The Spanish boat Carlos de Eizaguirre hit a German mine that had been part of a naval blockade near Cape Town. 25 survivors reached the harbor.
    (AP, 5/26/17)

1917        Jun 7, British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig launched his assault in Flanders to take German pressure off his French allies. For months, troops of the British Expeditionary Force fought a series of pointless battles in a nightmarish landscape of knee-deep shell holes filled with mud and blasted, skeletal trees. When the campaign finally ground to a halt on November 10, 1917, the BEF had suffered losses of 300,000 men and German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles.
    (HNPD, 6/7/99)

1917        Jun 13, Germany bombed London.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1917        Jun 17, The Russian Duma met in secret session in Petrograd and voted for an immediate Russian offensive against the German Army.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1917        Jul 16, Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka (70), German composer (Album Polonaise), died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1917        Jul 22, British bombed German lines at Ypres with 4,250,000 grenades.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1917        Jul 31, The third Battle of Ypres commenced as the British attacked the German lines.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1917        Aug 6, The battle of Marasesti began and continued to Sep 8. This was the last major battle between the German Empire and the Kingdom of Romania on the Romanian front during World War I.

1917        Aug 14, The Chinese Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria, during World War I.
    (AP, 8/14/97)(HN, 8/14/98)

1917        Sep 2, Admiral Tirpitz formed the Deutsche Vaterlands Party.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1917        Sep 4, The American expeditionary force in France suffered its first fatalities in World War I when a German plane attacked a British-run base hospital..
    (AP, 9/4/08)

1917        Sep 8, The battle of Marasesti, begun on August 6, ended. This was the last major battle between the German Empire and the Kingdom of Romania on the Romanian front during World War I. The Battle of Mărășești kept the northeastern region of the country free from occupation. Romania lost over 27,000 men, including 610 officers, while Germany and Austria-Hungary lost over 47,000.

1917        Sep 17, The German Army recaptured the Russian [Latvian] Port of Riga from Russian forces.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1917        Oct 17, The 1st British bombing of Germany took place.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1917        Oct 24, The Austro-German army routed the Italian army at Caporetto, Italy. In what came to be known as the 1st blitzkrieg German and Austro-Hungarian forces took at least 250,000 Italian soldiers as prisoners on the Isonzo Front.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1917        Nov 5, General Pershing led U.S. troops into the first American action against German forces.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1917        Nov 8, Adolph Wagner (b.1835), German economist, died. He formulated the Law of Increasing State Spending, also known as "Wagner's Law," which predicts that the development of an industrial economy will be accompanied by an increased share of public expenditure in gross national product.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolph_Wagner)(Econ, 3/18/17, p.24)

1917        Nov 10, The assault on Flanders, begun July 11, finally ground to a halt. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had suffered losses of 300,000 men and German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passchendaele. The battle was later described by Edwin Campion Vaughan in “Some Desperate Glory" (1981).
    (HN, 6/7/98)(HNQ, 11/2/98)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)

1917        Nov 21, German ace Rudolf von Eschwege was killed over Macedonia when he attacked a booby-trapped observation balloon packed with explosives.
    (HN, 11/21/99)

1917        Nov, The East African Campaign, a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (later Tanzania) and spread to portions of Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, Uganda and the Belgian Congo, all but ended when the Germans entered Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and continued the campaign living off Portuguese supplies.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lcfyagk)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.40)

1917        Dec 11, The first declaration of independence was claimed by Lithuania and an economic and military union was established with Germany.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1917        Dec 24, The Kaiser warned Russia that he would use "iron fist" and "shining sword" if peace was spurned.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1917        Emil Nolde, German expressionist, created his painting "Blumengarten (Utenwarf)." In 2009 it was sold to a European art collector for an undisclosed amount to the heirs of Otto Nathan Deutsch, a Jewish businessman who lost it when he fled Germany to escape Nazi persecution in 1939. The was estimated to be worth between $4-6 million. A Swedish museum had bought the artwork from a Swiss gallery in 1967, unaware of its history.
    (AP, 9/9/09)
1917        In Germany Hans Pfitzner premiered his opera "Palestrina," about the life of the 16th cent. composer and how Palestrina supposedly saved polyphony in church music during the Council of Trent.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1918        Jan 2, Bolsheviks talked about resuming war unless the Germans quit Russian soil.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1918        Jan 6, Germany acknowledged Finland’s independence.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1918        Jan 7, The Germans moved 75,000 troops from the East Front to the Western Front.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1918        Jan 25, Austria and Germany rejected U.S. peace proposals.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1918        Feb 22, Germany claimed the Baltic states, Finland and Ukraine from Russia.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)
1918        Mar 3, Richard Göring's "Seeschlacht" premiered in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1918        Mar 7, Finland signed an alliance treaty with Germany.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1918        Mar 10, Günther Rall, German Luftwaffe ace in World War II, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/99)

1918        Mar 21, During World War I, Germany launched the Somme 'Michael' Offensive in France, hoping to break through the Allied line before American reinforcements could arrive. It is better remembered as the First Battle of the Somme.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1356)(AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/99)

1918        Mar 23, Crépy-en-Laonnoise: German artillery shelled Paris France and 256 were killed. The Paris bombs were named "Thick Bertha's Dike" (nickname for the widow Krupp).
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1918        Mar 23, Germany became the 1st country to recognize the independence of Lithuania. This was based on the Lithuanian legislative act of Dec 11, 1917.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1918        Mar 26, On the Western Front during World War I the Germans took the French towns Noyon, Roye and Lihons.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1918        May 28, The Battle of Cantigny began during World War I as American troops captured the French town from the Germans; the Americans were able to resist German counterattacks in the days that followed.
    (AP, 5/28/08)

1918        Apr 4, Battle of Somme [France], an offensive by the British against the German Army ended.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1918        Apr 9, In northern France some 7,000 Portuguese soldiers were killed, wounded or taken prisoner in one day at the Battle of Lys. The battle helped allied nations stop a German offensive in the final year of hostilities.
    (AP, 4/9/18)

1918        Apr 21, Baron Manfred von Richthofen (25), the cousin of Frieda Lawrence and the highest-scoring German ace of World War I with 80 victories, was killed in a dogfight over France's Somme Valley over Amiens. As he pursued a Canadian pilot with jammed guns, von Richthofen, flying a red Fokker triplane, broke one of his own flying rules by following his prey too long, too far and too low. Two miles behind Allied lines, Richthofen was mortally wounded when he was fired upon simultaneously by another Canadian pilot and Australian ground troops. The following day, the Red Baron was buried by his enemies with full military honors. He was replaced with Hermann Goering.
    (WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)(AP, 4/21/97)(HNPD, 4/21/99)

1918        Apr 22, British naval forces attempted to sink block-ships in the German U-boat bases at the Battle of Zeeburgge.
    (HN, 4/22/99)

1918        May, The German army staged a surprise offensive and rolled into the Marne Valley through the center of the French 6th Army. The Germans were held at bay by some 9,000 US Marines of the 5th and 6th Regiments of the 4th Brigade.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1918        Jun 3, The Finnish Parliament ratified its treaty with Germany.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1918        Jun 4, French and American troops halted Germany's offensive at Chateau-Thierry, France.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1918        Jun 6, In northern France the US Marines counter-attacked the Germans and pushed them back to the woods at Bois de Belleau. US Marines entered combat at the Battle of Belleau Wood. This was the 1st US victory of WW I. The Americans chased the German forces out of Belleau Wood by the end of the month. The battle became a defining moment in World War I.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)(HN, 6/6/01)(AP, 5/26/18)

1918        Jun 18, Allied forces on the Western Front began their largest counter-attack against the spent German army.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1918        Jun 26, After a brief respite, the Germans began firing their huge 420 mm howitzer "Big Bertha" at Paris. During World War I, Germany's 98-ton howitzer used to shell Verdun and Liege-Big Bertha-was named after the wife of munitions maker Gustav Krupp. Bertha Krupp was actually the heir to the Krupp family fortune when she married Prussian diplomat Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, who changed his name to Krupp and took over the family firm, which was the world's largest manufacturer of munitions. Gustav Krupp went on to support Adolph Hitler and help finance the Nazis.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(HNQ, 8/28/98)

1918        Jun 27, Two German pilots were saved by parachutes for the first time.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1918        Jun 28, The US Marines took the Bois de Belleau.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1918        Jul 11, German Prince Herzog von Urach (1864-1928) was elected King of Lithuania with the regnal name Mindaugas II. He never assumed the crown, however, as German authorities declared the election invalid. The invitation was withdrawn in November 1918.

1918        Jul 15, The Second Battle of the Marne began during World War I.
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1918        Jul 18, US & French forces launched Aisne-Marne offensive in WW I. After an artillery attack, nearly 400 Allied tanks rolled against the German positions. By nightfall the Germans were on the retreat and Paris was mostly in Allied control.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1918        Jul 19, German armies retreated across the Marne River in France.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1918        Jul 21, The residents and coastguardsmen of Orleans, Massachusetts, were amazed to see the German U-boat, U-156, firing at the Perth Amboy American tug and four barges just off shore.
    (SFC, 7/18/18, p.A7)

1918        Aug 6, The 2nd battle of the Marne ended.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1918        Aug 8, Opening salvos by the combined air and ground assault by soldiers from Britain, Australia, Canada, the United States and France began the Battle of Amiens. They quickly began to push back German troops to turn the tide on the Western Front.
    (AP, 8/8/18)

1918        Aug 11, The British attacked with 450 tanks at the Battle of Amiens as the Allies pushed Germany back.
    (MC, 8/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.728)

1918        Sep 3, Allies forced Germans back across Hindenburg Line.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1918        Sep 6, The German Army began a general retreat across the Aisne, with British troops in pursuit.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1918        Sep 12, During World War I, U.S. forces led by Gen. John J. Pershing launched an attack on the German-occupied St. Mihiel salient north of Verdun, France.
    (AP, 9/12/97)

1918        Sep 25, Germany's SM U-156 U-boat failed to report that she had cleared the Northern barrage minefield between the United Kingdom and Norway on her return voyage to Germany. The submarine was responsible for sinking 44 ships and damaging 3 others, including a warship.

1918        Sep 26, The Meuse-Argonne offensive started. It was America's deadliest battle ever, with 26,000 US soldiers killed, tens of thousands wounded and more ammunition fired than in the whole of the Civil War. The offensive was one of several simultaneous Allied attacks that brought the war which started in 1914 to an end, leading the Germans to retreat and sign the armistice on November 11.
    (AP, 9/26/08)(AP, 9/23/18)
1918        Sep 26, German Ace Ernst Udet shot down two Allied planes, bringing his total for the war up to 62.
    (HN, 9/26/00)

1918        Sep 29, Allied forces scored a decisive breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line during World War I.
    (AP, 9/29/97)

1918        Oct 8, Alvin Callum York (1887-164) almost single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and captured 132 in the Argonne Forest in France. Corporal Alvin C. York's platoon was advancing toward the Decauville railway when they were hit with machine-gun fire from all sides. The doughboys captured one gun, but the noise drew the fire of the remaining German emplacements, killing six and seriously wounding three Americans. As the most senior of the remaining doughboys, York went out alone to engage the enemy with just his rifle and service revolver, picking off the machine-gunners one by one. When the fighting was over, York had single-handedly eliminated 35 machine guns, killed more than 20 Germans and taken 132 members of a Prussian Guards regiment as prisoners. A modest man, York shrugged off his heroic actions, saying, "It's over; let's forget it."
    (AP, 10/8/97)(HNPD, 12/13/98)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_C._York)

1918        Oct 10, While President Woodrow Wilson was attempting to establish "peace without victory" with Germany, the German UB-123 torpedoed RMS Leinster, a civilian mail and passenger ferry, off the coast of Ireland. Leinster was usually escorted by a Royal Air Force airship as a precaution, but on October 10, 1918, the ferry set out alone. Leinster was sunk; 564 passengers and crewmen perished, many of them American and Allied troops. After Leinster, the Germans lost their chance for an easy peace.
    (HNPD, 10/10/99)

1918        Oct 14, In France the American 32nd division was sent to engage German troops on the Dame Marie, while the 5th and 42nd Divisions under Gen. Douglas MacArthur swept in pincer movements to occupy Cote de Chatillon. The objectives were taken in 3 days of tough fighting. In 2008 Robert H. Ferrell authored “The Question of MacArthur’s Reputation: Cote de Chatillon, October 14-16, 1918."
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A17)

1918        Oct 20, Germany aimed at an armistice and agreed to further concessions.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1918        Oct 23, President Wilson felt satisfied that the Germans were accepting his armistice terms and agreed to transmit their request for an armistice to the Allies. The Germans had agreed to suspend submarine warfare, cease inhumane practices such as the use of poison gas, and withdraw troops back into Germany.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1918        Oct 26, Germany's supreme commander, General Erich Ludendorff, resigned, protesting the terms to which the German Government had agreed in negotiating the armistice. This set the stage for his later support for Hitler and the Nazis, who claimed that Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield but were "stabbed in the back" by politicians.
    (HN, 10/26/98)

1918        Nov 3, There was a mutiny of the German fleet at Kiel. This was the first act leading to German's capitulation in World War I. [see Nov 4]
    (HN, 11/3/99)

1918        Nov 4, Kiel, Germany, fell into the hands of revolutionary sailors. [see Nov 3]
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1918        Nov 9, Germany was proclaimed a republic. Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that he would abdicate. Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands offered him political asylum and there he lived until his death in 1941.
    (AP, 11/9/97)(Econ, 10/25/14, p.85)
1918        Nov 9, Guillaume Apollinaire (38), [Kostrowitsky], French poet (Alcools), died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1918        Nov 10, Retired German Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands.

1918        Nov 11, At ten minutes past five in the morning, German and Allied negotiators placed the final signatures on the armistice that would end World War I six hours later. After the signing, French General Ferdinand Foch sent all Allied commanders the following message: "Hostilities will cease on the entire [Western] front November 11 at 11:00 a.m." Even as the hour approached 9 of 16 commanders of US divisions on the Western Front ordered a final assault that left an additional 11,000 casualties. Although the Allies had not invaded Germany and there was no clear military victory, the Germans were forced to sign the armistice because of insurmountable problems. German troops, pushed past their limits of endurance by five years of fighting, faced a fresh stream of well-equipped American soldiers. Germany's allies, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, had already ceased fighting and mutinies increased as German soldiers and sailors refused to carry out suicidal missions. Food shortages, both at home and at the front, had reached crisis levels. The costs of the First World War were astronomical with 7.5 million dead and more than 35 million total casualties. The US Armistice Day holiday was changed to Veteran’s Day after the Korean War. It was celebrated as “Veteran’s Day" for the first time in the US in Emporia, Kansas, on November 11, 1953. In 2004 Joseph E. Persico authored “Eleventh Month, Eleventh Day, Eleventh Hour: Armistice Day, 1918, World War I and Its Violent Climax."
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A16)(SFC,11/8/97, p.A11)(HNPD, 11/11/98)(SFC, 12/28/04, p.D1)

1918        Nov 14, The Grand Duchy of Baden ceased to exist and became a republic. The provisional government declared the establishment of the freie Volksrepublik Baden (Free Peoples' Republic of Baden), and set 5 January 1919 as the date for new elections. In 1933 it went under Nazi rule.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Baden)

1918        Nov 17, German troops evacuated Brussels.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1918        Nov 21, The last German troops left Alsace-Lorraine, France.
    (HN, 11/21/98)
1918        Nov 21, 2 German ammunition trains exploded in Hamont, Belgium and 1,750 died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1918        Nov 28, Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia and Germany, abdicated.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1918        Dec 1, An American army of occupation entered Germany.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1918        Dec 3, The Allied Conference ended in London; Germany was required to pay to full limits for the war.
    (HN, 12/3/02)

1918        Dec 7, Spartacists called for a German revolution.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1918        Dec 9, French troops occupied Mainz.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1918        Dec 10, U.S. troops were called to guard Berlin as a coup was feared.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1918        Dec 13, US army of occupation crossed the Rhine and entered Germany.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1918        Dec 23, Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of Germany, was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1918        Dec 25, Revolt erupted in Berlin.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1918        Fritz Haber (1868-1934), German chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for extracting ammonia from nitrogen in 1909. The Haber-Bosch process was beneficial for food production and explosives. Haber also helped develop poison gas during WW I.
    (WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.C6)
1918        Germany's bridge at Remagen was built and christened the Ludendorff bridge after a famous World War I field marshal. The crossing took on vital strategic importance towards the end of World War II in early 1945.
    (AFP, 5/7/18)

1919        Jan 5, The National Socialist Party (Nazi) formed.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1919        Jan 21, The German Krupp plant began producing guns under the U.S. armistice terms.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1919        Jan, In Germany sociologist Max Weber gave a speech to a group of leftist students at a bookstore in Bavaria. The speech was meant to curb the Utopian romanticism then gripping the ideologues fighting over the direction of a new Germany. The “Politics as a Vocation" speech was published in England after WWII.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.54)

1919        Feb 4, City of Bremen's Soviet Republic was overthrown.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1919        Feb 8, Lithuanian and German military forces forced the Bolsheviks from Kedainiai.
    (LHC, 2/8/03)

1919        Feb 17, Germany signed an armistice giving up territory in Poland.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1919        Mar 3, Communist Party in Germany announced a general strike.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1919        Mar 11, A general strike in Germany was crushed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1919        May 6, Paris Peace Conference disposed of German colonies; German East Africa was assigned to Britain & France, German SW Africa to South Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1919        Jun 20, Treaty of Versailles: Germany ended the incorporation of Austria. [see Jun 28]
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1919        Jun 21, German sailors under Admiral von Reuter scuttled 72 warships at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys even though Germany had surrendered. It was the greatest act of self-destruction in modern military history.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)(MC, 6/21/02)

1919        Jun 28, The Treaty of Versailles was signed in France, ending (WW I) World War I. World War I began in 1914 and ended on this date. Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles under protest. Books by participants included "Peacemaking" by Harold Nicolson; "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" by John Maynard Keynes; and "The Truth About the Peace Treaties" by David Lloyd George. In 2000 Richard Holmes authored "The Western Front." Nearly 1 million British died and nearly 2 million each for France, Germany, Russia and Turkey. In 2002 Margaret MacMillan authored "Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AP, 6/28/97)(HN, 6/28/98)(WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.M3)

1919        Jul 4, The ADGB (Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) party was formed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1919        Jul 21, Anthony Fokker established an airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1919        Jul 31, Germany's Weimar Constitution was adopted by the republic's National Assembly. The Weimar Republic became Germany’s 1st democratic government.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1919        Aug 11, Germany's Weimar Constitution was signed by President Friedrich Ebert.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1919        Sep 12, Adolf Hitler joined the German Worker's Party. In 2004 Robert O. Paxton authored "The Anatomy of Fascism," on the rise and fall of Hitler and Mussolini.
    (HN, 9/12/98)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)

1919        Richard Strauss composed his opera "Die Frau Ohne Schatten" (The Woman Without a Shadow).
    (WSJ, 12/26/01, p.A8)

1919        Walter Gropius co-founded the Bauhaus in Germany. Two existing schools in Weimar were combined into a single institution. The new school, "the house of building," also combined two important trends in art education: artistic training and arts and crafts. Henry van de Velde was one of the founders. Gropius served as the founding director until 1927.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)

1919        Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) opened his 1st private school for the workers at the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory.
    (SFC, 10/29/00, p.A7)

1919-1920    Hanna Hoch (1889-1978), photomontage artist of the Berlin Dada movement made her work "Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Epoch of Germany."
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)

1919-1933    This is the period of the Weimar Republic, Germany’s 1st democratic government. In 2007 Eric D. Weitz authored “Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy." The constitution gave men and women equal rights in a marriage. It advocated education based on talent and inclination and an economic system that provided dignity for everyone.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.100)(SFC, 2/7/19, p.A2)

1920        Jan 14, Berlin was placed under martial law as 40,000 radicals rushed the Reichstag; 42 are dead and 105 are wounded.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1920        Jan 23, The Dutch government refused demands from the victorious Allies to hand over the ex-Kaiser of Germany.
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1920        Feb 3, The Allies demanded that 890 German military leaders stand trial for war crimes.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1920        Feb 12, The last German forces withdrew from Klaipeda as French and English naval forces arrived.
    (LHC, 2/12/03)

1920        Feb 16, The Allies accepted Berlin’s offer to try World War I war criminals in Leipzig’s Supreme Court.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1920        Feb 24, A fledgling German political party held its first meeting of importance at Hofbrauhaus in Munich; it became known as the Nazi Party, and its chief spokesman was Adolf Hitler.
    (AP, 2/24/00)

1920        Mar 13, The Kapp Putsch took place, involving a group of Freikorps troops who gained control of Berlin and installed Wolfgang Kapp (a right-wing journalist) as chancellor. The national government fled to Stuttgart and called for a general strike. The strike crippled Germany's ravaged economy and the Kapp government collapsed after only four days on March 17.

1920        Apr 1, Germany's Workers Party changed its name to Nationalist Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazis). The National Socialist (Nazi) party was born in Munich in the 1920s.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(HNQ, 1/26/00)

1920        Apr 15, Richard von Weizsacker, baron, president (Germany, 1984-94), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1920        Jun 14, Max Weber (b.1864), German sociologist, died. His books included “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" (1905).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Weber)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.73)

1920        Oct 20, Max Bruch (82), German composer (Kol Nidre), died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1920        Dec 18, Rita Streich, German singer, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1920        Dec 20, The opera "Die Tote Stadt" by Erich Korngold (1897-1957) premiered in Germany. It was first recorded in a 1975 production by Charles Allan Gerhardt (d.1999 at 72).
    (www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2002/Nov02/Korngold_Die_Tote_Stadt.htm)(SFC, 3/2/99, p.A20)

1920        Ernst Juenger (Jünger) (d.1998) published his first book "In Storms of Steel." The book glorified the horrors of WW I and put him in the rank of militant nationalists who writings helped pave the way for the Third Reich. In 2003 Michael Hoffman made a translation, Storm of Steel, to English.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
1920        In Germany a Weimar 5 pfennig postage stamp of this year doubled in cost the following year. It jumped to 10 marks in 1922, 30 marks in January 1923, 1,000 marks in May and 800,000 marks in October. By the end of 1923 sending a letter cost 10 billion marks.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.64)

1920-1933    Joseph Roth, Austrian novelist, spent this period in Berlin. In 2002 his writings from this time were translated by Michael Hofmann and published as "What I Saw: Reports From Berlin 1920-1933."
    (SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M3)

1921        Jan 28, Albert Einstein startled Berlin by suggesting the possibility of measuring the universe.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1921         Mar 1, The Allies rejected a $7.5 billion reparations offer in London. German delegations decided to quit all talks.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1921        Mar 8, French troops occupied Dusseldorf.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1921        Mar 25, Simone Signoret, (Casque d'Or, Room at the Top), was born in Wiesbaden, Germany.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1921        Mar, Communist rebellions were put down in Saxony and Hamburg.

1921        Apr, The German bill for reparations was tallied. An int’l. reparations commission determined that damages caused by Germany amounted to $33 billion or 133 billion gold marks.

1921        May 23, The German Supreme Court began a series of 9 trials for German WWI war criminals. Several cases ended in an acquittal of the accused, but most were followed by imprisonment or incarceration in a fortress.

1921        May 30, Salzburg, Austria, voted to join Germany.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1921        Jun 21, U.S. Army Air Service pilots bombed the captured German battleship Ostfriesland to demonstrate the effectiveness of aerial bombing on warships. At the time, the ship was one of the world's largest war vessels. Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell, assistant chief of the Army Air Service, arranged the demonstration to prove that air power should become the country's first line of defense.
    (HNPD, 6/22/98)

1921        Jul 29, Adolf Hitler became the president of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis).
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1921        Aug 25, The United States, which never ratified the Versailles Treaty ending World War I, finally signed a peace treaty with Germany.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(HN, 8/25/98)

1921        Sep 21, In Oppau, Germany, an explosion at the Bradishe Aniline chemical works, a nitrate manufacturing plant, destroyed the plant and a nearby village with 561 deaths and over 1500 persons injured.
    (HSAB, 1994, p.46)(MC, 9/21/01)

1921        Sep 27, Engelbert Humperdinck, German opera composer (Hansel & Gretel), died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1921        Sep, Germany made an initial reparations payment of $250 million. However, an economic crisis which had gripped the country, caused runaway inflation and an end to additional installments.

1921        The film Nosferatu by German director F.W. Murnau was produced. In 1998 Jim Shephard published his novel "Nosferatu" that was based on a mock diary by Murnau.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, BR p.6)
1921        Albert Einstein, Germany-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". His prize was announced and awarded in 1922.

1921-1986    Joseph Beuys, artist, recorded his own blackboard scrawls as drawings and made performance art of his freewheeling lectures. Andy Warhol made some prints of Beuys.
    (SFC,12/18/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 8/27/98, p.A12)

1922        Mar 5, "Nosferatu" premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1922        Mar 15, France was willing to accept raw material instead of currency for German reparations.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1922        Mar 20, President Harding ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1922        Apr 16, A German-Russia treaty was signed in Italy. It recognized the Soviet Union.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1922        Apr 19, Erich Hartmann, German WW II pilot who later downed 352 Russian aircrafts, was born.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1922        Apr 27, Fritz Lang's "Dr Mabuse, der Spieler" premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1922        Aug 15, Lukas Foss, [Fuchs], composer (Prairie), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1922        Nov 30, Hitler spoke to 50,000 national socialists (Nazis) in Munich.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1922        Herman Hesse (1877-1962) published his novel “Siddhartha." In 1951 it was translated to English.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P8)

1922        Adolph Hitler and Hermann Goring became friends and political allies because of their mutual hatred of the Versailles Treaty. In 2004 Anthony Read authored "The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle."
    (SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)
1922        In the Rapallo Treaty Germany recognized Lenin's regime.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)
1922        Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951), German doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.
1922        Carl Wieselsberger, German physicist, described a method of suspending models on an airstream, i.e. the ground effect.
    (Econ, 9/8/07, TQ p.12)(http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/citations/cit.html)
1922        Walther Rathenau, a German-Jewish industrialist, was assassinated by right-wing thugs. The 1999 book "Einstein's German World" by Fritz Stern included an essay on Rathenau. Other essays presented views of Max Planck, physicist, Paul Ehrlich, founder of chemotherapy, and Fritz Haber, who worked on the insecticide later known as Zyklon-B.
    (WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)

1923        Jan 10, The United States withdrew its last troops from Germany.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1923        Jan 11, The French entered Essen in the Ruhr. They were there to extract Germany's resources as war payment. After France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr, Germany’s central bank, the Reichsbank, increased its money printing, unleashing hyperinflation.
    (HN, 1/11/99)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.57)

1923        Jan 13, Hitler denounced the Weimar republic as 5,000 storm troopers demonstrated in Germany.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1923        Jan 28, The 1st "National Socialist German Workers Party" (NSDAP, aka NAZI) formed in Munich.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1923        Feb 4, French troops took Offenburg, Appenweier and Buhl in the Ruhr as a part of the agreement ending World War I.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1923        Feb 8, German NSDAP (Nazi Party) Volkischer Beobachter newspaper became a daily.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1923        Feb 10, Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (77), physicist (Nobel 1901), died. In 1971 Robert W. Nitske authored “The Life of Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: Discoverer of the X Ray."
    (ON, 11/04, p.8)

1923        Mar 1, Allies occupied Ruhrgebied and killed a railroad striker.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1923        Mar 14, German Supreme Court prohibited the NSDAP (Nazi Party).
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1923        Mar 20, Bavarian minister of Interior refused to forbid the Nazi SA. [NOTE: The Sturmabteilung SA, German for "Assault Division" and sometimes translated storm troopers, functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. SA men were often known as brown shirts from the color of their uniform and to distinguish them from the SS who were known as black shirts.]
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1923        Mar 31, French soldiers fired on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1923        Apr 10, Hitler demanded "hatred and more hatred" in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1923        May 29, Adolf Oberländer German painter, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1923        Jun 13, The French set a trade barrier between the occupied Ruhr and the rest of Germany.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1923        Jun 20, France announced it would seize the Rhineland to assist Germany in paying her war debts.
    (HN, 6/20/98)

1923        Jun 24, Pope Pius XI spoke against allies occupying Ruhrgebied.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1923        Jul 29, Albert Einstein spoke on pacifism in Berlin.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1923        Aug 23, Wolfgang Sawallisch, conductor (Vienna Symph 1960-70), was born in Munich, Germany.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1923        Nov 2, Bloody street fights took place in Aachen. The pro-French separatists were driven out.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1923        Nov 6, European inflation soared and one loaf of bread in Berlin was reported to be worth about 140 Billion German Marks. Germany suffered a terrible economic inflation. Hyperinflation eventually made 4.2 trillion marks worth $1.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.7)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1923         Nov 8, Adolf Schicklgruber (Hitler) launched his first attempt to seize power with a failed coup in Munich, Germany, that came to be known as the Beer-Hall Putsch. He proclaimed himself chancellor and Ludendorff dictator. After the unsuccessful beerhall putsch, he wound up in jail writing "Mein Kampf." Mein Kampf, was sub-titled Four-and-Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice. The Nazi dictator wrote much of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison in 1923 and 1924 for attempting to overthrow the German government. The work became the bible of the Nazi Party and a blueprint for the Third Reich.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1923)(AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 5/5/99)

1923        Nov 12, Adolf Hitler was arrested for his Nov 8 attempted German coup.
    (HN, 11/12/98)(MC, 11/12/01)

1923        Nov 15, Germany introduced the gold mark. Its issuance was severely restricted by the new Rentenbank. This allowed paper money to settle down to a rate of 4.2 trillion to the dollar by the end of the year.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.91)

1923        Nov 23, German army commander Gen. Von Seeckt banned the NSDAP & KPD.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1923        Nov 29, International commission headed by American banker Charles Dawes was set up to investigate the German economy.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1923        Peter Joachim Frohlich was born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1941 under the name Peter Jack Gay. He later published "The Enlightenment: An Interpretation" in 2 volumes (1966-1969) and the 5-volume "The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud." In 1998 he published the memoir "My German Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin."
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)

1923        Alban Berg composed his opera "Wozzeck." [see 1926 premiere] It was based on a 1836 play by Georg Buchner and featured the rhythmic speechsong called Sprechstimme. Berg's opera was composed in 1925.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.B1)

1923        The Berlin Tempelhof Airport was opened. Its 3-story brick terminal was completed in 1929 and is considered the first modern airport terminal.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.68)

1923        German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, developed a process for converting coal to gas, which was then used to make synthetic fuels.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)(www.encyclopedia.com/html/F/FischerT1.asp)

1924        Feb 26, A trial against Hitler began in Munich.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1924        Mar 1, Germany's prohibition of Communist Party (KPD) was lifted.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1924        Mar 3, German and Turkish friendship and trade treaty was signed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1924        Mar 13, The Reichstag was dissolved for the fifth time in German history.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1924        Apr 1, Adolf Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for "Beer Hall Putsch." Gen Ludendorff was acquitted for leading the botched Nazi's "Beer Hall Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria
    (HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)

1924        May 4, Fascists and communists gained power in the German Republic elections.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1924        May 26, German government of Marx resigned.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1924        Jun 3, Franz Kafka (b.1883), Czech writer, died. He was born in Prague and authored "The Castle" and "The Trial," both published after his death. Kafka had requested that his papers be burned after his death, but his friend, Max Brod, kept them and carried them to Tel Aviv when he fled Prague in 1939. A critical German edition of The Castle was published in 1982 and an English translation of that edition came out in 1998. In 1927 Max Brod edited Kafka’s unfinished manuscript called "The Man Who Disappeared" and published it as "Amerika." In 2005 Roberto Calasso authored “K," a contemporary evaluation of Kafka’s work.
    (WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.11)(SSFC, 12/8/02, p.M4)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B1)(SFC, 8/18/08, p.A12)

1924        Jun 6, The German Reichstag accepted the Dawes Plan, an American plan to help Germany pay off its war debts.
    (HN, 6/6/98)

1924        Aug 16, Conference about German recovery payments opened in London.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1924        Oct 15, German ZR-3 flew 5000 miles, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1924        Oct, Anton Flettner (1885-1961), German aerospace engineer, demonstrated his Flettner rotor, a rotating cylinder placed on a ship to extract energy from the wind using the Magnus effect.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotor_ship)    (Econ, 4/9/15, p.80)

1924        Dec 8, Composer Franz Xaver Scharwenka, German-Polish pianist, composer and teacher, died in Berlin.

1924        Dec 20, Adolf Hitler was released from prison after serving less than one year of a five year sentence for treason.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1924        Dec, Albert Einstein completed a manuscript that predicted that particles of gas near absolute zero will clump together in one larger mono-atom. The paper was published in 1925 in the proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. In 2001 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Eric Cornell, Carl Wiemann and Wolfgang Ketterlie of the US for their 1995 discovery of the Bose-Einstein condensate, a new state of matter.
    (SSFC, 8/21/05, p.A3)

1924        The first traffic light in Europe was set up on the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T4)

1924        D.W. Griffith made his film "Isn’t Life Wonderful" with Lionel Barrymore. It was about a Polish refugee family living in devastation and poverty in postwar Germany.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, DB p.52)(SFEC, 10/4/98, DB p.50)

1924        The German economy began to recover following the stabilization of its re-invented currency.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.100)

1924-1930    Germany sold bond in the US during this period. The Dawes bonds raised $110 million and the Young bonds raised over 98 million. Hitler later defaulted on the bonds and ordered that none be repaid. Germany began buying them for pennies on the dollar  before the start of WWII and stashed thousands in bank vaults and resold others. In 2010 a half dozen US bondholders filed suit to force Germany to make good on the debts.
    (SFC, 9/7/10, p.D6)

1925        Feb 22, Gerard Hoffnung, artist, humorist, musician (Hoffnung Music Festival), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1925        Feb 27, Hitler resurrected the NSDAP (Nazi) political party in Munich.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1925        Apr 25, General Paul von Hindenburg took office as president of Germany.
    (HN, 4/25/99)

1925        Jun 16, France accepted a German proposal for a security pact.
    (HN, 6/16/98)

1925        Jul 18, Hitler published his first volume of "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle).Vol 2 was published in 1926. It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for world domination.

1925        Aug 25,  Last Belgian troops vacated Duisburg.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1925        Sep 8, Germany was admitted into the League of Nations. Joseph Avenol, secretary-general of the League of Nations, sold out the organization he had sworn to uphold.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1925        Nov 9, German Nazis formed the SS (Schutzstaffel- elite special forces).
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1925        Dec 1, After a seven year occupation, 7,000 British troops evacuated Cologne, Germany.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1925        Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus fled Weimar, Germany, for Dessau after conservative city officials halted financing.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(Econ, 8/16/08, p.54)
1925        In Germany Fritz Haarmann, known as the "Butcher of Hannover," was beheaded with a guillotine after being found guilty of murdering more than two dozen young men between 1918 and 1924. The case is said to have served as one of the inspirations for Fritz Lang's 1931 thriller "M." Haarmann’s body was cremated in 2015.
    (AP, 1/24/15)
1925        Lovis Corinth (b.1858), German Expressionist painter, died.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(SFC, 3/26/02, p.D6)

1925-1939    Joseph Roth (1894-1939), an Austrian Jew, was assigned to Paris by a Frankfurt newspaper. After one year the job was given to a Nationalist. He stayed in Paris and wrote for emigre publications and railed against Germany and racism in his essays and novels. In 2004 his selected essays appeared in English as "Report From a Parisian Paradise: Essays from France, 1925-1939."
    (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M4)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)

1926        Feb 8, German Reichstag decided to apply for League of Nations membership.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1926        Jun 12, Brazil quit the League of Nations in protest over plans to admit Germany.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1926        Jul 4, The NSDAP (Nazi) party formed in Weimar.
    (Maggio, 98)

1926        Sep 8, The League of Nations Assembly voted unanimously to admit Germany.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1926        Oct 7, Emil Kraepelin (b.1856), German psychiatrist, died. He co-discovered Alzheimer’s disease along with Alois Alzheimer. The final edition of his Textbook of Psychiatry was published in 1927, shortly after his death.
    (Econ, 5/26/12, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Kraepelin)

1926        Oct 18, Frankfurter Zeitung published Lenin's (d.1924) political testament.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1926        Dec 10, Part 2 of Hitler's Mein Kampf was published.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1926        Dec 29, Germany and Italy signed an arbitration treaty.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1926        The German film "Der Bastard" (The Bastard) starred Maria Jacovini.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.62)
1926        The German film "Mountain of Destiny" was directed by Arnold Fanck and starred Leni Riefenstahl.
    (SFC, 9/10/03, p.A19)
1926        Berg’s "Wozzeck" was premiered at the Berlin State Opera.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A22)

1926        Walter Gropius built the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany. It became a monument to the Int'l. style.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.7)

1926        The US Rockefeller Foundation awarded $250,000 toward the creation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry in Germany.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)

1926        Werner Heisenberg, German scientist, formulated his uncertainty principle. It stated that the precision of a time measurement is limited by the precision of a corresponding energy measurement. So the more accurately you try to measure the position of a particle, the less accurately you can measure its speed, and vice versa. This soon led Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger and Paul Dirac to reformulate mechanics into a new theory called quantum mechanics. The new field of quantum mechanics described matter on the scale of subatomic particles.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.55)(NH, 5/96, p.72)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.71)

1926        J. Oswald of Freiburg, Germany, patented a moving eye mechanism for use in clock cases shaped like dogs, owls and turbaned women.
    (SFC, 1/23/08, p.G4)

1927        Mar 10, Prussia (Bavaria) lifted its Nazi ban, Hitler was allowed to speak in public.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)

1927        Mar 19, Bloody battles between Communists & Nazis took place in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1927        Mar 26, Alfred Hugenberg purchased German film company UFA.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1927        Apr 16, Joseph Alois Ratzinger, later Pope Benedict XVI (2005), was born in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany.
    (WSJ, 11/25/06, p.A10)

1927        May 1, Adolf Hitler held the first Nazi meeting in Berlin.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1927        May 5, Dmitri Shostakovitch' 1st Symphony, premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1927        May 13, "Black Friday" on Berlin Stock Exchange.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1927        Oct 16, Günter Grass, novelist, playwright, painter and sculptor, was born in Danzig, Germany. He is best known for his first novel  "The Tin Drum."
    (HN, 10/1/00)(MC, 10/16/01)

1927        Oct 26, Gustav Schickedanz (1895-1977) founded Quelle, a German mail-order business.
    (WSJ, 7/17/06, p.C8)(http://tinyurl.com/p7ypb)

1927        Dec, Harry Frommermann place an ad for an audition in Berlin that led to the formation of the "Comedian Harmonists." They rocketed to fame as concert performers. Their act was banned in 1935 by the government because 3 of the performers were Jews (Fromermann, Collin and Cycowski). In 1997 a film based the group’s history was directed by Joseph Vilsmaiar.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)(SFC, 8/17/02, p.D3)

1927        Carl Schmitt, a German jurist, authored his paper "The Concept of the Political." He proposed the doctrine of "decisionism" and defined the state’s assertion of its sovereignty. "The specific political distinction to which political claims can be reduced is that between friend and enemy."
    (WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W19)
1927        In Germany Hannes Meyer succeeded Walter Gropius as director of the Bauhaus and continued to 1930.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)
1927        In Germany the Frankfurt Kitchen was the 1st mass-produced fitted kitchen and was installed in thousands of Frankfurt flats.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.84)

1928        Jan 29, Lithuania and Germany signed a boundary agreement that established the Nemunas River as a border up to Klaipeda.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)(LHC, 1/29/03)

1928        Mar 5, Hitler's National Socialists won the majority vote in Bavaria.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1928        Mar 16, Christa Ludwig, soprano (Vienna State Opera, Met Opera), was born in Berlin Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1928        Jun 4, Ruth Westheimer, sex therapist (WYNY-FM), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1928        Aug 31, Brecht and Kurt Weill’s "The Threepenny Opera" opened in Berlin.
    (HN, 8/31/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1928        Sep 28, Prussia forbade a speech by Adolf Hitler.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1928        Oct 15, The German dirigible Graf Zeppelin landed in Lakehurst, N.J., on its first commercial flight across the Atlantic. It made 590 flights before it was decommissioned in 1937.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)

1928        The German silent film "Pandora’s Box" defined the term femme fatale.
    (SFEM, 5/31/98, p.14)
1928        Grant Wood, American artist, encountered the German art movement Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), while supervising the production of a stained-glass window he had designed for the Cedar Rapids Veterans Memorial Building.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.39)
1928        Gun control, the Law on Firearms and Ammunition, was introduced to Germany under the Weimar regime (there was no Right to Arms in the Constitution of 1919) in large part to disarm the nascent private armies, e.g. the Nazi SA (aka "the brownshirts"). The Weimar government was attempting to bring some stability to German society and politics.
1928        The German firm BMW began making its first cars.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.64)

1928-1933    The Munich Illustrated Press was edited by Hungarian-born Stefan Lorant (d.1997 at 96). He later wrote "Sieg Heil!: An Illustrated History of Germany from Bismarck to Hitler" in 1974. 
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C5)

1929        Feb 6, Germany accepted Kellogg-Briand pact.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1929        Mar 17, General Motors purchased an 80% stake in Opel, a German car manufacturer, for $33.3 million. GM raised the stake to 100% in 1931.

1929        Apr 6, Andre Previn, pianist and conductor, was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (HN, 4/6/01)(MC, 4/6/02)

1929        May 1, Police killed 19 Mayday demonstrators in Berlin.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1929        Jun 27, Pres. Von Hindenburg refused to pay the German debt of WW I.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1929        Aug 4, Some 60,000 SA and SS storm troopers marched in Munich.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1929        Aug 7, Germany’s Graf Zeppelin airship embarked from Lakehurst, New Jersey, on the first round-the-world passenger voyage.
    (www.airships.net/blog/graf-zeppelin-round-the-world-flight-august-1929)(Hem., 2/96, p.43)

1929        Aug 29, German airship Graf Zeppelin ended a round-the-world flight.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1929        Sep 8, Christoph von Dohnanyi, conductor and pianist (Cleve Orchestra), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1929        Sep 22, Communist and Nazi factions clashed in Berlin.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1929        Sep 30, The 1st manned rocket plane flight was made by auto maker Fritz von Opel at Frankfurt-am-Main [see May 29, 1928].

1929        The German film "Diary of a Lost Girl" starred Louise Brooks (1906-1985) and was directed by G.W. Pabst. It was based on book first published in 1905.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.50)(SFC, 11/12/10, p.E4)
1929        In Frankfurt the city council set up an official fenced concentration camp for Gypsies, but inhabitants could enter and leave at will.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)
1929        The German dirigible Graf Zeppelin completed a trip around the world.
    (SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)

1930        Feb 23, Horst Wessel (22), German Nazi brawler (wrote lyrics for "Die Fahne Hoch," the Horst Wessel Song), was killed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1930        Mar 11, Silvio Gesell (b.1862), German merchant and theoretical economist, died. He was an ethical vegetarian, considered himself a world citizen and believed Earth should belong to all people, regardless of race, gender, class, wealth, religion. Based on his theories the Bavarian coalmining village of Schwanenkirchen created an alternative currency in 1931 called the wara, which obligated its holder to pay a tax. This encouraged all users of the currency to get rid of it as soon as possible.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silvio_Gesell)(Econ, 1/24/09, p.81)

1930         Mar 16 For the first time, a live opera performance was transmitted via shortwave from Dresden Germany and received by NBC in New York, which broadcasted the event for American listeners. Unfortunately, reception was poor and Americans only heard about 20 minutes of the opera, "Fidelio."
    (NY Times, 3/17/1930, p.33)

1930        Mar 30, In Germany Heinrich Brüning (1885-1970) became chancellor and continued to 1932.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Br%C3%BCning)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.57)

1930        Apr 3, Helmut Kohl, German statesman, was born. He served as Chancellor for 16 years.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(HN, 4/3/98)(SFC, 4/3/00, p.A9)

1930        Jun 30, France pulled its troops out of Germany’s Rhineland.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1930        Jul 3, Carlos Kleiber (d.2004), conductor (Bavarian State Orchestra), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (SFC, 7/19/04, p.B6)

1930        Aug 4, Siegfried Wagner (61), German opera composer and son of Richard Wagner, died.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1930        Sep 14, Nazis took 107 seats in German elections.

1930        Sep 26, Fritz Wunderlich, tenor (Stuttgart 1955-58), was born in Kusel, Germany.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1930        Sep 27, Igor Kipnis, harpsichordist and professor (Fairfield), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1930        Oct 13, New German Reichstag opened with 107 Nazi Party members in uniform.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1930        Nov, Alfred Wegener (50), German scientist and main proponent of the continental drift theory, was killed while on an expedition in Greenland.
    (DD-EVTT, p.190)(ON, 9/04, p.9)

1930        Dec 12, Last Allied troops left the Saar.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1930        Dec 24, Eduard David (67), German minister (constitution of Weimar), died.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1930        Dec 25, Theodor Noldeke (b.1836), German professor, died in Karlsruhe, Germany. He is generally recognized as the father of Western Qur'anic criticism. In 1857 a Paris academy offered a prize for the best critical history of the Quran and Noldeke won.
    (WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)(http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-1544012_ITM)

1930        Hitler confidant Alfred Rosenberg authored “The Myth of the Twentieth Century," which espoused Aryan supremacy and anti-Semitic beliefs.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Myth_of_the_Twentieth_Century)(SFC, 4/2/16, p.E2)
1930        The opera "Transatlantic" by George Antheil had its premiere in Frankfurt 10 months after Kurt Weill’s "Mahagonny."
    (WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)
1930        The German song "Veronika, der Lenz ist da" (Veronika, the spring is here), written by Austria-born Walter Jurmann (1903-1971), became a big hit for the Comedian Harmonists.
    (https://tinyurl.com/ubrazyt)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.40)
1930        In Germany Mies van der Rohe succeeded Hannes Meyer as director of the Bauhaus and continued to 1933 when the Nazis shut it down.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)
1930        The Germany Stihl company, founded in 1926 by Andreas Stihl, introduced a portable gasoline chain saw.
    (WSJ, 4/3/09, p.C5)
1930        Physicists in Germany discovered the neutron. Walther Bothe and Herbert Becker described an unusual type of gamma ray produced by bombarding the metal beryllium with alpha particles. James Chadwick recognized that the properties of this radiation were more consistent with what would be expected from Ernest Rutherford's neutral particle. The subsequent experiments by which Chadwick proved the existence of the neutron earned him the 1935 Nobel Prize in physics.
    (ON, 8/09, p.7)(www.hps.org/publicinformation/ate/q609.html)
1930        Otto Warburg (1883-1970), German physiologist and medical doctor, discovered that cancer cells often rely on glycolysis. This came to be called the Warburg effect.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Heinrich_Warburg)

1930s        William L Shirer succeeded George Seldes as the Berlin correspondent for the Chicago Tribune. Shirer later wrote "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)

1930s        The Nazis sequestered artwork deemed "degenerate." An inventory was made that listed 16,500 works in 2 volumes. In 1997 the 2nd volume turned up in London and revealed that many art pieces were sold to Swiss dealers.
    (SFC, 3/28/97, p.C15)

1930s        Hitler began building his "Eagle’s Nest" above the town of Berchtesgaden in the German Alps.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.16A)

1931        Feb 26, Otto Wallach (83), German chemist (Nobel 1910), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1931        Apr 1, Rolf Hochhuth, German playwright (Deputy), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1931        Jul 13, A major German financial institution, Danabank, failed, leading to the closing of all banks in Germany until August 5. By the end of the 1931, approximately six million Germans are out of work.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1931        Aug 9, Two Berlin police officers were shot and killed during a Communist demonstration. In 1993 Erich Mielke (d.2000 at 92), former head of the East German Stasi, was convicted for participating in the shooting.
    (SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)

1931        Oct 11, Some 100,000 extreme right Germans formed the "Harzburger Front."
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1931        Dec 7, A report indicated that Nazis would ensure "Nordic dominance" by sterilizing certain races.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1931        Irmgard Keun (22), German writer, authored "The Artificial Silk Girl." It was banned by the Nazis in 1933. A new English translation was made in 2002.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.M4)
1931        The German film "The Company's in Love" was directed by Max Ophuls.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)
1931        The German psychological thriller film "M" starred Peter Lorre and was directed by Fritz Lang.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.C3)
1931        Austria and Germany dropped out of the gold standard. By 1936 the gold standard was dead.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.57)
1931        Geli Raubal, Hitler’s niece, died in Hitler’s apartment. It was a probable suicide and Hitler’s pistol was used. In 1999 Ron Hansen authored his novel "Hitler’s Niece" based on Raubal.
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1932        Feb 25, The German state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Adolph Hitler of Austria to a minor administrative post this month and on this day gave him German citizenship. Hitler was thus able to stand against Hindenburg in the forthcoming Presidential election.

1932        Mar 13, Hindenburg won 49.6% of the vote in the German presidential election, Hitler won 30.1%, and the rest of the votes went to other candidates. Since Hindenburg did not win a majority, a run-off election was set for April.

1932        Mar 17, German police raided Hitler's Nazi headquarters.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1932        Mar 20, The German dirigible, Graf Zepplin, made the first flight to South America on regular schedule.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1932        Apr 10, Paul von Hindenburg was elected the first German president. German president Paul von Hindenburg was re-elected with 53% of the vote; Adolf Hitler coming in 2nd with 36%.
    (www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/runs.htm)(AP, 4/10/98)

1932        Apr 14, Germany’s Pres. Hindenburg signed a decree outlawing Nazi SA and SS. Chancellor Bruning thought this would curb Hitler’s growth. Instead, it will prove to be Bruning’s fall.

1932        Apr 24, In German national elections the NSDAP/NAZI won 36.3% in Prussia.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1932        Jun 3, Von Hindenburg disbanded the German Parliament.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1932        Jun 16, The ban on Nazi storm troopers was lifted by the von Papen government in Germany. Germany forbade SA/SS street brawls.
    (HN, 6/16/98)(MC, 6/16/02)

1932        Jul 31, Adolf Hitler's Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis) doubled its strength in legislative elections. Nazi Party won 37.3% of the vote.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(www.germanculture.com.ua/july/july31.htm)

1932        Aug 13, Adolf Hitler refused President Hindenburg’s offer to serve as Franz Von Papen's vice chancellor saying he was prepared to hold out "for all or nothing."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1932        Aug 30, Nazi leader Hermann Goering was elected president of the Reichstag.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1932        Sep 12, The German Reichstag under the new chairmanship of Hermann Goring gave a vote of no confidence to Franz von Papen and his government. Just before that vote was taken, Papen had slapped an order on Göring's desk dissolving the Reichstag and calling yet again for new elections.

1932        Nov 1, Werner von Braun was named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1932        Nov 17, German government of von Papen resigned paving the way for a Nazi takeover.

1932        Nov 19, Shaft and Thyssen demanded that Hitler become German chancellor.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1932        Dec 2, In Germany Pres. Hindenburg appointed Gen. Schleicher as Chancellor.

1932        Dec 5, German physicist Albert Einstein was granted a visa, making it possible for him to travel to the United States. In 2003 Thomas Levenson authored "Einstein in Berlin."
    (AP, 12/5/97)(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.M2)

1932        Hans Fallada (1893-1947), German writer, authored “Little Man, What Now?" The book was an immediate success in Germany, where today it is considered to be a modern classic, given its intense descriptions of the last days of the Weimar Republic.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nksb5cj)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.70)
1932        The Kurt Weill production of "Die Burgschaft" had its premier in Berlin. It depicted the decline of a society based on power and money.
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A16)
1932        The German film "Libelei" starred Magda Schneider as a young opera singer experiencing first love in turn of the century Vienna. It was directed by Max Ophuls.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)
1932        Thuringia was the first German state to elect a Nazi government.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)
1932        There was a transport workers’ strike in Berlin in which the Communists collaborated with the Nazis against the democratic Weimar Republic.
    (WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)
1932        Werner C. Heisenberg (1901-1976), Germany physicist, won the Nobel Prize in physics.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg)

1933        Jan 30, German President Paul von Hindenburg made Adolf Hitler chancellor. After World War I, Germany fell into disarray and looked for a leader to strengthen it again. Hitler had emerged after joining the Nazi Party in 1919 and taking it over in 1921. In 1932 Hitler ran against von Hindenburg and lost--but not by a wide margin. The Nazis won 230 seats in the German parliament and continued to gain influence, stifling democracy and communism by force and by making laws against them. After Hindenburg's death in 1934, Hitler proclaimed himself Der Führer of the Third Reich and continued as Germany's leader through World War II. Gen. Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord tried to block the appointment of Hitler as chancellor but was overruled by Pres. Hindenburg.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(HN, 1/30/99)(HNPD, 1/31/99)(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)

1933        Feb 1, German Parliament was dissolved and Gen. Ludendorf predicted catastrophe.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1933        Feb 2, Adolf Hitler dissolved Parliament 2 days after becoming chancellor.
    (MC, 2/2/02)
1933        Feb 2, Reichstag President Herman Goring banned communist meetings and demonstrations in Germany.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1933        Feb 4, German Pres. Von Hindenburg limited freedom of the press.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1933        Feb 6, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich began to press censorship.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1933        Feb 7, At a Social-Democrat meeting in Berlin thousands cheered as Marxism was pronounced dead.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1933        Feb 19, Herman Goring, Nazi Prussian minister, banned all Catholic newspapers.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1933        Feb 22, Nazi Herman Goring formed SA/SS-police.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1933        Feb 24, Final demonstration of German communist party in Berlin took place.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1933        Feb 27, Germany's parliament building, the Reichstag, caught fire. The Nazis blamed the Communists and used the fire as a pretext for suspending civil liberties and increasing their power. Georgi Dimitrov, a Bulgarian Communist, was one of the accused plotters, but was acquitted. After WW II Dimitrov became the 1st premier of communist Bulgaria. In 2003 Ivo Banac edited "The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov."
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.W9)

1933        Feb 28, German Pres. Von Hindenburg abolished the free expression of opinion.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1933        Feb 28, Hitler disallowed the German communist party (KPD).
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1933        Feb 28, In Germany Carl von Ossietzky, an anti-fascist writer, was arrested after the Reichstag fire and held in so-called protective custody in Spandau prison.

1933        Mar 3, German Presidential candidate Earnest Thälmann (KPD) was arrested.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1933        Mar 5, In German parliamentary elections, the Nazi Party won 44 percent of the vote, enabling it to join with Nationalists to gain a slender majority in the Reichstag.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)

1933        Mar 12, Hindenburg dropped the flag of the German Republic and ordered that the swastika and empire banner be flown side by side.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1933        Mar 13, In Germany Wagner’s opera "Die Meistersinger" was used to celebrate the first Nazi-dominated Reichstag and became the Third Reich’s national festival opera.
    (WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A10)
1933        Mar 13, Josef Goebbels became Nazi minister of Information and Propaganda.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1933        Mar 16, Hitler named Hjalmar Horace Greeley Shacht president of Bank of Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1933        Mar 21, Hitler, Goering, Prince Ruprecht, Bruning and other top army commanders met in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1933        Mar 23, Kroll Opera in Berlin opened.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1933        Mar 23, The German Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act, which effectively granted Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers, i.e. the power to rule by decree.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enabling_act)

1933        Mar 28, Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
    (HN, 3/28/98)
1933        Mar 28, German Reichstag conferred dictatorial powers on Hitler.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1933        Mar 31, German Republic gave dictatorial power to Hitler.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1933        Apr 1, Nazi Germany began persecuting Jews with a boycott of Jewish-owned businesses.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1933        Apr 1, Heinrich Himmler became Police Commander of Germany (Reichsfuhrer-SS).
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1933        Apr 7, The 1st two Nazi anti-Jewish laws barred Jews from legal and public service.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1933        Apr 7, Jan Erik/Eric Jan Hanussen, Berlin astrologer, illusionist, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1933        Apr 11, Hermann Goering became premier of Prussia.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1933        Apr 26, Jewish students were barred from school in Germany.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1933        May 2, In Germany, Adolf Hitler banned trade unions.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1933        May 10, The Nazis staged massive public book burnings at Opernplatz in Berlin, Germany. Some 40,000 people watched or took part. In the great Nazi book-burning frenzy Freud’s work went up in flames, with the declaration: "Down with the soul-devouring exaggeration of instinctive life, up with the nobility of the human soul!" Also burned were books by "unGerman" writers such as: Marx, Brecht, Bloch, Hemingway, Heinrich Mann and Erich Maria Remarque, author of All Quiet on the Western Front.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)(HNPD, 3/24/00)(HN, 5/10/02)

1933        Jun 13, German Secret State Police (Gestapo) was established.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1933        Jun 22, Germany became a one political party country as Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1933        Jul 1, Strauss-Hofmannsthal opera "Arabella," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1933        Jul 1, German Nazi regime decreed married women should not work.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1933        Jul 14, All German political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed.
    (AP, 7/14/97)
1933        Jul 14, Nazi Germany promulgated the Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health. It was the beginning of their Euthanasia program.
    (HN, 7/14/00)

1933        Aug 1, The death penalty was declared for anti fascists in Germany.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1933        Sep 21, The trial against Marinus der Lubbe opened. He was accused of starting the Feb 27 Reichstag fire.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1933        Oct 14, The Geneva disarmament conference broke up as Germany proclaimed withdrawal from the disarmament initiative, as well as from the League of Nations, effective October 23.
    (AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1933        Oct 17, Due to rising anti-Semitism and anti-intellectualism in Hitler's Germany, Albert Einstein immigrated to the United States. He made his new home in Princeton, N.J.
    (AP, 10/17/97)(HN, 10/17/98)

1933        Oct, Police records later revealed that 26,000 communists, Social Democrats, and other Reich skeptics had been arrested.
    (WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A16)

1933          Nov 4, Hermann Goring, Hitler's chief minister (1893-1946), and Georgi Dimitrov, Bulgarian Communist, had a duel of wits over whether Dimitrov was guilty of the burning of the Reichstag on February 27, 1933. Dimitrov conducted his own defense winning recognition and acclaim worldwide. He was acquitted and went to Russia where he became a Soviet citizen.

1933        Nov 12, In Germany 92% of votes went to National Socialists in the First Reichstag elections in the one-party state.

1933        Dec 1, Rudolf Hess and Earnest Roehm became ministers in Hitler govt. Nazi storm troops become an official organ of the Reich.
    (HN, 12/1/98)(MC, 12/1/01)

1933        Dec 23, Marinus van der Lubbe was sentenced to death for Reichstag "Fire."
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1933        Dec 23, The Pope condemned the Nazi sterilization program.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1933        George L. Mosse (d.1999 at 80), a Univ. of Wisconsin historian, published c1970 "Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a 'Third Force' in Pre-Nazi Germany."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.D8)

1933        Einstein renounced his German citizenship and fled to the US.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.326)(TMC, 1994, p.1933)

1933        Fritz Hirschberger (1912-2004), later Holocaust artist, founded the Dresden chapter of the Zionist underground organization "Betar."
    (SFC, 2/6/04, p.A25)

1933        The Int’l. Rescue Committee was founded at the suggestion of Albert Einstein to help Jews escape from Nazi, Germany. It later broadened its mandate to cover all refugees and displaced people.
    (SFC, 10/5/02, p.A19)

1933        The Nazis closed the Institute of Sexual Science in Berlin run by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, DB p.47)(SFC, 8/2/97, p.E4)

1933        British intelligence agents discovered that the Nazis were defying a ban on weapons imposed at Versailles.
    (ON, 11/05, p.1)

1933-1934    Martin Heidegger (b.1889) served as the Nazi rector of the Univ. of Freiburg.
    (WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A20)

1933-1939    In 2005 Richard J. Evan authored “The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939."
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.87)

1933-1945    A study of classical music during the Third Reich was published in 1997 by Michael H. Kater: "The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich."
    (WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A20)
1933-1945    In 1998 the "Penguin Dictionary of the Third Reich" was published.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Par p.20)
1933-1945    The Sachsenhausen camp at Oranienburg held some 200,000 people over this period. About half died including an estimated 10,000 Jews and 18,000 Soviet soldiers.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A21)
1933-1945    In 2008 Latvian filmmaker Edvins Snore, directed “Soviet Story." It shows the close connections—philosophical, political and organizational—between the Nazi and Soviet systems beginning in 1933 thru WWII.

1933-1997    The 1998 book "German Art from Beckmann to Richter" was edited by Eckhart Gillen. It accompanied a large 1997 exhibition in Berlin.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.6)

1934        Jan 7, Six-thousand pastors in Berlin defied the Nazis insisting that they will not be muzzled.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1934        Jan 10, Marinus van der Lubbe (24), a bricklayer and Dutch communist, was executed in Berlin. He had been convicted of arson and high treason for torching the Reichstag parliament building on Feb 27, 1933. On Dec 6, 2007, German prosecutors formally overturned the conviction.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

1934        Jan 11, The German police raided the homes of dissident clergy in Berlin.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1934        Jan 26, Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Poland, breaking the French alliance system.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(HN, 1/26/99)

1934        Jan 29, Fritz Haber (65), German chemist (Nobel 1918), died. In the 1920s Haber exhaustively searched for a method to extract gold from sea water, and published a number of scientific papers on the subject. However, after years of research, he concluded that the concentration of gold dissolved in sea water was much lower than those concentrations reported by earlier researchers, and that gold extraction from sea water was uneconomic. In 2005 Daniel Charles authored “Master Mind: The Rise and Fall of Fritz Haber, the Nobel Laureate Who Launched the Age of Chemical Warfare."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Haber)(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.C6)

1934        Feb 2, Alfred Rosenberg was made philosophical chief of the Nazi Party.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1934        Feb 7, Kathleen Norris, a SF Bay Area novelist based in Palo Alto, summed up a trip to Germany saying Hitler has virtually solved problems of unemployment and poverty. She said the leader was idolized everywhere as the people’s rescuer.
    (SSFC, 2/1/09, p.50)

1934        Mar 20, Test of practical radar apparatus was made by Rudolf Kuhnold in Germany.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1934        Apr 6, 418 Lutheran ministers were arrested in Germany.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1934        Apr 18, Hitler named Joachim von Ribbentrop, ambassador for disarmament.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1934        May 2, Nazi Germany began "People's court."
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1934        May 2, In Germany a Chancellery meeting took place between Adolph Hitler and executives of General Motors Corp. and its German division (Opel). Opel quickly became an essential element in German rearmament. Over the next 4 years GM’s workforce in Germany grew from 17,000 to 27,000.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1934        Jun 22, "Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung für Motoren- und Fahrzeugbau" received the go-ahead from the "Reichsverband der Automobilindustrie (RDA)" (the Association of the German Reich of the Automotive Industry) to construct and build the Volkswagen. Hitler had asked Ferdinand Porsche Sr., owner of a consulting and design firm, to build a "people’s car," from which resulted the Volkswagen. Porsche took the design from the Tatra T97 of Czechoslovakia’s Hans and Erich Ledwinka.
    (http://tinyurl.com/22n6kb6)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.20)

1934        Jun 28, Hitler flew to Essen (Night of Long Knifes) where a massive purge of SA (storm troopers) was carried out to placate the Army and the high command. [see Jun 30]
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1934        Jun 30, Adolf Hitler began his "blood purge" of political and military leaders in Germany. Among those killed was one-time Hitler ally Ernst Roehm (46), gay leader of the Nazi stormtroopers. Hitler personally confronted Rohm in a jail cell and left a single shot pistol in the cell. Ten minutes later, Rohm had killed himself. Hitler purged the Nazi Party by destroying the SA and bringing to power the SS in the "Night of the Long Knives." Also killed were Gregor Strasser (42), German pharmacist, Nazi leader and Karl Ernst, German SA-leader.
    (AP, 6/30/97)(HN, 6/30/98)(MC, 6/30/02)

1934        Jul 9, SS-Reichs Fuhrer Heinrich Himmler assumed command of German Concentration Camps.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1934        Jul 25, There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Nazis. Hitler murdered Austria's Chancellor Dollfus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.424,1682)(TMC, 1994, p.1934)(HN, 7/25/98)

1934        Aug 2, Pres. Paul von Hindenburg of Germany died. Within hours Adolf Hitler announced a law, dated the previous day, that made him Reichsfuhrer, an office that combined the duties of president and chancellor.

1934        Aug 19, A plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler as Fuhrer. 38 million Germans voted to make Adolf Hitler the official successor to President von Hindenburg.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/00)

1934        Sep 16, Anti-Nazi Lutherans staged a protest in Munich.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1934        Oct 1, Adolph Hitler expanded the German army and navy and created an air force, violating Treaty of Versailles.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1934        Oct 7, Ulrike Meinhof, German Red Army member, was born.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1934        Oct 20, Richard Strauss completed his opera "Die Schweigsame Frau."
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1934        Nov 16, Carl P.G. von Linde (92), German physicist, died.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1934        Nov 26, German theologian Karl Barth surrendered to Nazis.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1934        Nov 28, Churchill made a speech in Parliament and warned of German aircraft bombing London.
    (ON, 11/05, p.2)

1934        The German propaganda documentary film "Triumph of the Will" was made by Leni Riefenstahl.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A48)
1934        In Germany Herman Goering, Nazi party official, approved a request from the Reich Forestry Service to release North American raccoons into the wild. By 2007 there were over a million raccoons living in Germany.
    (SSFC, 5/27/07, p.A2)

1935        Feb 8, Max Liebermann (b.1847), German impressionist painter, graphic artist, died in Berlin. He was associated with several artists’ organizations including the Berlin Secession.

1935        Feb 26, Germany began Luftwaffe operations under Reichsmarshal H. Goering.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1935         Mar 1, Germany celebrated the return of the Saar Basin to the Reich.
    (HN, 3/1/98)
1935        Mar 1, Germany officially established the Luftwaffe.
    (HN, 3/1/00)

1935        Mar 7, Saar was incorporated into Germany.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1935        Mar 9, Hermann Goering announced the existence of the German Luftwaffe (air force).

1935        Mar 15, Joseph Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda banned four Berlin newspapers.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1935        Mar 16, Adolf Hitler ordered a German rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty. He announced in public Nazi rearmament and the existence of the new German air force, the Luftwaffe.
    (AP, 3/16/97)(HN, 3/16/98)(ON, 11/05, p.2)

1935        Mar 17, Hitler reviewed the military parade in Berlin.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1935        Mar 23, France, Italy and Britain agreed to present a unified front in response to Germany.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1935        Mar 25, Hitler declared that the Soviets endangered peace in Europe.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1935        Mar 30, Britain and Russia agreed on treaties intended to curb the power of the Reich.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1935        Mar,  The German Reichpost (Post Office) began the "first television broadcasting service in the world".  However, the quality was poor and receivers were almost non-existent."

1935        Apr 12, Germany prohibited the publishing of "not-Aryan" writers.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1935        May 22, Stanley Baldwin, Britain’s former PM, admitted that his estimation of Germany’s Luftwaffe strength was wrong.
    (ON, 11/05, p.2)

1935        Jul 13, Richard Strauss resigned as chairman of the Nazi Reichskulturkammer.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1935        Jul 29, Peter Schreier, tenor (Dresden State Opera 1961), was born in Meissen, Germany.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1935        Aug 11, There was a Nazi mass demonstration against German Jews.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1935        Sep 15, In Berlin, the Reich under Adolf Hitler adopted The Nuremberg Laws which deprived German Jews of their citizenship, made the swastika the official symbol of Nazi Germany and established gradations of "Jewishness." "Full Jews," people with four "non-Aryan" grandparents, were deprived of German citizenship and forbidden to marry members of the "Aryan race." German Jews, had been barred since 1938 from government, medical, and legal professions, and shut out from every area of German public life. After the war Gen'l. Patton gave the documents to a friend and they were stored in the Huntington Museum in Cal.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(HN, 9/15/99)(SFC, 6/26/99, p.A3)

1935        Oct 7, Himmler, Hess and Reinhard Heydrich agreed to build a concentration camp at Dachau.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1935        Nov 14, Nazis stripped German Jews of their citizenship. [see Sep 15]
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1935        Nov 28, The German Reich declared all men ages 18 to 45 as army reservists.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1935        Nov 30, Non-belief in Nazism was proclaimed grounds for divorce in Germany.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1935        The 6 man singing group "Comedian Harmonists" was banned from performing because three of the members were Jewish. The group split in 2 and an émigré faction went on to the US and performed until disbanding in 1941. The German-based Meistersextett also broke up in 1941.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)
1935        In Germany Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code punished "lewd and lascivious" behavior between men. As many as 100,000 were arrested under the law.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A18)
1935        The W. Goebel porcelain factory in Rodental, Germany, began producing Hummel figurines.
    (SFC, 10/12/05, p.G3)
1935        Germany-based BASF discovered how to make recording tape.
    (Econ, 9/17/16, p.63)
1935        Carl Von Ossietzky (1889-1938), German pacifist and anti-fascist writer, won the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize. Ossietzky was awarded a Nobel Prize while in a Nazi concentration camp. On May 4, 1938, succumbed to tuberculosis and from the after-effects of the abuse he suffered in the concentration camps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_von_Ossietzky)(Econ 7/15/17, p.38)
1935        Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, sexologist, died.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.E1)

1936        Jan 2, In Berlin, the Nazi officials claimed that their treatment of the Jews was not any of the League of Nation's business.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1936        Feb 6, Adolf Hitler opened the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. 1061 athletes stood at attention half-hidden by a furious blizzard. Austrian and French athletes gave the Nazi salute in passing the revue stand.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_Winter_Olympics)(SSFC, 2/6/11, p.42)

1936        Feb 11, The Reich arrested 150 Catholic youth leaders in Berlin. When the war was over many of the leaders of the Reich were put on trial for the atrocities that had been committed.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1936        Mar 4, The 1st test flight of airship Hindenburg was made in Germany.

1936        Mar 7, Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to march into the demilitarized Rhineland, thereby breaking the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact.
    (WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A22)(AP, 3/7/98)(HN, 3/7/98)

1936        Mar 9, The German press warned that all Jews who voted in the upcoming elections would be arrested.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1936        Mar 14, Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany's only judge is God and itself.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1936        Mar 29, Nazi propaganda claimed 99% of Germans voted for Nazi candidates.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1936        May 6, The Hindenburg airship departed Germany and on the 9th on May, it arrived at Lakehurst, N.J., having completed the first scheduled transatlantic dirigible flight.

1936        Jun 19, Max Schmeling of Germany knocked out Joe Louis in their first fight in NYC.

1936        Jul 4, The Reich Government decided to build a separate plant for the new Volkswagen, the Volkswagenwerk. The "Company for Preparation of Deutsche Volkswagen Ltd" was established on 28 May 1937.

1936        Aug 1, The 11th Olympic games, dubbed "The Nazi Games," opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler. Jesse Owens won four gold medals including the 100-meter dash--becoming the world's fastest man. Owens also set new Olympic records in the long jump, the 200-meter dash and the 4 x 100-meter relay. It had been 36 years since a track-and-field athlete had won three gold medals in one Olympics. The games were filmed by Leni Riefenstahl and the torch relay was introduced by Joseph Geobbel’s Propaganda Ministry. Berlin’s homeless and itinerant Gypsies were sent into concentration camps. The game of Kabaddi was played as a demonstration sport.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1936)(WSJ, 7/30/96, p.A12)(Hem, 6/96, p.104)(AP, 8/1/97)(HNPD, 8/1/98)

1936        Aug 4, Jesse Owens (1913-1980) won his 2nd Olympic medal (long jump) at the Berlin Olympics.

1936        Aug 5, Jesse Owens won his 3rd Olympic medal (200m sprint) at the Berlin Olympics.

1936        Aug 9, Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the Berlin Olympics as the United States took first place in the 400-meter relay.
    (AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)

1936        Aug 12, Hans Haacke, artist (Right to Life, Dripper Boxes), was born in Cologne, Germany.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1936        Aug 16, The 11th Olympic games closed in Berlin.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1936        Sep 21, The German army held its largest maneuvers since 1914.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1936        Oct, Dutch-born Peter Debye (1884-1966), won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on the structure of molecules. In 1938, as Chairman of the German Physical Society, he had a letter sent out under his name requesting that the domestic Jewish members voluntarily resign. In 1940 he moved to the US. In 2006 he emerged in a book, "Albert Einstein in the Netherlands." which contained evidence of pro-Nazi actions. In 2008 the Terlouw Committee, appointed by the Dutch Ministry of Education, reviewed the allegations and issued its report clearly stating that Debye was neither a Nazi collaborator nor a  Nazi sympathizer.
    (AP, 3/3/06)(http://piurl.com/5F)

1936        Nov 1, In a speech in Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini described the alliance between his country and Nazi Germany as an "axis" running between Rome and Berlin after Count Ciano’s visit to Germany.
    (AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1936        Nov 15, Nazi Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Komintern pact.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1936        Nov 18, Germany and Italy recognized the Spanish government of Francisco Franco.
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1936        Nov 19, German Luftwaffe bombed Madrid and continued bombing to Nov 23.

1936        Nov 27, Great Britain’s Anthony Eden warned Hitler that Britain would fight to protect Belgium.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1936        The German documentary film "Olympia" was made by Leni Riefenstahl.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A48)(SFC, 9/10/03, p.A19)
1936        The 76,000 seat Berlin Olympic Stadium was designed by Albert Speer.
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A5)
1936        Germany’s Jewish emigrants were only allowed to keep 10 marks.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)
1936        Germany’s Reichspost launched the world’s first public videophone service. It was developed by Dr. Georg Schubert and opened using square displays of 8 inches (20 cm), but which quickly closed in 1940 due to the WWII.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.91)(http://tinyurl.com/2ceklpr)

1936-1939    The Spanish Civil War has been commonly referred to as "a rehearsal for World War II" by historians because of the intervention by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Soviet Union, and their use of the war to test new weapons and military techniques. It was fought between the liberal Second Spanish Republic government and right-wing rebel forces, including the fascist Falangists, monarchists and Nationalists. The rebels had the support of the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to Germany and Italy. The Government supporters, called Loyalists, had the support of communists, socialists, anarchists, the Soviet Union and volunteers from around the world who formed the International Brigades. Between 400,000 and 1 million were killed in the war, ultimately won by the rebels. In 2008 Paul Preston authored “We Saw Spain Die: Foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War." In 2012 Paul Preston authored “The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain."
    (HNQ, 9//00)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.97)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.86)

1937        Mar, The encyclical "With Burning Sorrow" was smuggled into Germany. Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pius XII) helped Pius XI draft the work which denounced Nazi paganism and racism.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)

1937        Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
    (440 Int’l., 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 4/26/99)

1937        Apr 27, German bombers of the Condor Legion conducted follow up raids at Guernica, Spain. [see Apr 26]

1937        May 6, At 7:25 p.m. the giant German airship (dirigible or zeppelin) Hindenburg burst into flames and crashed to the ground as it attempted to dock with a mooring mast at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey. Carrying 36 passengers and 61 crew, Hindenburg left Frankfurt on May 4 for its first transatlantic voyage of the 1937 season. A total of 36 died when the fire ignited the 16 hydrogen-filled cells and destroyed the zeppelin in only 34 seconds. This included 13 passengers, 22 crew members and one of the ground crew. The airship was 803 feet long and had private rooms for 50 passengers. It had an 11,000 mile range. A newsreel film of the Hindenburg Disaster was made. The true cause of the disaster remains a mystery, although crash investigators considered claims that Hindenburg was lost due to sabotage or an accidental charge of static electricity.
     (Hem., 1/96, p.108)(AP, 5/6/97)(SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)(ON, 8/12, p.11)

1937        May 31, German battleships shelled Almeria, Spain.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1937        Jul 1, Rev. Martin Niemoeller (Bekennende Kirche) was arrested in Germany.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1937        Jul 20, Don Budge (22), American tennis player, defeated Baron Gottfried von Cram (28) of Germany at Wimbledon in a semi-final round to see who would face England. James Thurber later described the Budge-Cramm five-set marathon as “the greatest match in the history of the world."
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W8)

1937        Aug 1, The Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, became operational. The hill on which it stood was called "Ettersberg," a place where Goethe often wrote and sketched, and that was the initial name for the camp, which the people of Weimar protested. The name was then changed to Buchenwald, Beech Forest. By April 11, 1945, an estimated 56,000 people were killed here, including approximately 11,000 Jews.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/09)

1937        Sep 15, Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain flew to Germany to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia with Adolf Hitler.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1937        Sep 25, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler met with Italian Premier Benito Mussolini in Munich.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1937        Nov 5, Hitler told his military advisors of his intentions of going to war.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1937        Nov 11, Messerschmidt ME-109V13 flew to a world record 610.4 kph.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1937        Nov 17, Britain's Lord Halifax visited Germany and marked the beginning of appeasement.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1937        Dec 20, Erich Ludendorff (72), German general (WW I), died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1937        Max Beckmann (1884-1950), painter, Was branded by the Nazis as a  degenerate artist. He moved to Amsterdam and then to New York where he died. His work included the triptychs "Departure" (1932-1933) and "Beginning" (1946-1949), and the "Self-Portrait in Tails" (1937). He was a figurative painter in an age of abstraction.
    (WSJ, 11/20/96, p.A18)
1937        Heinrich Himmler, acting interior minister of Germany, revised the chimney-sweep law. His rules tied the sweeps to their districts and decreed that they need to be German, to enable him to use them as local spies. In 1969 the law was updated and in theory opened the profession to non-Germans.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.76)
1937        Dr. Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Hitler’s personal physician, said that Hitler was showing signs of growing megalomania and "was a border case between genius and insanity… (potentially) the craziest criminal the world ever saw."
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)
1937        Mercedes- Benz developed an all-wheel-drive car, largely for military purposes.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1937        An English cricket team toured Germany. In 2014 Dan Waddell authored “Field of Shadows: The Remarkable True Story of the English Cricket Tour of Nazi Germany, 1937."
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.82)

1937-1939    Methadone was developed in Germany during this period by Gustav Ehrhart and Max Bockmühl. It was approved for use in the United States in 1947. The opioid is used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

1937-1945    The Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp operated over this period. It was located near the city of Weimar where Germany's Shakespeare Society and the Goethe-Schiller Archives are located.
    (Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)

1938        Jan, The career of Werner von Blomberg (60), defense minister of Nazi Germany, came to an end due to a marriage scandal. Less than two years before, German Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler had made him the first of the Third Reich’s field marshals in reward for his successful rebuilding of the German armed forces under the Nazi regime. His role as military commander and adviser to the Führer soon came to an abrupt end, however, when the scandalous details of his new marriage to a convicted prostitute were revealed.
    (HNQ, 6/13/01)

1938        Feb 4, Hitler seized control of German army and put Nazis in key posts.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1938        Feb 20, Hitler demanded self-determination for Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia. As Hitler's quest for Lebensraum ("living space") expanded into Czechoslovakia, thousands of Czechoslovakian soldiers and airmen escaped to participate in the liberation of their country.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1938        Mar 8, Herbert Hoover told Hitler that his doctrine would be unacceptable and intolerable in the U.S.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1938        Mar 9, In Vienna, Kurt Schuschnigg defied the Nazis calling for a decree on independence.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1938        Mar 12, Germany invaded Austria after the Austrian Nazi Party invited German troops to march in and the union came to be know as the Anschluss. Hitler took over Austria, as his mission to restore his homeland to the Third Reich, and a chunk of Czechoslovakia. The Nazis took over Austria and expelled all Jews and other political opponents from the universities.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(TL, 1988, p.111)(TMC, 1994, p.1938)(StuAus, April '95, p.18)(HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/98)

1938        Mar 24, The U.S. asked that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1938        Mar 26, Herman Goering warned all Jews to leave Austria.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1938        Apr 6, U.S. recognized the German conquest of Austria.
    (HN, 4/6/98)

1938        Apr 10, Germany annexed Austria.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1938        May 3, The concentration camp at Flossenburg opened.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1938        May 4, Carl Von Ossietzky (b.1889), German pacifist, anti-fascist writer and 1935 Nobel Peace Prize winner, succumbed to tuberculosis and from the after-effects of the abuse he suffered in the concentration camps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_von_Ossietzky)(Econ 7/15/17, p.38)

1938        Jun 3, The German Reich voted to confiscate so-called "degenerate art."
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1938        Jun 15, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (b.1880), German Expressionist painter, died by his own hand.

1938        Jun 22, US boxing champion Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling in the first round of their heavyweight rematch at New York City's Yankee Stadium. Schmeling had won their first fight in NYC on June 19,1936.
    (AP, 6/22/97)((http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Louis_vs._Max_Schmeling)

1938        July 6, Delegates from thirty-two countries met for 9 days at the French resort of Evian to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees from Germany and Austrian. The German government was able to state with great pleasure how "astounding" it was that foreign countries criticized Germany for their treatment of the Jews, but none of them wanted to open the doors to them when "the opportunity offer[ed]." The French foreign ministry, the Quai d’Orsay, sabotaged the Evian conference on European refugees, the only diplomatic effort to alleviate the fate of “stateless" German and Austrian Jews.
    (http://christianactionforisrael.org/antiholo/evian/evian.html)(WSJ, 11/15/06, p.D14)

1938        Jul 22, The Third Reich issued special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1938        Aug 9, Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), German ethnologist and archaeologist, died in Italy. He undertook his first expedition to Africa in 1904 to the Kasai district in Congo. Frobenius had taught at the University of Frankfurt. In 1925, the city acquired his collection of about 4700 prehistorical African stone paintings, which are currently at the University's institute of ethnology, which was named the Frobenius Institute in his honor in 1946.

1938        Sep 12, In a speech in Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 9/12/97)

1938        Sep 14, Graf Zeppelin II, world's largest airship, made its maiden flight.
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1938        Sep 15, There was a conference at Berchtesgaden between Adolf Hitler and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)

1938        Sep 21, Winston Churchill condemned Hitler's annexation of Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1938        Sep 25, President Franklin Roosevelt urged negotiations between Hitler and Czech President Benes over the Sudetenland.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1938        Sep 26, Hitler issued his ultimatum to Czech government, demanding Sudetenland.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1938        Sep 27, Jewish lawyers were forbidden to practice in Germany.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1938        Sep 29, British, French, German and Italian leaders signed the Munich Agreement, which was aimed at appeasing Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, inhabited by a German-speaking minority. The treaty ceded three areas of Czechoslovakia to other powers: the Sudetenland was annexed into Germany, the Teschen district was given to Poland, and parts of Slovakia went to Hungary. British PM Neville Chamberlain gained a brief peace agreement from Hitler at Munich and without consulting the Czechs agreed that Nazi forces could occupy Sudetenland. Some mark this "appeasement policy" as the decisive event of the century. Chamberlain predicted "peace in our time." French PM Edouard Daladier was very depressed from the meeting. In 1980 Telford Taylor published "Munich: The Price of Peace." It is a detailed political & diplomatic history of the 1930's in Europe, culminating in the Munich conference. Taylor later helped write the rules for Nuremberg Trials. In 2008 David Vaughan authored “Battle for the Airwaves: Radio and the 1938 Munich Crises."
    (http://www.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/book/Chlup/chluplinks/munich.html)(SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 6/16/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)(AP, 9/29/06)(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)

1938        Oct 1, Germany annexed Sudetenland (1/3 of Czech Republic).
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1938        Oct 7, Germany demanded all Jewish passports stamped with letter J.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1938        Oct 10, Germany completed its annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.
    (AP, 10/10/97)

1938        Oct 14, Nazis planned Jewish ghettos for all major cities.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1938        Nov 1, German colonel-general Gerd von Runstedt retired.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1938        Nov 2, Germany gave southern Slovakia to Hungary.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)

1938        Nov 7, Ernst vom Rath (29), a German diplomat in Paris, was shot and mortally wounded by a 17-year-old Polish Jewish youth, Herschel Grynszpan, who had fled from Germany to France. Rath died after two days and news of his death triggered Nazi reprisals.

1938        Nov 9, Maurice Bavaud (25), a Swiss theology student, failed in his attempt to shoot Hitler at a Nazi parade in Munich. Switzerland, which followed a policy of neutrality toward Germany before and during World War II, failed to intervene on Bavaud's behalf, and he was guillotined in May, 1941, in Berlin's notorious Ploetzensee prison.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
1938        Nov 9, Kristallnacht took place in Germany. Nazi leaders heard that a Jew had shot Ernst vom Rath, a German diplomat in Paris, and ordered reprisals. Nazis killed 35 Jews, arrested thousands and destroyed Jewish synagogues, homes and stores throughout Germany and Austria in what became known as Kristallnacht. 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps. The event is depicted by Peter Gay in his 1998 book "My German Question."
    (AP, 11/9/97)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20) (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A12)(SSFC, 11/10/13, DB p.46)

1938        Nov 11, German and Austrian Jews suffered 1 billion Mark damage in the Nov 9 Nazi Kristallnacht; Jews forced to wear Star of David.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1938        Nov 12, Hermann Goering announced he favored Madagascar as a Jewish homeland.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1938        Nov 21, Nazi forces occupied western Czechoslovakia and declared its people German citizens. This annexation of Sudetenland was the first major belligerent action by Hitler. The allies chose to sit still for it in return for a promise of "peace in our time," which Hitler later broke.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1938        Nov 30, Germany banned Jews from being lawyers.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1938        Dec 6, France and Germany signed a treaty of friendship.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1938        Dec 8, The Graf Zeppelin, Germany's only aircraft carrier during World War II, was launched. It was taken over by Russia after the war and last seen in 1947. In 2006 a Polish oil company found the wreckage on the sea floor about 38 miles north of the northern port city of Gdansk.
    (AP, 7/27/06)

1938        Dec 15, Washington sent its fourth note to Berlin demanding amnesty for Jews.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1938        Dec 29, Time Magazine named Adolf Hitler as “Man of the Year."
    (SSFC, 12/29/13, DB p.42)

1938        Paul-Louis Landsberg (1901-1943), German philosopher, authored “The Experience of Death: and The Moral Problem of Suicide." Landsberg, a Jewish Catholic, died in a Nazi concentration camp.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/6bjhe7)
1938        Norbert Schultze (d.2002 at 91), German composer, wrote his song "Lili Marlene" based on a WWI poem by Hans Leip "The Song of a Young Sentry." In 1980 Rainer Werner Fassbinder directed the film "Lili Marlene." In 1996 Schultze authored the book "With you, Lili Marlene."
    (SFC, 10/26/02, p.A23)

1938        Wolfsburg, Germany, was founded by the Nazis as “City of the KdF car, to house labor for the factory built to produce what became the VW Beetle.
    (Econ, 2/27/15, p.56)
1938        Herman Goering called for the complete Aryanization of the retail stores owned by the retail chain A. Wertheim. During the 1920s and 1930s the company had purchased properties in East Berlin to block competitors from acquiring sites near its flagship store near Leipziger Platz. In 2006 Germany validated a claim by Wertheim heirs to the property, valued at some $350 million.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/24/06, p.A2)
1938        The Nazis took a collection of 12,500 posters taken from the home of Hans Sachs (d.1974), who soon fled with his family to the US. On Jan 28, 2010, a Berlin appeals court ruled that while Peter Sachs, the son of collector Hans Sachs, is the owner of the posters, now worth millions, he isn't entitled to their restitution by the government-owned German Historical Museum.
    (AP, 1/29/10)
1938        German SS officer Ernst Schafer led an expedition Tibet in an effort to trace the origins of the Aryan race. In 1939 he brought back a 23.4 statue of the Buddhist god called Vaisravana that was carved from a meteorite that had crashed to Earth thousands of years earlier. The existence of the statue, perhaps a thousand years old, was only revealed in 2007.
    (SFC, 9/28/12, p.A2)
1938        Alfred Flatow (1869-1942), Jewish gymnast and three-time, first-place medalist in the 1896 Olympics, fled to the Netherlands. He was later arrested by the Nazis for possession of guns following their occupation of the Netherlands. Flatow was deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1942 where he was starved to death.
    (SFC, 7/17/14, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Flatow)

1938-1945    This period was later covered by Klemens von Klemperer in his: German Resistance Against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945."
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A30)

1938-2001    In 2001 Gitta Sereny authored "The Healing Wound: Experiences and Reflections, Germany, 1938-2001."
    (SSFC, 12/16/01, p.M3)

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