Timeline Luxembourg

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 400,000 citizens are ruled by a Grand Duke and speak Letzebuergesch, a German dialect laced with French and claimed to be the language of Charlemagne. The capital is Luxembourg City.
 (SFC, 9/1/96, T3)

c600-700    St. Willibrord, an Irish missionary, spread Christianity in the region.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T3)

739        Nov 7, Willibrord (81), [Clemens], 1st bishop of Utrecht (695-739) and saint, died in Luxembourg.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willibrord)

1296        Aug 10, John the Blind, King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg, was born.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1316        May 14, Charles IV (d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in the House of Luxembourg.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_emperor_Charles_IV)

1346        Nov 26, Charles of Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.128)

1378        Nov 29, Charles IV (b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_emperor_Charles_IV)

1429        Jan 23, At the Congress of Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/23/03)

1582        Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Luxembourg, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1867        Sep 9, Luxembourg gained independence.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1884        Aug 16, Hugo Gernsback (d.1967), sci-fi writer, publisher (1960 Hugo), was born in Luxembourg.
    (www.nndb.com/people/381/000045246/)

1890        Nov 23, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1904        Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967), budding inventor and writer, moved to the US, where he patented a new kind of electrical battery.
    (ON, 11/05, p.10)

1914        July 27, Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries. German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg reportedly called the 1839 London Treaty, in which all the European powers had guaranteed Belgian neutrality, "a scrap of paper" not worth fighting over. Bethmann-Hollweg was trying to persuade Britain not to declare war based on the treaty. Unsuccessful in his efforts, Britain and Belgium declared war when German troops entered Belgium on August 4.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)

1914        Aug 2, Germany invaded Luxembourg.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1920        May 1, Belgian-Luxembourg toll tunnel opened.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1940        May 10, German forces began a blitzkrieg of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, skirting France's "impenetrable" Maginot Line. Belgium was invaded by Germany and maintained resistance for 18 days.
    (WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/29/96, p.C-1)(HN, 5/10/02)

1940-1945     About 2,000 Luxembourg Jews were killed during the Holocaust.
    (AP, 1/27/21)

1944        Sep 11, American troops entered Luxembourg.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1944        Dec 26, In the World War II Battle of the Bulge, the embattled U.S. 101st Airborne Division was relieved by units of the 4th Armored Division. The Battle of the Bulge was the final major German counter-offensive of the war and thrust deep into allied territory in N & E Belgium and Luxembourg. US Gen Patton's tanks repulsed the Germans.
    (WUD, 1994, p.195)(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)(AP, 12/26/97)(MC, 12/26/01)

1944-1945    The Battle of the Bulge raged across the country.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T3)

1948        Mar 18, France, Great Britain and Benelux signed the Treaty of Brussels.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1949        Apr 4, The (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for mutual defense against aggression and for close military cooperation.
    (www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm)(TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1949        Perle Mesta, a Washington socialite, was appointed US ambassador. Her flamboyant ways and gala parties inspired the Broadway musical “Call Me Madam."
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)

1951        Apr 18, Jean Monnet, French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister, helped found the European Union with agreements between 6 countries on the pooling of coal and steel resources. Ministers from Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, Italy and France put their names on the Treaty of Paris, the founding document of what in four decades would become the European Union.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.45)

1952        Sep 10, Germany and Israel signed the Luxembourg Agreement, an accord about recovery payments. West Germany agreed to pay Israel a sum of 3 billion marks over the next fourteen years. It was signed by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett and World Jewish Congress President Nahum Goldmann.
    (http://tinyurl.com/etznn)(http://tinyurl.com/h6n7m)

1959-1974    Pierre Werner (d.2002) served as Prime Minister. He served again from 1979-1984.
    (SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)

1964        Grand Duke Jean began his rule.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)

1973        Ruth Lewis Farkas (1907-1996), was appointed ambassador to Luxembourg by Pres. Nixon after she and her husband, founder of Alexander’s department stores, contributed $300,000 to Nixon’s re-election campaign.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)

1979-1984    Pierre Werner (d.2002) served a 2nd period as Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)

1980s        Late, Friendly regulation and low taxes spurred a banking boom in the Grand duchy.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)

1986        Feb 17, The Single European Act modifying the Treaty of Rome was signed a 1st time in Luxembourg. [see Feb 28] The single European Act was passed to end trade restricting regulations and create a true single European market by 1992.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.9)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1986/index_en.htm)

1991        French frigates were sold to Taiwan. In 2004 a fake list of French public figures (including later president Nicolas Sarkozy), who allegedly held accounts at a Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.), was leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd Clearstream affair.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clearstream)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.70)

1992        Jul 2, Luxembourg ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Radio Luxembourg went off the air as it lost listeners due to deregulation and commercial rivals. In 2008 it hoped to make a comeback using digital broadcasts.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.8)

1993        Germany passed a 30% withholding tax on investment income. It caused billions of marks to flow out of Germany and into Luxembourg.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)

1995        Jan 20, Jean-Claude Juncker (b.1954), the leader of the Christian Social People's Party, succeeded Jacques Santer as PM of Luxembourg. “Juncker’s Curse" was named after Jean-Claude Juncker, who famously quipped: “We all know what to do. But we don’t know how to get reelected once we've done it."
    (http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Jean-Claude_Juncker)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 3%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun, The nation’s managers ran some $325 billion in assets.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)

1998        Jun 4, The first meeting of the Eurogroup was held at Senningen Castle in Luxembourg. Formerly known as the Euro-X and Euro-XI in relation to the number of states adopting the euro, the group was established at the request of France as a policy co-ordination and consultation forum on eurozone matters.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurogroup)

1999        Jan 1, The Maastricht Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in order to join. Some of the criteria included: maximum budget deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain made the transition. Public use was set for Jan 1, 2002.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 14, The EU voted against censure after EU Pres. Jacques Santer of Luxembourg pledged to impose a reform program to prevent fraud.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Santer)

2000        May 31, In Luxembourg Neji Bejaoui, an unemployed Tunisian immigrant, took 37 children and 3 teachers hostage in Wasserbillig. Police posing as journalists shot and wounded the hostage-taker after a 30-hour standoff. No one else was injured.
    (SFC, 6/1/00, p.A17)(SFC, 6/2/00, p.A14)(SFC, 6/3/00, p.A14)

2000        Sep, Grand Duke Jean planned to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Prince Henri.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)

2002        Jun 24, Pierre Werner (88), Luxembourg Prime Minister from 1959-1974 and 1979-1984, died. He was hailed as the “father of the euro" for his 1970 plan for a common European currency.
    (SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)

2002        Nov 6, In Luxembourg a twin-engine Fokker-50 plane crashed in fog as it approached Findel Airport, killing 17 people and seriously injuring five others.
    (AP, 11/6/02)(WSJ, 11/7/02, p.A1)

2003        Apr 29, The leaders of France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg, all critics of the U.S.-led war on Iraq, agreed to beef up their military cooperation in an effort to make Europe's defense less reliant on the US.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2004        Sep 10, European finance ministers chose Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker to represent the group of 12 European Union countries that share the euro currency.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

2005        Jul 7, Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker asked his citizens to pass a referendum in favor of the EU Constitution.
    (WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A5)

2005        Jul 10, Luxembourg voters ratified the EU’s proposed constitution referendum.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Luxembourg’s gross domestic product (GDP) for this year was $69,800, making it the richest country in the world by this measure.
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)

2006        Jun 25, Arcelor, based in Luxembourg, accepted Mittal Steel's 27-billion-euro ($34 billion) partnership offer. The new group, would be owned 50.6% by Arcelor shareholders and 49.4% by those of Mittal, of which 43% would be controlled by the Mittal family of India.
    (AP, 6/26/06)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.56)

2008        Sep 28, The governments of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg took partial control of struggling bank Fortis NV.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Dec 4, The Luxembourg-based European Court of First Instance said EU governments "violated the rights of defense" of the People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran (PMOI), and that the EU nations have not provided sufficient proof to blacklist the group.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2009        Jan 15, A Luxembourg court ordered Swiss bank UBS AG to pay French financial company Oddo & Cie euro30 million ($40 million) it had invested in a fund linked to the alleged fraud perpetrated by US financier Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Oct 19, The EU agreed to give the dairy sector an extra $420 million in special aid in an effort to quell a season of unrest in agriculture. Meanwhile angry farmer pelted riot police with eggs and buckets of milk in Luxembourg.
    (SFC, 10/20/09, p.A2)

2010        Jan 21, A Dutch airlift brought 106 children from quake-ravaged Haiti to new lives in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, as anxious families waited to hug children they had been in the process of adopting for months.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2011        Jan 18, A Luxembourg official said the country will invest a large sum in Burkina Faso to help alleviate poverty in the landlocked West African nation.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Oct 9, The governments of Belgium, France and Luxembourg said they had approved a plan for the future of embattled bank Dexia, but they offered no details. France and Belgium became part owners of the bank during a euro6 billion ($7.8 billion) 2008 bailout. They have promised to ensure that no Dexia depositors lose money. Luxembourg held a smaller stake. The cost of the bailout to French taxpayers was about €6.6 billion.
    (AP, 10/9/11)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.77)

2012        PWC auditor Antoine Deltour passed 28,000 pages of documents to Edouard Perrin, a French journalist, exposing tax deals between Luxembourg and 340 corporate clients in what came to be known as the “LuxLeaks" affair.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourg_Leaks)(Econ, 4/30/15, p.60)

2013        Feb 20, The Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority said DNA tests showed two batches of frozen Nowaco Lasagne Bolognese in a branch of the Tesco supermarket chain in the western city of Pilsen contained horsemeat. Luxembourg was listed as the country of origin.
    (Reuters, 2/20/13)

2013        Jul 11, Luxembourg’s PM Jean-Claude Juncker resigned amid a spying and corruption scandal following revelations that the nation’s former spy chief had taped official meetings with a recorder disguised as a wrist watch.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 20, Luxembourgers voted for a new government with a possibility of keeping PM Jean-Claude Juncker in power after a spying scandal forced early elections. The conservative Christian Social People's Party (CSV) of PM Jean-Claude Juncker led the field with 33.7% of the vote -- against 38% four years ago.
    (AP, 10/20/13)(AFP, 10/20/13)

2013        Oct 25, Luxembourg’s royal palace said Xavier Bettel, the mayor of Luxembourg City, has been asked to form the next government, sidelining long-serving PM Jean Claude Juncker.
    (Reuters, 10/25/13)

2014        Jun 27, European Union leaders nominated former Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker (59) to become the 28-nation bloc's new chief executive. He was chosen by an indirect system known as Spitzenkandidaten (lead candidate). Juncker still needed to be confirmed by the European Parliament before taking office on Nov 1.
    (AP, 6/27/14)(SFC, 6/28/14, p.A2)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.47)

2014        Dec 10, The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists named Disney and Koch Industries, an energy and chemical conglomerate, as among 35 big companies it said had been seeking secret tax deals in Luxembourg.
    (AP, 12/10/14)

2015        May 15, Luxembourg PM Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, a Belgian architect, in the first same-sex marriage of an EU leader.
    (SFC, 5/16/15, p.A2)

2016        Jun 29, In Luxembourg two whistleblowers in the "LuxLeaks" tax scandal were given suspended jail sentences for leaking thousands of documents that exposed Luxembourg's huge tax breaks for major international companies. Former PricewaterhouseCoopers employees Antoine Deltour and Raphael Halet received 12-month and nine-month sentences respectively while journalist Edouard Perrin was acquitted of all charges. In March 2017 the sentence for Antoine Deltour (31) was reduced to six months suspended with a 1,500-euro fine. Raphael Halet (40) received a 1,000-euro fine instead of a nine-month prison sentence.
    (AFP, 6/29/16)(AFP, 3/15/17)

2017        Feb 14, In Luxembourg a passenger train and a freight train collided, killing one person and injuring several more.
    (AFP, 2/14/17)

2017        Mar 29, Luxembourg claimed the legal right to host the London-based European Banking Authority after Brexit. PM Xavier Bettel made his case in a letter to EU Council President Donald Tusk and European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker.
    (AFP, 3/30/17)

2017        Sep 14, In Luxembourg Ryanair lost an EU court battle in which the airline had sought to continue forcing cabin crew based outside Ireland to take their disputes to Irish courts, in a case with implications across the low-cost airline sector.
    (Reuters, 9/14/17)

2017        Oct 4, The European Union ordered Amazon to pay $295 million in back taxes to Luxembourg, in its latest attempt to tighten the screws on multinationals it says are avoiding taxes through sweetheart deals with individual EU states.
    (AP, 10/4/17)

2018        Jan 11, A Luxembourg court overturned a verdict against a former accounting firm employee who leaked thousands of secret documents to a journalist investigating sweetheart tax deals the government granted to big foreign companies. The Court of Cassation ruled that Antoine Deltour should have been recognized as a whistleblower.
    (AP, 1/11/18)

2018        Feb 24, The European Central Bank said it has determined that Latvia's crisis-struck ABLV Bank is failing or likely to fail along with a Luxembourg-based subsidiary, ABLV Bank Luxembourg, and the bank will be wound up under its home country's law. Latvian PM Maris Kucinskis said his government won't put any taxpayer money into rescuing ABLV.
    (AP, 2/24/18)

2018        Mar 7, The EU’s executive branch pointed the finger at Belgium, Cyprus, Hungary, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta and the Netherlands for "aggressive" tax policies designed to undercut others to attract multinational companies.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2018        May 29, Luxembourg based JAB Holding Co. said it is acquiring the British-based restaurant chain Pret A Manger. JAB bought Panera last year for more than $7 billion. JAB also has controlling stakes in Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Keurig Green Mountain, Peet's Coffee & Tea, Caribou Coffee Co.
    (AP, 5/29/18)

2018        Oct 14, Luxembourg held parliamentary elections. The center-right was expected to return to power after a rare five years in opposition.
    (Reuters, 10/14/18)

2018        Dec 5, In Luxembourg Xavier Bettel started his second term as prime minister, leading a coalition of his liberals along with Socialists and Greens.
    (AP, 12/5/18)
2018        Dec 5, Police arrested dozens of suspected mobsters in Europe and South America in dubbed "Operation Pollina," a huge international swoop targeting Italy's notorious 'Ndrangheta mafia clan. Police seized four tons of cocaine, 120 kilos of ecstasy and two million euros (dollars) in cash across Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Suriname.
    (AFP, 12/5/18)

2019        Apr 13, Malta announced a deal to distribute 64 migrants rescued at sea off Libya 10 days ago among four European Union nations: Germany, France, Portugal and Luxembourg. The German-flagged aid ship carrying them, the Alan Kurdi, will still not be allowed to enter its ports and none of the migrants will remain in Malta.
    (AP, 4/13/19)

2020        Feb 29, Luxembourg abolished fares for trains, trams and buses in what the government said was a bid to tackle road congestion and pollution, as well as supporting low earners. Travelers can still pay for first class, at a cost of 660 euros a year.
    (Reuters, 2/29/20)

2020        Mar 1, Ecuador, Ireland, Luxembourg and Qatar reported their first cases of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/1/20)

2020        Mar 13, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Portugal agreed to take in at least 1,600 migrant children in Greece traveling without their parents.
    (SSFC, 3/15/20, p.A3)

2020        Mar 21, Luxembourg coronavirus cases rose to 670 from 484 and deaths to eight.
    (Bloomberg, 3/21/20)

2020        Apr 9, It was reported that Luxembourg will become the first EU country to start systematic mass tests on its population, regardless of whether they show coronavirus symptoms or not.
    (Bloomberg, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 12, Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said the country had won a legal "victory" over $1.6 billion of its assets that had long been frozen on a US request in Luxembourg. The Luxembourg Court of Cassation had devoted an April 2 hearing to the case of Iranian assets frozen there on a US request, according the investigative news site Paperjam.
    (AFP, 4/12/20)

2020        Apr 20, Luxembourg began easing coronavirus restrictions along with an order that the public cover their mouths when entering confined spaces such as public transport or shops.
    (Reuters, 4/20/20)

2020        Jul 31, The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control said Luxembourg had 240.6 COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population over the last 14 days, much higher than any other country in the European Economic Area. Luxembourg said its large number of COVID-19 cases reflects its unrivalled level of testing.
    (Reuters, 7/31/20)

2021        Jan 27, The Luxembourg government signed a deal with the World Jewish Restitution Organization to pay reparations and to restitute dormant bank accounts, insurance policies as well as looted art to Holocaust survivors.
    (AP, 1/27/21)

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