Timeline North Macedonia

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Macedonia borders Albania to the west, Bulgaria to the east, Serbia to the north and Greece to the south. Macedonia's official name at the UN is the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or FYROM, which is a result of the 25-year-long row with Greece, which has a northern province also called Macedonia. Macedonia is home to around two million people, mostly Orthodox Slavs and an ethnic Albanian minority that makes up around a quarter of the population.
    (AFP, 4/17/18)

The gadulka is a Macedonian fiddle like instrument.
 (NH, 6/97, p.66)

5Mil BC    Lake Ohrid was created about this time. The 18-mile-long mountain lake bordered Albania and Macedonia.
    (SSFC, 8/31/14, p.L3)

c3000BC    The town of Ohrid was established on Lake Ohrid, the 2nd deepest lake in the world.
    (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A8)

400BC-300 BC     King Bardhylus united Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

c359BCE    Heraclea was established.
    (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A10)

359BC-336BC    Philip II ruled the Greek kingdom of Macedonia. During this period he founded Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1081)(SFC, 7/18/96, p.E1)

358BC     Philip II of Macedonia marched his men into territories he had ceded to Paionia, Illyria and Thrace, where he routed his enemies and forced them to pledge allegiance to Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(ON, 4/2011, p.10)

356BC        Olympias, the forth wife of Philip II of Macedonia, gave birth to Alexander the Great (d.323) in Pella. Philip later hired Aristotle to be the boy’s tutor.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)(ON, 4/2011, p.10)

337BC        The city states of Greece agreed to terms set down by Philip II of Macedon unifying the country un Philip.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.12)

336BCE    Alexander inherited the throne of Macedonia and all of Greece. He went to see the Oracle of Delphi but was initially refused entry. He forced his way and dragged the seeress into the temple. Plutarch wrote: “As if conquered by his violence, she said, ‘My son, thou art invincible.’" “That is all the answer I desire," replied Alexander. He began his campaign to acquire new territory in Asia at age 22. Within 4 years he conquered the entire Persian Empire.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.50)(NG, Jan,1968 p.1,4)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.13)

c333 BCE    Hittite lands and the village known as Ancyra (later Angora, Ankora) was conquered by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great.
    (HNQ, 4/15/02)

323BC    Jun 10, Alexander died in Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A Historical Biography." “Alexander the Great" by Norman F. Cantor (d.2004) was published in 2005.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.12E)(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6) (ON, 1/01, p.11)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M3)

285BC    Ptolemy II (b.c309, Philadelphus) of Macedonia began his rule of Egypt. During his reign (285-247) he founded the Cyprian port of Famagusta.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1162)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)

281BC    Arsinoe II, first daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter, fled to Cassandreia (Macedonia) and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos, one of the sons of Ptolemy I from his previous wife, Eurydice of Egypt.

199BC-150BC    Early in the 2nd century BCE the Romans made Macedonia into a province and obliterated the city of Corinth.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)

42BC        Octavian and Mark Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in Macedonia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1081)

9CE         Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

c67CE    St. Paul, Catholic apostle to the Gentiles and writer of many epistles, died. He founded one of the first Christian churches in Europe at Philippi in Macedonia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1058,1081)

700-800    Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)

886        Aug 29,  Basilius I, the Macedonian, Byzantine emperor (867-886), died.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1335        The Orthodox church of St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin in Lesok was begun. A monastery was added that played a role in Christian resistance to the Ottoman Empire.
    (SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)

1689        The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
    (Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1895        Jul 15, Stephen Stambulov, ex-prime minister of Bulgaria was murdered by Macedonian rebels.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1903        Aug 2, The Macedonian region rose against Ottoman rule.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1908        Feb 14, Russia and Britain threatened action in Macedonia if peace was not reached soon.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1910        Aug 26, Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (d.1997), later known as Mother Teresa and care-taker of the poor in Calcutta, was born to an ethnic Albanian family in Uskub (later Skopje, Macedonia). In 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and in 1979 was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her work.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Teresa)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)(AP, 9/26/04)

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Aug 25,  Different nationalities battled with each other in Macedonia.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct, Fighting against Turkish dominion began throughout Macedonia.

1912-1913    During the Balkan Wars the Kingdom of Greece acquired Macedonia from the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)

1912        Dec 4, An armistice was signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.

1913        Jun 24, Greece and Serbia annulled their alliance with Bulgaria following border disputes over Macedonia and Thrace.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1913        Jun 29, Anticipating assistance from Austro-Hungary the Bulgarian army attacked its former allies. This Second Balkan War was at first waged entirely on Macedonian soil. Bulgaria defeated Greek and Serbian troops.

1913        Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War war and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.

1916        Nov 16, French adjutant-chief Eugene Rouges died with several of his men when a German artillery shell exploded in their trench in Gradesnica, Macedonia. In the 1990s villagers began finding a liquid fortune in vintage cognac buried in the old trenches.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

1917        May 3, Kiro Gligorov (d.2012) was born in the central Macedonian town of Shtip. He later served as the first president of Macedonia (1991-1999).
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1917        Nov 21, German ace Rudolf von Eschwege was killed over Macedonia when he attacked a booby-trapped observation balloon packed with explosives.
    (HN, 11/21/99)

1918           Dec 1, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [later in 1929 to be called Yugoslavia] was proclaimed by Alexander Karadjordjevic, the son of King Peter of Serbia. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in 1929.
    {Austria, Croatia, Hungary, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia}
    (AP, 10/3/97)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Yugoslavia)

1929        Oct 3, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formally changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It included the regions of Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Macedonia. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Yugoslavia. The Kingdom had been formed on December 1, 1918 and was ruled by the Serbian Karageorgevic dynasty. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 3/26/99)(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1943        Mar, Bulgarians occupying Macedonia rounded up and deported 7,148 (7,144) Macedonian Jews from Skopje, and cities of Bitola and Stip to the Treblinka death camp  in German-occupied Poland. Of a pre-war population of some 8,000 Jews, only 350 remained after the war.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(AP, 3/12/18)

1944        Aug 2, Foundations were laid for establishing the republic of Macedonia within the former Yugoslavia.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)

1945        Kiro Gligorov was one of the organizers of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia, or ASNOM. The organization worked to establish Macedonia's identity and territory within the Yugoslav federation and is considered the cornerstone of the Macedonian state.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1963        Jul 26, Skopje, Yugoslavia, was destroyed by earthquake and over 1,000 were killed.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1967        The Orthodox church in Macedonia broke free from its Serb overlords.
    (Econ, 9/10/05, p.50)

1990        Nov, A party that advocated a confederation of independent states of Yugoslavia won power.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1991        Jan, Kiro Gligorov (1917-2012) became president of Macedonia while it was still a Yugoslav republic. He served two consecutive presidential terms, leading the nation to November 1999.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1991        Macedonia gained independence from the former Yugoslavia. Its president was Kiro Glogorov. A quarter to a third of the population is Albanian. Its population is about 2 mil. Its capital is Skopje.

1992        April, The denar was introduced to replace the old Yugoslav dinar currency.
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-7C)

1993        Jul, The first American ground troops entered the former Yugoslavia as 300 Americans joined a UN peacekeeping force in Macedonia.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1993        Vevcani, Macedonia, nestled on the forested slopes of the Jablanica mountain about 190 km (120 miles) southwest of the capital Skopje, held its own referendum on independence, in a move tinged with nationalism after members of the country's ethnic Albanian minority living nearby did the same. 96% percent voted in favor of independence, and the 'Republic of Vevcani' was born. Mirte Aluloski drafted the new republic's constitution.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

1993-1999    Feb 28, The US Operations Deny Flight, Provide Promise, Deliberate Force, Decisive Edge, Joint Endeavour and others began in Bosnia and Macedonia. They cost $9.7 billion to date and left 4 US casualties with 5 wounded.
    (WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)

1934        Oct 9, In Marseilles, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with Croat terrorists in Hungary assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou. The two had been on a tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The assassinations brought the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation was prevented by the League of Nations.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1994        Greece put a 2-year embargo on Macedonia for usurping the name of a northern province.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A22)

1995        Oct 3, Pres. Gligorov (1917-2012), leader of Macedonia, was critically hurt in a car bomb attack in Skopje, Macedonia. The bomb, which targeted his car as he headed to work in the capital, cost him an eye and killed his driver and a bystander.
    (WSJ, 10/4/95, p.A-1)(AP, 1/2/12)

1995        The Macedonian government signed an accord with Athens agreeing to remove a particular symbol from its flag and revising some articles of the constitution. Talks on the country's name have made little progress. In official bodies such as the United Nations, the country is known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1996        Apr 9, Yugoslavia and Macedonia established diplomatic relations.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1996        Macedonia opened a stock exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1997        Jul, Three ethnic Albanians were shot to death during riots after police removed an Albanian flag from the town hall.
    (SFC, 9/18/97, p.A11)

1997        Sep 17, In Macedonia the mayor of Gostevar, Rufi Osmani, was sentenced to 13 years in prison on charges of inciting ethnic hatred in the July riots.
    (SFC, 9/18/97, p.A11)

1998        May 28, NATO Ministers agreed to help Albania and Macedonia strengthen their border patrols.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A16)

1998        Oct 18, In Macedonia elections were held and the opposition coalition later claimed victory by winning 44 seats of the 120-seat Assembly. Ljubco Georgievski became the prime minister.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.C12)(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.A26)

1998        Nov 1, A 2nd round of elections was scheduled. Right-wing parties unseated the ruling ex-Communists. The center-right coalition of VMRO-DPMNE and Democratic Alternative parties won 59 of the 120 seats in parliament.
    (WSJ, 11/2/98, p.A1)(SFC, 11/3/98, p.C3)

1998        Dec 2, Macedonia agreed to provide a base for NATO to get to Kosovo it the need should arise.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)

1999        Jan, Prime Minister Ljubco Georgievski took office after an alliance led by his center-right Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity ousted the former Communists, who had been in power for 8 years.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb 9, China severed relations with Macedonia after the government in Skopje recognized Taiwan.
    (WSJ, 2/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 24, China announced that it would veto a Security Council resolution to renew a UN peacekeeping force in Macedonia, which had recently established relations with Taiwan.
    (SFC, 2/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb, Ismail Bexheti (40), an ethnic Albanian and a Muslim, was appointed as the police chief in Tetovo. Most of his officers were Slavic Christians.
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 29, Albania and Macedonia appealed for help as thousands of refugees fled Kosovo on the 6th day of bombing. NATO said Serbs were targeting ethnic Albanian leadership for executions and the US accused Milosevic of "crimes against humanity."
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 31, Three peacekeeping US soldiers were captured by Serb forces near the Yugoslav-Macedonia border. James Stone, Stevem Gonzales and Andrew Martinez were shown on Serbian TV. Azen Syla, founder of the KLA, said that his guerrilla supply lines from Albania were cut off when the bombing began. Yugoslav soldiers herded ethnic Albanians onto trains bound for the Macedonian border as NATO bombing continued for the 8th day.
    (SFC, 3/31/99, p.A1,12)

1999        Apr 3, Macedonia, overwhelmed by some 70,000 Kosovar Albanians, declared that it won't accept any more refugees unless they are sent on to other European countries.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 5, In Macedonia ethnic Albanians were blocked at the border due to extremely slow processing by government officials. Political stability was feared and the UN was denied a mandate to process the refugees.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Apr 7, In Macedonia the government evacuated a huge refugee encampment overnight and sent them to locations in Albania, Greece and Turkey.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 14, Some 3,000 refugees reached the border of Macedonia and another 7,000 were expected. Another 3,000 arrived in Albania. An estimated 18,000 were making their way to Montenegro. Over the last 3 weeks 305,000 arrived in Albania, 121,000 in Macedonia, and 61,000 in Montenegro.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 16, NATO troops began to pull out of refugee camps in Macedonia. Management of the camps was turned over to Macedonian NGOs supervised by the UNHCR. Refugees were reported to be in fear of the Macedonian police.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A17)
1999        Apr 16, Thousands of refugees poured out of Kosovo as NATO blasted oil refineries, military barracks and airports around Yugoslavia. At least 5,000 refugees crossed into Macedonia, and 8,000 into Albania. Some 100,000 were believed to be enroute to Macedonia.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 20, NATO bombing continued in Yugoslavia. The UN refugee agency in Macedonia declared its camps full beyond capacity and left 2,000 to 3,000 refugees at the border. Another few thousand crossed the border to the hamlet of Milana. The border with Albania was again opened but only a few crossed over.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Apr 21, Macedonia allowed another 3,000 Kosovo refugees to enter from the frontier.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 26, Over 2,000 ethnic Albanians arrived from Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.A8)

1999        Apr 27, Up to 5,000 ethnic Albanians entered Macedonia and many more were said to be following. Another 2,000 entered at the Lojane border post.
    (SFC, 4/28/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 29, In Macedonia another 6,500 refugees arrived. 3 refugees were killed by a mine as they attempted to cross the border northwest of Blace.
    (SFC, 4/30/99, p.A13)

1999        May 3, British PM Tony Blair visited the Stankovec I refugee camp in Macedonia and pledged to double Britain's aid from $32 million to $64 million.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.D1)

1999        May 14, In Macedonia Hillary Clinton announced a $21 million aid package to support Kosovo refugees and the Macedonian people who have helped take them in.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A10)

1999        May 18, NATO missiles hit at least 4 cities in Yugoslavia and one woman was reported killed and 12 injured. Some 1000 ethnic Albanians crossed into Macedonia.
    (SFC, 5/19/99, p.A14)

1999        May 23, Some 14,000 ethnic Albanians crossed the border from Kosovo to Macedonia in the last 2 days.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.A12)

1999        May 25, As many as 150,000 Kosovo refugees were reportedly bound for Macedonia.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 29, In Macedonia a NATO soldier from Norway was arrested for a car crash that killed a Macedonian official, his wife and daughter.
    (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 31, In Macedonia elections Tito Petkovski, representing the former communist Social Democratic Party, led with 38% of the vote vs. Boris Trajkovsky (VMRO) with 24.6%. A runoff was scheduled in 2 weeks.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A14)

1999        Nov 14, Boris Trajkovsky (43) of the right centrist VMRO DPMNE party was the winner in a runoff election with 53% of the vote. Some 35,000 people later protested the results.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.D2)

1999        Nov 28, The high court nullified the election results in 230 mainly Albanian districts and threw Boris Trajkovsky's victory into doubt.
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 5, A repeat ballot in 239 contested polling stations upheld the election of Boris Trajkovsky and the ruling coalition.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A14)

1999        Caroline Baron founded Film Aid Int’l. as a one-time trial to show films to the refugees in Macedonia. The project was later expanded Africa.
    (WSJ, 10/23/02, p.B1)

1999        Macedonia’s 2 million population included about 25% ethnic Albanians.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.A12)

2001        Mar 4, Macedonia sealed its border with Kosovo after 3 soldiers were killed in heavy fighting with ethnic Albanian rebels, led by Ali Ahmeti.  Up to 200 people were killed during the seven-month conflict with Macedonian armed forces.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.62)(AFP, 4/17/18)

2001        Mar 5, In Macedonia heavy fighting against ethnic Albanian rebels continued for a 2nd day on the border with Kosovo.
    (SFC, 3/6/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 9, Ethnic Albanian rebels launched attacks on Macedonian and Yugoslav forces on the Kosovo border. 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 3/10/01, p.A8)

2001        Mar 12, Yugoslavia and NATO agreed to use their forces to squeeze Albanian rebels from separate flanks as the rebels signed a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 14, The ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (UCK) extended its fight to Tetovo, the country’s 2nd largest city.
    (SFC, 3/15/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 15, Prime Minister Ljubco Georgievski said that a direct involvement of NATO troops might be required to stem rebel attacks.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 16, Albanian rebel mortar shells exploded in Tetovo.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 18, The government ordered a general mobilization to counter the guerrilla assault.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)

2001        Mar 19, NATO asked for additional troops in Kosovo to help stop Albanian guerrillas from crossing into Macedonia. Macedonia moved tanks and troops into Tetovo.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 20, Security forces began a heavy attack against guerrilla fighters and issued an ultimatum that weapons be laid down.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.12)

2001        Mar 21, The government rejected a rebel cease-fire and planned to proceed with its military offensive.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 22, Two Albanians were killed by police at a checkpoint when they appeared to pull grenades. The EU urged Macedonia to show restraint and intensify discussions with Albanian militants.
    (SFC, 3/23/01, p.D4)

2001        Mar 24, Macedonia began using attack helicopters against ethnic Albanian rebels.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C2)

2001        Mar 25, The government sent infantry troops backed by tanks and helicopters into the hills above Tetovo to push back ethnic Albanian insurgents.
    (SFC, 3/26/01, p.A8)

2001        Mar 28, Macedonia began final assaults on rebels near the Kosovo border as political talks were set to begin.
    (SFC, 3/29/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 29, Macedonian forces chased rebels into Kosovo and 3 people were killed from mortar fire in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A16)

2001        Mar 30, Macedonia declared a successful conclusion to their offensive against ethnic Albanian insurgents.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 31, Rebels engaged government troops in a firefight.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C5)

2001        Apr 28, In Macedonia 8 government soldiers and police were killed by rebels near the Kosovo border.
    (SFC, 4/30/01, p.A8)

2001        May 1, Slavs rioted in Bitola and trashed Albanian shops following the funerals of soldiers killed in a rebel ambush. US Sec. of State Powell met with Pres. Trajkovski.
    (SFC, 5/2/01, p.A8)

2001        May 3, Troops backed by helicopter gunships began a fresh offensive against ethnic Albanian rebels after 2 soldiers were killed and one kidnapped in an ambush.
    (SFC, 5/4/01, p.A13)

2001        May 6, Macedonian forces lobbed shells into villages seized by ethnic Albanian rebels.
    (SFC, 5/7/01, p.C1)

2001        May 7, Prime Minister Georgievski said parties agreed to form a coalition government to include all main ethnic Albanian and Slav parties.
    (WSJ, 5/8/01, p.A1)

2001        May 9, Macedonian forces intensified assaults on suspected ethnic Albanian positions.
    (WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A1)

2001        May 10, Macedonian and Serb leaders agreed to work together to fight ethnic Albanian guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 5/11/01, p.A1)

2001        May 12, The Parliament approved a national unity government. The VMRO, DPA, SDSM and PDP made the move to avert an all out war.
    (WSJ, 5/14/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/25/01, p.A14)

2001        May 15, The new unity government ordered a halt to attacks on ethnic Albanian rebels but warned them to clear out of northern villages within 2 days or face full-scale assaults.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.A10)

2001        May 20, Government troops shelled ethnic Albanian positions in response to machine gun and sniper fire.
    (SFC, 5/22/01, p.A11)

2001        May 24, Albanians said that government fire killed 7 civilians.
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.A1)

2001        May 25, Government troops began a ground assault against rebels and some 3,000 civilians fled the area.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.B12)

2001        May 29, Key leaders agreed to set aside a dispute over a joint declaration signed by ethnic Albanian politicians and a guerrilla leader that did not require an immediate stop to fighting.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 1, The government offered amnesty to the ethnic Albanian militants if they lay down their weapons.
    (SFC, 6/2/01, p.A9)

2001        Jun 5, US Defense Sec. Donald Rumsfeld visited Macedonia as Albanian rebels clashed with government troops near Tetovo.
    (WSJ, 6/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 6, The government threatened to declare a state of war after 5 soldiers were killed in an attack by ethnic Albanian rebels.
    (SFC, 6/7/01, p.A12)

2001        Jun 8, Rebels seized Aracinovo, 5 miles from Skopje, without firing a shot.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D2)

2001        Jun 10, Ethnic Albanian rebel leader Commander Hoxha threatened to take the insurgency into the cities unless government stopped fighting in the north.
    (SFC, 6/11/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 11, In Macedonia ethnic Albanian rebels and the government announced cease-fires.
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 12, Macedonia broke ties with Taiwan and restored relations with China.
    (WSJ, 6/13/01, p.A1)
2001        Jun 12, Gunmen shot dead Naser Hani (42), an intermediary between militants and government parties.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.C3)

2001        Jun 14, Macedonia asked for NATO troops the help disarm ethnic Albanian rebels. NATO Sec. Gen. Lord Robertson ruled out military intervention.           
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)

2001        Jun 15, Rebels declared a unilateral cease-fire as politicians began talks to resolve the crises.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A7)

2001        Jun 22, Government troops ended an 11-day cease-fire and attacked ethnic Albanian rebels with tanks and helicopter gunships.
    (SFC, 6/23/01, p.A9)

2001        Jun 25, In Skopje rioting erupted after US troops escorted rebels away from the capital.
    (WSJ, 6/27/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 5, The government and ethnic Albanian rebels signed a cease-fire agreement under pressure from Western powers. Fighting continued.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.A16)

2001        Jul 20, Two int’l. monitors and their interpreter were found killed by a land mine near Tetovo.
    (SFC, 7/21/01, p.E1)

2001        Jul 22, Ethnic Albanian rebels attacked government forces in the Tetovo area.
    (SFC, 7/23/01, p.A8)

2001        Jul 23, In Macedonia security forces engaged ethnic Albanian rebels in fierce fighting around Tetovo. Macedonian mobs in Skopje, angered by Western efforts at mediation, attacked symbolic targets.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A6)

2001        Jul 30, Peace talks dragged into a 3rd day as rebels controlled part of Tetovo.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.A7)

2001        Aug 4, Ethnic Albanian rebels lobbed mortars at Macedonian police stations near Tetovo.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A14)

2001        Aug 5, Rival factions agreed to restructure the police force and removed a major barrier to a peace accord.
    (SFC, 8/6/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 6, Peace talks hit a snag over government demands for a quick rebel disarmament.
    (SFC, 8/7/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 7, Police conducted a predawn raid in Skopje and 5 members of the National Liberation Army were killed.
    (SFC, 8/8/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 8, Political leaders initialed a peace agreement as rebels ambushed an army convoy and killed 10 soldiers.
    (SFC, 8/9/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 9, Government forces battled rebels for control of Tetovo and one policeman was killed. A peace agreement was scheduled to be formally signed Aug 13.
    (SFC, 8/10/01, p.A12)

2001        Aug 10, Two mines hit military trucks near Skopje and 7 soldiers were killed. The army retaliated with an assault on Ljuboten.
    (SFC, 8/11/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 10-12, Security forces killed 6 ethnic Albanian civilians and burned at least 22 houses in the village of Ljuboten. Another 3 were killed from indiscriminate shelling and another died when shot while fleeing.
    (SFC, 9/6/01, p.E4)

2001        Aug 12, Macedonia's interior minister Ljube Boskovski watched from a distance as police under his control rampaged through Ljuboten, killing seven ethnic Albanian men and torching and blowing up houses. In 2007 defendants Boskovski and a top police official faced a possible punishment of life imprisonment. The policemen who allegedly carried out the killings were not on trial.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2001        Aug 13, In Macedonia a peace deal was signed by rival leaders of the 2 main ethnic groups and paved the way for NATO troops to arrive and disarm ethnic Albanian rebels. Representatives of the EU, USA and NATO helped Macedonian politicians produce a plan for peace at Lake Ohrid called the Ohrid agreement.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8j2yh)(AP, 8/13/02)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.62)

2001        Aug 14, Albanian guerrillas agreed to disarm under NATO supervision and the government agreed to extend amnesty for the fighters.
    (SFC, 8/15/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 15, NATO authorized 400 first wave peacekeepers for Macedonia.
    (SFC, 8/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 17, NATO’s 1st advance troops of Operation Essential Harvest arrived in Skopje.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.10)

2001        Aug 19, Government shelled the rebel-held village of Neprusteno for 4 hours.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 21, In Macedonia a 14th century monastery, St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin, in Lesok was bombed. Each side blamed the other.
    (SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)

2001        Aug 22, NATO members gave formal approval for alliance soldiers to collect weapons from Albanian guerrillas in Macedonia.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 23, NATO soldiers streamed into Macedonia as part of a mission to help end 6 months of ethnic hostilities by collecting and destroying rebel weapons.
    (AP, 8/23/02)

2001        Aug 24, Rebels agreed to hand over some 3,000 weapons. The government had earlier charged that the rebels had 85,000 weapons.
    (SFC, 8/25/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 26, An explosion at a hotel in Celopek killed 2 Macedonian Slavs.
    (SFC, 8/27/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 27, In Macedonia NATO troops began collecting rebel weapons and one British soldier was killed when a suspected block of concrete was thrown at his vehicle by Macedonian youths.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A6)(WSJ, 8/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 30, NATO troops suspended arms collections to await a parliamentary vote on proceeding forward with the peace accord.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 9, EU foreign ministers agreed on the need for a new int’l. military force to provide security in Macedonia after NATO withdrawal.
    (SFC, 9/10/01, p.B1)

2001        Sep 17, Macedonia approved the deployment of a modest NATO security force.
    (WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 20, NATO troops began the 3rd stage of Essential Harvest.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D3)

2001        Sep 25, NATO agreed to keep troops in Macedonia beyond the Sep 26 expiration of its mission.
    (WSJ, 9/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 27, Ethnic Albanian rebels declared that they had formally disbanded and were returning to civilian life.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D4)

2001        Oct 4, Macedonian security forces, in opposition to external warnings, took control of 3 ethnic Albanian villages but met with resistance from others.
    (SFC, 10/5/01, p.D4)

2001        Oct 9, Macedonia decreed amnesty for rebels.
    (WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 11, Police found a cache of arms in an area held by ethnic Albanian rebels.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 21, In Macedonia Pres. Boris Trajkovski approved a plan to deploy ethnically mixed police units in areas that had been seized by ethnic Albanian revels.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.B2)

2001        Nov 12, Three policemen were killed in fighting following the seizure of hostages by ethnic Albanians near Tetovo in response to a police raid.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 16, The parliament adopted constitutional changes giving ethnic minority Albanians more rights.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.A17)

2002        Mar 2-3, Macedonia police killed 7 men who allegedly attempted an ambush near Butel, a suburb of Skopje. Police said the attackers were probably Pakistanis. Foreign officials later discounted these assertions and suspected that they were illegal immigrants. A 2 year investigation followed in the so-called "Rastanski Lozja" action, and revealed police staged the killing to show they were participating in the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism. A bomb blast at the Macedonia consulate in Karachi on Dec 5, 2002, killed 3 people in apparent retaliation.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/8/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.H1)(AP, 4/30/04)(SFC, 5/1/04, p.A7)

2002        Aug 29, In western Macedonia police killed two ethnic Albanians after gunmen abducted at least five people from a bus, as tension soared. The 5 abducted people were released after 2 days.
    (AP, 8/30/02)(AP, 8/31/02)

2002        Sep 14, In Macedonia an ethnic Albanian was killed and two were wounded in a clash with police, as tensions soared on the eve of key elections.
    (AP, 9/14/02)

2002        Sep 15, Voters chose candidates for the 120-seat assembly from 30 parties. The Macedonian side was led by the center-right VMRO party, which rules in a coalition with the Democratic Party of Albanians, and the formerly communist Social Democrats, which was well ahead of the VMRO in pre-election polls. Ethnic Albanians were represented mainly by the DPA and the Democratic Union for Integration, a new party led by former rebel leader Ali Ahmeti, which was leading among ethnic Albanian parties in pre-election polls.
    (AP, 9/15/02)
2002        Sep 15, In Macedonia the opposition led by Branko Crvenkovski swept the ruling coalition from power in the country's first elections since last year's armed uprising. Premier Ljubco Georgievski confirmed the nationalists’ defeat.
    (AP, 9/16/02)(WSJ, 9/16/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec 5, In Pakistan a bomb exploded at the Macedonian Consulate and 3 people were killed. Revenge for a Mar 2 killing of 7 militants in Skopje was suspected.
    (SFC, 12/6/02, p.A16)

2002        Macedonia held a census. In 2020 the head of the country's statistical office lamented that he did not know the true population count, as no census had been held since 2002. The official count was 2.08 million but he believed that the true number was not more than 1.5 million.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.41)

2003        Mar 31, In Macedonia the EU began its first military operation by taking over peacekeeping duties from NATO.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

2003        Sep 7, Macedonian police clashed with ethnic Albanian militants in the volatile north, and reported killing several men in what they said was a major sweep against groups that threaten the Balkan country's fragile peace.
    (AP, 9/7/03)

2003        Nov 1, Macedonia launched a lottery to reduce the number of light arms held by the public. An amnesty for turning in arms was set to expire Dec 15.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.A14)

2003        Dec 31, Security forces boarded a bus in Macedonia and snatched a German citizen named Khaled el-Masri (b.1963). For the next five months, el-Masri was a ghost. Only a select group of CIA officers knew he had been whisked to a secret prison for interrogation in Afghanistan. He was the wrong guy. El-Masri was dumped in Albania in a remote hillside on May 28, 2004, without explanation or apology. Five months later Germany withdrew warrants for the arrest of 13 CIA agents. In 2012 el-Masri took his case to Europe’s human rights court.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_El-Masri)(AP, 2/9/11)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.F6)(SFC, 5/17/12, p.A4)

2004        Feb 26, Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski, a moderate leader who helped unite his ethnically divided country, was killed when his plane crashed in bad weather in mountainous southern Bosnia.
    (AP, 2/26/04)

2004        Apr 14, Macedonians voted to replace the president who was killed in a February plane crash.
    (AP, 4/14/04)

2004        Apr 15, Branko Crvenkovski, Macedonia's PM, took the lead in elections to replace the president who died in a plane crash, but he didn't get enough votes to avoid a runoff.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 28, Macedonians chose between a liberal prime minister and a nationalist candidate in presidential elections. Front-runner Branko Crvenkovski, the current PM, and right-wing opposition politician Sasko Kedev, a U.S.-educated doctor with little political background, competed in the runoff election for the mostly ceremonial post. Oremier Crvenkovski claimed victory and Kedev claimed fraud.
    (AP, 4/28/04)(WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 18, A militant group in Iraq said it had executed two Macedonian men accused of spying for the US. Macedonia has 32 soldiers stationed in Taji, north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/18/04)

2004        Nov 4, Greece sharply protested a US decision to recognize the former Yugoslav state on its northern border as "Macedonia."
    (AP, 11/4/04)

2004        Nov 7, In Macedonia voters cast ballots on a referendum that would repeal a Western-brokered law that effectively grants local autonomy to the country's ethnic Albanians. The referendum fell short of a required 50% turnout.
    (AP, 11/7/04)(WSJ, 11/8/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 10, Macedonia politicians gathered at Lake Ohrid to recommit themselves to a reconciliation process begun there in 2001.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.57)

2004        Nov 15, Macedonia’s PM Hari Kostov resigned over disagreements with ethnic Albanian coalition partners.
    (SFC, 11/16/04, p.A3)

2004        Nov 18, The Macedonian parliament accepted the resignation of PM Hari Kostov and his cabinet, leaving President Branko Crvenkovski 10 days to select a new premier.
    (AFP, 11/18/04)

2004        Dec 28, Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia gave political support to a $1.2 billion private trans-Balkan pipeline that will allow Russian and Caspian crude oil to avoid Turkish waters.
    (WSJ, 12/29/04, p.A7)

2005        Mar 14, The Hague tribunal indicted former Macedonian Interior Minister Ljube Boskovski for war crimes.
    (AP, 3/14/05)

2005        Mar 27, Macedonians cast ballots in municipal elections, but the voting was marred by irregularities that could potentially harm the country's ambitions to join NATO and the EU.
    (AP, 3/27/05)

2005        Jul 27, Bishop Jovan Vraniskovski in Skopje, Macedonia, was sentenced to at least 18 months in jail for “instigating national and religious hatred."
    (Econ, 9/10/05, p.50)

2005        Dec 17, Macedonia moved a step closer to realizing its dream of EU membership when the bloc's leaders gave their blessing for it to start membership talks.
    (AFP, 12/17/05)

2005        Under an accord residents of Macedonia were given the right to fly the red and black Albanian flag and the two headed-eagle is prevalent over a number of villages.
    (AFP, 4/17/18)

2006        Feb 16, In southern Iraq 2 Macedonians working for a cleaning company were abducted in Basra. A $1 million ransom was demanded for their release.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        May 7, Vice President Dick Cheney endorsed the NATO membership aspirations of Croatia, Albania and Macedonia.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

2006        Jul 5, Macedonia held parliamentary elections. President Branko Crvenkovski urged a free and fair vote in a country struggling to ease tensions between majority Macedonian Slavs and the ethnic Albanian minority, which makes up about a quarter of the nation's population.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 6, PM Vlado Buckovski conceded defeat to the nationalist opposition in Macedonia's parliamentary elections, a vote considered crucial for the tiny Balkan nation's aspirations to join the EU and NATO. Nikola Gruevski led the winning VMRO-DPMNE party.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Aug, In Macedonia within 3 days of the new government taking office as many as 544 managers and top officials from state companies were sacked or shunted aside.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.62)

2007        Macedonia renamed Skopje airport for Alexander the Great.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.55)

2008        Jan 12, A Macedonian Army helicopter returning from a peacekeeping mission in Bosnia crashed in foggy conditions, killing all 11 people on board.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Apr 12, Macedonia's lawmakers voted to dissolve parliament and hold early elections, following a dispute with neighboring Greece that halted the Balkan nation's bid to join NATO.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        Jun 1, Macedonia's parliamentary election was marred by violence in Albanian areas and suspected fraud, with one person shot dead and nine wounded, and voting halted in one town after a gun battle. PM Nikola Gruevski scored an overwhelming election victory but monitors criticized violence that marred the poll and could delay the country's progress towards EU membership. The government said it will repeat voting in 22 poling stations that were shut down due to shootings or alleged ballot fraud.
    (Reuters, 6/1/08)(Reuters, 6/2/08)(WSJ, 6/2/08, p.A10)

2008        Jun 7, Macedonia’s State Election Commission announced it would nullify results from 193 polling stations after detecting fraud and other irregularities in the June 1 violence-marred parliamentary election.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 15, A peaceful repeat vote at dozens of polling stations in Macedonia confirmed the ruling coalition's landslide victory in parliamentary elections that had initially been marred by violence.
    (AP, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 23, Vlado Taneski (56), a Macedonian journalist jailed on suspicion of murdering at least two women in crimes he wrote about for his newspaper, was found dead in his cell.
    (AP, 6/23/08)

2008        Jul 5, Macedonia’s leading party said PM Nikola Gruevski has agreed to form a coalition government with the main ethnic Albanian party to aim at getting its NATO and EU bids back on track.
    (Reuters, 7/5/08)

2008        Jul 17, Macedonia's main opposition party walked out of parliament after its deputy leader was arrested and charged in a corruption probe.
    (AP, 7/18/08)

2008        Oct 9, Montenegro and Macedonia recognized Kosovo's independence, despite opposition from Serbia, which called the moves by its Balkan neighbors a betrayal and expelled the Montenegrin ambassador from Belgrade.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, Serbia expelled the Macedonian ambassador, reflecting its fury over the recognition of Kosovo's independence by its closest neighbors.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        The population of Macedonia was about 2 million with about a quarter of them being ethnic Albanian.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.64)
2008         Greece vetoed Macedonia's membership of NATO and has blocked negotiations on EU accession ever since the country became a candidate in 2005.
    (AFP, 4/17/18)

2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Mar 22, Macedonia held elections. The governing party's Gjorgje Ivanov (49) emerged as favorite to win the presidency in an April 5 runoff vote against 51-year-old Social Democrat Ljubomir Frckoski.
    (AP, 3/23/09)

2009        Apr 5, Macedonia’s conservative candidate Gjorgje Ivanov (49) won the runoff election in a landslide with about two-thirds of the popular vote.
    (WSJ, 4/6/09, p.A8)

2009        Sep 5, The sightseeing boat Ilinden, carrying 55 Bulgarian tourists, sank in Lake Ohrid on Macedonia's western border, and 15 people drowned.
    (AP, 9/5/09)(AFP, 9/6/09)

2009        Oct 16, Kosovo's authorities said they have demarcated a disputed border with Macedonia, a scene of tensions in the past.
    (AP, 10/16/09)

2009        Nov 30, The EU Council of Ministers for Interior and Justice abolished visa requirements for citizens of the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

2009        Dec 19, The European Union opened its borders unrestricted to more than ten million Serbs, Montenegrins and Macedonians after nearly 20 years, a major boost for the troubled region's hopes for closer ties with the 27-nation bloc.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2010        May 12, Macedonian police said a shootout between police and an armed group near the country's border with Kosovo has left four people dead. Police had intercepted them attempting to smuggle weapons across the border from Kosovo.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        Jun 25, Macedonian authorities said they have broken up an antiquities smuggling ring and recovered thousands of valuable artifacts. Police charged 2 police officers and a former mayor with attempting to sell antiquities abroad.
    (SFC, 6/26/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 25, Macedonia police raided the building housing A1 television, a private channel often critical of PM Gruevski’s government.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.57)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=NP0jAsK9sog)

2010        Dec 24,  Macedonia police arrested Vellija Ramkovski and 14 employees of his private A1 television channel. The channel has often critical of PM Gruevski’s government.

2010        Macedonia’s MAT airline went bankrupt.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.73)
2010        The World Bank estimated that 447,000 people from Macedonia were living abroad.
    (Econ., 3/7/15, p.54)

2011        Feb 13, In Macedonia ethnic clashes, mainly Muslim ethnic Albanians and orthodox Christians, broke out at the historic Kale Fortress in a dispute over a new structure being built on the foundations of a 13th-century church. 8 people were injured.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Mar 10, Macedonia opened a new Holocaust Memorial Center dedicated to the Holocaust and its Jewish community, which was almost wiped out during WWII.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/3uflkpj)

2011        Jun 5, Macedonians voted in early general elections that many hope will move the country closer to EU membership and NATO entry, stalled by a name row with Greece. Conservative PM Nikola Gruevski won but would need to form a coalition to govern for 4 more years.
    (AFP, 6/5/11)(SFC, 6/7/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 25, The Chinese government donated a gift of 23 buses during a ceremony in Macedonia's capital. News of the donation ignited a torrent of criticism. Many asked: How could China make the donation to a foreign country when Chinese schools contend with shoddy transport?
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Dec 5, The world court ruled that Greece was wrong to block Macedonia's bid to join NATO in 2008 because of a long-running dispute over the fledgling country's use of the name Macedonia.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2012        Jan 1, Kiro Gligorov (94), the first democratically elected president of Macedonia, died. He shepherded his nation through a bloodless secession from the former Yugoslavia and narrowly survived an assassination attempt.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

2012        Apr 8, In Macedonia 5 Christian fishermen were killed in a lake near Skopje. In 2014 a court convicted six Muslim men of the murders in an alleged plot to destabilize the country, and sentenced them to life imprisonment. In 2021 Macedonia’s criminal court reduced the sentences originally imposed on two people and acquitted one in a retrial of the murders.
    (AP, 6/30/14)(AP, 2/23/21)

2012        Dec 13, The European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Khaled El-Masri, a German man, who says the CIA illegally kidnapped him and took him to a secret prison in Afghanistan in 2003. It said the government of Macedonia violated El-Masri's rights repeatedly and ordered it to pay €60,000 in damages.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        The population of Macedonia was about 2.1 million, of which about a quarter consisted of ethnic Albanians.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.62)

2013        Mar 1, Ethnic Macedonians kicked off the protests in Skopje, angry at the appointment of an ethnic Albanian defense minister, a former rebel commander during the 2001 conflict that pitted the country's two main ethnic groups against each other.
    (AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Mar 2, Violent ethnic riots rattled Macedonia's capital, culminating with hundreds raging through the city center, clashing with police, overturning cars and attacking a bus station. At least 22 people were injured, 13 of them police officers.
    (AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 24, In Macedonia the coalition "For a better Macedonia," led by PM Nikola Gruevski's VMRO-DPMNE party, won 43 of the country's 81 communities in the first round of elections. Social Democrat leader Branko Crvenkovski, head of the left-wing opposition and a former president, said the elections "were not free and fair.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Sep 9, Kosovo officials said they have banned the import of all products from neighboring Macedonia, in a tit-for-tat trade dispute that could cost Macedonian producers one of their most lucrative markets. A day earlier Skopje said it would impose fees on all Kosovo citizens entering Macedonia.
    (Reuters, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 10, Macedonian truck drivers blocked the main border crossing with Kosovo in a deepening trade row between the Balkan neighbors that hurt Macedonian producers in one of their biggest markets.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 15, Goods from Kosovo and Macedonia crossed their border, ending a trade dispute that closed the frontier between the Balkan neighbors to goods and vehicles for six days.
    (Reuters, 9/15/13)

2014        Feb 3, Macedonia's parliament adopted a bill imposing chemical castration on repeat offenders convicted of sexually abusing children. On Feb 5 the country's leading child protection group said that the law is still too lenient.
    (AP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 16, In Macedonia an explosion wounded five Roma children in western town of Tetovo. Three people were soon detained in the case.
    (AP, 2/17/14)

2014        Mar 6, Macedonia formally set April 27 as the date of the country's early parliamentary election, which was forced after government coalition partners failed to agree on a presidential candidate.
    (AP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 7, Macedonian police said they have arrested 13 people, including the head of a customs office at the Macedonia-Bulgaria border crossing, on suspicion of participating in a ring smuggling designer clothing from Greece and Bulgaria.
    (AP, 3/7/14)

2014        Apr 13, Macedonians voted for a new president in a poll seen as a test for the ruling party ahead of general elections later this month in the EU candidate country.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)

2014        Apr 27, Polls opened for Macedonia's double election, a presidential election runoff and snap national elections. PM Nikola Gruevski's ruling center-right party won its fourth consecutive general election victory, but looked likely to fall just short of gaining an outright majority. The main opposition Social Democrats refused to recognize the result.
    (AP, 4/27/14)(AP, 4/28/14)

2014        May 20, Macedonian police said they have detained 18 people following overnight riots in Skopje sparked by the fatal stabbing of a Macedonian teenager by an Albanian bicycle thief. Police arrested a 19-year-old suspect for the slaying.
    (AP, 5/20/14)

2014        Jun 30, A Macedonian court convicted six Muslim men of murdering five Christian fishermen in a lake near the capital Skopje on Easter, 2012, in an alleged plot to destabilize the country, and sentenced them to life imprisonment. Two of the defendants were tried in absentia, because they are serving jail terms in neighboring Kosovo over illegal weapons charges. A seventh suspect was acquitted.
    (AP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jul 4, Macedonian police fired teargas and stun grenades in clashes with around 2,000 ethnic Albanians who took to the streets of the capital to protest against the jailing of six people for murder and terrorism.
    (Reuters, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 11, Macedonian authorities said a police helicopter crashed overnight during a training flight near the southern town of Strumica, killing all four people on board.
    (AP, 7/11/14)

2014        Oct 6, A Macedonian court convicted 17 people in the country's first espionage trial since it proclaimed independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.
    (AP, 10/6/14)

2014        Oct 8, Macedonian court officials said police have arrested 13 judges and 12 court employees from Skopje's misdemeanors court on charges of negligent service for failing to impose fines worth a total of 1.1 million euros ($1.4 million).
    (AP, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 24, In Macedonia about 30 people wearing masks and throwing rocks and bottles attacked members of a gay rights activist group in Skopje, wounding two of them.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2015        Jan 17, Media organizations condemned the imprisonment of Macedonian investigative journalist Tomislav Kezarovski after an appeals court in Skopje upheld charges against him, albeit with a reduction in sentence.
    (AP, 1/17/15)

2015        Jan 31, Macedonia's chief opposition leader was charged by police with conspiring with a foreign intelligence service to topple the government. Zoran Zaev, leader of the Social Democrats, denied the charges, saying authorities were trying in vain to prevent the publication of what he says is incendiary evidence of criminal wrongdoing by the conservative government of PM Nikola Gruevski.
    (Reuters, 1/31/15)

2015        Feb 6, In Europe floods forced hundreds of people from their homes in Albania and Macedonia. Heavy snow and winds caused traffic havoc in Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 2/7/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 9, Macedonia's chief opposition figure accused PM Nikola Gruevski of wire-tapping journalists, religious and opposition leaders, deepening a scandal that has engulfed the European Union candidate country in recent weeks.
    (Reuters, 2/9/15)

2015        Mar 11, Macedonian police say they have filed criminal bribery charges against the country's opposition leader Zoran Zaev, who is embroiled in a clash with the conservative government over allegations of massive wire-tapping.
    (AP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar, In Macedonia opposition leader Zoran Zaev leaked tapes of alleged conversations gathered for PM Nikola Gruevska and his spy chief cousin.
    (Econ., 3/7/15, p.54)

2015        Apr 21, In Macedonia a group of about 40 people wearing uniforms of the disbanded Kosovo Liberation Army, or UCK, attacked a police watchtower in Gosince on the country's northern border with Kosovo. Four police officers were released after 30 minutes.
    (AP, 4/21/15)

2015        Apr 22, In Macedonia over 100 journalists gathered outside a government building in Skopje to protest death threats against a journalist critical of the country's conservative government. A funeral wreath bearing the inscription "final greeting" was delivered a day earlier to the home of Borjan Jovanovski, editor in chief of the Nova TV web portal, while he was abroad.
    (AP, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 23, In Macedonia 14 suspected migrants from Afghanistan and Somalia, walking in the dark along train tracks toward the EU, were killed by a nighttime express train in a remote river gorge north of Veles.
    (AP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr, Macedonia elected an anti-corruption body.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2015        May 1, In Macedonia opposition leader Zoran Zaev was charged with unauthorized wiretapping and audio recording as well as violence against representatives of the highest authorities.
    (SFC, 5/2/15, p.A2)

2015        May 6, In Macedonia violent clashes overnight between protesters and police in Skopje left 38 police officers and one protester injured after more than 1,000 people had gathered in front of the government building to protest the 2011 death of Martin Neskoski (22). He was killed in a police beating during post-election celebrations.
    (AP, 5/6/15)

2015        May 9, In northern Macedonia explosions and heavy gunfire rocked a suburb of Kumanovo as police moved against what authorities described as an "armed group", heightening fears of instability in the ex-Yugoslav republic. 8 police and 14 members  a group of ethnic Albanian veterans of insurgencies in ex-Yugoslavia were killed in a day-long gun battle. Over 30 people were arrested.
    (Reuters, 5/9/15)(Reuters, 5/10/15)

2015        May 11, A Macedonian prosecutor said that 18 citizens of Kosovo were among 30 men charged over a weekend shootout in Macedonia that left 22 people dead, including 8 policemen.
    (AFP, 5/11/15)

2015        May 17, In Macedonia More than 20,000 people rallied in Skopje to demand the resignation of PM Nikola Gruevski's government. Opposition leader Zoran Zaev has released snippets of the alleged recordings that appear to show widespread government corruption, a murder cover-up and other wrongdoings.
    (AFP, 5/17/15)

2015        Jul 15, Macedonia's main political leaders reached a final agreement early today to resolve a protracted and severe political crisis that has roiled the small Balkan country for months.
    (AP, 7/15/15)

2015        Aug 4, Macedonia’s PM Vladimir Pesevski said overnight flash floods killed at least 4 people, including 3 children, and injured a dozen others as landslides, power outages and road damage followed a storm in the northwest of the country.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 6, Macedonian police announced the arrests of nine people suspected of belonging to the Islamic State group and said they are seeking a further 27.
    (AP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 20, Macedonia stepped up security on its border with Greece, stranding thousands of migrants on a dusty field.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 21, Macedonia said it would allow a limited number of "vulnerable" migrants to enter the country after sealing its border with Greece to them. At least 1,000 migrants and refugees pressed against Macedonian police lines on the Greek-Macedonian border and at least 10 people appeared to faint in the crush.
    (AFP, 8/20/15)(Reuters, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 22, In Macedonia thousands of rain-soaked, mostly Syrian migrants stormed across the border as police lobbed stun grenades and beat them with batons, struggling to enforce a decree to stem their flow through the Balkans to western Europe. Macedonian police finally re-opened the border with Greece, allowing thousands to travel north towards Serbia in the next stage of their bid to enter the European Union.
    (Reuters, 8/22/15)(AFP, 8/23/15)

2015        Aug 24, Thousands of exhausted migrants from the Middle East, Asia and Africa crossed on foot from Macedonia into Serbia on their way to Western Europe.
    (AP, 8/24/15)

2015        Sep 3, Some 5,600 people crossed into Macedonia from Greece.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)

2015        Oct 15, Macedonian police arrested seven people suspected of providing logistical support to an armed group that clashed with police last May, leaving 18 people dead and 37 wounded.
    (AP, 10/15/15)

2015        Nov 19, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia shut their borders to those not coming from war-torn countries such as Syria, Afghanistan or Iraq, leaving thousands of others seeking a better life in Europe stranded at border crossings.
    (AP, 11/19/15)

2015        Nov 21, Migrants who have been blocked at the Greek-Macedonian border for three days, protested against being prevented from entering Macedonia after new restrictions were imposed.
    (AFP, 11/21/15)

2015        Nov 28, Macedonian police fired tear gas and stun grenades at desperate migrants stranded for days at the Greek border and who are demanding passage to western Europe, as soldiers began erecting a metal fence to keep them out.
    (AP, 11/28/15)

2015        Dec 2, Macedonian police fired tear gas at hundreds of mostly Pakistani migrants who tried to storm into the Balkan country from Greece demanding passage to wealthier northern Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)

2016        Jan 15, Macedonia's PM Nikola Gruevski submitted his resignation to the speaker of Parliament, launching the procedure that should see him replaced by a caretaker until early elections April 24. Gruevski made the move as agreed in a Western-brokered deal to end a political crisis triggered by a wiretapping scandal.
    (AP, 1/15/16)

2016        Jan 21, After a night on the Greek-Macedonian frontier in sub-zero temperatures, some 2,000 mainly Syrian refugees resumed their tortuous trek to northern Europe that was temporarily blocked by a border closure by Skopje.
    (AFP, 1/21/16)

2016        Feb 21, Macedonia closed its southern border with Greece to Afghan migrants, allowing entry only for Iraqis and Syrians, responding to a "domino effect" of similar restrictions by their neighbors to the north.
    (AP, 2/21/16)

2016        Feb 27, In Greece Iraqi and Syrian migrants and asylum-seekers protested peacefully on the Greek-Macedonian border since, demanding admission into Macedonia.
    (AP, 2/27/16)

2016        Feb 29, Macedonian police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of migrants who stormed the border from Greece as a deeply divided Europe traded barbs over the biggest humanitarian crisis in decades.
    (Reuters, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 2, Macedonia allowed some 200 refugees to cross its border with Greece, as 10,000 more were left waiting in miserable conditions.
    (AFP, 3/2/16)

2016        Mar 14, Around 2,000 migrants from a camp in northern Greece got around a border fence and crossed into Macedonian territory.
    (Reuters, 3/14/16)

2016        Mar 15, Macedonia dumped about 1,500 migrants and refugees back into Greece overnight after they forced their way across the border, as European nations continued to pass the buck in a migration crisis that risks tearing the EU apart.
    (Reuters, 3/15/16)

2016        Apr 10, Greece said police on the Macedonian side of their joint frontier used teargas, rubber bullets and stun grenades to push back the migrants. Macedonian authorities would only confirm they used teargas.
    (Reuters, 4/10/16)

2016        Apr 11, Fresh protests broke at a flashpoint border crossing, as Greece and Macedonia blamed each other for an incident in which tear gas and rubber bullets were fired on migrants trying to breach the closed border to get to western Europe.
    (AFP, 4/11/16)

2016        Apr 13, Macedonia police fired tear gas and stun grenades at migrants staging a protest at the country's border fence with Greece.
    (AFP, 4/13/16)

2016        Apr 14, In Macedonia thousands joined antigovernment protests for a third consecutive night demanding the resignation of Pres. Gjorge Ivanov for pardons issued earlier this week for members of the previous government.
    (SFC, 4/15/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 15, Macedonian President Gjorge Ivanov said he stood by his decision to grant pardons to 56 officials in a wire-tapping scandal despite days of street protests and mounting national and international calls to change his mind. The amnesty granted by Ivanov this week prevents the 56 government and opposition officials from being investigated over revelations of a vast wire-tapping operation that has caused a long-running political crisis in the Balkan nation.
    (Reuters, 4/15/16)

2016        Apr 22, Foreign ministers of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Macedonia said they will work to improve coordination along southern Europe's migrant trial.
    (AP, 4/22/16)

2016        Jul 26, Germany signed an agreement to lend 50 million euros ($55 million) to Albania to help it build a power line with neighboring Macedonia.
    (AP, 7/26/16)

2016        Aug 6, In Macedonia at least 17 people died in flash floods in Skopje during an evening storm.
    (Reuters, 8/7/16)

2016        Nov 18, In Macedonia a special prosecutor launched criminal proceedings against 10 people, including top officials of the secret police, over their suspected role in a phone-tapping scandal that brought down PM Nikola Gruevski.
    (Reuters, 11/18/16)

2016        Dec 11, Macedonians voted in a general election called two years early as part of a Western-brokered agreement to end a paralyzing political crisis. Former conservative PM Nikola Gruevski, who had headed the government since 2006, sought a new mandate. His VMRO-DPMNE party led a 25-party coalition called "For a Better Macedonia." Main opponent Zoran Zaev headed a left-leaning coalition called "For Life in Macedonia." Neither party won enough seats to form a government. Gruevski, his former transport minister and twelve others have been charged over violence during a 2013 demonstration.
    (AP, 12/11/16)(AP, 12/12/16)(SFC, 12/17/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec 25, In Macedonia residents of the northwestern village of Tearce voted in an election rerun that could tilt the national election result. Only 307 votes separated the country's two main rivals nationally.
    (AP, 12/25/16)

2017        Mar 1, Macedonian President Gjeorge Ivanov said he cannot give a mandate to form a government to the leader of the Social Democrats who won a parliamentary majority by getting the support of ethnic Albanian parties.
    (Reuters, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 7, In Macedonia vandals damaged a museum dedicated to the Albanian alphabet, amid increasing political tension over the official status of the Albanian language in the country. Three parties of the Albanian minority, a quarter of Macedonia's population, demanded that Albanian should become Macedonia's second official language as their price to join in any coalition.
    (AP, 3/7/17)

2016        Apr 10, In Macedonia the vault manager of NLB Tutunska Banka reported the theft of about 3 million euros ($3.1 million) from its headquarters. The administrator of the bank surreptitiously removed the money, in euros and Swiss francs, over five days without being noticed by security staff. A suspect identified as B.S. was soon arrested, but the missing cash was not yet recovered.
    (AP, 4/11/17)(AP, 4/12/17)

2017        Apr 27, In Macedonia more than 100 people were injured this evening including protestors, policemen and lawmakers, after protesters broke through a police cordon and entered the parliament to protest against the election of an ethnic Albanian Talat Xhaferi as new speaker. In May, nine people received suspended prison sentences for their part in the violence. On Oct. 12 Pance Angelov (65) was convicted by a court of assaulting MP Radmila Secerinska and violently pulling her hair during the attack.
    (AP, 4/28/17)(AFP, 10/12/17)

2017        Apr 28, Macedonia's interior minister offered his resignation a day after protesters stormed the country's parliament.
    (AP, 4/28/17)

2017        May 20, Macedonia’s interior ministry said it has suspended 16 police officers over their failure to prevent an invasion of parliament by protesters last month.
    (SSFC, 5/21/17, p.A3)

2017        May 23, A Macedonian court convicted nine people of participating in a mob invasion of parliament last month that left more than 100 people injured. The court imposed six-month suspended jail sentences on all nine men, who had pleaded guilty and expressed repentance over the April 27 violence.
    (AP, 5/23/17)

2017        May 31, In Macedonia the Social Democrats, along with ethnic Albanian parties, took power. The ruling VMRO-DPMNE had succumbed to a stream of leaks exposing corruption and interference with the judiciary.
    (Econ 7/1/17, p.45)

2017        Jun, Macedonia's special prosecutor filed charges against 94 people, including former high government officials, over their involvement in alleged crimes revealed in tapes that emerged during a surveillance scandal.
    (Reuters, 10/19/17)

2017        Aug 1, Macedonian PM Zoran Zaev and Bulgarian counterpart Boyko Borissov signed a friendship treaty in Skopje in a move designed to end years of diplomatic wrangling and boost Macedonia's European integration. Bulgaria still does not recognize the Macedonian language, which it views as a dialect of Bulgarian.
    (Reuters, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 5, Macedonia declared a 30-day state of emergency in its southwestern mountainous region due to fear that a heat wave could spread multiple wildfires that have been raging in the country's southwest region.
    (AP, 8/6/17)

2017        Aug 21, Serbia recalled its embassy staff from Macedonia in protest at "offensive actions" which coincided with reports that Skopje was joining diplomatic efforts to secure Kosovo membership of the UN cultural agency UNESCO.
    (Reuters, 8/21/17)

2017        Aug 23, Macedonian PM Zoran Zaev and Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic spoke on the phone and agreed to work to improve bilateral relations.
    (AP, 8/23/17)

2017        Aug 26, In Albania prime ministers from Western Balkans countries agreed on a road map to deepen their regional economic cooperation as part of the process for joining the European Union. Albanian PM Edi Rama hosted his counterparts from Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro.
    (AP, 8/26/17)

2017        Aug 31, Macedonia called on Greece to recognize the "new reality" in the country and support its bid to join the EU and NATO, a move that would require overcoming the row over the country's name. Macedonia’s Foreign Minister Nikola Dimitrov and Greek counterpart Nikos Kotzias told reporters that their governments were committed to working on good relations and regional cooperation.
    (Reuters, 8/31/17)(AP, 8/31/17)

2017        Oct 15, Macedonia held municipal elections, seen as a strong test for the left-wing government. Opinion polls show a slight advantage for the governing Social Democrats, who hope to unseat the conservative mayor of Skopje.
    (AP, 10/15/17)

2017        Oct 18, Two Macedonian nationals wanted by Interpol were arrested in Greece over their alleged involvement in a wiretap scandal that brought down Macedonia's government.
    (AP, 10/19/17)

2017        Nov 1, Macedonia said it has fired Mario-Cesar Deus Yela, its honorary consul in Barcelona. Yela (49), a Spanish dentist, is awaiting trial in South Africa over the deaths of his two children during a family holiday in Cape Town in April.
    (AP, 11/1/17)

2017        Nov 3, A court in Macedonia sentenced Sulejman Osmani, an alleged ethnic Albanian militant gunman, to life in prison over a deadly 2015 gunbattle with police, a day after 33 other suspects also received heavy sentences.
    (AP, 11/3/17)

2017        Nov 8, In Macedonia Goran Grujevski, a senior official of the secret police, was sentenced to 18 months in prison for destroying evidence that could have helped identify who was behind a 2015 wiretapping scandal that brought down a previous government.
    (Reuters, 11/8/17)

2017        Nov 28, Macedonian police arrested about 30 people, including two opposition MPs, former senior police officials and an ex-minister, over an April attack on parliament in which scores of people were injured.
    (AFP, 11/28/17)

2017        Nov 30, Macedonian police seized half a million tablets of synthetic drugs from a laboratory in the west of the country, and arrested six people, Macedonian and Serbian nationals, suspected of drug production and trafficking.
    (AP, 12/1/17)

2017        Dec 1, Macedonian deputies voted to lift the immunity of six opposition MPs to allow their prosecution over the April 27 attack on parliament, in which scores of people were injured.
    (AFP, 12/1/17)

2017        Dec 5, A Macedonian court ordered three opposition MPs be held in judicial custody for a month while another three were placed under house arrest over an April attack on parliament.
    (AFP, 12/5/17)

2017        Dec 22, Macedonia's left-wing prime minister said he is ready to renounce his country's claim to the legacy of Alexander the Great to help solve a 26-year-old dispute with neighboring Greece over the country's name.
    (AP, 12/23/17)

2017        Dec 28, It was reported that Macedonia has taken emergency measures against dense smog enveloping its cities, an annual winter scourge in the Western Balkans blamed on a mix of coal burning, aging industry and high-polluting emissions from older vehicles.
    (Reuters, 12/28/17)

2018        Jan 5, A Greek court ruled that two Macedonian men arrested on an international warrant issued by their country on charges related to a wiretapping scandal should be extradited.
    (AP, 1/5/18)

2018        Jan 11, Macedonian lawmakers passed a law making Albanian the country's second official language, in a parliamentary vote boycotted by the main opposition party. It still required approval by the country's president before coming into effect.
    (AP, 1/11/18)
2018        Jan 11, Macedonia and Greece agreed to form working groups led by foreign ministers to hold talks on a solution to the 25-year dispute over the name of the ex-Yugoslav Republic.
    (Reuters, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 15, Macedonia's parliament ratified a landmark friendship pact with Balkan neighbor Bulgaria designed to dampen a historic rivalry in a region beset by old ethnic and territorial disputes.
    (AP, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 21, In Macedonia hundreds of people gathered in Skopje to protest a bill that would make Albanian the country's second official language. President Gjorge Ivanov vetoed the bill last week, describing the legislation as unnecessary and unconstitutional.
    (AP, 1/21/18)
2018        Jan 21, Over 100,000 Greeks have gathered in the northern city of Thessaloniki to demand that neighboring country Macedonia change its name because it is also the name of the Greek province of which Thessaloniki is the capital.
    (AP, 1/21/18)

2018        Jan 30, Macedonian customs officers said they have seized more than 300 kg of cannabis in a truck, hidden in pallets loaded with sacks of rice, at a border crossing with Greece.
    (AP, 1/30/18)

2018        Feb 4, In Greece well over 100,000 protesters from across the country converged on Athens' main square to protest a potential Greek compromise in a dispute with neighboring Macedonia over the former Yugoslav republic's official name.
    (AP, 2/4/18)

2018        Feb 6, The EU warned Balkan countries hoping to join the bloc that none will be invited until they have resolved all disputes with their neighbors. This applied to Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and its former territory of Kosovo.
    (AP, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 11, Greek firefighters found a Macedonian man and woman frozen to death at the summit of Mount Kaimaktsalan. The man (35) and the woman (28) went missing a day earlier. They had reportedly set off again for the summit a 2nd time, believing, apparently erroneously, that one of their group was missing.
    (AP, 2/11/18)   

2018        Feb 21, Macedonian authorities began replacing road signs on the country's main highway named by the previous government after the ancient warrior king Alexander the Great, in a goodwill gesture toward neighboring Greece.
    (AP, 2/21/18)

2018        Mar 1, Macedonia, in a goodwill gesture to neighboring Greece, removed a prominent statue of the ancient Greek warrior-king Alexander the Great from its main airport terminal.
    (AP, 3/1/18)

2018        Mar 4, Thousands of flag-waving protestors in Skopje chanted "We are Macedonians" at a rally to protest a possible change to the name of the former Yugoslav republic to comply with a demand by Greece.
    (Reuters, 3/4/18)

2018        Mar 7, Three more members of Macedonia’s state anti-corruption commission stepped down because of an unfolding spending scandal. Two other members, including the head of the commission, stepped down earlier this week. The seven-member body now has only two members left.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2018        Mar 30, Russia ordered new cuts to the number of British envoys in the country, escalating a dispute with the West over the poisoning of an ex-spy in Britain. Scores of foreign ambassadors streamed into the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow to receive the notices given to 23 nations: Albania, Australia, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        Apr 4, Macedonia confirmed that it has formally apologized to German citizen Khaled El-Masri, who was unlawfully seized, tortured, and handed to US authorities 14 years ago as part of the CIA's secret rendition program.
    (AP, 4/4/18)

2018        May 9, An international report was released into the situation of the Roma people in the Western Balkans. It showed that up to 93 percent of Roma women are unemployed, with one-third of all Roma families there going to bed hungry. The study covered Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo.
    (AP, 5/9/18)

2018        May 17, Macedonian PM Zoran Zaev said he has agreed with his Greek counterpart Alexis Tsipras on a solution to ending a long-running name row between the two neighbors.
    (AP, 5/17/18)

2018        May 20, Macedonia's main opposition party, the nationalist VMRO-DPMNE, said it was against changing the country's name to Republic of Ilinden Macedonia, undermining prospects for a solution of a decades-long dispute with Greece.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)

2018        May 21, In Macedonia a criminal court in Skopje cleared PM Zoran Zaev (43) on bribery charges dating back to when he was mayor of the southern town of Strumica. The court ruled that the prosecution had failed to provide compelling evidence.
    (AP, 5/21/18)

2018        May 22, A Macedonian court convicted Gjoko Popovski, a former senior interior ministry official, of abuse of office and sentenced him to nine years in prison over a police patrol car procurement deal.
    (AP, 5/22/18)

2018        May 23, A Macedonian criminal court sentenced former conservative prime minister Nikola Gruevski (47) to two years in prison for unlawfully influencing officials at the interior ministry over the purchase of a luxury bulletproof car.
    (AP, 5/23/18)

2018        Jun 12, Greece and Macedonia agreed that Macedonia will change its name to Republic of North Macedonia. A binding agreement is expected to be signed this weekend.
    (AP, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 17, The foreign ministers of Greece and Macedonia signed an accord to rename the former Yugoslav republic the "Republic of North Macedonia," despite a storm of protest over a deal seen as a national sellout by some on both sides. This potentially paved the way for Macedonia's admission to the European Union and NATO. Greek protesters clashed with riot police, who beat them back with tear gas after a historic Greek-Macedonian deal to end a 27-year name row.
    (Reuters, 6/17/18)(AFP, 6/17/18)

2018        Jun 20, The Macedonian parliament formally ratified a landmark name agreement with Greece, paving the way for Skopje's admission to NATO and the opening of accession talks with the European Union.
    (Reuters, 6/20/18)

2018        Jun 26, Macedonia's conservative president refused to sign off a deal with neighboring Greece for his country to change its name to North Macedonia. Under the constitution, President Gjorge Ivanov can no longer block the legislation if lawmakers meet again and approve it for a second time.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jul 5, Macedonia's parliament ratified a historic deal with neighboring Greece for the second time in two weeks, after the Macedonian president temporarily blocked the agreement.
    (AP, 7/5/18)
2018        Jul 5, A Macedonian court convicted seven men of attempting to murder a lawmaker during a mob invasion of parliament at the height of the country's political crisis in April, 2017. Sentences ranging from 10 to 13½ years in prison were imposed on the defendants.
    (AP, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 6, Macedonia's president insisted that he will not sign off on a deal with Greece to change his country's name, even after parliament ratified the agreement for a second time.
    (AP, 7/6/18)

2018        Jul 11, NATO leaders agreed to invite Macedonia to begin accession talks to join the Western alliance, extending its reach in the Balkans in defiance of Russia following a landmark accord with Greece over the ex-Yugoslav republic's name.
    (Reuters, 7/12/18)

2018        Jul 12, The Russian Foreign Ministry complained that Macedonia was being sucked into the NATO military alliance by force.
    (Reuters, 7/12/18)

2018        Jul 19, Macedonia's parliament adopted a declaration supporting the country's bid to join NATO, after the alliance formally invited it to join once it fully implements a deal recently signed with neighboring Greece changing its name to North Macedonia.
    (AP, 7/19/18)

2018        Aug 9, The Council of Europe's anti-corruption group said Macedonia's performance on preventing corruption is "clearly disappointing" and called on authorities to take action.
    (AP, 8/10/18)

2018        Sep 10, Campaigning officially began in Macedonia for a Sept. 30 referendum on changing the country's name, a move which would allow the Balkan country to qualify for NATO membership and also pave its way toward the European Union.
    (AP, 9/10/18)

2018        Sep 30, Macedonians voted on whether to accept a landmark deal ending a decades-long dispute with neighboring Greece by changing their country's name to North Macedonia. A 36.9 percent turnout failed to hit the 50 percent turnout required for the referendum result to be valid.
    (AP, 9/30/18)(AP, 10/1/18)

2018        Oct 5, A Macedonia appeals court upheld ex-premier Nikola Gruevski's two-year sentence for abuse of power over the use of a luxury car. Gruevski faced a number of graft cases, with the Mercedes charge the first to go to trial.
    (AFP, 10/5/18)

2018        Oct 8, A Macedonian criminal court sentenced former interior minister Gordana Jankuloska (42) to six years in prison over the purchase of a luxury bulletproof car for the government. She remained free pending appeal.
    (AP, 10/8/18)

2018        Oct 19, Macedonia's parliament approved the proposed new name of Republic of North Macedonia after a referendum last month failed to reach the minimum participation threshold.
    (Reuters, 10/20/18)

2018        Oct 26, Macedonia's criminal court ordered former conservative PM Nikola Gruevski, to appear at the capital's jail by Nov. 8 to begin serving a two-year prison sentence for influencing officials to buy a luxury car.
    (AP, 10/26/18)

2018        Nov 1, Macedonia's criminal court ordered the temporary freezing of property belonging to the main conservative opposition party as part of an investigation into allegations of unlawful political financing.
    (AP, 11/1/18)

2018        Nov 9, Macedonia extended the state of emergency at its southern and northern borders until June 2019 in an effort to reduce illegal border crossings by migrants.
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 12, Macedonian police issued an arrest warrant for former PM Nikola Gruevski, who resigned in 2016 after 10 years in power, after he failed to show up to begin his sentence following a Nov. 9 court ruling against his motion for a reprieve. Gruevski fled to Hungary and submitted an asylum request.
    (Reuters, 11/14/18)

2018        Nov 20, Former Macedonian premier Nikola Gruevski said that he has been granted asylum by Hungary. He fled to Budapest after being sentenced to jail for abuse of power.
    (AFP, 11/20/18)

2018        Nov 21, Former Macedonian intelligence chief Saso Mijalkov was taken into custody for a minimum of 30 days after judicial authorities considered him a flight risk to potentially avoid standing trial over a major wiretapping scandal.
    (AP, 11/21/18)

2019        Jan 11, Macedonia's parliament approved a deal with Greece that would rename the country North Macedonia. Greece's parliament is expected to vote on it before March.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 25, Greece ratified a landmark accord that changes the name of neighboring Macedonia, ending a decades-old dispute with its neighbor and opening the way for the ex-Yugoslav republic to join the European Union and NATO.
    (Reuters, 1/25/19)

2019        Feb 6, Macedonia moved a step closer to NATO membership, signing accession papers after resolving a long-running name row with Greece.
    (AFP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 11, Activists said an Emirati woman (42), who says she was threatened by her family for wanting a divorce, is stuck in a Macedonia migrant center after the Balkan state rejected her asylum request.
    (AFP, 2/11/19)

2019        Feb 12, Macedonia's new name, North Macedonia, came into force after constitutional changes were published in the Official Gazette and Skopje's foreign ministry said both Greece and Macedonia had informed the UN by letter that the change is now in force.
    (AFP, 2/13/19)

2019        Feb 13, The UN confirmed that it has been officially informed by the Macedonian government that the country's new name is North Macedonia. The 27-year-old dispute was finally settled in June during UN-brokered talks.
    (AFP, 2/13/19)
2019        Feb 13, In North Macedonia a bus drove down embankment and overturned in a crash that killed 14 people and left 30 others injured. The death toll rose to 15 after a man died on Feb. 16 at a clinic in Skopje.
    (AP, 2/14/19)(AP, 2/16/19)

2019        Feb 16, Police in North Macedonia said they've broken up a criminal ring of migrant smugglers and filed charges against 21 people, including a police officer, for illegal trafficking.
    (AP, 2/16/19)

2019        Mar 8, North Macedonia's former secret police chief, Saso Mijalkov (53), was sentenced to three years in prison after being convicted of unlawfully influencing a local election in 2013. The court also convicted the head of an ethnic Albanian party and four former electoral commission members over the same case.
    (AP, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 15, A court in North Macedonia sentenced 16 people, including a former interior minister, from 7 to 18 years in prison for their role in a violent intrusion in parliament at the height of a political crisis in 2017.
    (AP, 3/15/19)

2019        Apr 2, The leaders of Greece and North Macedonia hugged, took selfies and signed a new agreement for air patrols in a display of newly-friendly relations since a nearly three-decade name dispute was settled earlier this year.
    (Reuters, 4/2/19)
2019        Apr 2, In North Macedonia a small private plane with four members of a Bulgarian family on board crashed into a mountain in a central region of the country. There were no survivors.
    (AP, 4/3/19)

2019        Apr 4, Six Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo) signed an EU-backed agreement in Belgrade to abolish roaming charges by 2021 as part of efforts to boost cooperation in the region.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 11, Police in North Macedonia said they have detained five men, including two Chinese citizens and a customs official, on suspicion of smuggling a critically endangered species of eel.
    (AP, 4/11/19)

2019        Apr 16, North Macedonia's health authorities declared a nationwide measles epidemic in the small Balkan country after more than 960 cases were registered since the beginning of this year.
    (AP, 4/16/19)

2019        Apr 21, Macedonians vote in a presidential election. The ruling Social Democrat party's favored candidate Stevo Pendarovski garnered 42.85 percent of the votes and the opposition-backed Gordana Siljanovska-Davkova 42.24 percent. Only 41.8 percent of the state's 1.8-million registered voters cast ballots, barely passing the 40-percent threshold that will also be required to make the runoff on May 5 valid.
    (Reuters, 4/21/19)(AFP, 4/22/19)

2019        Apr 29, Ana Colovic Lesoska of North Macedonia was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize. Her seven-year campaign helped stop hydroelectric projects from being built in the country's largest national park and home to the endangered Balkan lynx.
    (AP, 4/29/19)

2019        May 5, North Macedonia held a competitive runoff election to choose a new president, a vote seen as a test of the center-left government's pro-West policies despite the largely ceremonial duties of the country's head of state.
    (AP, 5/05/19)

2019        May 7, Pope Francis made the first-ever papal visit to North Macedonia. Francis urged the Balkans to embrace its patchwork of faiths and ethnicities during his visit and held an open-air mass in the capital Skopje, the proud birthplace of Mother Teresa.
    (AFP, 5/07/19)

2019        May 12, In North Macedonia Stevo Pendarovski was sworn in as the new president, promising he will serve all citizens in a deeply divided society and will lobby European Union leaders to approve the start of his country's accession talks in June.
    (AP, 5/12/19)

2019        Jun 3, A UN said people in all major cities across the western Balkans face alarming levels of air pollution that are reducing their life expectancies because the underdeveloped, politically fragile region is still heavily reliant on burning coal to generate power. The report was prepared cooperation with the WHO and air quality management institutions in Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.
    (AP, 6/3/19)

2019        Jun 27, A Hungarian court refused to extradite former Macedonian prime minister Nikola Gruevski, who fled abroad last year after being sentenced to two years in prison on corruption-related charges. Gruevski was released from custody on the court's order.
    (AP, 6/27/19)

2019        Jun 29, North Macedonia held its first Gay Pride march, in a test of the Balkan country's record on respecting minority rights as it seeks to join the EU.
    (Reuters, 6/29/19)

2019        Aug 23, In North Macedonia a migrant from Bangladesh (20) was killed and 12 others injured when a van packed with migrants collided with a truck late today on the main highway in the south. The van driver ran away from the scene.
    (AP, 8/24/19)

2019        Sep 16, Police in North Macedonia detained 81 migrants found in a truck near the border with Serbia, after the driver ignored a police warning to stop for a check and later abandoned the vehicle.
    (AP, 9/17/19)

2019        Sep 19, In North Macedonia a Pakistani migrant (23) died after being hit by a train.
    (AP, 9/20/19)

2019        Oct 18, French President Emmanuel Macron led a group of leaders who blocked opening talks with Albania and North Macedonia, despite concerns over increasing Chinese and Russian influence in the Balkans.
    (Reuters, 10/19/19)

2019        Oct 19, North Macedonia's PM Zoran Zaev called for a snap parliamentary election after the European Union failed to give his country a date to start talks on joining the bloc.
    (Reuters, 10/19/19)

2020        Feb 26, North Macedonia said it has confirmed its first case of the coronavirus infection, diagnosed in a woman who recently arrived from Italy.
    (Reuters, 2/26/20)

2020        Mar 2, The EU's executive said Albania and North Macedonia have done enough to merit starting negotiations to join the European Union.
    (Reuters, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 20, North Macedonia Pres. Stevo Pendarovski signed a final accession document required for the country to become the next member of NATO.
    (SFC, 3/21/20, p.A2)

2020        Mar 21, North Macedonia's first victim died of the coronavirus. The country has registered 114 cases of people infected with the virus.
    (Reuters, 3/22/20)

2020        Mar 24, European affairs ministers agreed to allow Albania and North Macedonia to begin EU membership talks.
    (SFC, 3/25/20, p.A3)

2020        Jun 15, North Macedonian health authorities announced 103 new confirmed coronavirus cases and five deaths, bringing the total number of cases to 4,157 and the death toll to 193 in this country of around 2 million people. President Stevo Pendarovski declared an eight-day state of emergency ahead of an early national election after the country’s main political leaders agreed the vote will be held on July 15.
    (AP, 6/16/20)

2020        Jul 16, North Macedonia's pro-Western Social Democrats said they were ready to start complicated power-sharing negotiations after winning a narrow election victory in a poll held up for months by the COVID-19 pandemic. Former PM Zoran Zaev's Social Democrats declared victory after receiving 36% of the vote with 94% of ballots counted. Authorities announced 94 new infections and eight deaths, raising the confirmed death toll to 401.
    (AP, 7/16/20)

2020        Jul 17, Police in North Macedonia found 55 migrants in two separate incidents. All the migrants will be deported back to Greece, where they came from.
    (AP, 7/18/20)

2020        Aug 8, Police in North Macedonia found 94 migrants packed into a truck in the country’s southeast. The truck driver fled from the scene.
    (AP, 8/9/20)

2020        Aug 12, Police in North Macedonia discovered 148 migrants crammed into trucks in two separate operations. Two men have been arrested.
    (SFC, 8/13/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 15, North Macedonia police found 80 migrants during a routine check in the central part of the country and arrested a truck driver for suspected migrant smuggling.
    (AP, 8/16/20)

2020        Sep 26, In North Macedonia hundreds of Roma protested against police brutality in Bitola, the country's second-largest city.
    (AP, 9/26/20)

2020        Sep 29, A criminal court in North Macedonia sentenced former conservative prime minister Nikola Gruevski (in absentia) to 1 1/2 years in prison, and handed suspended sentences to six other party members and supporters for orchestrating violence in 2013.
    (AP, 9/29/20)

2020        Oct 15, In North Macedonia ten men were arrested for running a smuggling ring that brought in migrants from neighboring Greece. They had allegedly brought at least 100 migrants from the Middle East and elsewhere into the country over a 10-month period.
    (AP, 10/15/20)

2020        Oct 22, Health authorities in North Macedonia reported 6,552 active cases. So far 874 people have died and 25,473 have fallen ill with the infection.
    (Reuters, 10/23/20)

2020        Oct 29, North Macedonia reported 862 new coronavirus cases with hospitals stretched to their limits. NATO has sent 60 respirators to help its newest member cope with the crisis, and the government has made wearing face masks mandatory in public.
    (Reuters, 10/30/20)

2021        Feb 12, The government of North Macedonia said plans to receive 8,000 Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines from neighbor Serbia this week had been held up for “technical reasons" with additional documentation needed for the transfer.
    (AP, 2/12/21)

2021        Feb 14, Serbia donated a first batch of 8,000 doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines to North Macedonia, which is yet to deliver its first jabs.
    (AP, 2/14/21)

2021        Apr 13, A North Macedonian court convicted the country’s former intelligence chief and three more ex-officials of abuse of power over a surveillance equipment procurement deal, and sentenced them to between five and 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/13/21)

2021        Apr 25, In North Macedonia thousands of opposition supporters protested in Skopje demanding retrials and freedom for more than a dozen former conservative government officials convicted for their roles in a mob invasion of parliament in 2017.
    (AP, 4/25/21)

2021        Apr 28, North Macedonia authorities said police have broken up a major criminal ring of drug, weapons and ammunition traffickers and arrested nine people, including a police officer.
    (AP, 4/28/21)

2021        Apr 30, North Macedonia received a shipment of 200,000 doses of the Chinese-made Sinopharm vaccine following major delays in the country’s start-and-stop coronavirus immunization program.
    (AP, 4/30/21)

2021        May 18, North Macedonia said it is expelling a Russian diplomat from the country, but authorities didn't give any explanation for the decision.
    (AP, 5/18/21)

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