Timeline Saudi Arabia

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Some 5,000 princes controlled all power and resources.
    (WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)
Saudi Arabia holds the Koran as its constitution.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.56)
The capital is Riyadh. Sunni Muslims comprise the majority and Shiite Muslims are the minority and live mostly in impoverished villages in the oil-rich eastern part of the country.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)
Religious purity called for deceased non-Muslims to be sent abroad for internment.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.A1)
Saudi Arabia is about 1/5 the size of the US.
    (SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)

c1AD        Nabatean masons carved tombs into solid rock in Madain Salah near Madinah.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

500-600    Arabs about this time brought back home from India the numerals we refer to as Arabic numbers.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)
500-600    The Arabian city of Ubar, disappeared in the early 6th century. The event was later cited by Muhammad in the Quran. In 1992 a team of investigators announced the discovery of the long lost Arabian city of Ubar. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands" (1999).
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)

570        Jan 19, Mohammed (d.632), "The Prophet", founder of Islam and speaker in the “Koran," was born into the Quraysh tribe in Makkah. He was orphaned at an early age and found work in a trade caravan. He married a wealthy widow and this gave him the freedom to visit Mount Hira each year to think. His birthday is observed on the 12th day of Rabi ul'Awwal, the 3rd month of the lunar calendar, in a festival known as Mawlid-al-Nabi. The Koran was probably not fixed for the 1st two centuries after the emergence of Islam.
    (ATC, p.59)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.97)

610        Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.
    (ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)

620        Aug 22, This day corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back.
    (WSJ, 8/8/06, p.A10)(www.atheists.org/Islam/mohammedanism.html)

620        Mohammad gained about a hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for himself and his followers.
    (ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)

622        Jul 16, Islamic Era began. Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).
    (MC, 7/16/02)

622        Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).
    (MC, 9/20/01)

622AD    Sep 24, In the Hegira Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new faith was called "Islam," which means submission to Allah. Believers in Islam are called Muslims-- "Those who submit to Allah's will." In Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.19)(ATC, p.60)

622        The Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.

624        Muslims engaged non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr.

624-628    Several Jewish clans in the Arabian peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet of God.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)

630        Mohammad raised an army of 10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship. Mohammad returned from Madinah and began the Islamic conquest of Arabia.
    (ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)

632        Jun 8, Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. Iqra, which means read in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel spoke to Mohammed. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for “jihad." The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil. Four contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor. In 2001 Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making." In 2013 Lesley Hazleton authored “The First Muslim: The Story of Muhammad."
    (ATC, p.60,63)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP, 6/8/03)(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.F1)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

634        Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah (61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph. Before his death he appointed Mohammed's adviser Omar (Umar) as his successor.
    (ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)

642        May, Khalid bin Al-Waleed (b.585), Muslim commander prominent in leading the conquest of Iraq and Syria, died in Syria. It was under his military leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity, the Caliphate.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_ibn_al-Walid)(SFC, 3/30/18, p.A5)

644        Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the 2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.

656        Jun 17, In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered in Medina. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob to murder him. This gave Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. In 661 Ali was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning "the party of Ali." Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uthman)(ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)

661        Jan 29, Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered in Kufa, Iraq. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group.  A member of the anarchist sect of Kharajites assassinated Ali. This sect believed that there are no verdict’s but God’s. The Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)

855        Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780), Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the 4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include: a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school, named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or acts) that were current in the Prophet's city. C) The school of Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1185        Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) returned to Granada after travelling to Medina, Mecca Damascus, Mosul, Acre and Baghdad at Basra he saw how Indian timber was carefully used to make Lateen sail ships, returning in 1185 by way of Sicily. His path was not without troubles, including a shipwreck. On both occasions he travelled on Genoese ships.

1324-1325    Mansa Musa, king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1400s        The Saud dynasty was founded near Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1511        In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1517        Jan 22, Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 1/22/02)

1703        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)(www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1710        Muhammad Ibn Saud was born.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1742-1765    In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1744        In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar'ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1773        Riyadh fell to Abdul Aziz.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad."
    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1801        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1803        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz, son of Abdul Aziz, captured the Holy City of Makkah.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1804        The Wahhabis captured Medina, Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1806        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1807        Saud al-Saud invaded Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy it.

1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahhabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1813        The Wahhabis were driven from Mecca. They returned a century later as rulers of the new state of Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1814        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz died. Prior to his death Muhammad Ali Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt, retook Hijaz, captured the son of Saud ibn Abdul Aziz and executed him in Istanbul.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahhabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int'l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)

1821        A cholera outbreak in Saudi Arabia killed an estimated 20,000 pilgrims.
    (AP, 2/27/20)

1824        The Saud family established a new capital at Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senussi)

1846        Many Rashaida migrated from the Hejaz in present-day Saudi Arabia into what is now Sudan, Kuwait, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates after tribal warfare had broken out in their homeland.

1860s-1890s    The Saud family moved to exile in Kuwait when the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arabia.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1865        Faisal bin Turki, the successor of Turki, died. He won control of most of Nejd and Hasa by the time of his death.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)
1865        In Saudi Arabia a cholera outbreak killed 15,000 pilgrims and then spread worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/20)

1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He traveled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.
    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)

1883        May 20, Faisal ibn Husayn (d.1933), the 3rd son of the grand sherif of Mecca, was born in Mecca. He later became 1st king of Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921).

1891        Muhammad bin Rashid, a tribal leader in Hail, captured Riyadh. Rashid had already taken much of Saud territory and concluded a pact with Turkey. Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, leader of the Al Saud family, was forced to leave.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1901        Dec, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) left Kuwait with some 40 friends with plans to attack Riyadh.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1902        Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1902        Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia from 1953-1964.

1904        Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (d.1975) later king Saudi Arabia, was born.

1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Nejd region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1906-1926    Saudi forces captured the Al Hasa, Asir and Al Hijaz regions, unifying much of Arabia under Saudi rule.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Hasa region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1908        Sep 1, The first railway in modern Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz railway from Jordan's border to Medina, reached Medina. This narrow gauge railway was shut down in 1915.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)

1908        Hussein (1854-1931) became Emir of Mecca and continued to 1917 when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_bin_Ali,_Sharif_of_Mecca)

1913        Ibn Saud’s forces conquered the eastern province of al-Ahsa, before the founding of the modern Saudi state.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z5bhd32)(Econ, 3/19/15, p.53)

1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement)

1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt. Sharif Hussein, Arab Emir of Mecca, led the revolt.
    (HN, 6/10/98)(ON, 10/05, p.7)
1916        Jun 10, Hussein bin Ali began serving as the King of Hejaz and continued to October 3,1924. He was followed by Ali bin Hussein who continued until December 19, 1925. The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East, the western portion of the Arabian peninsula ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. It achieved national independence after the destruction of the Ottoman Empire by the British Empire during World War I when the Sharif of Mecca fought in alliance with the British Imperial forces to drive the Ottoman Army from the Arabian Peninsula during the Arab Revolt. The new kingdom had a brief life and then was conquered in 1925 by the neighboring Sultanate of Nejd under a resurgent House of Saud, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of Al-Hasa and Qatif, as the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

1916        Oct, T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) met with Feisal Hussain for the 1st time.

1916        Nov, T.E. Lawrence was assigned as the British liaison to Arab Prince Feisal Hussain.

1916        Ottoman troops led by Fakhreddin Pasha occupied Medina. They were later accused of stealing money and manuscripts from the city.
    (Reuters, 12/21/17)

1917        Jul 2, An Arab army led by Feisal Hussein and Bedouin chief Auda Abu Taiya fought Turkish forces at Aqaba killing 300 and capturing 160 Turkish soldiers.
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

1918        Sep 27, Arab forces attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1918        Oct 1, The main Arab force entered Damascus (Syria).
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)

1918        Arab Prince Feisal took control of Syria.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)

1918        Lawrence of Arabia blew up the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)

1921        The Ikhwan fighters under Abdul Aziz took the Jebelshammar region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)(WSJ, 1/7/02, p.A10)

1921        Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence promoted "the sherifian solution," under which the Hashemite family- Hussein, the sherif of Mecca, and his sons, would rule over the region under Britain's eye.
    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)

1921        At the Cairo Conference Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine. 
    (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)

1923        King Fahd was born in Riyadh.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

1924        Oct, The Kingdom of the Hijaz (later Saudi Arabia) was short lived with King Hussain abdicating in favor of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in December 1925.

1924        Ibn Saud, king of the Nejd, and allied Bedouin tribes conquered Hussein's kingdom of Hijaz and launched Wahhabi rule over Saudi Arabia. The campaign of territorial and spiritual unification was called tawhid.
    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.38)

1924-1926    Abdul Aziz took Makkah, Madina and Asir.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1926        Jan, Abdul Aziz was declared King of Hejaz and the Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies.

1927        Jan, Abdul Aziz became King of Hejaz, Nejd and its Dependencies.

1927        May 20, Saudi Arabia became independent of Great Britain with the Treaty of Jedda.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1927-1928    King Abd al-Aziz crushed an uprising be fanatical Islamist tribes of central Arabia.
    (WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1931        Mohammad bin Laden immigrated to Saudi Arabia from Yemen. He established a construction business and built close ties with the king.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)
1931        Osama bin Laden was born in Jidda to a Syrian mother. He was the 17th of 51 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a baggage carrier, who left Yemen in 1931. Muhammad and his brothers were the founders of a prosperous construction company. In 2004 Jonathan Randal authored “Osama: The Making of a Terrorist."
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(WSJ, 9/2/04, p.D16)

1932        Sep 22, The government of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd officially changed its name to Saudi Arabia.

1932        Sep 23, In 2005 King Abdullah established this day as the official unification date of Saudi Arabia and made it an official holiday.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.49)

1932        Nov 23, The kingdoms of Nejd and Hejaz merged to become the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. Abdul Aziz (d.1953) proclaimed the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was named after King Ibn Saud, founder of the Saudi dynasty. Abdul Aziz al-Saud fathered 44 sons.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)(SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(AP, 11/23/02)

1932        Dec 22, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed.

1933        May, Saudi Arabia gave Standard Oil of California exclusive rights to explore for oil. Socal formed the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia.
    (www.chevron.com)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1934        The Al Sauds seized three border provinces from Yemen.
    (Econ, 1/16/16, p.52)

1936        Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.

1936        Mar 3, Standard Oil of California struck oil at Damman No 7. Aramco made the first commercial oil find in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The English Arabist, H. St. John Philby, orchestrated the Aramco concession in Saudi Arabia.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)(www.chevron.com)

1936        The Texas Co. joined Standard Oil in Saudi Arabia. The joint venture eventually became the Saudi oil giant Aramco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1938        Norman Lewis (d.2003), British travel writer, authored "Sand and Sea in Arabia."
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A22)

1940        In Saudi Arabia the religious police, formally known as the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (the mutaween), was founded.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.41)
1940        In Saudi Arabia the Ahmad Hamad Algosaibi & Brothers Company (AHAB) was founded. AHAB branched out from its roots in pearling and farming into finance, soft-drinks bottling, tires and more.
    (Econ., 3/21/15, p.59)

1945        Feb 14, Saudi King Abd al-Aziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt met on a ship in the Suez Canal and reached an understanding whereby the US would protect the Saudi royal family in return for preferred access to Saudi oil. William Eddy, US minister to Saudi Arabia, arranged the meeting.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/5a3c49)

1945        Mar 22, The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt. Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the UN and the Arab League.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1947        The family-owned Olayan Group was founded in Saudi Arabia and grew to become one of the country’s largest private conglomerates.
    (WSJ, 1/16/08, p.A10)

1948        May 18, Arab Legion captured the fort on Mount Scopus.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1948        May 18, Saudi Arabia joined the invasion of Israel.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1950        Saudi Arabia transferred the islands of Sanafir and Tiran to Egypt for fear that Israel might grab them. In 2016 Egypt ceded the islands back to Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 4/23/15, p.39)

1951        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since 1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to the capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)
1951        Saudi Arabia put the Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175 miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.
    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)

1953        Prince Fahd was appointed as the 1st Education Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1953         King Abdul Aziz died. He was the founder of modern Saudi Arabia and fathered a total of 44 sons before his death. Aziz was succeeded by King Saud who ruled to 1964.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

1953-1964     King Saud ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1956        Feb 18, The US lifted its arms ban and shipped tanks to Saudi Arabia.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1962        May 3, William A, Eddy (b.1896), former US minister to Saudi Arabia (1944-1946), died. In 2008 Thomas W. Lippman authored “Arabian Knight: Colonel Bill Eddy, USMC, and the Rise of American Power in the Middle East."
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)

1962        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia abolished slavery.

1963        Prince Fahd was appointed as the Interior Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1964        Nov 2, Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud (1904-1975) succeeded his older brother Saud bin Abdul Aziz as king of Saudi Arabia.

1964-1975     King Faisal ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1965        Prince Fahd was appointed as the 2nd Deputy Prime Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1965        Television arrive in Saudi Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could use it to promote their faith.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)

1965-1966    King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television. There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1966        In Egypt Sayed Qutb (b.1906), intellectual godfather of radical Islam, was executed by Pres. Nasser. Qutb had earlier written: "A Muslim has no nationality except his belief." He denounced western hedonism and the decadence of Muslim regimes. Qutb had spent some time in the US (1948-1951) and authored the 1951 essay “The America I Have Seen." His brother Muhammad went into exile in Saudi Arabia where he taught at King Abdul Aziz Univ. Osama bin Laden was one of his students.
    (WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A18)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)(Sm, 2/06, p.100)

1967        June 2, Three bombs, one a car bomb, went off in the Saudi seaport town of Jidda. One outside the US Embassy, one at Grove Int'l, an American construction comp., and one at the US Military Training Mission.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-7)

1967        Jun 6, An Arab oil embargo began one day after the beginning of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, with a joint Arab decision to deter any countries from supporting Israel militarily.

1967        Sep 3, Muhammad Bin Laden, a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia, died in a plane crash. He left King Faisal in charge of his ~50 children.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_bin_Laden)

1969        Sep 25, The 57-member Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) was founded with headquarters in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

1970        Saudi Arabia’s capital of Riyadh was home to some 300,000 people. By 2014 the city grew to some 50 miles across and numbered some 5 million people.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.76)

1972        Kamal Helbawy, a London-based Egyptian and speaker on behalf of the Muslim Brotherhood, was invited to Saudi Arabia to set up the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY).
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)

1973        Oct 17, Arab oil-producing nations announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan; the result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(AP, 10/17/97)

1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1973        The Saudi Arabian government acquired a 25% stake in Aramco, following US support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. It increased its shareholding to 60% by 1974, and finally took full control of Aramco by 1980 by acquiring a 100% percent stake in the company.

1975        Mar 25, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June.
    (AP, 3/25/00)

1963        Prince Fahd became Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1975        Mar 25, King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (68) of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June. In 2008 Joseph A. Kechichian authored “Faisal: Saudi Arabia’s King for All Seasons." In 2013 Alexei Vassiliev authored “King Faisal of Saudi Arabia: Personality, Faith and Times." (AP, 3/25/00)(Econ, 10/04/08, p.92)(Econ, 1/26/12, p.74)

1975        Jun 18, Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz, Saudi prince, was beheaded in a Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.

1975        Dec 21, There was a terrorist kidnapping of Saudi oil minister Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani and other ministers at the OPEC gathering in Vienna, Austria. Three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama. Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, later admitted to planning the attack. In 2001 Germany sentenced Hans-Joachim Klein to 9 years for his role in the attack. Klein had accused Sonja Suder of recruiting him to take part in the bloody Vienna siege. In 2013 Suder was acquitted of having helped Carlos in the OPEC attack. She was found guilty of having aided in three non-deadly explosives and arson attacks in Germany in the late 1970s. 
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.B-1)(SFC, 12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 2/16/01, p.D2)(AFP, 11/12/13)

1975        Saudi Arabia began nationalizing foreign oil assets with full compensation.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)
1975        Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since.

1975-1982     King Khaled ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1977        Feb 24, Pres. Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations. The unstated reason was the US desire to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to lure Somalia from the Soviet camp, an effort which was ultimately successful.

1977        Prince Turki al-Faisal was promoted to head of the General Intelligence Directorate. He resigned in 2001.
    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

1978        Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)

1979        Apr 4, Bechtel Corp. announced that it had won a contract to manage construction of a 115-square-mile airport for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cost was estimated a $3 billion.
    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.F3)

1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1979        May 20, Helen Smith (b.1956), a British nurse, died after reportedly fall from a balcony in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The bodies of Helen and Johannes Otten (35), a Dutch tugboat captain, were found in the street 70 feet below a sixth floor balcony. Helen was found lying in the road fully clothed and Johannes, whose underpants were around his thighs, was impaled upon the spiked railings surrounding the apartment block. Helen’s father, Ron Smith, did not allow her burial because he did not believe official Saudi and British reports that the death was an accident. He believed his daughter was murdered and that her body could provide forensic evidence to expose a cover up. In 2009 Smith and his exwife decided to cremate their daughter before they both died.
    (AP, 11/9/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Smith_%28nurse%29)

1979        Nov 20, Some 200 armed men and women, Mahadiists, seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They denounced the monarchy and demanded an end to corrupting modernization and "foreign ways." Saudi preacher Juhayman al Uteybi (Juhayman al-Otaibi) led the radicals. French special forces shot dead all the Wahhabi extremists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Siege_of_Mecca)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)(WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1979        Dec 4, In Saudi Arabia security forces overran the Grand Mosque in Mecca, which had been seized on Nov 16. One of two African-American converts, who had participated in the takeover of the mosque, was killed. The other was later released and returned to the US. In 2007 Yaroslav Trofinov authored “The Siege of Mecca."
    (WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1979        Saudi Arabia handed more power to the religious police following the Nov 20 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.41)
1979        Osama bin Laden left Saudi Arabia to fight against the Soviets in Afghanistan, where he laid the groundwork for his al-Qaeda network.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)

1980        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia beheaded 63 people in towns across the country for their roles in the November 1979 raid on the Grand Mosque in Mecca.
    (AP, 1/9/00)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)

1980        Aug 19, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency landing at the Riyadh airport.
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1980        Saudi Arabia completed the buy-out of the American-owned Aramco coil company.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.63)

1981        Apr 21, Pres. Reagan called for support for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. The proposed AWACS sale was just the beginning of a secret $50 billion plan to build surrogate military bases in Saudi Arabia.

1981        May 25, Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004), United Arab Emirates President, urged in 5 other Arab monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Riyadh.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Cooperation_Council)

1981        Oct 28, The US Senate voted for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a 2nd major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/98qre)(SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)

1981        Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia proposed an 8-point peace plan to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. It was adopted by the Arab League after some controversy.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)

1982        Jun 13, King Khalid of Saudi Arabia died at the age of 69; he was succeeded by a half brother, Crown Prince Fahd.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(AP, 6/13/02)   

1982        Adnan Khashoggi, an arms dealer from Saudi Arabia, settled divorce proceedings with his wife Soraya for $950 million plus property.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.E6)

1983        Nov 25, Syria and Saudi Arabia announced a cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli.

1983        In Saudi Arabia the King Khalid Int'l. Airport opened in Riyadh and was touted as the largest in the world. One of the terminals was mothballed at opening and remained so in 2008.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A1)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.15)

1983        Sulaiman Al Rajhi and his brother Saleh won permission to open Saudi Arabia’s first Islamic bank. They had begun changing money for traders and pilgrims in the 1940s. In 2007 Sulaiman Al Rajhi’s fortune was estimated at $12 billion and the Al-Rajhi Bank was the largest Islamic bank in Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A1)

1983-2005    Prince Bandar bin Sultan served as Saudi Arabia’s ambassador in Washington. In 2006 William Simpson authored “The Prince: The Secret Story of the World’s Most Intriguing Royal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan."
    (www.saudiembassy.net/Country/Government/BandarBio.asp)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.86)

1984        Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAR) agreed on the creation of a two-brigade (10,000 troops) Peninsula Shield Force, based in Saudi Arabia near the Kuwaiti and Iraqi borders.

1985        Sep 26, The defence ministers of the UK and Saudi Arabia sign a Memorandum of Understanding in London for 48 Tornado IDSs, 24 Tornado ADVs, 30 Hawk training aircraft, 30 Pilatus PC-9 trainers, a range of weapons, radar, spares and a pilot-training program. British Aerospace, later known  as BAE Systems, a London-based defense firm, closed its first “al-Yamaha" arms deal with Saudi Arabia, saving the firm in a difficult business environment.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Yamamah_arms_deal)(Econ, 11/12/16, p.59)

1985        Sep, Saudi Arabia announced a quadrupling of oil production. This led to a collapse in oil prices and helped contribute to the collapse of the Soviet Union five years later.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1985        Britain under PM Thatcher signed an $80 billion contract with Saudi Arabia to provide 120 fighter jets and other military equipment over a period of 20 years. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to the US, helped negotiate the deal.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)

1986        Apr 1, World oil prices dipped below $10 a barrel.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1987        Jul 31, Iranian pilgrims and riot police clashed in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government blamed Iranians for the resulting 402 deaths.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(AP, 2/1/04)

1987        Aug 1, Iranians attacked the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti embassies in Tehran as word spread of rioting in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a day earlier that claimed some 400 lives, most of them Iranian pilgrims.
    (AP, 8/1/97)

1987        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia denounced Iran's government as a "group of terrorists," and said its forces would deal firmly with any Iranian attempts to attack the Saudis' Muslim holy places or vast oil fields.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1988        Saudi-born Osama bin Laden founded al Qaida (the base), a Sunni fundamentalist operational hub for terrorist activities. The organization’s intent was to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout the world.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)

1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.

1989        Jul 9, Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim, wounding 16. Saudi authorities blame Iranian-inspired terrorists and later beheaded 16 Kuwaiti Shiite Muslims for bombings. Iran denied involvement.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

1989        Rafik Hariri financed a gathering of Lebanese politicians at the Saudi city of Taif to hammer out a deal to disband militias and distribute power more equitably. The Taif Agreement maintained sectarian divisions in government and led to the end of the civil war. It stipulated that Syria withdraw its troops to the border and leave within 2 years.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A13)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.43)

1989        The $140 million King Fahd Cultural Center was completed on the outskirts of Riyadh. It has never been opened to the public and was maintained by a fulltime staff of 180 people.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)

1990        Jul 2, Some 1402 Muslim pilgrims were killed in a stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leading to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It was worst hajj tragedy of modern times.
    (AP, 7/2/00)(AP, 2/1/04)

1990        Aug 7, President Bush ordered U.S. troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. Operation Desert Shield ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded.
    (AP, 8/7/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(MC, 8/7/02)

1990        Aug 8, As the Persian Gulf crisis deepened, American forces began taking up positions in Saudi Arabia; Iraq announced it had annexed Kuwait as its 19th province; President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that "a line has been drawn in the sand."
    (AP, 8/8/00)(MC, 8/8/02)

1990        Aug 11, Egyptian and Moroccan troops arrived in Saudi Arabia to join US forces in helping to protect the desert kingdom from possible Iraqi attack.
    (AP, 8/11/00)

1990        Aug, 540,000 American troops assembled to drive Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A22)

1990        Sep 22, Saudi Arabia expelled most of the Yemeni and Jordanian envoys in Riyadh, accusing them of unspecified "activities jeopardizing the peace and security of the kingdom."
    (AP, 9/22/00)

1990        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia a group of women got into cars and drove the streets of Riyadh in defiance of a government ban. The protest, which made headlines around the world, cost the 47 female drivers and passengers dearly. They were arrested, lost their jobs for 2 1/2 years, were banned from travel for a year and were condemned by the powerful clergy as harlots. The led interior minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz to ban women from driving.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 6/16/12)

1990        Nov 21, President Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia, where he conferred with Saudi King Fahd and Kuwait's exiled emir.
    (AP, 11/21/00)

1990        Yemen’s refusal to endorse military action against Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait so annoyed the governments of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait that they expelled a million Yemeni migrant workers, costing the country huge sums in remittances.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.45)

1991        Jan 17, On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, US-led forces hammered Iraqi targets in an effort to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. A defiant Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared that the "mother of all battles" had begun. Iraq attacked Israel with ten Scud missiles. The US Patriot defense missile was used in battle for the first time to shoot down a Scud fired at Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 1/17/01)

1991        Jan 22, During the Gulf War, Iraq fired six Scud missiles into Saudi Arabia; all were either intercepted, or fell into unpopulated areas. However, in Tel Aviv, a Scud eluded the Patriot missile defense system and struck the city, resulting in three deaths.
    (AP, 1/22/01)

1991        Jan 24, A brief skirmish occurred high above the Persian Gulf as a Saudi warplane shot down two Iraqi jets.
    (AP, 1/24/01)

1991        Jan 29, Iraqi forces attacked into Saudi Arabian town of Kafji, but were turned back by Coalition forces.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1991        Jan 30, The first major ground battle of the Gulf War was fought at the frontier port of Khafji in Saudi Arabia; eleven US Marines were killed, seven of them by "friendly fire."
    (AP, 1/30/01)

1991        Jan 31, During the Gulf War, Army Specialist Melissa Rathbun-Nealy and Army Specialist David Lockett were captured by Iraqi forces near the Kuwaiti-Saudi border; both were eventually released. Allied forces claimed victory against Iraqi attackers at Khafji, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 1/31/01)

1991        Feb 23, French forces unofficially started the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. Lessons learned in the savage 1972 Eastertide Offensive paid off at the Battle of Khafji in the Gulf War almost two decades later.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1991        Feb 25, During the Persian Gulf War, 28 Americans were killed when an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 2/25/98)

1991        Mar 24, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.
    (AP, 3/24/01)

1991        Apr 29, US troops continued airlifting Iraqi refugees from a camp in southern Iraq to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/29/01)

1991        Jul 11, A Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, int'l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1991        Khalid bin Sultan was the commander of the Saudi military forces during the Gulf war. He later became the principal owner of Al-Hayat, an Arabic language daily published in London.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)

1991        A Saudi businessman started the 1st independent Arabic news and entertainment channel, the London-based Middle East Broadcasting Co.
    (WSJ, 10/25/00, p.A17)

1992        Sep 11, President Bush announced he was approving the sale of 72 F-15 jet fighters to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/11/97)

1992        In Saudi Arabia King Fahd decreed a basic law that for the 1st time outlined an institutional structure for the country. A law was passed that allowed the king to name any of his brothers or nephews as a successor, and to replace him at will.
    (WSJ, 9/25/02, p.A11)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1992        A team of investigators announced the discovery of he long lost Arabian city of Ubar, which had disappeared around the early 6th century. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands" (1999).
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)

1993        Saudi wheat production, part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

1994        May 23, Some 270 pilgrims, most of them Indonesian, were killed in a stampede in Mecca as worshippers surge toward cavern for symbolic ritual of "stoning the devil."
    (AP, 2/1/04)

1994        The Saudis chose AT&T for a $4 billion telecommunications project.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)

1994        The Saudi family of Osama bin Laden disowned him. The Binladin Group later invested with the Washington-based Carlyle Group, which also employed George Bush Sr.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)
1994        In Saudi Arabia Osama Bin Laden, the scion of a wealthy Saudi family, was stripped of his Saudi citizenship. He financed a host of hardline groups from Egypt to Algeria. His fortune was estimated at $250 mil.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, p.A10,12)
1994        Safar al-Hawaly and Salman al-Awdeh, religious militants and critics of the government, were jailed.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C3)

1994-1996    The BBC ran an Arabic language satellite TV service from a Saudi-backed company called Orbit. It ended after Saudi’s objected to the BBC’s programming.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.57)

1995        Nov 13, A car bomb killed 7 people, including five Americans, and injured about 60 at a military training facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T5)(AP, 11/13/00)

1995        Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdel-Aziz has been in charge of the 80,000 man national guard since the early 60's.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)

1995        A record 192 people were beheaded.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A10)

1996        May 31, Four Saudi citizens were beheaded for the bombing of a US facility last Nov 13. The explosion shattered the Saudi Arabian National Guard training center, and killed 5 Americans and 2 Indians. [the date doesn't seem to jive]
    (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A12)

1996        May, Osama bin Laden was driven out of Sudan under pressure from the Clinton administration. His horse, “Swift Like the Wind," was left behind. He had lived there for some years running a construction company and allegedly recruiting and training terrorists. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a Saudi Arabian-backed jihadist leader, invited bin Laden back to Afghanistan and bin Laden returned.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W4)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.40)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)

1996        Jun 4, The Saudi debt load is already equal to about  $100 bil.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1996        Jun 25, At least 19 Americans were killed at a US base near Dhahran. Another 105 suffered serious injuries from a truck bomb estimated at 5,000 pounds at the Khobar Towers apartment complex adjacent to King Abdul Aziz Air Base. About 5,000 US troops served in Saudi Arabia. US, French and British aircraft resumed flying 100 missions per day over southern Iraq from Saudi Arabia. In 1997 intelligence information tied a senior Iranian intelligence officer to Hani Abd Rahim Sayegh, a man who fled Saudi Arabia shortly after the bombing. In 1999 the US threatened was set to deport Hani al-Sayegh to Saudi Arabia. Sayegh feared torture and asked for US asylum. Sayegh was deported Oct 10. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 13 Saudis and one Lebanese man were indicted for the bombing that killed 19 American airmen and wounded nearly 400 others. In 2006 a US judge ruled that Iran financed the bombing and owes families of those killed $254 million.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A22)(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A10)(SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/23/06, p.A1)
1996        Jun 25, Later reports said that Osama bin Laden, an exiled Saudi billionaire, bankrolled the bombing of the US base that killed 19 US servicemen. He was an advocate of strict Islamic rule and had said that he would campaign to overthrow the Saudi royal family. He had lived in the Sudan for 5 1/2 years and recently moved to Afghanistan and was accepted by the Taliban. In 1998 a senior Saudi official absolved Iran of any involvement in the bombing. In 2000 it was reported that the Bin Laden family firm was awarded the contract to rebuild the Khobar Towers.
    (SFC, 3/7/97, p.A17)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)

1996        Dec, Yvonne Gilford (55), an Australian nurse, was stabbed and bludgeoned to death at the King Fahd Military Medical Center in Dammam. Two other nurses, Deborah Parry (38) and Lucille McLaughlan (30) were accused of the murder. Their sentences were commuted and the accused nurses were released May 20, 1998. McLaughlan faced charges in Scotland of stealing $2,800 from a dying AIDS patient in 1996 before leaving for Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A14)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A19)

1996        Dec, Abdul-Karim Naqshabandi, a foreign worker, was executed after refusing to falsely testify against another employer. His employer, a nephew of the king, demanded his death on false charges of witchcraft.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A15)

1996        Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd (1921-2005) ceded power to his half-brother, Crown Prince Abdullah, who is considered to be more of a traditionalist. King Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke in 1995 and Crown Prince Abdullah acted as de facto regent.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahd_of_Saudi_Arabia)(WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-1)
1996        Saudi Arabia kicked out the BBC’s Arabic language satellite TV service from the Saudi-backed company called Orbit following Saudi objections to the BBC’s programming. Dozens of journalists out of a job were soon hired by newly-formed Qatar-based Al-Jazeera.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.57)
1996        The United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan recognized the Taliban after they seized the Afghan capital Kabul. All three countries cut ties with the Taliban after it sheltered al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the US.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

1997        Mar 2, Saudi Arab billionaire Prince al-Waleed bin Talal acquired 5% of Apple.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1997        Apr 15, In Saudi Arabia at least 343 Muslim pilgrims died in a fire on a plain outside the holy city of Mecca and injured 1290. The fires stemmed from cooking gas canisters. Aid workers and diplomats said the death toll was at least 500.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/15/98)(AP, 2/1/04)

1997        Dec 18, It was reported the Prince Alwaleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud was building a 984-foot structure called "The Kingdom Centre" in central Riyadh at a cost of $427 million.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A1)

1998        Mar, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico began talking to reduce oil output. They pledged to take 2-3% of the world's oil production off the market in what came to be called the Riyadh Pact.
    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 9, In Saudi Arabia it was reported that 2.3 million Muslims made the pilgrimage, hajj, to Mecca this year. Over 150 pilgrims died at the "stoning of the devil" ritual during a stampede that occurred on the last day of the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)(AP, 4/9/08)

1998        Jun 4, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela agreed to cuts in oil production and exports for the 2nd time this year in order to raise prices.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A2)

1998        Jun, Prince Turki al Faisal of Saudi Arabia, chief of Saudi intelligence, negotiated with the Taliban in Kandahar for the ouster or custody for trial in Saudi Arabia of Osama bin Laden. Negotiations broke down after the Aug 7 US embassy bombings in Africa.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A15)

1998        Jul 20, Saudi Arabia attacked a Yemeni island in the Red Sea and killed 3 guards. 3 islands and parts of the Empty Quarter, a vast desert with potential for oil, were under contention.
    (SFEC, 7/21/98, p.A7)

1998        Saudi Arabia, in response to a massive outbreak of rift-valley fever, imposed a trade ban to prevent nomadic herders from selling sheep and goats for sacrifice during the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. The government opted to buy more expensive Australian livestock instead.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.80)

1998        The Saudi population was about 12 million. In 2006 it reached 23 million. The forecast for 2020 was 33 million.
    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.12)

1999        Mar 19, Saudi Arabia permitted some 18,000 destitute Iraqis to cross the border for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 27, It was reported that Saudi Arabia had recently opened its borders to upscale travel groups.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)

1999        Aug 21, Prince Faisal bin Fahd, the eldest son of King Fahd, died of a heart attack at age 54. He headed the Arab Sports Federation and had just returned from the Arab Games in Jordan.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.D5)

1999        Nov 27, Yemeni military sources reported that 2 Yemeni soldiers had been killed over the last few days in border clashes with Saudi Arabia.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A26)

1999        Dec 9, The first day of Ramadan. In Saudi Arabia a young man was scheduled to be beheaded by this day unless the family of a man he killed, while performing the mizmar dance, receive some $1.3 million in blood money.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A13)

1999        Anthony Cave Brown published "Oil, God, and Gold: The Story of Aramco and the Saudi Kings."
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)

1999        Saudi police arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal and jailed him for 14 months for maintaining contact with Osama bin Laden. He was then deported to Yemen.
    (SFC, 11/26/03, p.A10)

2000        Jun 12, Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed an agreement to end decades of border disputes.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A11)

2000        Oct 14, A Saudi jetliner was hijacked with over 100 people and landed in Baghdad. 2 hijackers were arrested.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A10)

2000        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia opened its border with Iraq and signed export contracts to nearly $600 million under exceptions to US sanctions.
    (WSJ, 11/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 17, A car bomb in Riyadh killed Christopher Rodway, a British technician. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)

2000        Nov 22, In Riyadh an explosion hit a car and injured 3 British citizens. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.
    (SFC, 11/24/00, p.D8)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)
2000        Nov 22, Yemen identified the bombers of the USS Cole as 2 Saudi Arabian citizens with Yemeni family roots. One was named Abdul Mohsen al-Taifi and both had suspected ties to Osama bin Laden.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A22)

2000        Dec 31, Six Persian Gulf nations (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) signed a regional defense pact.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Jan 26, A UN panel criticized Saudi Arabia for discriminating against women, harassing minors and for punishments that included flogging and stoning.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.C16)

2001        Jan, Abdulaziz al-Kohaji, engineering student and son of a Saudi oilman, went missing from the Community College of Denver. His body was found in a landfill in Erie, 15 miles north of Denver, a month later and police said he had been taped to a chair and strangled before being thrown into a trash bin. Mishal al-Suwaidi, Tariq al-Dossary and al-Yousif, suspects in the murder, were acquaintances of al-Kohaji and prosecutors said the motive was robbery. Suwaidi and Dossary fled to Saudi Arabia. Yousif was convicted in the US and sentenced to life. In 2004 the family of Kohaji pardoned the Suwaidi and Dossary and save them from execution.
    (AP, 1/2/05)

2001        Mar 4, Muslim pilgrims climbed Mount Arafat as some 2 million gathered for the annual hajj to Mecca.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 5, Muslim pilgrims began the stoning of the three pillars symbolizing the devil as part of the annual hajj to Mecca. 35 people suffocated to death during the stoning of the devil ritual.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 3/6/01, p.A11)

2001        Mar 15, Chechen rebels hijacked a Russian plane with 174 people after it left Turkey. They forced a landing in Medina.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 16, Saudi commandos freed over 100 hijacked hostages held by Chechen rebels. 3 people were killed including a hijacker, a flight attendant and a passenger.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 25, The Higher Committee for Scientific Research and Islamic Law claimed that Pokemon games and cards have "possessed the minds" of Saudi children.
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.F2)

2001        Apr 16, Iran and Saudi Arabia signed a pact to fight terrorism and drug trafficking.
    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)

2001        Aug 4, In Florida an immigration official turned back Muhammed al-Kahtani (al-Qahtani), a Saudi who had flown in from London with $2,800 in cash and no return ticket. He was later captured in Afghanistan and detained at Guantanamo after officials suspected that he was the intended 20th hijacker for the Nov 11 attacks. In 2008 the Pentagon dropped charges against al-Qahtani.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.39)(AP, 5/13/08)

2001        Aug 31, Prince Turki al-Faisal resigned as head of the General Intelligence Directorate and Prince Nawwaf took over.
    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

2001        Sep 13, A private Lear jet with 3 Saudi passengers flew from Tampa, Fla., to Lexington, Ky., as part of an effort to help prominent Saudis, who feared reprisals over the Sep 11 attack by al-Qaida in NYC.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)

2001        Sep 14-24, Six chartered flights carrying mostly Saudi nationals departed from the US. [see Sep 20]
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)

2001        Sep 20, A chartered flight left the US with members of the sprawling bin Laden family. The FBI interviewed 22 of the 26 people aboard.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)

2001        Sep 23, The 6-member Persian "Gulf Cooperation Council" (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE) met in Jidda and pledged support for an int’l. coalition against terrorism.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 25, Saudi Arabia withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Afghan Taliban government.
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 6, A bomb exploded in Khobar. 2 people were killed and 4 were injured.
    (SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A17)

2001        Oct 15, It was reported that Sheik Hamoud bin Uqlaa al-Shuaibi (80), a militant Wahhabi, called on Muslims to wage jihad on supporters of the US military action in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A12)

2001        Oct 31, The Bush administration said the Saudi government has issued an order to freeze assets of people and groups suspected of links to terrorism.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A5)

2001        At Washington’s request the UN Security Council ordered that the assets of Yassin Qadi, a Saudi businessman and multimillionaire, be frozen soon after the Sep 11 attacks in NYC. He was alleged to be a financier of Islamic terrorism with close links to al-Qaida. The EU froze the assets of Yasin al-Qadi, a Saudi businessman, and the Al-Barakaat International Foundation, a Sweden-based charity suspected of funding al-Qaida terror groups. In 2008 the EU's highest court overturned the decision saying the order failed to offer those on a terror blacklist any legal rights to a judicial review under European law. Also frozen were the assets of Omar Mohammed Othman, also known as Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher from Jordan. In 2009 an EU court voided the freeze on Othman due to lack of proper judicial review. Othman has lived in Britain since 1993, has been arrested several times there under anti-terrorist legislation and currently faced deportation to Jordan.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/3/08)(AP, 6/11/09)

2002        Jan 4, A WSJ editorial by former US Army officer Ralph Peters blamed Saudi Arabia as the source of fundamentalist terrorism. "We must be prepared to seize the Saudi oil fields and administer them for the greater good."
    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan 13, Muslim scholars concluded a 6-day conference in Mecca and issued a definition of terrorism as: "all acts of aggression committed by individuals, groups or states against human beings, including attacks on their religion, life, intellect or property.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan, Saudi Arabia began the demolition of the 222-year-old Al Ajyad Ottoman fortress on Bulbul Mountain in Mecca. A $120 million hotel complex was planned. The demolition angered Turkey and destruction was halted.
    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A9)

2002        Feb 17, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah presented a Middle East peace plan to NY Times columnist Thomas Friedman. It included Arab recognition of Israel's right to exist if Israel pulled back from lands that were once part of Jordan, including East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 19, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims gathered in Mecca for the annual hajj.
    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A11)

2002        Mar 7, Doctors in Saudi Arabia reported that the world's 1st uterus transplant lasted 99 days before it began to deteriorate.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Mar, A fire at a girl's school in Mecca killed 15 students.
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 4, The UN released $995 million in compensation to Kuwait for Iraq's 1990 invasion. Most went to 1,058 individuals. Saudi Arabia received $82.6 million and Jordan got $44.9.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A12)

2002        Apr 13, Ghazi Algosaibi, Saudi ambassador to Britain, published a poem in the Saudi daily Al Hayat  titled "The Martyrs," in praise of Ayat Akhras, the Mar 29 Palestinian suicide bomber.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 20, It was reported that recent flash flooding from torrential spring rains had killed at least 19 people.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A24)

2002        Apr 25, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, who told him bluntly that the US must temper its support of Israel. Abdullah gave Bush an 8-point proposal for Middle East peace.
    (SFC, 4/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr, The Saudi government cracked down on factories producing women's cloaks that violated religious rules.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.A16)

2002        May, Saudi diplomats clashed with the UN Committee Against Torture over whether flogging and the amputation of limbs are violations of the 1987 Convention Against Torture.
    (SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A18)

2002        Jun 11, Moroccan police arrested three Saudi nationals who were allegedly planning attacks against U.S. and British war ships in the Strait of Gibraltar. They were identified as: Hilal Jaber al-Assiri, Abdellah Ali al-Ghamdi and Zuher al-Tbaiti.
    (AP, 6/11/02)

2002        Jun 13, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Prince Saud al-Faisal and indicated that he would support the creation of a Palestinian state.
    (SFC, 6/14/02, p.15)

2002        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia announced its first al-Qaida-related arrests since Sept. 11 and said it was holding 11 Saudis, an Iraqi and a Sudanese man behind a plot to shoot down a U.S. military plane taking off from a Saudi air base.
    (Reuters, 6/18/02)(AP, 6/18/02)

2002        Jun 20, In Saudi Arabia John Veness, a British employee at Al Bank al Saudi al Fransi, was killed in a car bomb explosion in Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 6/21/02, p.A7)

2002        Jun, Iran transferred 16 al Qaeda suspects to Saudi Arabia.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A13)

2002        Jul 19,  In Saudi Arabia a passenger bus collided head on with a truck and caught fire outside the holy city of Mecca, killing 26 people and injuring 24 others. 
    (AP, 7/21/02)

2002        Jul 22, Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz (43), the genial Saudi prince who dominated racing the last two years with Kentucky Derby winner War Emblem and 2001 horse of the year Point Given, died.
    (AP, 7/23/02)

2002        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia's Foreign Minister Prince Saud said his country had made it clear to Washington, publicly and privately, that the U.S. military will not be allowed to use the kingdom's soil in any way for an attack on Iraq. Saud said the longtime U.S. ally does not plan to expel American forces from an air base used for flights to monitor Iraq.
    (AP, 8/7/02)(AP, 8/8/02)

2002        Aug 13, The minaret at the Imam Ali al Uraidh Islamic shrine complex in Medina was demolished with dynamite.
    (WSJ, 8/18/04, p.A1)

2002        Aug 27, Pres. Bush met with Prince Bandar bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia, who said war with Iraq was not acceptable and that Saudi Arabia would not cooperate.
    (SFC, 8/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 6, US officials reported that the assets of Wa'el Hamza Julaidan, alleged al Qaeda financier, had been frozen, and that he had been located in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A8)

2002        Sep 29, A Saudi prince signed deals worth $330 million to export Sudanese livestock and build a five-star hotel in Sudan's capital.
    (AP, 9/29/02)

2002        Nov 3, Saudi Arabia said it would not permit bases on its soil in an attack against Iraq and would not grant flyover rights to US military planes even if the UN sanctions an invasion. Prince Saud later said a final decision had not been made.
    (SFC, 11/4/02, p.A3)(SFC, 11/5/02, p.A7)

2002        Dec 10, Saudi dissidents reported a new radio station, Sawt al-Islah (the Voice of Reform), had started broadcasting from Europe to push for reforms.
    (SFC, 12/11/02, p.A14)

2002        Dec 12, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by as much as 7%, well ahead of a seasonal decline.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.B1)

2003        Feb 8, Nearly 2 million Muslims converged on Mecca for the annual pilgrimage. Some of the faithful offered prayers to avert a U.S.-led war on Iraq.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

2003        Feb 11, In Mina, Saudi Arabia, 14 Muslim pilgrims were trampled to death when some worshippers tripped amid a jostling crowd during the devil-stoning ritual of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 2/11/03)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)

2003          Feb 18, Saudi Arabia said it has referred 90 Saudis to trial for alleged al Qaeda links. Another 250 were reported under investigation.
    (SFC, 2/19/03, A10)

2003          Feb 20, In Saudi Arabia a British defense worker was killed by Saud bin Ali bin Nasser, a Saudi citizen.
    (SFC, 2/21/03, A1)

2003        Mar 25, Saudi Arabia contacted the United States and Iraq with a peace proposal and was still awaiting a response.
    (AP, 3/25/03)

2003        Apr 28, The US moved an air operation center from Saudi Arabia to Qatar.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2003        Apr 29, The US said it would withdraw all combat forces from Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/29/03, A14)

2003        May 6, Saudi authorities seized a weapons cache and foiled plans by suspected terrorists. At least 19 men were sought.
    (SFC, 5/8/03, p.A1)

2003        May 12, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, multiple, simultaneous suicide car bombings at 3 foreign compounds killed 26 people, including 9 US citizens. The next day Saudi authorities linked Khaled Jehani (29) head of a 19-member al-Qaida team to the carnage. Ali Abd al-Rahman al-Faqasi al-Ghamdi, a senior al Qaeda figure, surrendered Jun 26. On Jan 8, 2004, 8 accomplices were arrested in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/14/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/27/03, p.A16)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)(AP, 5/12/08)

2003        Jun 7, The Saudi interior minister linked last month's Riyadh bombings to the al-Qaida terror network in an interview, and his ministry identified 12 of the attackers.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Jun 15, The Saudi government said it foiled "an imminent terrorist" attack with an overnight raid on a bomb-filled, booby-trapped apartment in the holy city of Mecca that left five suspects and two security agents dead.
    (AP, 6/15/03)

2003        Jun, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (22), a US citizen, was arrested in Medina as Saudi authorities were investigating a wave of bombings. He was convicted in 2005 in a Virginia federal court of conspiring with Al-Qaida. In 2008 a federal appeals court upheld the conviction, but ordered a new sentencing hearing. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill Pres. George W. Bush.
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.A14)(SFC, 6/7/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/28/09, p.A5)

2003        Jul 3, In Suweir, Saudi Arabia, Turki Nasser al-Dandani, the top suspect wanted in the May 12 Riyadh suicide bombing, was killed along with three other militants in a gunbattle when police raided their hideout.
    (AP, 7/3/03)

2003        Jul 21, The Saudi government announced that police arrested 16 al-Qaida-linked terror suspects over the last 4 days and used tractors to dig up an underground arsenal: 20 tons of bomb-making chemicals, detonators, rocket-propelled grenades and rifles.
    (AP, 7/22/03)

2003        Jul 28, In Saudi Arabia 6 suspected militants were killed in a firefight with Saudi police, who raided a farm where they were hiding out. Two police also were killed.
    (AP, 7/28/03)

2003        Aug 10, Saudi police arrested 10 suspected Muslim militants following a gunfight after police tried to stop their cars outside Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 8/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 11, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah flew to Morocco for talks with King Mohammed VI about Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 8/11/03)

2003        Aug 15, Saudi police arrested at least 11 suspected militants and seized a large weapons cache in southern Jazan province that included rockets and explosive chemicals.
    (AP, 8/16/03)
2003        Aug 16, Former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, blamed for the murder of tens of thousands of his people in the 1970s, died in a Saudi hospital where he had been critically ill for weeks.
    (AP, 8/16/03)

2003        Sep 2, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdullah met Russia's Pres. Putin on the first visit to post-Soviet Russia by a Saudi leader, aimed at coordinating oil exports and soothing Russian concerns about alleged funding of Chechen rebels by Saudi charities.
    (AP, 9/2/03)

2003        Sep 14, A Saudi importer of  some 58,000 Australian sheep was reported to be trying to give them away for free. The sheep had  been stranded for five weeks on the ship, the Cormo Express, due to a 6% infection rate for scabby mouth disease. Australia in 2002 had imposed tougher rules on ships exporting livestock to the Persian Gulf after it was revealed that 14,500 sheep had died from heat stress in one month. Some 5,700 sheep aboard the Cormo Express died before Eritrea accepted the animals.
    (AP, 9/14/03)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)
2003        Sep 14, Dhaher bin Thamer al-Shimry, a Saudi marijuana trafficker, was beheaded, bringing the number of beheadings in the kingdom this year to 41.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

2003        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia a fire that swept through el-Haer prison in Riyadh and 94 were initially reported killed. 67 inmates died in the worst prison fire in Saudi Arabian history.
    (AP, 9/16/03)(AP, 2/16/12)

2003        Sep 23, A raid in Saudi Arabia on Islamic militants left three suspects dead, including Jubran Sultan al-Qahtani (aka as Zubayr al-Rimi), an al-Qaida figure wanted by the US.
    (AP, 9/24/03)

2003        Sep, Abd al-Rahim Al Nashiri, a Saudi national later sent to Guantanamo Bay, was detained and abused in Romania at a secret US prison. His detention continued to Oct. 2005. Romania later denied hosting such CIA facilities.
    (AP, 5/31/18)

2003        Oct 13, The Saudi Cabinet announced that first-ever elections would be held for local councils in 14 municipalities throughout the country.
    (AP, 10/14/03)

2003        Oct 14, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, hundreds took to the streets demanding reforms, the first large-scale protest in this conservative kingdom where demonstrations are illegal.
    (AP, 10/14/03)

2003        Oct 20, Saudi authorities announced the arrests of terrorist suspects and the discovery of large quantities of weapons and ammunition during raids around the kingdom.
    (AP, 10/20/03)

2003        Nov 3, Saudi police battled militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. Police arrested six al-Qaida suspects.
    (AP, 11/3/03)(AP, 11/4/03)

2003        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia 2 suspected militants blew themselves up in Mecca when security forces tried to arrest them. A 3rd was shot to death by police during a raid in Riyadh.
    (AP, 11/6/03)

2003        Nov 8, In Saudi Arabia a suicide car bombing that devastated a Riyadh housing complex, killing 17 people and wounding more than 120. Officials pointed to al-Qaida terrorists as responsible.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A1)(AP, 11/8/04)

2003        Nov 25, Saudi police killed 2 militants and seized a car bomb ready for detonation in post Ramadan celebrations.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 27,  Talal al-Rasheed, a prominent Saudi poet, was shot to death by attackers while on a hunting trip in Algeria.
    (AP, 11/30/03)

2003        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia issued the names and photos of its 26 most wanted terrorist suspects and increased protection around Western housing compounds in the capital.
    (AP, 12/7/03)

2003        Dec 7, Saudi security forces stormed a gas station and killed one of the country's most wanted terrorist suspects and a second militant.
    (AP, 12/8/03)

2003        Rachel Ehrenfeld authored “Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed and How to Stop It." The book sold 23 copies in Britain, over the Internet. She later lost a libel case concerning the book brought in the English High Court of Justice by Saudi businessman Khalid bin Mahfouz, who was awarded ₤100,000 ($160,000).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funding_Evil)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.42)
2003        Dore Gold authored "Hatred's Kingdom: How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism."
    (WSJ, 3/27/03, p.D7)
2003        In Saudi Arabia Ati Bt Abeh Inan, an Indonesian  maid, was accused by her employer of casting a spell on him and his family. She was sentenced to death. In 2014, after 10 years in prison, she was pardoned and sent back to West Java.
    (SSFC, 2/16/14, p.A6)
2003        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 76% gain for the year.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)
2003        The Saudi-owned news channel al-Arabiya was launched from Dubai.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.25)
2003        A CIA report said that the Al-Rajhi Bank in Saudi Arabia had served as a conduit for terrorist transactions since at least the mid-1990s.
    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A10)
2003        Libya planned a covert operation to assassinate Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia according to 2004 testimony by 2 jailed participants.
    (SFC, 6/10/04, A10)
2003        Doctors at St. Vincent Medical Center in LA, Ca., performed a liver transplant on a Saudi citizen, who was 52nd on a transplant list. The Saudi Arabian Embassy paid $339,000 for the operation. In 2005 the hospital suspended its liver program after determining that the 2003 operation was improper.
    (SFC, 9/28/05, p.A7)

2003-2006    In Saudi Arabia a deadly wave of shootings and bombings blamed on Al-Qaeda killed more than 150 Saudis and foreigners.
    (AFP, 8/20/15)

2004        Jan 8, Teams of Swiss police in 5 cantons arrested 8 suspected accomplices in the May 12 al Qaeda car bomb attack in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)

2004        Jan 29, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims from around the world gathered at the start of the annual Hajj.
    (AP, 1/29/04)

2004        Feb 1, In Saudi Arabia 251 Muslim worshipers died in a hajj stampede during the annual stoning of Satan ritual.
    (AP, 2/2/04)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 15, In Saudi Arabia authorities killed Khaled Ali Haj, a Yemeni, and Ibrahim bin Abdul-Aziz bin Mohammed al-Mezeini, a Saudi. Haj, who also uses the name Abu Hazim al-Sha'ir, was the "most dangerous" al-Qaida operative in the region. Haj was third on the government's list of Saudi Arabia's 26 most wanted militants.
    (AP, 3/16/04)

2004        Apr 10, Rania al-Baz, a popular Saudi TV host, was severely beaten by her husband. She suffered 13 facial fractures that required 12 operations. She allowed photos to be broadcast and opened discussions of ongoing violence against women in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.A6)

2004        Apr 13, In Saudi Arabia militants near Unaizah opened fire on a police checkpoint at dawn, killing four police officers and fleeing in security agents' cars.
    (AP, 4/13/04)

2004        Apr 19, Saudi police seized 2 explosives packed SUVs on a highway outside Riyadh. It the 3rd day in a row that such a seizure was announced.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 21, Two car bombs blasted the Saudi security headquarters, killing at least 4 people and wounding 148.
    (AP, 4/21/04)(SFC, 4/22/04, p.A16)

2004        Apr 22, Saudi security forces killed five wanted militants and were pursuing others after shootouts that spread over two days in the port city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2004        May 1, In Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, suspected militants sprayed gunfire inside the offices of Houston-based ABB Ltd., an oil contractor, killing at least six people — including two Americans and three other Westerners — and wounding dozens. Police killed four brothers in a shootout after a car chase in which the attackers reportedly dragged the naked body of one victim behind their getaway car.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(SFC, 5/3/04, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.A1)

2004        May 10, Saudi oil ministers called on OPEC to pump more oil.
    (SFC, 5/11/04, p.A1)

2004        May 20, Four suspected Saudi militants and a policeman were killed in a shootout the Saudi city of Buraida.
    (Reuters, 5/21/04)

2004        May 28, In Saudi Arabia suspected Islamic militants sprayed gunfire inside two oil industry compounds on the Persian Gulf, killing at least 10 people including one American.
    (AP, 5/29/04)(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.A1)

2004        May 29, In Saudi Arabia gunmen shot down security guards and entered 2 office complexes in Khobar searching for and murdering anyone looking western.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.41)

2004        May 30, Saudi commandos stormed the expatriate resort of Khobar to free up to 60 foreign hostages seized by Islamic militant gunmen who had attacked oil industry compounds, killing 22 people. Americans were among those killed and taken captive. 3 suspects escaped.
    (AP, 5/31/04)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, Saudi security forces killed two suspected militants linked to a weekend shooting and hostage-taking.
    (AP, 6/2/04)

2004        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia Simon Cumbers (36), an Irish cameraman working for the BBC, was killed in a shooting in Riyadh. BBC correspondent Frank Gardner was left paralyzed. In 2014 eight men, part of an 86-member terrorist cell, were found guilty of attacks against foreigners that included Cumbers and Gardner
    (SFC, 6/7/04, A8)(AP, 11/18/14)

2004        Jun 8, In Saudi Arabia an American citizen who worked for a US defense contractor was shot and killed in Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/8/04)

2004        Jun 12, In Saudi Arabia an American was kidnapped. An al-Qaida statement, posted on an Islamic Web site, showed a passport-size photo of a brown-haired man and a Lockheed Martin business card bearing the name Paul M. Johnson. Islamic militants shot and killed Kenneth Scroggs of Laconia, New Hampshire, in his garage in Riyadh. In 2014 a court in Riyadh sentenced an Al-Qaeda member to death for the kidnapping and murder of Johnson.
    (AP, 6/13/04)(AP, 6/20/04)(AFP, 8/19/14)

2004        Jun 13, Saudi Arabia held a 3-day “national dialogue" in Medina on how women’s lives could be improved. On Jun 15, recommendations (19) were given to Crown Prince Abdullah.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.26)

2004        Jun 15, A Saudi al Qaeda group threatened to execute Paul M. Johnson Jr. within 72 hours unless fellow jihadists were released were released from prison.
    (SFC, 6/19/04, p.A15)

2004        Jun 18, A Saudi al-Qaida group said it killed American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., posting 3 photos on the Internet showing his body and severed head. Hours later Saudi security forces killed Abdulaziz al-Moqrin (31), a top al-Qaida leader, and 3 other militants in Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/18/04)(AP, 6/19/04)

2004        Jun 23, Saudi Arabia offered Islamic militants a limited amnesty, saying their lives would be spared if they surrendered but they would face the "full might" of state wrath if they did not. Prince Nayef said foreign residents may be allowed to carry guns.
    (AP, 6/23/04)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.A10)

2004        Jun 27, Saudi Arabia dispatched two planeloads of aid to Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 6/27/04)

2004        Jun, The Saudi parliament passed legislation overturning a law banning girls and women from participating in physical education and sports. In August the ministry of education announced that it had no intention of honoring the legislation.
    (SFC, 8/26/04, p.B1)
2004        Jun, Fawaz al-Nashimi (aka Turki bin Fuheid al-Muteiry), an al-Qaida operative, was killed in a gunbattle with Saudi forces. He was involved in the May 29 attack inside two oil industry compounds. In 2006 an al-Qaida statement identified him as the would-be 20th hijacker for the Sep. 11 attacks.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A3)

2004        Jul 1, Saudi security forces traded gunfire with militants in a Riyadh, killing one militant and wounding one. A police officer was killed and two were hurt.
    (AP, 7/2/04)

2004        Jul 12, A Sri Lankan woman was beheaded in the Saudi capital for murdering her employer. Bader el-Nisaa Mibari had been convicted of killing Sara bint Mohammed al-Haqeel, a Saudi woman, after trying to rob her with the help a male companion.
    (AP, 7/12/04)

2004        Jul 13, A confidant of Osama bin Laden (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harby) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

2004        Jul 16, A Saudi transport company said it had pulled out of Iraq to save the life of an Egyptian truck driver taken hostage by kidnappers who demanded the firm leave the country.
    (Reuters, 7/16/04)

2004        Jul 20, In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.
    (AP, 7/21/04)

2004        Jul 29, In Saudi Arabia Colin Powell met with Iraq’s PM Alawi to talk about a Muslim peacekeeping force.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 30, Abdurahman Alamoudi pleaded guilty in a Virginia court to moving cash from Libya and involvement in a plot to assassinate Saudi Prince Abdullah.
    (SFC, 7/31/04, p.A3)

2004        Aug 4, The official Saudi Press reported that municipal elections across Saudi Arabia, the first such polls in decades, have been have been pushed back two months to November.
    (AP, 8/4/04)

2004        Aug 6, Saudi officials reported the capture of Faris Ahmed Jamaan al-Showeel al Zahrani, No. 12 on their list of 26 most wanted terrorism suspects.
    (SFC, 8/7/04, p.A10)

2004        Sep 1, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 people were killed in a stampede to a newly opened Ikea branch.
    (SFC, 9/2/04, p.C2)

2004        Sep 2, In Saudi Arabia one policeman was killed and three others wounded in clashes with militants in a town northeast of Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/3/04)

2004        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia Edward Stuart Muirhead-Smith (55) was killed at the Max shopping center in eastern Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/16/04)

2004        Sep 26, In Saudi Arabia French national Laurent Barbot, a technical assistant for French electronics group Thales, was shot and killed in Jeddah. Chadian militants Isa Barkaj and Isaac Shakila were later convicted of shooting. Both were executed in 2015.
    (AP, 9/26/04)    (AP, 8/20/15)

2004        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia's highest religious authority issued an edict barring the use of cell phones with built-in cameras, blaming them for "spreading obscenity."
    (AP, 9/30/04)

2004        Oct 16, Saudi security forces captured four suspected militants in the Khaleej neighborhood of Riyadh.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

2004        Nov 6, In an open letter to the Iraqi people and posted on the Internet, 26 Saudi scholars and religious preachers stressed that armed attacks launched by militant Iraqi groups on U.S. troops and their allies in Iraq were "legitimate" resistance.
    (AP, 11/6/04)

2004        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdullah launched $8 billion in development projects in Mecca.
    (WSJ, 11/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 16, Saudi police arrested 5 suspected militants in al-Qassim, 220 miles northwest of Riyadh, following a shootout that killed a policeman.
    (AP, 11/17/04)

2004        Nov 27, Saudi security forces killed a suspected militant in the Red Sea city of Jeddah.
    (AP, 11/27/04)

2004        Dec 6, In Saudi Arabia Islamic militants threw explosives at the gate of the heavily guarded US consulate in Jiddah in a bold assault, then forced their way into the building, prompting a gunbattle that left 9 people dead and several injured. In 2005 two AK-47 assault rifles used in the attack were later traced to Yemen’s Ministry of Defense.
    (AP, 10/12/05)(AP, 12/06/05)

2004        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia announced it was withdrawing its ambassador to Libya and ordered out Libya's envoy in response to reports that Tripoli plotted to assassinate the Saudi crown prince.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2004        Dec 28, In Saudi Arabia security forces killed three suspected militants in a raid on their hideout in Riyadh.
    (AP, 12/29/04)

2004        Dec 29, In Saudi Arabia insurgents bombed two security headquarters in Riyadh, setting off violence that left 10 attackers and one bystander dead.
    (AP, 12/30/04)

2004        Carmen bin Ladin authored “Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia." Carmen, the ex-wife of Osama’s older brother Yeslam, grew up in Geneva.
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.D8)
2004        In Saudi Arabia women until this year were legally required to conduct business through a male agent.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.86)
2004        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 85% gain for the year.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)

2005        Jan 1, In Saudi Arabia 2 men, a Pakistani and an Iraqi, were beheaded for smuggling in drugs.
    (AP, 1/1/05)
2005        Jan 1, Saudi Arabia was forecast for 2.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 25.7 million and GDP per head at $4,110.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.94)

2005        Jan 9, Saudi police killed four terrorists believed linked to al-Qaida after the militants fled their desert tent while throwing hand grenades at surrounding forces.
    (AP, 1/9/05)

2005        Jan 13, Saudi judicial officials said a religious court has sentenced 15 Saudis, including a woman, to as many as 250 lashes each and up to six months in prison for participating in a protest against the monarchy.
    (AP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 15, Police and militants fought a gun battle in a small Kuwaiti town near a US military logistics center, leaving one Saudi gunman dead and two policemen wounded.
    (AP, 1/15/05)

2005        Feb 5, The crown prince of Saudi Arabia called for the creation of an international anti-terrorism center to trade information in an effort to prevent attacks.
    (AP, 2/5/05)

2005        Feb 7, A Saudi woman was beheaded after she was convicted of murdering her mother-in-law. Noura bint Khalaf al-Harbi was found guilty of setting her mother-in-law, Noura bint Salem al-Harbi, on fire as she slept following a dispute.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 10, Male voters converged at polling stations in the Riyadh region to participate in city elections, marking the first time Saudis are taking part in a vote that largely conforms to international standards. Women were banned from casting ballots.
    (AP, 2/10/05)
2005        Feb 10, Saudi Arabia confirmed a 2nd case of polio from 2004 and feared pilgrims to Mecca might spread the disease.
    (SFC, 2/11/05, p.A13)

2005        Feb 12, Saudi newspapers said dozens of losing candidates in Saudi Arabia's first regular election will contest results from the opening round of municipal balloting, arguing that conservative religious candidates won unfairly by claiming support from clerics.
    (AP, 2/12/05)

2005        Mar 3, Men in eastern and southern Saudi Arabia turned out in the thousands to vote in municipal elections. They expect to provide their first say in decision-making in this absolute monarchy.
    (AP, 3/3/05)
2005        Mar 3, An Arab League meeting opened in Cairo. An Arab diplomat said Syria has told Arab countries it needs to keep 3,000 troops and early-warning stations inside Lebanon to maintain its security despite international pressure for a full withdrawal. Saudi Arabia told Syria to withdraw its troops.
    (AP, 3/3/05)(SFC, 3/4/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 13, Saudi police killed an alleged Islamic militant and arrested three others in a shootout at a suspected terror cell hideout in the Red Sea city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia beheaded 3 men in public in the northern city of al-Jawf where in 2003 they killed a deputy governor, a religious court judge and a police lieutenant.
    (AP, 4/3/05)
2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index reached a record 10853, up 28% for the year this far.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)

2005        Apr 3, In central Saudi Arabia a gun battle began that left 7 suspected al-Qaida militants killed in a shootout with Saudi security forces in ar-Rass.
    (AP, 4/4/05)

2005        Apr 5, Saudi police killed 2 more militants, bringing the total to 9, as security forces continued a tense standoff in ar-Rass. Among those killed were Moroccan Kareem Altohami al-Mojati and Saudi Saud Homood Obaid al-Otaibi, who were ranked 4 and 7 respectively on Saudi Arabia's list of 26 most wanted al-Qaida-linked terror suspects.
    (AP, 4/5/05)(SFC, 4/5/05, p.A3)

2005        Apr 6, Security forces killed one of Saudi Arabia's most wanted Islamic militants. At least 14 militants were killed over the 4 straight days of shootouts with extremists in different parts of the kingdom.
    (AP, 4/6/05)(SFC, 4/6/05, p.A3)

2005        Apr 21, Saudi authorities extended their limited experiment in democracy to the holiest cities of Islam with elections for some local council seats in Mecca and Medina, in the third and final round of the kingdom's first nationwide vote.
    (AP, 4/21/05)
2005        Apr 21, Islamic militants clashed with Saudi security forces in Islam's holiest city of Mecca and nearby Jiddah, killing two militants and two policemen.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

2005        Apr 25, President Bush sought relief from record-high gas prices and support for Middle East peace as he opened his Texas ranch to Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/25/05)

2005        May 8, In Saudi Arabia a Pakistani man was beheaded for attempting to smuggle heroin into the kingdom.
    (AP, 5/8/05)

2005        May 15, In Saudi Arabia 3 reform advocates were sentenced to terms ranging from six to nine years in prison, prompting a human rights activist to call their trial a "farce."
    (AP, 5/15/05)
2005        May 15, Ali al-Dimeeni (al-Domeini), already jailed more than a year in a Saudi prison outside Riyadh, was sentenced to nine years in prison for sowing dissent, disobeying his rulers and sedition. His 1998 novel "A Gray Cloud," centered on a dissident jailed for years in a desert nation prison where many others have done time for their political views.
    (AP, 5/25/05)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.51)

2005        May 27, King Fahd, Saudi Arabia's monarch for the last 23 years was hospitalized for unspecified tests.
    (AP, 5/28/05)

2005        Jun 15, OPEC agreed to increase its production quota by half a million barrels a day in an effort to cool high crude oil costs that have dampened the global economy.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 16, Board members of the UN atomic watchdog agency approved a deal that exempts Saudi Arabia from nuclear inspections, despite serious misgivings about the arrangement in an era of heightened proliferation fears.
    (AP, 6/16/05)

2005        Jun 18, A senior Saudi police officer was killed in a drive-by shooting in Mecca.
    (AP, 6/19/05)

2005        Jun 21, Saudi security forces killed two suspected terrorists accused of fatally shooting a senior security official outside his home.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Jun 28, Saudi Arabia issued a list of 36 men wanted for acts of terror and called on people to report them to the police.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jul 8, In China Exxon Mobil Corp., Saudi Aramco and top Asian refiner Sinopec signed a $3.5 billion deal to expand a refinery in south China, sealing what they called the country's largest oil project.
    (Reuters, 7/8/05)

2005        Jul 25, Saudi authorities arrested a number of suspected militants in Arar, Medina and Riyadh. Among those arrested Mohammed Saeed Mohammed al-Sayam al-Umari (25) was No. 10 on Saudi list of 36 most wanted terrorists.
    (AP, 8/27/05)   

2005        Aug 1, King Fahd (83), Saudi ruler since 1982, died at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh. He moved Saudi Arabia closer to the US but ruled the nation in name only since suffering a stroke in 1995. His half brother, Crown Prince Abdullah, was named to replace him.
    (AP, 8/1/05)(Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)

2005        Aug 5, VP Dick Cheney, accompanied by former President George H.W. Bush and former Secretary of State Colin Powell, paid respects to new Saudi King Abdullah (81).
    (AP, 8/5/05)(Econ, 8/6/05, p.10)

2005        Aug 8, In Saudi Arabia King Abdullah pardoned 4 prominent activists who were jailed after criticizing the strict religious environment and the slow pace of democratic reform.
    (AP, 8/8/05)

2005        Aug 18, Saleh Mohammed al-Aoofi, Al-Qaida's leader in Saudi Arabia, was killed along with 5 others during clashes with police in the western city of Medina. Majed Hamed Abdullah al-Haasiri (29), who was No. 14 on a list of 36 most wanted terrorists sought for connection to terror attacks in the kingdom dating back to 2003, was killed in a shootout with police in Riyadh.
    (AP, 8/18/05)(AP, 8/27/05)

2005        Aug, Saudi Arabia granted a 15% pay raise to government employees, their 1st pay raise in 22 years.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.11)

2005        Sep 4, Saudi Arabia said it had signed a bilateral free trade agreement with the US.
2005        Sep 4, In eastern Saudi Arabia police fought running gun battles with al-Qaida militants in Dammam in clashes that killed two extremists and a police officer. The militants aimed to attack oil facilities.
    (AP, 9/4/05)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.A1)

2005        Sep 6, Saudi security forces stormed a villa in Dammam where Islamic militants were holed up, ending 3 days of fierce fighting that killed 4 policemen and a number of militants.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 8, The Saudi Interior Ministry said security forces killed five of Saudi Arabia's most-wanted al-Qaida militants in a three-day battle in an eastern city earlier this week and arrested 11 other suspects.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 15, The Saudi government ordered a Jiddah chamber of commerce to allow female voters and candidates.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 21, In Saudi Arabia 2 men were beheaded in Riyadh, after being convicted of kidnapping and raping a woman.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 25, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir met with King Abdullah in the Saudi city of Jeddah to discuss cooperation between their countries and regional developments.
    (AP, 9/25/05)

2005        Sep, The novel “The Girls of Riyadh" by Rajaa al-Sanie (23) was published in Lebanon. Only pirated copies were available in Saudi Arabia. Rajaa Alsanea wrote the novel as a series of anonymous e-mails about the protagonists. In 2007 the book became available in English.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.A29)(WSJ, 6/29/07, p.W2)

2005        Oct 4, A new Syrian TV series began broadcasting around the Middle East. It tells the story of Arabs living in residential compounds in Saudi Arabia and the militant Islamists who want to blow them up so they can collect their rewards in heaven, 72 beautiful virgins.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 19, The International Organization for Migration (IMO) said "Ethiopian women and girls who migrate to Lebanon, Egypt, Yemen and Saudi Arabia suffer from maltreatment, physical, sexual and emotional abuses," in a report based on interviews with 443 women returning from the region.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2005        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia was given a green light to join the World Trade Organization, in time to participate in December's crucial ministerial summit in Hong Kong.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Nov 8, The US State Department issued its 7th annual report to Congress on religious freedom. It cited Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Vietnam as restricting religious freedom.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 11, The World Trade Organization (WTO) approved Saudi Arabia's bid to become the 149th member of the global group, winding up a 12-year negotiating process slowed by the country's participation in the Arab League boycott of Israel.
    (AP, 11/11/05)

2005        Nov 13, Prince Saud al-Faisal, Saudi Arabia's foreign minister, said he is less worried that US policies in Iraq will bring on a civil war there, and pledged anew to contribute $1 billion for rebuilding that war-ravaged country's shattered infrastructure.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

2005        Nov 14, It was reported that a consortium led by Saudi Arabia's Oger Telecom has signed a deal to take a majority stake in state-owned telecommunications company Turk Telekom, sealing Turkey's largest privatization worth 6.55 billion dollars. Oger Telecom, part of the Oger group owned by the family of slain former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri, had won the tender for the 55% stake in July, in partnership with Italian operator Telecom Italia.
    (AFP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 17, Saudi judicial officials said a Saudi high-school chemistry teacher, accused of discussing religion with his students, was sentenced to 750 lashes and 40 months in prison for blasphemy following a trial on Nov 12.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 27, Two women were elected to a chamber of commerce in Jiddah, the first to win any such post in Saudi Arabia, where women are largely barred from political life.
    (AP, 11/30/05)

2005        Dec 6, In Saudi Arabia representatives of Islamic countries met ahead of a two-day summit, with delegates saying the world's largest Islamic organization must reform to face new challenges.
    (AP, 12/06/05)

2005        Dec 8, In Saudi Arabia leaders from more than 50 Muslim countries promised to fight extremist ideology, saying they would reform textbooks, restrict religious edicts and crack down on terror financing.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 27, Saudi police arrested Mohammed Abdel-Rahman Mohammed al-Suwailmi, a terror suspect on the country's list of most wanted militants.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2005        Dec 28, Saudi police shot dead a militant on Saudi Arabia's most-wanted list, the second major terror suspect to die in the country in 24 hours.
    (AP, 12/28/05)

2005        Pascal Menoret authored “The Saudi Enigma: A History."
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.87)
2005        Saudi Arabia enacted a law that banned state employees from saying anything in public that conflicts with official policy.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.53)

2006        Jan 5, In Saudi Arabia a building used as a hostel by pilgrims in Mecca collapsed as millions of Muslims converged for the annual hajj, and at least 76 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/7/06)

2006        Jan 12, Thousands of Muslim pilgrims rushing to complete a symbolic stoning ritual during the hajj tripped over luggage, causing a crush in which 363 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2006        Jan 23, Saudi King Abdullah met with Chinese President Hu Jintao in Beijing, amid efforts by China to secure overseas oil and gas reserves for its power-hungry economy.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 26, Saudi Arabia recalled its ambassador in Denmark to protest a published series of caricatures of the prophet Muhammad. Protests spread across the Muslim world for weeks, and dozens of people were killed.
    (AP, 1/26/07)

2006        Jan 31, Saudi Arabia and Jordan pressed the Islamic militant group Hamas to moderate its stand on Israel and to entice the defeated Fatah party into a deal to share power.
    (AP, 1/31/06)

2006        Feb 19, Almost five months after publishing 12 cartoons of the prophet to highlight what it described as self-censorship, Denmark’s Jyllands-Posten newspaper printed a full-page apology in a Saudi-owned pan-Arab newspaper.
    (AFP, 2/19/06)

2006        Feb 24, Suicide bombers in explosives-laden cars attempted to attack an oil processing facility at the Abqaiq facility  that handles about two-thirds of Saudi Arabia's petroleum output, but were stopped when guards opened fire on them, causing the cars to explode.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

2006        Feb 26, The Saudi Interior Ministry identified two Feb 24 attackers as Abdullah Abdul-Aziz al-Tweijri and Mohammed Saleh al-Gheith. Both were on a list of the 15 most-wanted terrorists the kingdom issued in June.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

2006        Feb 27, Saudi security forces in Riyadh shot dead five suspected terrorists believed to be involved in a foiled attack on the world's biggest oil processing complex. A sixth suspect was arrested. Fahd Faraaj al-Juwair, the leader of al-Qaida in Saudi Arabia, and two men who helped attack the world's largest oil-processing complex were among five militants killed during the police raids.
    (AP, 2/27/06)(AP, 2/28/06)

2006        Feb 28, Iraqi border guards captured, Abdullah Salah al-Harbi, a Saudi who admitted he was involved in the suicide attack on the Abqaiq oil facility in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 5, French President Jacques Chirac on a trip to Saudi Arabia preached greater tolerance and respect after the publication of satirical cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad a month ago whipped up protests around the world.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar, Persian Gulf stock markets suffered their 1st serious correction after years of 6-7% annual gains. Stock market reversals in Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the UAR, along with Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia triggered outrage among local small investors.
    (WSJ, 3/27/06, p.C1)

2006        Mar 29, The Saudi Press Agency reported that Saudi authorities had arrested 40 suspected members of al-Qaida, including some allegedly involved in last month's attempted bombing of a key oil complex, and seized a large cache of weapons and explosives.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Apr 6, Japan said it would launch free trade talks with six Gulf kingdoms that provide three-quarters of its oil imports, during a visit by a Saudi crown prince aimed at expanding business ties.
    (AP, 4/6/06)
2006        Apr 6, Cheese and butter from the Danish company Arla were back on supermarket shelves in Saudi Arabia after an Islamic group ended a boycott of the dairy producer sparked by Denmark's publication of drawings of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz began a two-day visit to Pakistan during which he is expected to discuss a possible arms deal.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)

2006        Apr 18, A security official said Saudi authorities arrested five suspected terrorists linked to the February 24 deadly attack on the world's largest oil processing facility.
    (AP, 4/18/06)

2006        Apr 22, Saudi Arabia and China signed defense, security and trade agreements in Riyadh on the first day of Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        Apr 30, Saudi King Abdullah issued a decree lowering domestic gasoline prices by about 25%. That would lower the cost to about 16 cents per liter.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2006        Apr, Saudi Arabia announced plans to build an electrified fence along its 560-mile border with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.A1)

2006        May 9, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia won seats on the new UN Human Rights Council despite their poor human rights records. Two rights abusers, Iran and Venezuela, were defeated.
    (AP, 5/10/06)

2006        May 16, Saudi newspapers reported that King Abdullah has told Saudi editors to stop publishing pictures of women as they could make young men go astray.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        Jun 10, Three Guantanamo Bay detainees, 2 from Saudi Arabia and one from Yemen,  hanged themselves with nooses made of sheets and clothes, bringing further condemnation of the isolated camp where hundreds of men have been held for years without charge. Yasser Talal al-Zahrani (21) of Saudi Arabia, captured in Pakistan in 2002, was one of the 3 Gitmo detainees who committed suicide.
    (AP, 6/11/06)(Econ, 6/17/06, p.92)

2006        Jun 23, Saudi security forces stormed a suspected al-Qaida hideout in Riyadh, killing six militants and arresting a seventh after an exchange of gunfire.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 24, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said security forces had arrested 42 suspected terrorists, including four foreign nationals, allegedly involved in earlier attacks across the kingdom. 27 of the detainees, including an Ethiopian and two Somalis, were rounded up May 9-23 in Riyadh, Mecca, the Eastern Region province and the Hafer al-Baten province that borders Iraq. An Iraqi and three Saudis were detained in a June 17 raid on a desert camp in Hafer al-Baten. Another nine, all Saudis, also were captured at a desert hideout in Hafer al-Baten. Two more suspected were arrested after the June 23 raid.
    (AP, 6/24/06)

2006        Jul 8, Saudi officials said 7 suspected terrorists had escaped from a prison in Riyadh a few days earlier.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 21, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has ordered 76 artillery howitzers from the French armaments manufacturer Giat Industries as defense minister Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz completed a two-day visit.
    (AFP, 7/21/06)

2006        Aug 18, The Financial Times reported that Britain has agreed to a multi-billion-dollar defense deal to supply 72 Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 21, Saudi police killed two armed men during clashes in the Red Sea port of Jeddah.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Sep 8, It was reported that Saudi Arabia’s religious police have issued a decree in Jiddah and Mecca banning the sale of the pets, seen as a sign of Western influence.
    (AP, 9/8/06)

2006        Sep 9, It was reported that some 15,000 students from Saudi Arabia were enrolling on college campuses across the United States this semester under a new educational exchange program brokered by President Bush and Saudi King Abdullah.
    (AP, 9/9/06)

2006        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia's state-run news agency reported that the king gave new powers to his brothers and nephews in an overhaul of the way the kingdom chooses future monarchs, in what appeared to be an attempt to defuse internal power struggles. King Abdullah established the allegiance council, a body of 30-odd senior princes, as a new succession mechanism aimed in the long term to choose the crown prince.
    (AP, 10/20/06)(AFP, 6/16/12)
2006        Oct 20, Shiite and Sunni religious figures met in Mecca in a bid to stop sectarian bloodshed, and issued a series of edicts forbidding violence between Iraq's two Muslim sects.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

2006        Nov 25, US Vice President Dick Cheney arrived in Saudi Arabia for talks with King Abdullah, apparently seeking the Sunni royal family's influence and tribal connections to calm Iraq after an especially violent week.
    (AP, 11/25/06)

2006        Dec 2, Saudi news said authorities have arrested 136 suspected militants over the past three months, accusing some of plotting to carry out suicide attacks inside the kingdom.
    (AP, 12/3/06)

2006        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia said it had fired a security adviser who wrote in The Washington Post that the world's top oil exporter would intervene in Iraq once the United States withdraws troops.  Saudi Arabia beheaded a Pakistani citizen and his daughter for smuggling heroin into the kingdom. The kingdom beheaded 83 people in 2005 and 35 people in 2004.
    (AP, 12/6/06)(Reuters, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia armed men shot and killed two guards outside a prison in the western city of Jiddah before taking cover in a residential building where they were surrounded by Saudi security forces.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 10, The oil-rich Arab states on the Persian Gulf said that they will consider starting a joint nuclear program for peaceful purposes. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2006        Dec 11, More than 30 prominent Islamic clerics from Saudi Arabia called on Sunni Muslims around the Middle East to support their brethren in Iraq against Shiites and praised the insurgency.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 26, The Saudi government said it had released 18 men who were detained after returning to their homeland from the US military prison in Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 12/26/06)

2006        Dec 28, Nearly 3 million Muslims from around the world, chanting and raising their hands to heaven, marched through a desert valley outside Mecca on the first day of the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        William Simpson authored “The Prince: The Secret Story of the World’s Most Intriguing Royal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan." Bandar (b.1949) had served over 20 years as Saudi Arabia’s ambassador in Washington (1983-2005).
    (www.saudiembassy.net/Country/Government/BandarBio.asp)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.86)
2006        The Saudi offshoot of Emaar, one of Dubai’s big-three developers, raised 2.55 billion riyals ($680 million) to build a metropolis on the Red Sea coast. The King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) was due for completion in 2016.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.38)

2007        Jan 3, In Saudi Arabia Muslims circled the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site, for a final time, bringing to a close what may have been the largest hajj pilgrimage ever.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

2007        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia said it would begin a 158,000 barrel-a-day cut in oil production effective Feb 1.
    (WSJ, 1/30/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 30, The Saudi foreign minister said Saudi Arabia and Iran are working together to try to calm the crises in Iraq and Lebanon.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan 30, Jamal Khalifa, a Saudi citizen married to a sister of Osama bin Laden, was killed when gunmen broke into his house in village in Madagascar in an apparent robbery.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 3, The interior ministry spokesman said Saudi police have arrested 10 people who are accused of collecting donations and recruiting on behalf of militant groups.
    (AP, 2/3/07)

2007        Feb 4, A Saudi newspaper reported that a Saudi Arabian judge sentenced 20 foreigners to receive lashes and spend several months in prison after convicting them of attending a party where alcohol was served and men and women danced.
    (AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 7, In Saudi Arabia rival Palestinian leaders began open-ended talks in Mecca optimistic that they could reach an agreement to end their bloody street battles and resume the peace process with Israel.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, A Fatah official in Saudi Arabia said that rival Palestinian factions had reached an agreement on how to divide up Cabinet posts in a power-sharing government.
    (AP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 11, President Vladimir Putin, making the first visit by a Russian leader to Saudi Arabia, met King Abdullah and other senior officials for talks that touched on regional tensions including Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 17, A US human rights watchdog that recently sent a team to Saudi Arabia to investigate abuses said in a new report the kingdom keeps thousands of prisoners in jail without charge, sentences children to death and oppresses women.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Feb 19, A Saudi court ordered the bodies of four Sri Lankans to be displayed in a public square after being beheaded for armed robbery.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 21, Seven Saudis released from the US prison in Guantanamo Bay returned home and were promptly detained to see if they had terrorist connections.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 26, Three Frenchmen who lived in Saudi Arabia were killed by gunmen on the side of a desert road leading to the holy city of Medina in an area restricted to Muslims only. Soon after a 4th died from his wounds. An investigation later revealed that Waleed bin Mutlaq al-Radadi, among the kingdom's most wanted terrorists, was the mastermind and one of the triggermen in the shooting. Al-Radadi was killed on April 6 in a gunbattle with Saudi forces.
    (AP, 2/26/07)(AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Feb, Saudi Arabia arrested 10 intellectuals for signing a polite petition suggesting it was time for the kingdom to consider a transition to constitutional monarchy.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.54)

2007        Mar 3, Saudi Arabia's king personally welcomed Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad upon his arrival, a rapprochement many hope will help calm sectarian tensions threatening the Middle East. The leaders pledged to fight the spread of sectarian strife in the Middle East, which they said was the biggest danger facing the region.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 26, Israel welcomed the idea of a regional peace summit and Saudi Arabia suggesting it would consider changes in a dormant peace initiative to make it more acceptable to Israel.
    (AP, 3/26/07)

2007        Mar 29, Arab leaders at their summit in Riyadh agreed on a call for Israel to accept their land-for-peace offer and open direct negotiations with the Arabs. Unlike past summits that at times saw overt feuds break out, the gathering of Arab kings, emirs and presidents showed unusual public unity as it revived the peace offer, which they first made in 2002 only to meet rejection from Israel.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Mar, Britain's anti-fraud agency told a private OECD meeting in Paris that they had evidence that BAE paid more than 70 million pounds ($113 million) to a Saudi prince with influence over arms deal contracts. A US diplomatic cable regarding this was only made public in 2011.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2007        Apr 2, Saudi Arabia signaled it is unlikely to accept an Israeli invitation to a regional peace conference, saying that Israel must first stop mistreating Palestinians and move to withdraw from Arab lands.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 5, US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said that she raised the issue of Saudi Arabia's lack of female politicians with Saudi government officials on the last stop of her Mideast tour.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 6, In Saudi Arabia Waleed bin Mutlaq al-Radadi, among the kingdom's most wanted terrorists, was killed in a gunbattle with Saudi forces. Al-Radadi was implicated in the Feb 26 killing of 4 French nationals.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 15, The official Saudi news agency reported that Sudan has signed a joint agreement with the UN and the African Union that defines their respective roles in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 27, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said police had arrested 172 Islamic militants, some of whom had trained abroad as pilots so they could fly aircraft in attacks on Saudi Arabia's oil fields. A spokesman said all that remained in the plot "was to set the zero hour." More than $32.4 million was seized in the operation, one of the largest sweeps against terror cells in the kingdoms.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        Apr 29, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah held an unannounced meeting with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss the recent escalation in Israeli-Palestinian tensions. Saudi Arabia banned the sale of concentrated fertilizer, a favorite component of homemade terrorist bombs.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(Econ, 5/5/07, p.60)

2007        May 3, African neighbors Sudan and Chad signed a Saudi-brokered reconciliation deal in Saudi Arabia, requiring both sides to cooperate with the United Nations to stabilize Darfur and the adjacent region in Chad.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 5, Prince Abdul-Majid bin Abdul-Aziz (65), the governor of Mecca, died after a long illness.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 8, A newspaper owned by Saudi Arabia's royal family said one of seven recently exposed Saudi terrorist cells used Syria as a base for coordinating with al-Qaida in Iraq and held training camps in the desert of neighboring Yemen.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, Saudi authorities beheaded an Ethiopian woman convicted of killing an Egyptian man over a dispute. Khadija Bint Ibrahim Moussa was the second woman to be executed this year. The kingdom last beheaded two women in 2005. Beheadings are carried out with a sword in a public square.
    (AP, 5/9/07)
2007        May 9, In France Nayef al-Shaalan, a Saudi Prince, was sentenced in absentia to 10 years in jail on charges of involvement in a cocaine smuggling gang.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 30, A Saudi Arabian detainee died at Guantanamo Bay prison and the US military said he apparently committed suicide.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 7, British media reported that Saudi Arabia’s Prince Bandar bin Sultan pocketed about $2 billion in secret payments as part of an $80 billion arms deal between Britain and Saudi Arabia first signed in 1985.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)

2007        Jun 23, In Saudi Arabia a judge postponed the trial of 3 members of the religious police for their alleged involvement in the death of a man arrested after being seen with a woman who was not his relative.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jul 15, The Los Angeles Times reported that about 45 percent of all foreign militants targeting US troops and Iraqi security forces were from Saudi Arabia, 15 percent from Syria and Lebanon, and 10 percent from North Africa.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 17, The US freed 16 Saudis from Guantanamo and flew them home, where they were taken into custody for investigation of possible links to terrorism.
    (WSJ, 1/17/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 30, UN inspectors visited a nuclear reactor being built in central Iran, a facility that has been off limits since April. Iran's foreign ministry spokesman criticized a US plan to sell state-of the-art weapons to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Jul 31, In Egypt US Sec. of State Rice and Defense Secretary Robert Gates made a joint show of diplomatic force during two days of meetings with Arab allies, part of an 11th-hour effort to rally diplomatic and practical help for the US-backed Shiite-led government in Baghdad. The tour opened talks on a proposed US arms package for Arab states worth more than $20 billion. US officials extended a 10-year pledge to continue $1.3 billion in annual aid to Egypt’s military. Military aid to Israel was raised to $3 billion. Weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and 5 smaller monarchies was said to be $20 billion. Total US military aid to the region over the next decade amounted to $63 billion.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.39)

2007        Aug 17, Saudi King Abdullah ordered two aid packages worth 20 million dollars each be dispatched to Sudan and Mauritania to help the impoverished African countries hit by severe floods.
    (AFP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 28, Journalists and diplomats said Saudi Arabia has banned the influential Arab newspaper Al Hayat from distribution in the kingdom, just days after it reported a Saudi man had served as a key figure for an al-Qaida front group in Iraq.
    (AP, 8/28/07)

2007        Sep 6, A Pentagon spokesman said 16 detainees from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, have been transferred to the custody of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, Saudi Arabia and an influential Lebanese politician joined calls by Pakistan for former prime minister Nawaz Sharif to scrap plans to return to the country next week.
    (AP, 9/8/07)

2007        Sep 10, Former PM Nawaz Sharif returned to Pakistan from a seven-year exile, hoping to campaign against the country's US-allied military ruler, but was immediately charged with corruption and deported to Saudi Arabia hours later. Pro-Taliban militants freed more than 260 Pakistani troops who were kidnapped nearly two weeks ago in a restive tribal region near the border with Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 16, Saudi King Abdullah oversaw the signing in Jiddah of a reconciliation agreement negotiated by several Somali factions in an attempt to stabilize their country and battle the Islamic opposition.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 17, Saudi Arabia announced it has signed a 4.43 billion pound (8.86 billion dollar) deal to buy 72 Eurofighter planes, after tortuous negotiations on one of the largest ever British export orders.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Oct 5, Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, Saudi Arabia's king, announced an overhaul of the country's judicial system, fulfilling a pledge he made several months ago to reform the current heavily-criticized administration.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7029308.stm)(Econ, 10/13/07, p.51)

2007        Oct 6, A Saudi newspaper said the Saudi Arabian government will temporarily release 55 prisoners recently transferred from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and will give each of them about $2,600 to celebrate the upcoming Muslim holiday of Eid al-Fitr.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 23, First lady Laura Bush helped launch a screening facility in Saudi Arabia as part of a U.S.-Saudi initiative to raise breast cancer awareness in the kingdom where doctors struggle to break long-held taboos about the disease.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 30, In London Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah received a lavish welcome from Queen Elizabeth II as he started a state visit amid angry protests and headlines after accusing Britain of anti-terrorism failures. The Policy Exchange, an independent think tank, said Agencies linked to the Saudi government have distributed extremist literature to mosques and Islamic centers in Britain.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, In London King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia met PM Gordon Brown to discuss Middle East issues and counter-terrorism, amid a swirl of protests.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 6, In the Vatican Benedict XVI raised concerns about restrictions on Christian worship in Saudi Arabia in the first meeting ever between a pope and a reigning Saudi king.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 9, Saudi authorities beheaded Saudi citizen Khalaf al-Anzi in Riyadh for kidnapping and raping a teenager.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 10, Saudi authorities received a group of 14 Saudis Saturday from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Saudi authorities beheaded a Pakistani for drug trafficking. This execution brought to 131 the number of people beheaded in the kingdom this year. Saudi Arabia beheaded 38 people last year and 83 people in 2005.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 12, Airbus said it was building a custom, 380 VIP double-decker jet for Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal with a price tag of over $320 million.
    (AP, 11/12/07)

2007        Nov 14, A Saudi court sentenced a woman (19) who had been gang raped to six months in jail and 200 lashes, more than doubling her initial penalty for being in the car of a man who was not a relative. The court also roughly doubled prison sentences for the seven men convicted of raping the woman. Their new sentences range from two to nine years. The court also banned the lawyer from defending her, confiscated his license to practice law and summoned him to a disciplinary hearing later this month.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 18, In eastern Saudi Arabia an explosion and fire on a gas pipeline killed 40 workers. The cause of the fire was an accident during maintenance work and Aramco said it did not expect a disruption in gas supplies.
    (AP, 11/18/07)(AP, 11/20/07)

2007        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia and other Arab nations grudgingly agreed to attend an upcoming US-sponsored Mideast peace conference, despite failing to get any guarantee of Israeli concessions.
    (AP, 11/23/08)

2007        Nov 28, Authorities in Saudi Arabia announced the arrest of 208 suspected terrorists in six cells and thwarted several planned attacks in the kingdom's largest terror sweep to date. They included 8 al-Qaida linked men allegedly planning to attack oil installations.
    (AP, 11/28/07)

2007        Dec 16, Millions of Muslims from around the world gathered in Mecca for the start of the annual Islamic hajj pilgrimage, as the Saudi Interior Ministry announced tough security precautions.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 17, In Saudi Arabia a gang-rape victim who was sentenced to six months in prison and 200 lashes for being alone with a man not related to her was pardoned by the Saudi king after the case sparked rare criticism from the United States, the kingdom's top ally.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 21, In Saudi Arabia the annual 5-day hajj come to a close as some 3 million pilgrims participated.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 23, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said police have arrested 28 men for allegedly planning to attack holy sites around Mecca and Medina during the recently finished Muslim hajj.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        In northern Saudi Arabia two men beheaded intelligence service Colonel Nasser al-Othman at his farm near the city of Buraidah because they viewed him as an apostate. In 2016 a Saudi court sentenced the two men it said were al Qaeda followers to death.
    (Reuters, 7/26/16)
2007        The population of Saudi Arabia passed 24 million. The country imported $6 billion in food this year.
    (WSJ, 12/12/07, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/26/08, p.A12)

2008        Jan 12, Saudi authorities beheaded an Indonesian maid convicted of killing her employer. The Interior Ministry said the maid used a pillow to suffocate her employer Aisha Al Makhaled and then stole her jewelry in the southern province of Asir.
    (AP, 1/12/08)

2008        Jan 14, In Saudi Arabia President Bush, on his first visit to this oil-rich kingdom, delivered a major arms sale to its ally in a region.
    (AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 15, In Saudi Arabia Pres. Bush urged OPEC nations to put more oil on the world market and warned that soaring prices could cause an economic slowdown in the US. The kingdom's oil minister said Saudi Arabia will raise oil production when the market justifies it.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 21, In Saudi Arabia the daily Al-Watan, which is deemed close to the Saudi government, reported that the Interior Ministry issued a circular to hotels asking them to accept lone women, as long as their information is sent to a local police station.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia said it had killed some 158,000 chickens after the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain was found at an infected farm. The agriculture ministry also said more than 4.5 million fowl have been killed in provinces around the capital, but it did not specify when the killing took place.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 14, A leading human rights group appealed to Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah to stop the execution of a woman accused of witchcraft and performing supernatural acts.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia bus plunged over a cliff, killing at least 25 people on board.
    (AP, 2/24/08)

2008        Mar 3, Saudi police arrested 28 suspected militants accused of trying to rebuild al-Qaida’s terror network in the kingdom.
    (WSJ, 3/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 22, US Vice President Dick Cheney completing a two-day stay in Saudi Arabia, discussed ways to stabilize the energy market with Saudi King Abdullah.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, Saudi Arabia said inflation reached a 27-year high of 8.7% in February.
    (WSJ, 3/24/08, p.A6)

2008        Mar 24, Saudi Arabia said its king would send a lower level diplomat to the March 29 Arab League summit in Syria, which hoped to help solve the stalemate in Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 3/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 25, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia made a proposal for dialogue among the world’s monotheistic religions. Abdullah said Saudi Arabia's top clerics gave him a green light.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Apr 13, The Saudi Arabia beheaded two Nigerian men convicted of smuggling cocaine into the kingdom. 42 people have been beheaded this year, according to an AP count.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

2008        May 2, In Saudi Arabia a German-based quartet staged the first-ever performance of European classical music in a public venue before a mixed gender, largely expatriate audience.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

2008        May 16, Pres. Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia and appealed for increased oil production just as prices hit another record high.
    (AP, 5/16/08)

2008        May 19, Matrook al-Faleh was arrested at King Saud University in the Saudi capital Riyadh, where he teaches political science. A rights group said it came after al-Faleh publicly criticized conditions in a prison where two other human rights activists are serving jail terms. Faleh was released in January, 2009.
    (AP, 5/25/08)(AP, 1/11/09)

2008        May 23, A UN food aid agency said the response to its appeal for money to help meet soaring fuel and food costs went beyond what it had hoped to collect, saying $500 million from Saudi Arabia means it won't have to cut rations.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 24, In Saudi Arabia authorities beheaded a local man convicted of armed robbery and raping a woman. The execution brings the number of people beheaded this year to 55.
    (AP, 5/24/08)

2008        Jun 5, In Italy a 3-day UN summit aimed at fighting hunger worldwide ended with pledges to boost food output, calls to cut trade barriers and more research on biofuels. Just before the meeting Saudi Arabia announced a donation of $500 million.
    (WSJ, 6/6/08, p.A10)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.70)

2008        Jun 20, In Saudi Arabia religious police arrested 21 allegedly homosexual men and confiscated large amounts of alcohol at a large gathering of young men at a rest house in Qatif.
    (AP, 6/21/08)

2008        Jun 22, Saudi Arabia held meeting in Jiddah between oil producing and consuming nations as a way to show that it was not deaf to international cries that high oil prices have caused social and economic turmoil. Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi said Saudi Arabia is willing to produce more oil if customers need it without citing any specific output increase. Britain’s PM Gordon Brown called for cash-rich Gulf nations to invest in renewable and nuclear energy production in Britain and elsewhere.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 25, Saudi officials said authorities have arrested hundreds of suspected al-Qaida-linked militants this year. Some of those arrested are suspected of plotting attacks against the kingdom's oil and economic installations. Of the 701 arrested 181 were released because there was no proof linking them to the terror network.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jul 8, A human rights group said domestic workers in Saudi Arabia often suffer abuse that in some cases amounts to slavery, as well as sexual violence and lashings for spurious allegations of theft or witchcraft.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 16, In Spain King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia kicked off an interfaith conference in Madrid, an effort to bring Muslims, Christians and Jews closer together amid a world that often puts the three faiths at odds.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Spain a Saudi-organized conference of the world's great religions called for an international agreement to combat terrorism, "a universal phenomenon that requires unified international efforts."
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 28, Tarek bin Laden signed a deal with Djibouti to build Noor City, the first of a hundred “Cities of Light" that the Saudi Binladen Group planned around the world. Plans called for the city to have 2.5 million people by 2025 and 4.5 million for its Yemeni twin.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.50)(www.railpage.com.au/f-p1093077.htm)

2008        Jul 30, Saudi Arabia's Islamic religious police banned the sale dogs and cats as pets, as well as walking them in public due to “the rising of phenomenon of men using cats and dogs to make passes at women and pester families" as well as "violating proper behavior in public squares and malls."
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 13, An alleged assault by Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (b.1955) reportedly took place on a young model (20) on a yacht on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza. An investigating magistrate on the resort island closed the case in 2010 on grounds of insufficient evidence. In 2011 Spain reopened a rape probe after tests done by a forensic lab found semen in the woman and traces of a sedative called nordazepam.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2008        Sep 11, Sheik Saleh al-Lihedan (79), Saudi Arabia's top judiciary official, issued a religious decree saying it is permissible to kill the owners of satellite TV networks that broadcast immoral content. On Sep 14 he adjusted his comments saying owners who broadcast immoral content should be brought to trial and sentenced to death if other penalties do not deter them.
    (AP, 9/12/08)(SFC, 9/15/08, p.A3)

2008        Oct 12, The United Arab Emirates said it would guarantee domestic bank deposits and with Saudi Arabia promised fresh financial support to domestic banks.
    (WSJ, 10/13/08, p.A5)

2008        Oct 21, Saudi Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal confirmed for the first time that the kingdom has been sponsoring talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban militia.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Saudi Arabia’s interior minister said authorities have indicted 991 suspected militants on charges that they participated in terrorist attacks carried out in the kingdom over the last five years.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Nov 2, British PM Gordon Brown said he is confident that Saudi Arabia will contribute to the International Monetary Fund's bailout reserves after he promised business leaders in the Gulf that they would have a say in any future new world economic order.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 6, A group of Saudi activists began a rare public hunger strike to demand judiciary reform and draw attention to the detention without trial of 11 political reformists.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 15, Gunmen hijacked a freighter with 23 crew off the coast of Somalia. The crew of the Japanese-owned Chemstar Venus consisted of five South Koreans and 18 Filipinos. Somali pirates hijacked the Sirius Star, a newly commissioned supertanker, more than 450 nautical miles southeast of Mombasa, Kenya, along with its 25-member crew. The ship, owned by Saudi oil company Aramco, was capable of carrying about 2 million barrels of oil. The ship was released on Jan 9, 2009.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)(AP, 1/9/09)

2008        Nov 18, Owners of a Saudi oil supertanker hijacked by Somali pirates grappled with how to respond, as navies patrolling the region said they would not intervene to stop or free the captured vessel.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia slashed a key lending rate and cut reserve requirements amid intensifying economic headwinds.
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)

2008        Nov, A US diplomatic cable said donors in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are sending an estimated $100 million annually to radical Islamic schools in Pakistan that back militancy. The cable was leaked to the public on May 22, 2011.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2008        Dec 5, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims from all over the world gathered in Mecca, on the eve of the start of the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims converged on a rocky desert hill outside Mecca to perform the ritual of forgiveness marking the climax of the annual hajj.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia Muslims poured into Mecca for a final day of the hajj.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The European Commission awarded the first Chaillot Prize to the Al-Nahda Philanthropic Society for Women, a Saudi charity which helps divorced and underprivileged women.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 14, It was reported that Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, who owns a double-decker "flying palace" and recently raised his bet on Citigroup, lost $4 billion in the past year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)

2008        Steve Coll authored “The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century."
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.92)
2008        David B. Ottaway authored “The King’s Messenger: Prince Bandar bin Sultan and America’s Tangled Relationship with Saudi Arabia."
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.101)
2008        Saudi Arabia abandoned its self-sufficiency agricultural program when it discovered that farmers were burning through water coming from a non-replenishable aquifer.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)
2008        In Saudi Arabia Raif Badawi co-founded a website as a platform for open debate on religion. He was banned from travel in 2009 after criticizing the official Wahhabist doctrine. In 2012 he was jailed for ridiculing Islamic religious figures.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.58)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.46)
2008        UNESCO proclaimed Madain Saleh, as a site of patrimony, becoming Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site. It was chosen for its well-preserved remains from late antiquity, especially the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs, with their elaborately ornamented facades, of the Nabatean kingdom.

2009        Jan 9, Somali pirates released the MV Sirius Star, an oil-laden Saudi supertanker seized on Nov 15, after receiving a $3 million ransom.
    (AP, 1/9/09)

2009        Jan 14, Saudi Arabia's most senior cleric was quoted as saying it is permissible for 10-year-old girls to marry and those who think they're too young are doing the girls an injustice.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 19, The Saudi king said his country will donate $1 billion to help rebuild the Gaza Strip after the devastating Israeli offensive and told Israel that an Arab initiative offering peace will not remain on the table forever. The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency cut its benchmark lending rate a half point to 2%, and its deposit rate by three-quarters point to .75%.
    (AP, 1/19/09)(WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A11)

2009        Jan 20, Saudi Arabia’s prince Alwaleed bin Talal said his conglomerate Kingdom Holding Co. lost about $7.9 billion in 2008.
    (WSJ, 1/21/09, p.A11)

2009        Jan 21, In Pakistan a Saudi called Zabi ul Taifi was among seven Al-Qaida suspects caught when government forces mounted a raid near the northwestern city of Peshawar.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 23, Said Ali al-Shihri, a Saudi man released from Guantanamo after spending nearly six years inside the US prison camp, is now the No. 2 of Yemen's al-Qaida branch, according to a purported Internet statement from the terror network.
    (AP, 1/23/09)

2009        Feb 2, Saudi Arabia issued a list of its 83 most wanted suspects living abroad, including six Saudis released from Guantanamo Bay, and asked Interpol for help in arresting them. On Feb 10 Interpol put out an international alert for 85 alleged terrorists suspected of plotting attacks against Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 2/2/09)(WSJ, 2/11/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 14, Saudi King Abdullah (86), in an apparent bid to reform the religious establishment,  dismissed the head of the feared religious police and a hard-line cleric who issued an edict last year saying it was permissible to kill owners of satellite TV stations that show "immoral" content. King Abdullah also appointed Noura al Fayez as deputy minister of women’s education, the 1st female to hold a ministerial post.
    (AP, 2/14/09)(SSFC, 2/15/09, p.A6)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.48)

2009        Feb 17, The Yemeni Interior Ministry announced the surrender of Abu al-Hareth Muhammad al-Oufi, a former Guantanamo detainee who later became an al-Qaida field commander. He was handed over to Saudi authorities.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 19, Naser Abdel Karim al-Wahishi, Yemen's most wanted fugitive and leader of al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula, used an audio recording to urge Yemenis to rise up against the government and called on Arabs in Saudi Arabia and Gulf countries to help their brothers in Yemen.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 25, Saudi police were reported to have clashed with Shiite pilgrims over several days near a cemetery in Islam's second-holiest city, leading Shiite Cleric Sheik Nimr al-Nimr to appeal to the king to put a stop to the "insults" of the religious police. Shiites make up a small minority of the country's 22 million people. Following the incendiary sermon, more than 35 people were arrested in a government crackdown and al-Nimr went into hiding.
    (AP, 2/25/09)(AP, 4/1/09)

2009        Mar 3, In Saudi Arabia Khamisa Sawadi, a 75-year-old widow, was sentenced to 40 lashes and four months in jail for mingling with two young men who are not close relatives. The case drew new criticism for the kingdom's ultraconservative religious police and judiciary.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 10, In Saudi Arabia a huge sandstorm blanketed the city of Riyadh with a thick layer of yellow dust.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 11, Saudi Arabia hosted the leaders of Egypt and Syria in an effort to persuade Damascus to move away from Iran and join with US-allied Arab countries in working to blunt Tehran's influence.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 22, A group of Saudi clerics urged the kingdom's new information minister to ban women from appearing on TV or in newspapers and magazines, making clear that the country's hardline religious establishment is skeptical of a new push toward moderation.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 25, Fahad al-Ruwaily, a senior al-Qaida leader, returned to Saudi Arabia voluntarily and turned himself in. He was on a list of the kingdom's 85 most wanted militants living abroad.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 27, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (84) appointed his half-brother, Prince Nayef (75), as his 2nd deputy prime minister.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.51)

2009        Apr 1, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir arrived in Saudi Arabia for a brief pilgrimage, his latest trip abroad in defiance of an international arrest warrant against him.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)

2009        Apr 7, Saudi authorities beheaded 3 Pakistanis convicted of killing a fellow Pakistani during a jewelry heist. This brought to 20 the number of beheadings in the kingdom this year.
    (AP, 4/7/09)

2009        Apr 11, A Saudi man convicted of rape and robbery was beheaded, becoming the 22nd prisoner to be executed by sword this year in the kingdom. An Interior Ministry statement says the man committed the crimes after drinking alcohol.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 30, In Saudi Arabia a lawyer said an 8-year-old girl has divorced her middle-aged husband after her father forced her to marry him last year in exchange for about $13,000. Saudi Arabia has come under increasing criticism at home and abroad for permitting child marriages. The United States, a close ally of the conservative Muslim kingdom, has called child marriage a "clear and unacceptable" violation of human rights.
    (AP, 5/1/09)

2009        May 12, The US won a seat on the UN Human Rights Council for the first time along with Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia, four countries accused of serious human rights violations.
    (SFC, 5/13/09, p.A2)

2009        May 23, It was reported that Saudi Arabian investors were spending $100 million to raise wheat, barley and rise on land leased from the government of Ethiopia. The World Food Program estimated that it would spend almost the same amount between 2007 and 2011 to provide 230,000 tons of food aid to some 4.6 million Ethiopians threatened by hunger and malnutrition.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.61)

2009        May 28, The Saudi Arabia, Monetary Agency froze the bank accounts of Maan al-Sanea, head of the Saad Group and ranked recently as the 3rd richest Arab businessman.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.70)

2009        May 29, Saudi authorities beheaded and crucified a man convicted of brutally slaying an 11-year-old boy and his father.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        May, The Int’l. Banking Corporation (TIBC), a Bahraini bank, defaulted. It was owned by the Ahmad Hamad Algosaibi & Brothers Company of Saudi Arabia. The group later alleged the default was due to fraud orchestrated by Maan Al-Sanea, a Saudi billionaire born in Kuwait. The Gosaibis estimated that Al-Sanea had misappropriated some $9.2 billion.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.61)

2009        Jun 3, Iranian nuclear scientist Shahram Amiri vanished during a pilgrimage to the Saudi kingdom. In October Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said: "We hold Saudi Arabia responsible for Shahram Amiri's situation and consider the US to be involved in his arrest."
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Jun 3, President Barack Obama began his latest bid to open a dialogue with the Muslim world by paying a call on King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. Pres. Obama spoke to King Abdullah about a host of thorny problems, from Arab-Israeli peace efforts to Iran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia a screening of the Saudi film, "Menahi," brought a taste of the moviegoing experience to Riyadh more than 30 years after the government began shutting down theaters. No women were allowed. Men and children, including girls up to 10, were allowed to attend the show at a government-run cultural center.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 7, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement paving the way for a monetary union and plans for a unified regional currency.
    (SFC, 6/8/09, p.C1)

2009        Jun 12, Guantanamo detainee Ahmed Zuhair and two others were reported to have been sent home to Saudi Arabia, where they would be subject to judicial review before entering a government-run "rehabilitation" program. Zuhair had been held at Guantanamo since June 2002 and had refused to eat since the summer of 2005. He was force-fed a liquid mix to keep him alive.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 14, Yemen accused a Shiite rebel group of kidnapping nine foreigners while on a picnic in northern Saada province. The Interior Ministry official said Hassan Hussein Bin Alwan, a Saudi man suspected of financing Al-Qaida cells in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, has been arrested.
    (AP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 24, The Gosaibi family of Saudi Arabia held a creditor’s meeting in Bahrain. Their representatives revealed that the group owed $9.2 billion to over 120 banks all over the world.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)

2009        Jul 15, Mazen Abdul-Jawad (32), a Saudi man, appeared on the Lebanese-based LBC satellite TV station’s "Bold Red Line" program and shocked Saudis by publicly confessing to sexual exploits. More than 200 people soon filed legal complaints against Abdul-Jawad, dubbed a "sex braggart" by the media, and many Saudis said he should be severely punished. On July 31 Abdul-Jawad was detained for questioning. The Jiddah offices of the LBC station were closed soon thereafter.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Jul 8, Saudi officials said a criminal court has convicted and sentenced an al-Qaida militant to death and given more 330 others jail terms, fines and travel bans in the country's first known terrorism trials for suspected members of the terror network. The 330 are believed to be among the 991 suspected militants that Interior Minister Prince Nayef has said had been charged with participating in terrorist attacks over the past five years.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 9-2009 Aug 2, Saudi Arabian authorities arrested 44 suspected militants who sought to recruit youths and finance their "deviant activities" through charitable donations.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Jul 22, Amnesty International reported that Saudi Arabia is holding more than 3,000 people in secret detention and has used torture to extract confessions in its anti-terrorism crackdown since the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 23, Arab health ministers decided to ban children, the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions from attending the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia this year in effort to slow the spread of swine flu.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

2009        Aug 9, Italians newspapers reported that burglars earlier in the week had made off with jewels and cash worth 11 million euros (15.6 million dollars) from the hotel room of a Saudi princess in Sardinia, sparking a diplomatic incident. On Sep 15 Sardinia police said most of the jewels had been recovered.
    (AFP, 8/9/09)(AP, 9/15/09)

2009        Aug 19, Saudi authorities said they have arrested 44 suspected militants with al-Qaida links in a yearlong sweep that also uncovered dozens of machine guns and electronic circuits for bombs.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 27, In Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber targeted the assistant interior minister, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, and blew himself up just before going into a gathering of well-wishers for the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in Jiddah. Nayef was slightly wounded.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Sep 14, The Saudi Interior Ministry said on Jan 18, 2010, that an investigation has shown that three Saudi militants were killed in a Sept. 14 blast outside the country [see Afghanistan and Pakistan Sep 14, 2009].
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2009        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia opened a new multibillion dollar coed university outside the coastal city of Jeddah. The King Abdullah Science and Technology University, or KAUST, boasted state-of-the-art labs, the world's 14th fastest supercomputer and one of the biggest endowments worldwide. 817 students representing 61 different countries were currently enrolled, with 314 beginning classes this month. It was run by Saudi Aramco, the national oil company, and was the kingdom’s first mixed-gender university.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m7gs6fo)(AP, 9/23/09)   

2009        Oct 7, A Saudi court convicted Mazen Abdul-Jawad for publicly talking about sex after he bragged on a TV talk show about his exploits, sentencing him to five years in jail and 1,000 lashes. The program, which aired July 15 on the Lebanese LBC satellite channel, was seen in Saudi Arabia and scandalized conservative viewers where such frank talk is rarely heard in public.
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Oct 7, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah made his first visit to Syria since becoming monarch, the strongest indication yet of thawing relations between the two rival nations following years of tension. The 2-day talks between Abdullah and Assad focused on the need for Arab solidarity in view of the numerous challenges facing the Arab world.
    (AP, 10/7/09)(AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 13, In Saudi Arabia a shootout between Saudi security forces and al-Qaida militants near, two of whom were disguised as women and wearing explosives belts, left two of the militants and a soldier dead near the southern Yemen border. One of the assailants, Abdullah Hassan Tali Assiri, was captured. The two al-Qaida militants killed were planning to carry out a massive attack. 6 Yemeni accomplices. who were coordinating with the two militants, Youssef al-Shihri and Raed al-Harbi, were later arrested.
    (AP, 10/14/09)(AP, 10/18/09)

2009        Oct 24, A Saudi court convicted a female journalist for her involvement in a TV show, in which a Saudi man, Abdul-Jawad, publicly talked about sex, and sentenced her to 60 lashes. Rozanna al-Yami (22) is believed to be the first Saudi woman journalist to be given such a punishment. The same court sentenced Abdul-Jawad earlier this month to five years in jail and 1,000 lashes. 3 other men who appeared on the show, "Bold Red Line," were also convicted of discussing sex publicly and sentenced to two years imprisonment and 300 lashes each. Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah waived the flogging sentence of the female journalist, the second such pardoning of such a high profile case by the monarch in recent years. He ordered al-Yami's case and that of another journalist, a pregnant woman also accused of involvement in the program, be referred to a committee in the ministry.
    (AP, 10/24/09)(AP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct, The Bin Laden family went under the spotlight in "Growing Up Bin Laden," written by Omar bin Laden and his mother, Najwa bin Laden. In Dec, 2009, Omar bin Laden, revealed that many of the children who had been with their father in Afghanistan escaped to Iran following the 2001 US-led invasion, and were still together in a walled compound under Iranian guard.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2009        Nov 1, A Saudi Arabia Interior Ministry spokesman said authorities have discovered large quantities of weapons in the capital Riyadh belonging to al-Qaida terror network. The discovery included 281 assault rifles and 51 ammunition boxes.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 3, Unidentified gunmen infiltrated from Yemen and attacked Saudi security guards patrolling the Mount Dokhan border area. 3 senior security men were killed.
    (AP, 11/5/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.47)

2009        Nov 4, Saudi Arabia launched a large military incursion across the border into northern Yemen, using fighter jets and artillery bombardments to try to end a Shiite rebellion inside its troubled southern neighbor.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia said it carried out airstrikes against "infiltrators" from Yemen that were limited to areas inside Saudi territory, and vowed to press on with the military action until the border with its restive neighbor was secure. In Yemen, however, a military official said Saudi forces continued to shell rebel position in Saada.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia’s assistant defense minister said Saudi forces have taken control of Dokhan mountain straddling the border with Yemen and cleared it of Shiite rebels, in five days of fighting that saw three soldiers killed and 15 wounded.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 9, In Saudi Arabia Ali Sibat (49), a Lebanese psychic who made predictions on a satellite TV channel from his home in Beirut, was sentenced to death for practicing witchcraft. He was arrested by religious police in Medina during a pilgrimage there in May, 2008. In 2010 Saudi authorities said Sibat would not be beheaded. A 3-judge panel said that there was not enough evidence that Sibat's actions harmed others. They ordered the case to be retried in a Medina court and recommended that the sentence be commuted and that Sibat be deported.
    (AP, 11/25/09)(AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 11/13/10)

2009        Nov 10, A Saudi Arabian government adviser says the kingdom has imposed a naval blockade on northern Yemen's Red Sea coast to try to prevent weapons and fighters flowing to Shiite rebels in the area.
    (AP, 11/10/09)

2009        Nov 21, Saudi health officials announced the first deaths from swine flu of this year's annual pilgrimage to Mecca, as four pilgrims succumbed to the disease soon after arriving in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 23, Shiite rebels in northern Yemen accused Saudi forces of launching a major cross-border ground and air attack, a day after an alleged failed incursion.
    (AFP, 11/23/09)

2009        Nov 25, In Saudi Arabia rare, heavy rainstorms soaked pilgrims and flooded the road into Mecca, snarling Islam's annual hajj as some 2.5 million Muslims headed for the holy sites. The downpours add an extra hazard on top of intense concerns about the spread of swine flu. The torrential rains killed at least 106 people. Most of the deaths occurred in Jiddah, where streets were swamped with water, some houses collapsed and mudslides took place, and in areas around the main highway to Mecca.
    (AP, 11/25/09)(AFP, 11/25/09)(AP, 11/26/09)(AP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 27, In Saudi Arabia vast crowds of pilgrims cast stones at walls representing the devil on the third day of the annual hajj as Muslims around the world began celebrating Eid al-Adha, the most important holiday of the Islamic calendar.
    (AP, 11/27/09)
2009        Nov 27, Saudi Arabia said nine of its soldiers fighting Yemeni rebels on the border were missing and Saudi King Abdullah vowed to defend the country.
    (AP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 29, Saudi officials said 5 people died from swine flu during the hajj, a relatively small number considering the event is the largest annual gathering in the world and was seen as an ideal incubator for the virus.
    (AP, 11/29/09)
2009        Nov 29, Somali pirates seized the Greece-flagged Maran Centaurus, a tanker carrying more about $150 million of crude oil from Saudi Arabia to the US, in the waters off East Africa.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 12, Saudi newspapers said Saudi ground forces and Apache attack helicopters had battled Huthi fighters for two days at the Al-Jabri post on the Yemeni border in the southern province of Yemen, and repulsed attempted Huthi incursions. Saudi military denied a claim by Yemen's Huthi rebels that they seized a Saudi border post.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 13, In Yemen air strike killed at least 35 people in the northwest where rebels have been fighting a guerrilla war against Yemeni and Saudi forces. Rebels said 70 civilians were killed as fighter jets struck the town of Razah.
    (SFC, 12/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 15, In Kuwait Gulf Arab nations put into force a monetary pact, moving a step closer toward the elusive goal of a single regional currency and greater integration between the mainly oil-rich states. The announcement was made by Kuwait's finance minister came as leaders from the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council nations were wrapping up a two-day summit in which they launched a regional electricity project. The GCC groups Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia said that 73 Saudis have been killed and 26 gone missing since the kingdom launched an offensive against Yemeni Shiite rebels along the border last month. Rebels, known as Hawthis, have alleged dozens of civilian deaths in Saudi air assaults.
    (SFC, 12/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 28, In Niger unidentified gunmen in the remote western desert shot dead 3 tourists from Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 12/29/09, p.A2)

2009        Robert Lacey, British journalist, authored “Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia."
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.88)

2010        Jan 12, Saudi Arabia said that 82 Saudi soldiers been killed and 21 are missing since November when it joined the fighting in battling rebels along the Yemeni-Saudi border.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 19, A Saudi court sentenced a teenage girl (13) to a 90-lash flogging and two months in prison as punishment for assaulting a teacher. The assault happened after the girl was caught with a camera phone at school.
    (AP, 1/24/10)

2010        Jan 23, Saudi Arabia’s assistant defense minister said Saudi forces have recovered the bodies of 20 soldiers who had been reported missing in fierce battles with Yemeni rebels on the border, raising the Saudi death toll in the conflict to 133.
    (AP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 25, A Saudi foreign ministry spokesman said Saudi Arabia has donated $50 million in relief to Haiti to cope with the devastating earthquake that hit the country nearly two weeks ago, making it the largest donation from the Middle East to date.
    (AP, 1/25/10)
2010        Jan 25, It was reported that Abdel-Malek al-Hawthi, the leader of Yemen's Shiite rebels, has declared the war with Saudi Arabia over and that he will pull his fighters out of Saudi territory. At least 133 Saudis soldiers have died in the months of fierce fighting in the rugged border region.
    (AP, 1/25/10)

2010        Jan 27, A top Saudi defense official said Saudi forces have driven Yemeni rebels out of the border region between the two countries, suggesting that the three month conflict along the mountainous frontier may be winding down.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Feb 2, Saudi Arabia said it will not get involved in peacemaking in Afghanistan unless the Taliban stops providing shelter and severs all ties with Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. Afghan Pres. Karzai was in Saudi Arabia hoping for an active Saudi role to persuade Taliban militants to switch sides.
    (SFC, 2/3/10, p.A4)

2010        Feb 8, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula number two Said al-Shihri called for attacks against US interests "everywhere," in an audio message released on the Internet.
    (AFP, 2/8/10)

2010        Feb 11, The Saudi religious police launched a nationwide crackdown on stores selling items that are red or in any other way allude to the banned celebrations of Valentine's Day.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Yemeni Shiite rebels handed over the first of five Saudi soldiers held captive since their border war.
    (AFP, 2/15/10)
2010        Feb 15, In London, England, a 33-year-old man was arrested after the body of a Saudi man (32) was discovered at the prestigious Landmark Hotel in the Marylebone area. The suspect claimed to be a member of the Saudi royal family. Prince Saud Bin Abdulaziz Bin Nasir Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was soon charged for the killing of Bandar Abdullah Abdulaziz. On Oct 19 the prince was convicted of murder. Photographs of Abdulaziz stored on a mobile phone had shown that there was a "sexual element" to the abuse.
    (AFP, 2/17/10)(AP, 2/19/10)(AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Feb 28, In Saudi Arabia Indian PM Manmohan Singh pitched for investment in his economy and closer petroleum sector cooperation with Saudi Arabia, the second day of a visit to the Middle East oil giant.
    (AFP, 2/28/10)

2010        Mar 1, Somali pirates hijacked a Saudi tanker in the Gulf of Aden. The Al Nisr Al Saudi usually carried fuel oil but was empty when it was taken with 14 crew onboard. NATO said one of its destroyers sank a pirate mothership off the Somali coast. Pirate crew members were transferred to a smaller boat and allowed to return to the mainland.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 6, The Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association said that Saudi security officers stormed a book stall at the Riyadh Int’l. Book Fair last week and confiscated all work by Abdellah Al-Hamid, a well-known reformer and critic of the royal family.
    (SSFC, 3/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Mar 24, Saudi Arabia said it has foiled several planned attacks on oil installations with the arrests of 113 suspected al-Qaida militants in a months-long sweep.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Apr 20, In Saudi Arabia a police official said that the head of the powerful religious police has fired the chief of the Mecca branch for advocating the mixing of the sexes. Ahmed bin Qassim al-Ghamidi's suggestion in a newspaper interview this week that men and women should be left to mingle freely directly clashed with a central preoccupation of the force.
    (AP, 4/21/10)

2010        May 3, In Saudi Arabia 2 people died in the flooding caused by violent thunderstorms which paralyzed Riyadh this week.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 5, Kuwaiti and Saudi officials said an Iranian espionage group has been dismantled in Kuwait.  The cell was reportedly acting on behalf of Iran's Revolutionary Guard.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 16, Prominent Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi resigned from the helm of Al-Watan daily in a move believed linked to official displeasure with articles critical of the state's harsh Islamic rules.
    (AFP, 5/16/10)

2010        Jun 10, In Saudi Arabia a government-owned daily reported that a Saudi court has convicted a man and sentenced him to four months in prison and 90 lashes for kissing a woman in a mall.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 22, A Saudi court convicted four women and 11 men for mingling at a party and sentenced them to flogging and prison terms.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 29, President Barack Obama and Saudi King Abdullah voiced "strong support" for international efforts to curb Iran's nuclear program, which the West says masks a secret drive to develop the capability for an atomic bomb.
    (Reuters, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 5, The US deported Imam Ahmad Afzali to Saudi Arabia. He had admitted to lying to the FBI during an investigation into a suicide bomb plot against NYC subway stations in 2009.
    (SFC, 7/6/10, p.A4)

2010        Jul 27, Iranian Shiite cleric Yasser Khalili was arrested in Saudi Arabia and put on trial on September 3 charged with "raising a shoe" at Prophet Mohammed's shrine. He was arrested while on pilgrimage by the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice and "jailed for 38 days in handcuffs. A judge ordered him to be whipped 150 times in public in the prophet's shrine. The story was not made public until Jan 8, 2011.
    (AFP, 1/8/11)

2010        Jul 30, The leaders of Syria and Saudi Arabia, once bitter rivals, made an unprecedented show of cooperation, traveling together to Lebanon in hopes of preventing any violence if members of a militant group are indicted in the 2005 assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri. Saudi Arabia, which was close to the slain premier, holds sway with Lebanon's ruling alliance led by his son Saad, while Syria and Iran support a rival camp led by Hezbollah.
    (AP, 7/30/10)

2010        Jul 31, UNESCO added seven cultural sites to its World Heritage List including Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, home to nuclear bomb testing in the 1940s and 1950s. Also added to the list were the Turaif District in Saudi Arabia; Australia's penal colony sites; the Jantar Mantar astronomical observation site in India; a shrine in Ardabil in Iran; the Tabriz historic bazaar complex, also in Iran; and the historic villages of Hahoe and Yangdong in South Korea.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Jul, Saudi Arabia’s population was estimated at 29.2 million.
    (NYT 2011 Almanac, p.673)

2010        Aug 6, Saudi Arabia suspended BlackBerry messaging services, as concerns spread across the Middle East and parts of Asia over security issues with the popular smartphones.
    (AFP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 10, Saudi Arabia's telecommunications regulator said it would allow BlackBerry messaging services to continue in the kingdom, citing "positive developments" with the device's Canadian manufacturer.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 15, In Saudi Arabia Ghazi Algosaibi (70), a consummate statesman and liberal writer, died after a long illness. Algosaibi was close to the kingdom's ruling family. But his writings, critical of Arab governments, were banned in the kingdom. Only last month, Saudi Culture Ministry lifted the ban on his writings citing his contributions to the nation.
    (AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 23, Saudi low-cost private airline Sama, launched in 2007 to serve Gulf and other Arab states, said it is to suspend services from Aug 24 due to financial problems.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 26, A Sri Lankan housemaid, L. T. Ariyawathi (49), was admitted to a hospital and planned to undergo surgery to remove 24 nails embedded in her body. Ariyawathi said her employer in Saudi Arabia had inflicted the injuries on her as a punishment. The woman traveled to Saudi Arabia in March and returned home last week, complaining of abuse by her employer.
    (AFP, 8/26/10)

2010        Sep 20, Saudi Arabia’s Shura Council voted 62 to 56 against a memorandum of understanding on bilateral consultations with Denmark after several members expressed unhappiness over the publication of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed in a Danish newspaper.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 26, The Saudi Gazette quoted Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz as saying: "Saudi Arabia is tackling terrorism with all its might and authorities have so far been successful in foiling 230 of 240 terrorist attempts." The number covers the period from 2003 to the present.
    (AFP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 15, The Saudi government said Jaber Jabran al-Faifi, a former Guantanamo detainee, has turned himself in to Saudi authorities. He had rejoined Al-Qaeda in Yemen after graduating from Saudi Arabia's rehabilitation program.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 20, British Justice David Bean sentenced Prince Saud Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud  to a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 20 years for the brutal assault at the Landmark Hotel in London on Feb 15.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, In its biggest arms deal ever, the United States announced it will sell up to 60 billion dollars worth of warplanes, helicopters and other weapons to Saudi Arabia, partly to help it counter Iran.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, Afghanistan's new peace council said it would be willing to make concessions to bring insurgents to the negotiating table, and called for Saudi Arabia's help in mediating peace talks.
    (Reuters, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 29, Authorities on 3 continents thwarted attacks when they seized explosives on cargo planes in the United Arab Emirates and England. The plot sent tremors throughout the US, where after a frenzied day searching planes and parcel trucks for other explosives, officials temporarily banned all new cargo from Yemen. The next day police in Dubai said that the bomb discovered there contained the powerful explosive PETN and bore the hallmarks of al-Qaida. One of the two powerful bombs mailed from Yemen to Chicago-area synagogues traveled on two passenger planes within the Middle East. A tip of the plot came from Jabir al-Fayfi, a Saudi who was held for years at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay. On Nov 5 al Qaeda's Yemen-based wing claimed responsibility for the explosive parcels.
    (AP, 10/30/10)(AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/2/10)(Reuters, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 13, Saudi Arabia’s first metro transit system, officially the Al Mashaaer Al Muqaddassah Metro, opened in Mecca.
    (Econ, 1/5/13, p.50)

2010        Nov 13, Sudanese Pres. al-Bashir left Khartoum for the annual hajj in Mecca, despite an outstanding arrest warrant issued for al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        Nov 14, An estimated 2.5-3 million Muslims began the annual hajj pilgrimage. The total number of tourists to Mecca and Medina, home to the prophet Muhammad, is expected to rise from about 12 million to almost 17 million by 2025. The Saudi Arabia government's commission for tourism and antiquities said revenue from tourism this year would reach $17.6 billion and double by 2015.
    (http://tinyurl.com/25zum7p)(AFP, 11/14/10)

2010        Nov 15, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims performing the annual hajj pilgrimage began making their way up the rocky desert Mount Arafat, chanting that they have come to answer God's call.
    (AP, 11/15/10)

2010        Nov 16, In Saudi Arabia pilgrims performing the annual hajj cast pebbles at three stone walls representing Satan in a symbolic rejection of temptation, as Muslims around the world celebrated Islam's biggest holiday, the festival of sacrifice.
    (AP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 17, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah stepped down as head of the country's National Guard and transferred the influential position to his son, in an apparent sign that the elderly monarch is beginning to lessen some of his duties.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 18, In Saudi Arabia rain soaked crowds of Muslim pilgrims and lightning flashed as they performed some of the final rituals of the annual hajj, stoning symbols of the devil and circling the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 19, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said that an inquiry will be launched into a female migrant's suspicious death in Saudi Arabia. Kikim Komalasari, who had worked in Abha city in Saudi Arabia since June 2009, had died from abuse. She was from Cianjur in West Java province.
    (AFP, 11/19/10)

2010        Nov 20, In Saudi Arabia a young woman in her twenties defying a driving ban in the capital died along with three female friends when her car overturned.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Nov 22, Saudi King Abdullah (86) departed for New York for medical treatment and temporarily handed control of the world's top oil producer and key American ally to Crown Prince Sultan, his half brother and heir to the throne.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 23, Saudi media said a Saudi woman (53), accused of torturing her Indonesian maid, has been sent to jail while the maid, Sumiati Binti Salan Mustapa (23), receives extensive hospital treatment for burns and broken bones.
    (AFP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 26, Saudi Interior Ministry spokesman Mansour al-Turki said authorities have arrested nearly 150 al-Qaida suspects over the past eight months, foiling planned attacks on Saudi government officials, civilians and media personalities.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 28, More than 250,000 classified US State Department documents were released by online whistleblower WikiLeaks. Among the leaked memos was information that Iranian Red Crescent ambulances were used to smuggle weapons to Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group during its 2006 war with Israel. Memos said the "IRC shipments of medical supplies served also to facilitate weapons shipments." Documents also detailed concerns by US officials in Baghdad about Iran’s influence on Iraq. Memos also said King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia had repeatedly urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear program to stop Tehran from developing a nuclear weapon. One cable revealed that the US kept nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.35)

2010        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia's Rani Investment Group said it would break ground on a 100-million-dollar (75-million-euro) resort on a Mozambique island next year, aiming to cash in on foreign tourists.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia the Omma Conference magazine said in a statement posted on its website that police arrested its editor Mohammed Al-Abdul Karim at his home and took him to Hayer prison outside the capital Riyadh. In an article last week, Al-Abdul Karim predicted that Abdullah's death might cause the oil-rich kingdom to fall apart.
    (AP, 12/7/10)
2010        Dec 7, Leaders of six US-allied Gulf Arab nations, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), said they were monitoring with "utmost concern" developments in Iran's disputed nuclear program and issued a thinly veiled warning to their Persian neighbor not to meddle in their internal affairs. The 2-day gathering of leaders from the Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman followed the publication of leaked US diplomatic memos that revealed deeper concern among Gulf Arab leaders over Tehran's nuclear program than had previously been known.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 16, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of Sunni hardliners in Medina attacked those participating in the commemorations, known as Ashura. The day of mourning marks the killing of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson Hussein in the year 680 in present day Iraq. Shiites represented 10% of predominantly Sunni Saudi Arabia's 22.6 million people.
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 22, The Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association said in a statement that the Interior Ministry summoned the coordinators of the protest to notify them that their request has been rejected, without giving any reasons. The group's 20 demands included curtailing privileges of members of the Saudi royal family, fighting corruption and nepotism, and creating an independent judiciary.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 24, In Saudi Arabia police shot dead a man, disguised as a woman, at a checkpoint south of Riyadh after he opened fire on them. Police later identified the man as Mohammed Issam Tahir al-Baghdadi, an al-Qaida operative wanted for terrorist activities.
    (AP, 12/27/10)

2010        Thomas Hegghammer authored “Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism singe 1979."
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.91)
2010        In Saudi Arabia an estimated 4 million women over the age of 20 were unmarried in the country of 24.6 million. Many male guardians forcibly kept women single, a practice known as "adhl." Saudi feminist Wajeha al-Hawaidar described male guardianship as "a form of slavery."
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2011        Jan 10, Interpol said it had placed 47 Saudis on its most wanted list after Saudi Arabia accused them of involvement in the Al-Qaida terror network.
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 16, A group of Saudi activists launched a campaign, named My Country, to push the kingdom to allow women to run in upcoming municipal election, scheduled this spring.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 21, A Saudi man died after setting himself on fire in the southwestern town of Samta, in what could be the latest example of a rash of self-immolations sweeping the region following events in Tunisia.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 24, The New York-based Human Rights Watch said in its World Report 2011 that Saudi Arabia's government is harassing and jailing activists, often without trial, for speaking out in favor of expanding religious tolerance and that new restrictions on electronic communication in the kingdom were severe.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia's stock exchange tumbled by over 6 percent, setting the stage for other regional markets to drop as concerns mounted about the violent protests in Egypt.
    (AP, 1/29/11)

2011        Jan, In Saudi Arabia flooding struck Jeddah and 10 people were killed.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.53)

2011        Feb 9, Ten moderate Saudi scholars asked the king for recognition of their Umma Islamic Party, the kingdom's first political party.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 15, A Saudi official at the Education Ministry said the kingdom plans to remove books from school libraries that are deemed to encourage terrorism or defame religion.
    (AP, 2/15/11)
2011        Feb 15, The London-based Gulf Dialogue Forum said intense contacts are under way among Saudi activists and scholars to form a political party in the oil-rich absolute monarchy. The online forum said the National Saudi Party advocates establishing a civil democratic government because of the recent turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 23, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (86) announced an unprecedented economic aid package, including interest-free home loans totaling some $37 billion.
    (Reuters, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Saudi Arabia influential intellectuals said in a statement that Arab rulers should derive a lesson from the uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and listen to the voice of disenchanted young people.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah ordered that government sector workers employed under temporary contracts be given permanent contracts in another to preempt growing calls for reform.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Mar 4, In Saudi Arabia about 100 members of the Shiite minority staged a protest in an eastern region of the kingdom.
    (AP, 3/5/11)

2011        Mar 5, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said demonstrations won't be tolerated and its security forces will act against anyone taking part in them.
    (AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 10, Saudi police in the city of Qatif reportedly shot and wounded 3 Shiite protesters, while trying to disperse a protest calling for the release of prisoners.
    (AFP, 3/10/11)(SFC, 3/11/11, p.A4)

2011        Mar 11, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of police deployed in the capital and prevented protests calling for democratic reforms inspired by the wave of unrest sweeping the Arab world.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 13, More than 200 Saudis were allowed to protest outside the Interior Ministry to demand the release of detainees in the largest demonstration in the capital since the regional outbreak of pro-democracy unrest.
    (AP, 3/13/11)
2011        Mar 13, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at anti-government demonstrators blocking the highway into the capital's financial district and surrounded the protesters' main camp in the capital. More than 200 people were injured there in clashes between riot police and demonstrators.
    (AP, 3/13/11)(AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 14, The 4th $50 thousand International Prize for Arabic Fiction was split between Mohammed Achaari of Morocco, author of “The Arch and the Butterfly," and Raja Alem of Saudi Arabia, author of “The Dove’s Necklace." Alem was the first women winner.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.95)
2011        Mar 14, In Bahrain a parliament bloc appealed for the king to impose martial law. Some 1,000 Saudi troops entered Bahrain as part of the Gulf countries' joint Peninsula Shield Force.
    (AP, 3/14/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.56)

2011        Mar 18, Saudi Arabia's king promised a multibillion dollar package of reforms, raises, cash, loans and apartments in what appeared to be the Arab world's most expensive attempt to appease residents inspired by the unrest that has swept two leaders from power.
    (AP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 20, In Saudi Arabia dozens of Saudi men and women, outnumbered by anti-riot police, protested outside Riyadh's Interior Ministry, demanding the release of thousands of detainees held without trial for years.
    (AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 25, A Saudi news agency says several hundred Shiite Muslims have held protests in eastern Saudi Arabia to demand the release of detainees and show support for fellow Shiites protesting against the Sunni monarchy in nearby Bahrain.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        May 10, The Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE) said it welcomed Jordan’s request to join the 6-member group. Jordan had first applied for membership in the mid-1980s. The GCC said it would encourage Morocco to also join.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.54)(http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=13586238)

2011        May 11, Saudi Arabia said three al-Qaida members have returned from abroad and turned themselves in. Officials said four other al-Qaida operatives surrendered to Saudi security after their leader, Osama bin Laden, was killed in a US raid May 2 in Pakistan.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 16, In Pakistan a Saudi diplomat was killed in a hail of bullets on his way to the country's consulate in Karachi, the second attack on Saudi interests in Pakistan's biggest city in less than a week.
    (AFP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 22, Saudi authorities rearrested activist Manal al-Sherif, who defied a ban on female drivers. She was detained for several hours a day earlier by the country's religious police and released after she signed a pledge agreeing not to drive. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that bans women, both Saudi and foreign, from driving.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 23, A Saudi pilot died when his US-made F-15 fighter jet crashed in eastern Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia beheaded Ruyati binti Satubi (54), an Indonesian grandmother, for killing an allegedly abusive Saudi employer. In response Indonesia later enacted a moratorium on labor exports to Saudi Arabia effective August 1.
    (SFC, 8/10/11, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/3wvhbpm)

2011        Jun 28, Saudi police detained one woman while driving in Jiddah on the Red Sea coast. Four other women accused of driving were later detained in the city.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 2, Der Spiegel reported that Germany has agreed to sell 200 Leopard tanks to Saudi Arabia.

2011        Jul 13, The Saudi-funded Asharq Alawsat daily reported that Saudi authorities have dismantled an Al-Qaeda-linked group of 16 people plotting to overthrow the regime. The group, which called itself the "project of the generation," also engaged in collecting funds under the guise of charitable activities, which were in fact destined for "suspicious foreign parties."
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 15, Saudi authorities beheaded a man convicted of attacking a woman and snapping nude photos of her in order to blackmail her for sex.
    (AP, 7/16/11)

2011        Jul 18, Spain’s Transport Minister Jose Blanco confirmed that a Spanish consortium has won a contract worth 7.0 billion euros ($10 billion) to build a high-speed rail network linking Medina, Jeddah and the Muslim pilgrimage site of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 25, Saudi authorities blocked the website of Amnesty International inside the kingdom following criticism of a controversial new anti-terrorism draft law.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 30, Three Saudis were beheaded in the western city of Taef after being convicted of killing fellow citizens in two separate incidents.
    (AFP, 7/30/11)

2011        Aug 3, Saudi Arabia said Abdel-Salam Rashed al-Farraj, an al-Qaida member on the kingdom's most-wanted list, has turned himself in after calling his family from abroad.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 6, In Saudi Arabia security forces shot dead a gunman as he opened fire on the Jeddah palace of Interior Minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz. Another man was arrested during the attack in which two men opened fire after midnight on the Qasr Shateh residence of Prince Nayef.
    (AFP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah demanded a stop to Syria’s “killing machine."
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.43)

2011        Sep 16, In Yemen thousands of protesters took to the streets demanding the resignation of Pres. Saleh, a day after the US State Department said it hoped a power transfer deal could be signed within a week. Officials in Saudi Arabia and Yemen said that President Ali Abdullah Saleh will not return to Sanaa and will, instead, remain in Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 18, In Saudi Arabia 10 more men at a special summary court were accused of plotting to carry out attacks against US forces in Qatar and Kuwait.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, p.A4)

2011        Sep 19, In Saudi Arabia Abdul Hamid al-Fakki, a Sudanese man, was executed for the crime of sorcery.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.73)

2011        Sep 25, Saudi King Abdullah announced that the nation's women will gain the right to vote and run as candidates in local elections to be held in 2015 in a major advancement for the rights of women in the deeply conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 27, In Saudi Arabia Shaima Jastaina was sentenced to be lashed 10 times with a whip for defying the kingdom’s prohibition on driving. King Abdullah quickly overturned the court ruling.
    (SFC, 9/28/11, p.A2)(SFC, 9/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 29, Saudi Arabian men cast ballots in local council elections, the second-ever nationwide vote in the oil-rich kingdom. Women don't have the right to vote this time around, but will be able to do so in 2015. The councils are one of the few elected bodies in the country but have no real power, mandated to offer advice to provincial authorities.
    (AP, 9/29/11)
2011        Sep 29, Manssor Arbabsiar (56), a US citizen who holds an Iranian passport, was arrested when he arrived at New York's Kennedy International Airport. Mexico worked closely with US authorities to help foil an alleged $1.5 million plot to kill the Saudi Arabian ambassador to Washington. On Oct 11 Arbabsiar was charged in US District Court in New York with conspiring to kill the Saudi diplomat, Adel Al-Jubeir (49).
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 13, In Austria a Saudi-backed interfaith center, the "King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Center for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue," was inaugurated in Vienna, igniting debate over the subject of religious tolerance.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 22, Saudi Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz (b.~1928), heir to the Saudi throne, died in the United States. He had been receiving treatment for colon cancer since 2009. The most likely candidate to replace Sultan as King Abdullah's successor is Prince Nayef (78), the powerful interior minister in charge of internal security forces.
    (AFP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 27, Saudi Arabia's powerful interior minister, Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (78), was named the new heir to the throne in a royal decree read out on state television.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 29, Saudi Prince Khaled bin Talal, brother of billionaire Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, told the kingdom's al-Daleel TV station by telephone that he was raising a previous offer made by Sheik Awadh al-Qarani, a prominent Saudi cleric who promised $100,000 for capturing an Israeli soldier.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 3, Saudi authorities said nearly 2.5 million Muslims have gathered in Mecca ahead of the annual 5-day hajj pilgrimage, which begins Nov 5.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 5, In Saudi Arabia millions of Muslims began their annual hajj pilgrimage by climbing a rocky desert hill outside Mecca. The ascent of Arafat is the first event associated with the five-day hajj.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia millions of Muslims stoned pillars representing the devil in a symbolic rejection of temptation on the second day of their annual hajj pilgrimage, a day that also marks the start of the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Adha. More than 2.9 million Muslims were performing the hajj this year.
    (AP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 15, Saudi Arabia said it has signed an agreement with South Korea on developing nuclear power generation to help meet the kingdom's rising demand.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 23, Yemen’s Pres. Saleh signed a US-backed power-transfer deal, brokered by neighboring countries in the Saudi capital of Riyadh. It officially transfers power to his vice president, Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. The deal also called for early presidential elections within 90 days.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 24, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said minority Shiite Muslims have staged protests in the eastern city of Qatif, and four were shot dead. Shiites make up 10 percent of the kingdom's 23 million citizens and complain of discrimination.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amnesty International published a new report accusing Saudi Arabia of conducting a campaign of repression against protesters and reformists since the Arab Spring erupted.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia sentenced an Australian man to 500 lashes and a year in jail after being found guilty of blasphemy. Reports said Mansor Almaribe (45) was detained in Medina on November 14 while making the hajj pilgrimage and accused of insulting companions of the prophet Mohammed. The father-of-five from Shepparton in Victoria state, who could not afford a lawyer, suffers from diabetes and heart disease.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 10, Saudi Arabia’s Okaz newspaper reported that a man convicted of raping his daughter has been sentenced to receive 2,080 lashes over the course of a 13-year prison term. A court in Mecca found the man guilty of raping his teenage daughter for seven years while under the influence of drugs.
    (AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 12, Saudi authorities executed a woman convicted of practicing magic and sorcery. The woman was arrested in April, 2009, and later convicted in a Saudi court. Religious police, who arrested the woman, said she had tricked people into thinking she could treat illnesses, charging them $800 per session.
    (AP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 15, In Saudi Arabia 35 Ethiopian Christians, 29 of them women, were arrested  after police raided a private prayer gathering. They later faced deportation for "illicit mingling."
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2011        Dec 19, Saudi billionaire Prince Walid bin Talal and his Kingdom Holding Company announced a combined investment of $300 million in the social networking site Twitter.
    (AFP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 29, The Obama administration announced an arms deal with Saudi Arabia valued at nearly $30 billion. It included 84 F-15 fighter jets.
    (SFC, 12/30/11, p.A5)
2011        Dec 29, Industry sources said Saudi Arabia's state oil company Aramco was seeking to buy fuel in order to donate about 500,000 tons of products to Yemen in January.
    (Reuters, 12/31/11)

2011        In Saudi Arabia leading Shiite Cleric Sheik Nimr al-Nimr called on his followers to join the Arab Spring. Security forces responded with live ammunition and incarcerated hundreds of youths.
    (Econ, 3/19/15, p.53)
2011        Indian-born New Yorker Parvez Sharma, a gay man, attended the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and secretly filmed his experiences using a mobile phone and two tiny cameras. In 2015 the film was released as a documentary titled “A Sinner in Mecca." It quickly attracted death threats and an online hate campaign.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)
2011        In Saudi Arabia at least 76 death row inmates were executed this year, according to an AFP count. Amnesty International believed that at least 79 executions during this period. In 2010, 27 people were executed, according to the UN, citing a report by Human Rights Watch.
    (AFP, 1/5/12)
2011        In Saudi Arabia Satinah Binti Jumadi Ahmad, an Indonesian maid, was sentenced to death for murdering her employer's wife in 2007 and stealing money. In 2014 the Indonesian government agreed to pay $1.8 million to free Satinah (41).
    (AFP, 3/24/14)(Reuters, 4/4/14)
2011        In Saudi Arabia a teacher (42) was arrested for abducing and raping a girl (9). In 2013 he was convicted of kidnapping and raping eight young girls (ages 6 to 11). In 2014 the Supreme Court upheld his death sentence.
    (AFP, 4/6/14)
2011        A Spanish consortium signed a deal with Saudi Arabia for a bullet train between Median and Mecca.
    (SFC, 6/9/20, p.A2)

2012        Jan 2, Saudi Arabia said it will begin enforcing a law that allows only females to work in women's lingerie and apparel stores, effective December 5. The 2006 law banning men from working in female apparel and cosmetic stores has never been put into effect.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 3, Israeli credit card companies said hackers claiming to be Saudis disclosed credit card information of thousands of Israelis on the Internet.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 6, An alleged Saudi hacker (19), oxOmar, posted thousands of Israeli credit card numbers and other personal data online, his second politically motivated attack this week.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 12, Saudi security forces clashed with Shiite protesters in the kingdom's oil-rich east killing one person and wounding 3. The clashes came after demonstrations were held in four Qatif region villages to call for the "release of political detainees, reform and an end to sectarian discrimination. Most of Saudi Arabia's estimated two million Shiites live in the Eastern Province.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 13, British PM David Cameron held talks with Saudi King Abdullah in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao held talks with Saudi officials in Riyadh on the first stop of a Gulf tour, as tensions over Iran's nuclear program sparked fears of major oil supply disruptions.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)
2012        Jan 14, A French Mirage and a Saudi F-15 collided in the kingdom's northern region of Tabuk without causing casualties.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 16, A hacker network that claims to be based in Saudi Arabia paralyzed the websites of Israel's stock exchange and national airline. El Al Israel Airlines took down its website after hacker OxOmar, who has been linked to the Saudi group, warned that both sites would be targeted by allied pro-Palestinian hackers.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 24, Saudi police detained nine men accused of instigating riots earlier this month in the eastern city of Qatif.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 30, A Riyadh-based Afghan diplomat said Afghan officials and representatives of the Taliban insurgents are to hold peace talks in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 7, South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak arrived in Riyadh at the start of a two-day visit to the OPEC kingpin which comes as Seoul seeks to diversify its oil sources. Lee Myung-Bak held talks with Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi and the head of Saudi state oil giant Aramco, Khalid al-Faleh. Saudi Arabia pledged to ensure a stable supply of oil to South Korea.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)(AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, In Saudi Arabia Munir al-Medani (21) was killed and three wounded when security forces exchanged gunfire with "masked men" in the Qatif district of the kingdom's oil-rich Eastern Province. Activists and witnesses said that security forces opened fire when a Shiite procession marking the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed, a celebration forbidden in ultra-conservative Sunni Muslim Saudi Arabia, turned into a demonstration for reform and the release of Shiite detainees.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)(AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Saudi Arabia Zuhair al-Said (21) was killed as security forces dispersed a protest against the death of another Shiite demonstrator the previous day.
    (AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, Malaysia deported Hamza Kashgari, a young Saudi journalist wanted in his home country over a Twitter post about the Prophet Mohammed, defying pleas from human rights group who said he faced execution. His tweet: "I have loved things about you and I have hated things about you and there is a lot I don't understand about you. "I will not pray for you."
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 19, A Saudi court acquitted rights activist Said bin Zeghair, who spent five years in detention accused of supporting al-Qaida's ideology. The court cited lack of evidence. Bin Zeghair was first detained in 1995 but was freed after nine years without being charged or tried. Later he was sentenced to five years in prison but was pardoned when King Abdullah ascended to the throne in 2005. He was detained again in 2007.
    (AP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 29, Saudi Arabia said that it would honor a pledge of $3.75 billion in aid to Egypt, after complaints by the Egyptian premier that donor countries were failing to respect their commitments.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb, In Saudi Arabia a royal order stipulated that women who drive should not be prosecuted by the courts.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.60)

2012        Mar 6, In Bangladesh Saudi diplomat Khalaf bin Mohammed Salem al-Ali was shot and killed on a residential street in Dhaka. Authorities said the gunman and a motive were unknown.
    (AP, 3/6/12)
2012        Mar 6, Swedish Radio reported that Sweden has in secret been helping Saudi Arabia plan the construction of an arms factory to produce anti-tank missiles. Construction on "Project Simoom" has yet to begin.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said it has closed its embassy in Damascus and pulled out its diplomats and staff as Syrian President Bashar Assad steps up attacks against the opposition.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 22, Saudi Arabia media reports said single men in Riyadh will be able to visit shopping malls during peak hours after Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz  eased restrictions aimed at stopping harassment of women.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 26, Saudi King Abdullah ordered the donation of petroleum products to neighboring Yemen that should cover the impoverished country's needs for two months.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 28, Yemen's Saudi Arabia's deputy consul, Abdullah al-Khalidi (Abdullah Mohammed Khalifa al-Khaldi), was seized by unknown gunmen outside his home in southern port city of Aden.  Al-Qaida's Yemen branch claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)(AP, 5/26/12)

2012        Mar 26, A Spanish court dropped a rape probe against a Saudi prince who is one of the world's richest people, saying his accuser's allegations are inconsistent and do not stand up. The ruling cleared Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (57) and was released today by a court in Palma in Spain's Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. The drugging and sexual assault of a young Spanish model was alleged to have occurred aboard a yacht moored at the island of Ibiza in the wee hours of Aug 12, 2008.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People" meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 4, A Saudi official reiterated a position he announced late last year, confirming that Saudi Arabia will be fielding only male athletes in London. Prince Nawaf bin Faisal said, however, that Saudi women taking part on their own are free to do so and the kingdom's Olympic authority would "only help in ensuring that their participation does not violate the Islamic sharia law."
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 4, Saudi Arabia beheaded a man found guilty of shooting dead a fellow Saudi. His execution in Riyadh brought the total number of beheadings so far this year to 17.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)
2012        Apr 4, Iraq's fugitive Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi, accused of running a death squad, left the Gulf state of Qatar for Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 10, In Saudi Arabia a Specialized Criminal Court in Riyadh found al-Bajady guilty of several offenses, including participating in the establishment of a human rights organization and harming the image of Saudi Arabia in media articles. He was reportedly tried in secret sentenced to four years in prison.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 17, A prominent Egyptian human rights lawyer, Ahmed el-Gezawi, was arrested upon his arrival in the Saudi port of Jiddah. He was on his way to perform a minor pilgrimage. El-Gezawi had earlier filed a lawsuit in Egypt against King Abdullah over the alleged arbitrary detention of hundreds of Egyptians living in the kingdom. A rights group said he has criticized the monarch in television interviews.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 18, Iran welcomed Saudi Arabia suspending death sentences against several of its nationals convicted for drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 24, Hundreds of Egyptians noisily protested outside the Saudi Embassy to demand the release of an Egyptian human rights lawyer detained on April 17 in Saudi Arabia for allegedly insulting the kingdom's monarch.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 26, Pakistani authorities deported Osama bin Laden's three widows and his children to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/27/12)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 28, Saudi Arabia's official news agency said the kingdom has closed its embassy and consulates in Egypt and recalled its ambassador following protests over a detained Egyptian human rights lawyer Ahmed el-Gezawi.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        May 14, Liberal civil society groups in Gulf states called on Saudi and Bahraini leaders to postpone plans to announce a union between them, saying such a step must be preceded by a referendum.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 18, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has banned all government and private agencies from using the Gregorian calendar in official dealings. The use the English language to answer calls or communicate, mainly in companies and hotels, has also been banned in an effort to preserve the Arabic language.
    (SSFC, 5/20/12, p.A4)
2012        May 18, In Iran thousands of people demonstrated in Tehran to protest a proposed union of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 23, Saudi Arabia’s SPA state news said Saudi Arabia has signed a $3-billion deal with Britain to buy Hawk trainer jets for the Gulf kingdom's air force. The majority of the Hawks will be made at BAE's plants in Samlesbury and Warton in Lancashire, northwest England.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)(Reuters, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, Saudi Arabia said it will give its impoverished neighbor Yemen aid worth $3.25 billion and urging other nations to take similar steps.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, In Saudi Arabia a Saudi woman defied orders by the notorious religious police to leave a mall because she is wearing nail polish and recorded the interaction on her camera. Her video went viral, attracting more than a million hits in just five days.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        Jun 16, Saudi Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (79), a half brother of King Abdullah, died, leaving the oil powerhouse with no apparent successor to the throne.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)

2012        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia’s Defense Minister Prince Salman bin Abdul-Aziz (76), a half brother to the king, was named the country’s new crown prince.
    (SFC, 6/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 24, In Saudi Arabia a man (60) died from severe pneumonia complicated by renal failure. He had arrived at a Jihad hospital 11 days earlier with symptoms similar to severe case of influenza or SARS. In September an Egyptian virologist said it was caused by a new coronavirus. Months later the illness was named MERS (Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome).
    (SFC, 8/14/13, p.E1)

2012        Jun 26, Saudi authorities beheaded four of its citizens for murder and a Syrian national for drug smuggling.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun, In Saudi Arabia blogger Raif Badawi was jailed for ridiculing Islamic religious figures.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.58)

2012        Jul 8, In Saudi Arabia Sheik Nimr al-Nimr was arrested after he and followers exchanged fire with security forces and crashed into one of the patrol vehicles. Al-Nimr, who was wounded in the leg, faced charges of instigating unrest in the oil-rich eastern province.
    (AP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 8, Saudi Arabia’s Prince Mohammed bin Saud (78), a senior prince and former defense minister, died. He wielded influence as part of a council of royal family members that helps select the heirs to rule the country.
    (AP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 9, In Saudi Arabia 2 Shiites were killed in overnight clashes with police in the eastern province of Qatif following the arrest of a prominent Shiite cleric and government critic. The new deaths bring to nine the number of people killed in clashes between Saudi authorities and protesters in the Shiite-populated region.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)

2012        Jul 13, In Saudi Arabia a gunman was killed during an attack on a police station in the Shiite town of Al-Awamiya. Two security forces' patrols came under gunfire from masked armed men on motorbikes in the town of Saihat, wounding four policemen.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 17, A Saudi newspaper reported that a Lebanese man, nicknamed the "tattoo king," has been sentenced to one year in prison and 200 lashes. Charges included having met privately with women.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 20, Saudi authorities warned non-Muslim expatriates against eating, drinking or smoking in public during Ramadan, or face expulsion. The monthlong sunrise-to-sunset fast began today for Sunni Muslims.
    (AP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 24, Saudi state TV announced that the government has collected about $32.5 million in donations as part of a national drive to support "our brothers in Syria."
    (AP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 27, Saudi authorities detained a number of protesters in the restive eastern Shiite region after they set tires ablaze during an overnight rally. Security forces opened fire on Shiite protesters in the tense Qatif district of Eastern Province, wounding several as hundreds marched to demand the release of detainees.
    (AP, 7/27/12)

2012        Jul 30, Saudi Arabia implemented a ban on smoking in government offices and most public places, including restaurants, coffee shops, supermarkets and shopping malls.
    (AP, 7/30/12)

2012        Aug 4, A Saudi policeman and an armed protester were killed in overnight clashes in the kingdom's Shiite-populated Eastern Province. the attackers were participating in a protest that took place in Qatif late on Friday.
    (AFP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 15, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar all ordered their citizens to leave Lebanon.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 15, The Organization of Islamic Cooperation, comprised of 57 member states, released a final statement from its two day summit in Saudi Arabia's Muslim holy city of Mecca urging support of Syria’s opposition.
    (AP, 8/15/12)
2012        Aug 15, A person with privileged access to the Saudi state-owned oil company’s computers, unleashed a computer virus to initiate what is regarded as among the most destructive acts of computer sabotage on a company to date. The virus erased data on three-quarters of Aramco’s corporate PCs — documents, spreadsheets, e-mails, files — replacing all of it with an image of a burning American flag.
    (NYT, 10/23/12)(http://tinyurl.com/8mc4pom)

2012        Aug 16, In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the top world Muslim body, suspended Syria, saying it can no longer accept a regime that "massacres its people", as rights groups accused Damascus of a new atrocity against civilians.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Sep 18, YouTube said that it was stopping users in Saudi Arabia from viewing “Innocence of Muslims," an anti-Islam video that has sparked protests across the Muslim world, after the kingdom's press agency reported that the ruler had banned all access to the film and the site appeared to be blocked there.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 24, Saudi Arabian authorities began holding some 908 female Nigerian pilgrims heading to Mecca over a rule requiring them to travel with a husband or male companion.
    (SFC, 9/27/12, p.A2)(AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia began expelling over a thousand Nigerian women on religious pilgrimage to the country because they had arrived without male guardians.
    (AP, 9/28/12)   

2012        Oct 11, A former US government official said US authorities believe that Iranian-based hackers were responsible for cyberattacks that devastated Persian Gulf oil and gas companies. Just hours later, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said the cyberthreat from Iran has grown, and he declared that the Pentagon is prepared to take action if American is threatened by a computer-based assault.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 14, Iranian officials denied any role in recent online attacks against oil and gas companies in the Persian Gulf and denounced American allegations of an Iranian link to the Shamoon virus that hit Saudi state oil company Aramco and Qatari natural gas producer RasGas.
    (SFC, 10/15/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 25, Some 3.4 million Muslims from 300 nations started their annual hajj pilgrimage by ascending Mount Arafat in Saudi Arabia on a day pilgrims believe offers them a chance to repent their sins.
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 28, In northern Yemen a suspected US drone airstrike targeted al-Qaida militants in a house in Saada province, killing 3 people, two of them said to be Saudis. Saeed al-Shihri, a Saudi national who fought in Afghanistan and spent six years in the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, was wounded in the attack. On Jan 24 a security official said al-Shihri, Al-Qaida's No. 2 in Yemen, had died from wounds suffered in the attack.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 1/24/13)

2012        Oct 30, In Saudi Arabia celebratory gunfire, common at weddings, brought down a power line that touched off a fire in the Eastern Province, killing at least 23 women and children.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Nov 1, In Saudi Arabia a fuel truck exploded after hitting portions of a bridge in the Saudi capital, Riyadh, engulfing buildings and cars in flames and killing at least 22 people and injuring more than 110.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 5, In Saudi Arabia a group of 11 al-Qaida fighters killed two border guards while trying to cross into Yemen before they themselves were captured.
    (AP, 11/5/12)

2012        Nov 26, In Austria ceremonies were held to launch a Saudi-sponsored and funded center in Vienna meant to promote dialogue between the world's main religions. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon spoke and urged Israel and Hamas to respect their cease-fire.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Nov 28, Gunmen in Yemen opened fire on the car of a Saudi Arabian army officer working with his embassy's military section, killing him and his Yemeni bodyguard.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Dec 27, In Saudi Arabia a man was killed in clashes with police in an oil-rich eastern region, where the country's Shiite minority has been holding protests against the Sunni ruling monarchy.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2012        Dec 31, Residents of Saudi Arabia, where booze and New Year's celebrations are banned, flooded into neighboring Bahrain in search of festivities to ring in 2013.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2012        In Saudi Arabia the Abraj Al-Bait Towers, also known as the Mecca Royal Hotel Clock Tower, was completed. It was the tallest clock tower in the world, the world's largest clock face and the building with the world's largest floor area. The hotel tower became the second tallest building in the world, surpassed only by Dubai's Burj Khalifa.
2012        Saudi courts licensed their first female lawyer.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.45)
2012        Croatian arms bought by Saudi Arabia were flown to Jordan for distribution to Syrian rebels in a deal backed by the CIA.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.44)
2012        Germanys’ Bild am Sonntag reported that Saudi Arabia wanted to buy 600-800 Leopard battle tanks from Germany, more than twice as many as originally envisaged.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)

2013        Jan 9, Saudi authorities beheaded a Sri Lankan domestic worker for killing a Saudi baby in her care in 2005. Rizana Nafeek, 17 at the time of the killing, had denied strangling the 4-month-old boy.
    (AP, 1/9/13)(SFC, 1/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 11, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah issued two royal decrees granting women 30 seats on the Shura Council, which has 150 members plus a president. The council reviews laws and questions ministers, but doesn't have legislative powers.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 15, A Saudi court convicted an Egyptian human rights lawyer for smuggling drugs into the kingdom. He was sentenced to five years in prison and 300 lashes. The case of Ahmed el-Gezawi caused an outcry in Egypt where rights groups claimed he was initially detained in April 2012 for criticizing the kingdom's monarch. They claimed he confessed to the smuggling charges under duress.
    (AP, 1/15/13)
2013        Jan 15, In Saudi Arabia dozens of conservative clerics picketed the royal court  to condemn the recent appointment of 30 women to the 150-member Shura Council.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.52)

2013        Feb 25, Jordan said it has no official word from Saudi Arabia about one of its citizens, youth activist Khaled Natour, apprehended by authorities there 50 days ago.
    (AP, 2/25/13)

2013        Mar 13, In Saudi Arabia 7 men convicted of theft, looting and armed robbery were beheaded, more than a week after their families and a rights group appealed to the king for clemency. One of the men told The Associated Press in early March that he was only 15 when he was arrested as part of a ring that stole jewelry in 2004 and 2005. Nasser al-Qahtani said he was tortured to confess and had no access to lawyers.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 19, A British court ruled that two Saudi princes involved in litigation in London over a business dispute did not have immunity from being sued, a new blow to the royal pair after they failed in an attempt to have the case heard in secret. The litigation, which has been going through British courts since December 2011, stems from sales in 2010 and 2011 of shares in Fi Call Ltd, a company jointly owned by Prince Abdulaziz and Jordanian businessman Faisal Almhairat.
    (Reuters, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 26, Saudi Arabia said investigations have shown that members of a spy ring arrested last week were working for Iranian intelligence.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Apr 1, A Saudi newspaper said the kingdom's religious police are now allowing women to ride motorbikes and bicycles but only in restricted, recreational areas. They also have to be accompanied by a male relative and dressed in the full Islamic head-to-toe abaya.
    (AP, 4/1/13)

2013        Apr 14, Saudi billionaire Prince Alwaleed bin Talal indicated support of allowing women there to drive. He also said that he would help the kingdom's campaign to cut down on the number of foreign workers.
    (AP, 4/14/13)

2013        Apr, A subsidiary of Saudi Arabia's Kingdom Holding Co agreed to refinance the debt it used to buy London's Savoy Hotel with a new 200 million-pound loan.
    (AP, 5/4/13)
2013        Apr, Saudi media said an Eritrean military pilot sent by Asmara to reclaim a jet stolen by two fellow officers when sought asylum in the kingdom had herself defected.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        May 2, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said that five people have died and two other patients were in critical condition with confirmed cases of a new respiratory coronavirus related to SARS. The new virus was first identified last year in the Middle East and several of the people infected had all traveled to Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan or Pakistan.
    (AP, 5/2/13)

2013        May 3, The Saudi Justice Ministry said a special security court has issued 2,145 jail sentences for "supporting terrorism" since it was formed four and a half years ago.
    (AP, 5/4/13)

2013        May 5, In Tanzania a bomb thrown from a motorcycle on a Catholic church in Arusha left 2 people dead. 4 Saudi Arabian citizens were among 6 people arrested.
    (AP, 5/6/13)

2013        May 14, Saudi Arabia confirmed four new cases of the deadly new coronavirus virus related to SARS that appears centered in the Arabian Peninsula but that has also been reported in Europe.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 16, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, vegetable seller Muhammad Harissi set himself on fire after police confiscated his goods for standing in an unauthorized area.  He died the next day.
    (AP, 5/19/13)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.10)

2013        May 20, Saudi Arabia recorded another death from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths in the kingdom to 16. More than 20 people have died from the virus worldwide.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 21, Saudi Arabia executed five Yemenis convicted of crimes and displayed their bodies in public as a deterrent for future criminals. A sixth man, a Saudi, was executed for murder.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 30, Saudi Arabia reported that 3 more people have died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths globally to 30.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Jun 2, Saudi Arabia reported that 3 more people have died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths in the kingdom to 24.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 17, A Gulf source told Reuters that Saudi Arabia had equipped fighters for the first time with shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles. Rebels said Riyadh had also sent them anti-tank missiles.
    (Reuters, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 19, Doctors investigating a new respiratory virus related to SARS, said it spreads easily between people and appears to be more deadly than SARS. The biggest outbreak of the virus, now called MERS,  was in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 6/20/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 20, Saudi Arabia said it plans to deport Lebanese citizens who support Hezbollah because of the militant group's role in the Syrian civil war.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jul 3, Saudi businessmen, expatriates and several countries welcomed a four-month extension to an amnesty for foreign workers with visa violations, saying it allowed businesses to operate as usual in the world's top oil exporter.
    (Reuters, 7/3/13)

2013        Jul 6, In Saudi Arabia two more people died from the new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 38 the number of deadly cases in the kingdom at the center of the growing outbreak.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 9, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirate promised $8 billion in grants, loans and badly needed gas and oil to Egypt.
    (AP, 7/10/13)

2013        Jul 18, The European Union's top court ruled that EU authorities unfairly froze assets of Yassin Kadi, a Saudi businessman who was accused of financing al-Qaida, by failing to explain why he was targeted.
    (AP, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Saudi Arabia one more man died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 39 the number of deadly cases in the kingdom at the center of the growing outbreak.
    (AP, 7/27/13)

2013        Jul 29, In Saudi Arabia Raif Badawi, editor of the "Free Saudi Liberals" website, was sentenced to seven years in prison and 600 lashes for founding an Internet forum that violates Islamic values and propagates liberal thought. Badawi has been held since June 2012 on charges of cyber crime and disobeying his father.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 9, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said police have arrested two foreign residents suspected of having contacts with al-Qaida's offshoot in Yemen over imminent suicide attacks in the region.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia said a Saudi man (51) has died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 41, while two new cases were registered.
    (AFP, 8/25/13)

2013        Aug 28, Saudi health authorities said another Saudi man has died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 42, adding a new case was registered.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 30, In Saudi Arabia another Saudi man died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 43.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 6, Saudi Arabia’s health ministry said 2 women have died of MERS, bringing the total number of fatalities in the kingdom to 44.
    (AFP, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 8, In Saudi Arabia another three people were reported dead after contracting the MERS coronavirus, bringing the kingdom's total fatalities of the SARS-like virus to 47.
    (AFP, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 20, US prosecutors dropped charges against Meshael Alayban, a Saudi princess accused of enslaving a Kenyan woman as a housemaid, forcing her to work in abusive conditions and withholding her passport. Lawyers for the Saudi royal accused the 30-year-old Kenyan, who has not been named, of lying in an attempt to obtain a visa to stay in the US.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 27, A Saudi diplomat, involved in a fatal road accident, left Iran. An Iranian citizen was killed mid-March when the diplomat's car reportedly hit another vehicle on a expressway in Tehran while speeding at 130 kph (80 mph). Iranian authorities said the accident happened because the diplomat had been driving while drunk.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)

2013        Oct 4, The World Health Organization said the global number of infections with the deadly MERS virus has risen to 136, after hard-hit Saudi Arabia confirmed six new cases.
    (AFP, 10/4/13)

2013        Oct 8, A Saudi court sentenced a preacher convicted of raping his five-year-old daughter and torturing her to death to eight years in prison and 800 lashes. The court also ordered Fayhan al-Ghamdi to pay his ex-wife, the girl's mother, one million riyals ($270,000) in "blood money." Ghamdi's second wife, accused of taking part in the crime, was sentenced to 10 months in prison and 150 lashes.
    (AFP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 10, Saudi authorities beheaded a citizen in the western province of Taif after he was convicted of shooting dead another man.
    (AFP, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 13, In Saudi Arabia Muslims from across the world poured into a sprawling tent city in the Saudi desert before the start of the annual Islamic hajj pilgrimage. The number of the pilgrims this year has been reduced in part by concerns over a respiratory virus centered in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 17, In Saudi Arabia some 1.4 million Muslim pilgrims from 188 countries started to leave Mecca at the end of what authorities hailed as a successful and incident-free hajj. The hajj now brings in $16.5 billion, about 3% of Saudi GDP.
    (AFP, 10/17/13)(Econ, 10/12/13, p.74)
2013        Oct 17, The UN General Assembly elected five new members to the Security Council. The uncontested seats included Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 18, Saudi Arabia, in an unprecedented show of anger at the failure of the international community to end the war in Syria and act on other Middle East issues, said it would not take up its seat on the UN Security Council.
    (Reuters, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 22, A source close to Saudi policy said Saudi Arabia's intelligence chief has said the kingdom will make a "major shift" in relations with the United States in protest at its perceived inaction over the Syria war and its overtures to Iran.
    (Reuters, 10/22/13)

2013        Oct 24, Saudi Arabia warned it will take measures against activists who go ahead with a planned weekend campaign to defy a ban on women drivers in the conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 26, Saudi activists said more than 60 women claimed to have answered their call to get behind the wheel in a rare show of defiance against a ban on female driving. At least 16 Saudi women received fines for taking the wheel in defiance of the traditional ban on female driving.
    (AP, 10/26/13)(AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 27, Saudi police detained Tariq al-Mubarak, a columnist who supported ending his country's ban on women driving.
    (AP, 10/30/13)

2013        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 52 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Nov 3, A Kuwaiti newspaper reported that a Kuwaiti woman was arrested in Saudi Arabia for trying to drive her father to hospital.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 4, Saudi authorities began a clampdown on illegal immigrants after the end of an amnesty that gave overstayers and workers a grace period to leave or legalize their status.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, Saudi media said authorities have rounded up over four thousand of illegal foreign workers at the start of a nationwide crackdown ultimately aimed at creating more jobs for locals.
    (Reuters, 11/5/13)(SFC, 11/6/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 6, A Saudi-owned newspaper reported that authorities have detained more than 16,000 migrant workers in the first 48 hours of a security sweep targeting foreigners working illegally in the kingdom.
    (AP, 11/6/13)
2013        Nov 6, Saudi authorities beheaded a Pakistani man in the eastern Qatif province after he was convicted of drug trafficking in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 10, In Saudi Arabia thousands of illegal migrants targeted in a nationwide crackdown surrendered to police. In Riyadh 2 people were killed when a police raid targeting Ethiopian residents sparked a minor riot.
    (AFP, 11/10/13)(SFC, 11/11/13, p.A2)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.52)
2013        Nov 10, Saudi Arabia announced another fatality from the MERS virus, taking its toll to 53, as neighbouring Oman recorded its first death from the respiratory disease.
    (AFP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 12, Saudi media said 3 Eritrean military officers have asked for political asylum in Saudi Arabia after Saudi air force jets forced their aircraft to land in the southern part of the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)
2013        Nov 12, In Saudi Arabia thousands of Africans, mostly Ethiopians, surrendered to authorities for a second day Ethiopia announced the death of three citizens during clashes in the Gulf kingdom.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)
2013        Nov 12, China, Cuba, Russia and Saudi Arabia won seats on the UN Human Rights Council, despite fierce international criticism of their records.
    (AP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Saudi Arabia Ethiopia’s ambassador in Riyadh said some 23,000 Ethiopians have handed themselves in since Saudi authorities clamped down on illegal foreign workers 10 days ago. A Sudanese man was killed in a second flare of clashes since Nov 9 between Saudi riot police, citizens and foreign workers in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)(Reuters, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 20, Saudi health authorities announced a new MERS death, raising to 54 the number of people killed by the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, Saudi local media reported that religious police have arrested two young men in Riyadh for offering a "free hug" to passers-by.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 24, Saudi press said a court has sentenced a man to death and 19 others to prison terms of up to 25 years in connection with the 2004 armed assault on the US Consulate in Jiddah that killed five employees in an attack blamed on al-Qaida.
    (AP, 11/24/13)
2013        Nov 24, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 55 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 11/24/13)

2013        Nov 30, Sudanese media said more than 11,000 Sudanese workers have returned voluntarily from Saudi Arabia after an amnesty for foreign employees to legalise their status.
    (AFP, 11/31/13)

2013        Dec 4, OPEC leaders meeting in Austria agreed to hold its crude production ceiling at 30 million barrels per day despite oversupply concerns and competition from cheaper shale oil.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 5, Ethiopia said it has repatriated over 100,000 citizens from Saudi Arabia, following a violent crackdown against illegal immigrants in the oil-rich kingdom.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)
2013        Dec 5, In Yemen a suicide bomber detonated his explosives-laden car at the Defense Ministry in Sanaa, killing 18 soldiers and wounding at least 40. Officials said 11 gunmen also were killed in a firefight between troops and a carload of attackers who arrived after the blast. Gunmen shot and killed a Western doctor and a Filipina nurse in front of their colleagues in a hospital inside the compound of the defense ministry. A total of 56 people were killed in the attack. Most of the attackers were Saudi nationals. Yemen’s branch of al-Qaida took responsibility.
    (AP, 12/5/13)(Reuters, 12/5/13)(Reuters, 12/6/13)(SFC, 12/7/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 8, Saudi authorities beheaded Mohammed Zayer Khan Qol, a Pakistani man, after he was convicted of smuggling drugs into the ultra-conservative Gulf state. An AFP count put this as  no. 73.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 10, A Saudi court jailed an Al-Qaeda-linked jihadist for 16 years for plotting to kill the kingdom's grand mufti, Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah al-Sheikh, and other clerics. The sentence which includes 40 lashes and a 16-year travel ban.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Saudi Arabia and its Gulf Arab neighbors wrapped up a summit meeting in Kuwait by agreeing to establish a joint military command, paving the way for tighter security coordination.
    (AP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 12, Saudi Arabia's Grand Mufti, the highest religious authority in the birthplace of Islam, condemned suicide bombings as grave crimes, reiterating his stance in unusually strong language in the Saudi-owned Al Hayat newspaper.
    (Reuters, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 16, US officials said two Saudis from Guantanamo have been transferred to the custody of their own government after a security review. The men are Saad Muhammad Husayn Qahtani (35) and Hamood Abdulla Hamood (48).
    (AP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, Saudi authorities beheaded a Syrian man convicted of smuggling drugs to the ultra-conservative kingdom.
    (AFP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 19, Saudi Arabia’s Al-Hayat newspaper reported that a Saudi court has jailed a man for 15 years after convicting him of recruiting 14 nationals to join Al-Qaeda's affiliate in neighbouring Yemen.
    (AFP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, Saudi Arabia beheaded another drug trafficker. 77 people have been executed in Saudi Arabia this year, according to an AFP count.
    (AFP, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 21, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 56 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia's official news agency says King Abdullah has appointed his son, Prince Mishaal, as the new governor of Mecca.
    (AP, 12/22/13)

2013        Dec 23, A Saudi court sentenced a citizen to 30 years in prison for leading demonstrations in 2011 against a crackdown on Shiite Muslims in neighboring Bahrain.
    (AP, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 26, In Saudi Arabia a 73-year-old man died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 57 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, An oil platform belonging to Saudi oil giant Aramco sank as it was being used to carry out maintenance work at an oil well in Safaniya. The bodies of 3 Asian workers who went missing were recovered over the next 24 hours.
    (AFP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 28, Saudi police pulled over a woman minutes after she got behind the wheel in the Red Sea city of Jeddah after activists called for a new challenge to a driving ban.
    (AFP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 29, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Saudi Arabia for a visit aimed at boosting prospects of commercial cooperation between the countries and addressing escalating tensions in the Middle East.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)
2013        Dec 29, Lebanon's President Michel Suleiman said Saudi Arabia is giving the Lebanese army $3 billion to buy equipment from France, calling it the largest grant ever given to the country's armed forces.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)(SSFC, 1/5/14, p.A5)

2014        Jan 1, Lebanon’s defense minister said Lebanese troops have arrested Saudi citizen Majid al-Majid, the "emir" of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades, an al-Qaeda-linked group that claimed a double suicide bombing at the Iranian embassy in Beirut in November. DNA testing confirmed the identity of al-Majid.
    (AFP, 1/1/14)(AP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 4, The Lebanese army said Saudi citizen Majid al-Majid, the "emir" of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades fighting in Syria, died while undergoing treatment at the central military hospital.
    (AP, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 5, In Saudi Arabia human body parts fell from the sky in the city of Jeddah, with police saying they could be the remains of a person trapped in an airplane's wheel bay.
    (AFP, 1/5/14)
2014        Jan 5, A Saudi court jailed five people for up to 30 years on charges including plotting to blow up an oil refinery on behalf of Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 12, A Saudi court sentenced to death an Al-Qaeda militant and jailed 10 others over the May 1, 2004, attack that killed six Westerners and a policeman.
    (AFP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 29, Saudi health authorities announced a new MERS death, bringing to 59 the number of people who have died from the coronavirus in the country with the most fatalities.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)

2014        Feb 2, Saudi Arabia put into effect jail terms of up to 20 years for belonging to "terrorist groups" and fighting abroad, as it struggles to deter Islamist Saudis from becoming jihadists.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)(SFC, 2/3/14, p.A4)

2014        Feb 3, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah issued a royal decree that punishes citizens who fight in conflicts outside the kingdom with prison sentences ranging from 3 to 20 years.
    (SFC, 2/4/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 4, Saudi authorities beheaded two citizens after convicting them of two separate murders.
    (AFP, 2/4/14)
 2014        Feb 4, Saudi officials signed an agreement with SunEdison Inc. of Belmont, Ca., to explore building a $6.4 billion solar panel factory in Saudi Arabia. SunEdison moved from Maryland to Belmont in 2011.
    (SFC, 2/5/14, p.C4)

2014        Feb 8, In Saudi Arabia a hotel fire in Medina killed 13 people including 9 Egyptian pilgrims.
    (AP, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 10, Saudi state media said a court has sentenced a man to 10 years in prison for protesting and disseminating photos of demonstrations online.
    (AP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 13, Saudi Arabia said Yemen has handed over 29 Saudis wanted for suspected links to Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 18, Saudi crown prince Alwaleed bin Talal and deputy prime minister Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud concluded a three-day-visit to Pakistan. Pakistani Finance Minister Ishaq Dar announced the creation of the new fund, the Pakistan Development Fund, to channel money from "friendly countries" like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)
2014        Feb 18, Human Rights Watch said Saudi Arabian authorities have deported more than 12,000 migrants held under "appalling conditions" back to their native Somalia. The International Organization for Migration said the Somali government expects Saudi Arabia to deport another 30,000 people in the coming weeks.
    (AP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 19, Europe's largest defense contractor BAE Systems says the governments of the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia have agreed on new pricing for a massive sale of 72 Eurofighter Typhoon jets.
    (AP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 20, Two Saudi security officers and two people they were trying to detain were killed in a gunfight in the eastern town of al-Awamiya, an area where minority Shi'ite Muslims have staged regular anti-government protests.
    (Reuters, 2/20/14)
2014        Feb 20, The Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the world's largest bloc of Islamic countries, agreed to send a high-level fact-finding mission to the Central African Republic. The Saudi Arabia-based OIC also agreed to appoint a special representative to coordinate efforts with the African Union and the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/20/14)
2014        Feb 20, Rights groups criticized an agreement between Indonesia and Saudi Arabia aimed at giving Indonesian maids more protection in the kingdom, with one saying "justice is still far away" for them.
    (AFP, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia a woman (81) died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 61 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 2/23/14)

2014        Feb 24, In Saudi Arabia three security officers were wounded, one critically, by gunfire outside a police station in a flashpoint village in the mostly Shi'ite Muslim area of Qatif.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Saudi Arabia beheaded one its citizens in Eastern Province after he was convicted of murdering a compatriot.
    (AFP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 2, In Saudi Arabia a foreign detainee died and nine others were injured in a riot at a center housing people awaiting deportation. Yemeni online forums reported that 10 Yemenis were killed when police opened fire on rioters demanding that Saudi authorities speed up their deportation.
    (AP, 3/3/14)

2014        Mar 5, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar in an unprecedented public split between Gulf Arab allies who have fallen out over the role of Islamists in a region in turmoil.
    (Reuters, 3/5/14)

2014        Mar 6, Saudi state news said a court has sentenced three men to death and jailed two others for up to 17 years for their part in a series of militant attacks including the deadly bombing of a foreign housing compound on Nov 8, 2003.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 7, Saudi Arabia identified the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist group along with al-Qaida and two Syrian jihadist groups, warning those who join them or support them they could face five to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/7/14)(AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said a man (19) has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 63 the deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 16, In Saudi Arabia the local Okaz daily reported that organizers at the Riyadh International Book Fair had confiscated "more than 10,000 copies of 420 books" during the exhibition, which began March 4. Organizers had announced ahead of the event that any book deemed "against Islam" or "undermining security" in the kingdom would be confiscated.
    (AFP, 3/16/14)

2014        Mar 20, Saudi Arabia said it has deported 370,000 foreign migrant workers over the past five months.
    (SFC, 3/21/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 24, A Saudi man convicted of shooting dead a compatriot in a dispute was beheaded by the sword. His execution in Hafr al-Batin brings to 12 the number of death sentences carried out this year in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 27, Saudi Arabia’s reigning King Abdullah (~89) appointed by royal decree his youngest surviving brother, Muqrin (b.1945), as 2nd in line to the throne after ailing crown prince Salman (78).
    (Econ, 4/5/14, p.40)

2014        Mar 28, President Barack Obama opened a fence-mending visit to Saudi Arabia, arriving in the oil-rich Gulf nation for meetings to reassure its elderly monarch of the US commitment to the Arab world.
    (AP, 3/28/14)

2014        Apr 2, A Saudi Arabian court sentenced Faris al-Zahrani, a top al-Qaeda strategist, to death and jailed 15 others for their role in a series of attacks in the kingdom last decade. Zahrani was arrested in Abha, a city near the Yemeni border, in August 2004.
    (Reuters, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 8, Saudi Arabia’s Shura Council recommended that a longstanding ban on sports in girls' state schools, relaxed in private schools last year, be ended altogether.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 8, The Organization of Islamic Cooperation said that 14 non-governmental organizations have pledged $300,000 dollars to establish a new office at its headquarters in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, that seeks to improve international coordination to assist Muslims affected by natural disasters and wars around the world.
    (AP, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, Two Saudi border guards were killed by unidentified gunmen who fired shots from inside Yemen.
    (AP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, Saudi health authorities said that 11 people in the western city of Jiddah have contracted the Middle East respiratory syndrome, resulting in two recent deaths, bringing to at least 66 the number of people who have died of MERS in the kingdom.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 12, In Saudi Arabia the death of a foreign man (45) due to MERS brought the nationwide toll in the world's most-affected country to 68.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)

2014        Apr 13, German media citing official sources said the government will not approve a reported deal to sell up to 800 Leopard-2 battle tanks to Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)
2014        Apr 13, A Malaysian man (54), who went on a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia, became the first death in Asia from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
    (AP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 14, In Yemen suspected smugglers shot dead a Saudi Arabian border guard and wounded another in the early hours today, in what would be the second such incident in five days. Saudi troops seized 14 guns left behind by the smugglers at the site of the clash.
    (Reuters, 4/14/14)(AFP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said three more patients who contracted a potentially fatal Middle East virus related to SARS have died amid a recent increase in infections.
    (AP, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 21, Saudi media reported that a court has sentenced to death five people over deadly 2003 attacks that marked the start of a wave of Al-Qaeda violence.
    (AFP, 4/21/14)
2014        Apr 21, Saudi Arabia announced 17 new cases of MERS, bring the total number of Saudi infections to 261, of whom 81 have died. King Abdullah fired health minister Abdullah al-Rabiah.
    (SFC, 4/22/14, p.A2)(Reuters, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 23, Saudi Arabia announced 11 new cases of MERS, including a 13-year-old child. Acting health minister Adel Fakieh vowed to keep the public better informed on the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 24, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said two more patients who became infected with a Middle East virus related to SARS have died, and that 13 others have contracted the MERS virus. The deaths bring to 83 the number of people who have died in the kingdom since contracting the virus in September 2012.
    (AP, 4/24/14)

2014        Apr 25, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said that five more people in the kingdom have died from MERS. The ministry says 92 people have died and 313 have contracted the virus in Saudi since September 2012.
    (AP, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 26, Two Saudi nationals died from MERS, taking the death toll from the coronavirus in the worst-hit country to 94.
    (AFP, 4/27/14)

2014        Apr 30, Saudi Arabia launched an experimental Internet site for Saudi citizens to petition King Abdullah (90) directly and lodge complaints at the initiative of the monarch himself.
    (AFP, 5/2/14)

2014        May 4, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said one more patient who contracted the potentially fatal Middle East virus related to SARS has died and that 14 new cases have been detected. The new 14 cases raised the number of those infected in Saudi Arabia to 411.
    (AP, 5/514)
2014        May 4, In Saudi Arabia a maid (23) from the Philippines was allegedly scalded with water deliberately poured down her back. An investigation was launched jointly by Riyadh police and the Philippines embassy after images of burns allegedly suffered by the woman, who had arrived in the kingdom in March, surfaced on social media and online.
    (Reuters, 5/22/14)

2014        May 6, Saudi Arabia said it had uncovered an al Qaeda militant group with links to "extremist elements" in Syria and Yemen that had been plotting to assassinate officials and attack government and foreign targets.
    (Reuters, 5/6/14)

2014        May 7, A state-linked Saudi newspaper said Saudi blogger Raif Badawi has been sentenced to ten years in prison and 1000 lashes on charges related to accusations that he insulted Islam on an online forum. He was also ordered to pay a fine of about $266,000.
    (SFC, 5/8/14, p.A2)
2014        May 7, Saudi health authorities said four more people have died after contracting MERS, a Middle East respiratory virus. Saudi Arabia has reported 449 cases and 121 deaths from MERS.
    (AP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 9, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said the death toll from MERS has risen by five to 126 fatalities since the mystery respiratory virus first appeared in the kingdom in 2012.
    (AFP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 11, Saudi Arabia reported that three new deaths from MERS had taken its death toll from the disease to 142.
    (AFP, 5/12/14)

2014        May 13, Saudi health authorities reported another 5 deaths from MERS. The potentially fatal Middle Eastern respiratory virus has sickened hundreds in the kingdom. A total of 152 people have now died and 495 have been confirmed to have contracted the virus in Saudi Arabia since it was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 27, Saudi media said a court has sentenced to death Rida Rabih, son of Shiite cleric Jaafar Rabih. The Shiite protester was convicted of opening fire on a police patrol during unrest in the kingdom's east.
    (AP, 5/27/14)

2014        May 29, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said 13 people have died over the last two weeks from the Middle Eastern respiratory virus and that 186 people in total have died from the MERS virus since it was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        Jul 3, Saudi-owned al-Arabiya television said the government has deployed 30,000 soldiers to its border with Iraq after Iraqi soldiers abandoned the area. Baghdad denied this and said the frontier remained under its full control.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 4, Six Saudi members of al Qaeda, already wanted by authorities, struck the town of al-Sharurah between Yemen and Saudi Arabia in an attack that left 4 border guards and 3 of the gunmen dead. Two of the militants grabbed 10 hostages and fought their way into a government building where they blew themselves up the next day.
    (AP, 7/5/14)(Reuters, 7/6/14)(Reuters, 7/8/14)

2014        Jul 6, In Saudi Arabia Waleed Abul Khair, a lawyer and founder of a local rights center, was sentenced to 15 years in jail and a 15 year travel ban upon release for allegedly “distorting the kingdom’s reputation" and “inflaming public opinion.
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.41)

2014        Jul 7, In Saudi Arabia three mortar bombs landed near Arar, close to the northern border with Iraq, where Islamist militants have grabbed land in a lightning advance.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)

2014        Aug 4, Saudi authorities in Arar beheaded a Nepalese housemaid convicted of murdering a two-year-old boy by slitting his throat. Saudi national Hamad al-Ahmadi was decapitated in Medina for stabbing his wife to death while she was asleep.
    (AFP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 5, Saudi Arabian King Abdullah granted $1 billion to help the Lebanese army to bolster security as they battle militants who have seized the border town of Arsal on the Syrian frontier.
    (Reuters, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 6, A Saudi Arabian who had travelled to Sierra Leone and had symptoms similar to those found in Ebola sufferers died of a heart attack. Samples submitted to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention came back negative for the Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)(AP, 8/10/14)
2014        Aug 6, In Saudi Arabia the Makkah newspaper said Saudi men have been banned from marrying women from Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar and Chad as the Gulf state toughens the rules restricting marriage with foreigners.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 10, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia discussed developments in Syria, Iraq, Gaza and Libya with Egypt’s Pres. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, during Sisi's first visit to his regime's powerful ally since winning May elections.
    (AFP, 8/11/14)

2014        Aug 15, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution intended to weaken the Islamic State - an al Qaeda splinter group that has seized swaths of territory in Iraq and Syria and declared a caliphate - and al Qaeda's Syrian wing, Nusra Front. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait the next day agreed to comply with the resolution after four of their nationals were named among a group blacklisted by the international body.
    (Reuters, 8/17/14)

2014        Aug 17, In Saudi Arabia the local al-Medina newspaper reported that a judge has upheld a sentence of a month in prison and 50 lashes for a businesswoman convicted of insulting members of the morality police during an argument.
    (Reuters, 8/17/14)

2014        Aug 17, In France heavily armed robbers attacked the motorcade of a Saudi prince in Paris, making off with 250,000 euros ($335,000) in cash and reportedly stealing "sensitive" documents.
    (AFP, 8/18/14)

2014        Aug 18, Saudi Arabia executed four people from the same family for attempting to smuggle "large quantities" of hashish into the kingdom.
    (AP, 8/18/14)

2014        Aug 20, Siluria Technologies of California said a $30 million fundraising round was led by Saudi Aramco. Siluria said it can make gasoline from gas for about $1 per gallon.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.C1)

2014        Aug 21, Saudi police arrested at least 400 mostly African illegal migrants south of Riyadh. Authorities have been cracking down on illegal migrants since the expiration in November of a seven-month amnesty during which they had to regularize their status or leave the kingdom.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 22, The US imposed sanctions on Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al Sharekh, a Saudi citizen and allegedly the head of Al-Qaeda operations in Syria, and Hamid Hamad Hamid al-Ali of Kuwait.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 27, Saudi authorities beheaded three citizens after they were convicted of murder in separate cases, bringing to 41 the number of executions there this year.
    (AFP, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 30, A Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) meeting in the Saudi Red Sea resort of Jeddah ended. An Omani minister said the Gulf Arab monarchies have resolved a six-month dispute with Qatar, which they had accused of destabilizing the region by supporting the Muslim Brotherhood.
    (AFP, 8/30/14)

2014        Aug, Saudi police found home-made wine in the car of Karl Andree (73), a British citizen. He was sentenced to a year in prison for possessing alcohol and faced 350 public lashes on release. Andree returned to Britain in November, 2015, after Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond brought up the case during a visit to Riyadh.
    (SFC, 10/14/15, p.A4)(AFP, 11/11/15)

2014        Sep 1, A Saudi Arabian court jailed 17 men for up to 26 years for seeking to fight in Iraq and funding militants.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)

2014        Sep 2, A top Saudi security official said that police had arrested 88 men suspected of being part of an al-Qaida cell that was plotting attacks inside and outside of the kingdom.
    (AP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, A court in Saudi Arabia sentenced an American and 23 other people to prison on charges they created a terrorist cell and planned attacks on foreigners and oil pipelines.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 5, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah announced the launch of the first stage of a border security program, covering 900 km (560 miles) of the northern frontier. Saudi police raided a house in Khafji, near the Kuwaiti border, and charged 27 Asian Christians with holding a church ceremony. Saudi Arabia forbids non-Muslim religious practice.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.43)

2014        Sep 21, Saudi Arabia’s official SPA news agency reported that four Saudi men have been sentenced to death for their role in one of the kingdom's "bloodiest terror cells." A special criminal court in Riyadh also jailed "as many as 20" others for between two and 23 years for a variety of crimes that included embracing "deviant" thinking contrary to the Koran..
    (AFP, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 23, The United States and its Arab allies bombed Syria for the first time. Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates participated in or supported the strikes against Islamic State targets. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 70 Islamic State fighters were killed in strikes that hit at least 50 targets in Raqqa and Deir al-Zor and Hasakah provinces. It also said at least 50 fighters and 8 civilians were killed in strikes targeting al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, the Nusra Front, in northern Aleppo and Idlib provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/23/14)

2014        Sep 27, Air strikes hit Islamic State and other Islamist groups in eastern Syria. US strikes hit the besieged area around Kobani and forces from Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the UAE contributed to strikes around the country. 
    (Reuters, 9/27/14)(SSFC, 9/28/14, p.A8)

2014        Oct 4, In Saudi Arabia some two million Muslims ritually stoned the devil in the last major rite of this year's hajj, while fellow believers around the world celebrated Eid al-Adha, the feast of sacrifice.
    (AFP, 10/4/14)

2014        Oct 8, France said it will soon provide weapons and military equipment to the Lebanese army as part of a $3 billion grant from Saudi Arabia to help it fight jihadis encroaching into Lebanon from Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 12, The US Central Command said warplanes from the United States, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates conducted four airstrikes in Syria over the weekend, including three in Kobani that destroyed an Islamic State fighting position and staging area.
    (AP, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 13, US Central Command said the US and Saudi Arabia launched eight airstrikes yesterday and today against Islamic State targets in Syria, including seven near Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/13/14)

2014        Oct 14, In Saudi Arabia a US national was shot dead and another wounded in Riyadh. Police later shot and wounded an assailant and then arrested him.
    (Reuters, 10/14/14)

2014        Oct 15, A Saudi court sentenced prominent Shiite cleric and anti-government protest leader Nimr Bakir al-Nimr to death after convicting him of sedition.
    (AFP, 10/15/14)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.49)

2014        Oct 16, Saudi Arabia’s health ministry said it is seeing "sporadic" cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has killed 324 people in the country since 2012.
    (AFP, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 21, A Saudi court sentenced 13 people to prison for planning a series of attacks against US forces in Qatar and Kuwait. 11 Saudis, a Qatari and an Afghan national were given varying sentences of between 18 months to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 23, Saudi Arabia authorities said female drivers will be dealt with "strictly", before a right-to-drive campaign culminates at the weekend.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)

2014        Nov 3, In Saudi Arabia gunmen shot dead at least 6 people in eastern al-Ahsa district. Local residents said it was an attack on Shi'ite Muslim worshippers.
    (Reuters, 11/4/14)(AFP, 11/5/14)

2014        Nov 4, In Saudi Arabia 2 policemen and 2 suspects, allegedly linked to the deadly gun attack in eastern al-Ahsa district, were killed. Saudi authorities arrested 15 people in connection with the shooting that left 6 people dead.
    (AP, 11/4/14)(AFP, 11/5/14)
2014        Nov 4, Saudi Arabia ordered closed the offices of Wesal TV, a religious television channel accused of fomenting sectarian tension, after at least eight people were killed in an attack on Shi'ite Muslims marking a major religious anniversary.
    (Reuters, 11/5/14)
2014        Nov 4, France and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement for Paris to provide the Lebanese army with $3 billion worth of weapons paid for by Riyadh.
    (AP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 7, A Saudi Arabia advisory committee recommended that the government lift its ban on female drivers for women over 30. It said the women must be off the road by 8pm and cannot wear makeup behind the wheel.
    (SFC, 11/8/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 18, Saudi press reported that a court has found eight men guilty of involvement in a series of deadly attacks against foreigners in 2004, among them an assault that killed a BBC cameraman and paralyzed the news organization's correspondent.
    (AP, 11/18/14)

2014        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia executed Salih bin Yateem bin Salih al-Qarni. He had donned women's clothing in a bid to escape after shooting dead a soldier and police officer.
    (AFP, 11/19/14)
2014        Nov 16, Gulf states agreed to welcome Qatar back to the fold following a row over its support for Islamists. Last March Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the UAE announced the withdrawal of their envoys from Qatar in protest at its "interference" in their internal affairs by supporting Islamists.
    (AFP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 22, In Saudi Arabia Danish national Thomas Hopner was shot and wounded in Riyadh. On Dec 11 Saudi Arabia’s interior ministry said three supporters of the Islamic State group have been arrested for the shooting.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Nov 22, The Pentagon said Saudi citizen Muhammad al-Zahrani, who has spent the past 12 years detained at Guantanamo Bay, has been released to return to Saudi Arabia. 142 men now continued to be held, including 73 already cleared for release.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 23, Saudi telecommunications company Etihad Etisalat, known as Mobily on the Saudi stock exchange, said it has suspended its chief executive officer after accounting errors forced the operator to restate 18 months of earnings.
    (AP, 11/23/14)

2014        Nov 27, Saudi Arabia led the 12-member OPEC oil ministers meeting in Austria. OPEC opted to keep their production target at 30 million barrels a day, despite an oversupply of crude and plunging prices.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 29, A Saudi man was arrested after he stabbed a Canadian citizen shopping in a mall with his family in Saudi Arabia’s oil-rich Eastern Province.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 4, Yemeni and Western sources said Saudi Arabia has suspended most of its financial aid to Yemen, in a clear indication of its dissatisfaction with the growing political power of Shi'ite Houthi fighters friendly with Riyadh's regional rival, Iran.
    (Reuters, 12/4/14)

2014        Dec 8, Saudi King Abdullah announced a Cabinet shakeup, naming new ministers to key portfolios overseeing the kingdom's universities and mosques where ultraconservative clerics and their supporters hold sway.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 9, The six-member Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE) agreed to create a joint naval force based out of Bahrain and announced a police force based in Abu Dhabi.
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.A22)

2014        Dec 11, Saudi Arabia-based Islamic Development Bank said the Saudi king has pledged $35 million to help fight Ebola in hard-hit West African countries.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 12, A Saudi woman arrested for attending a soccer game at  Jiddah's new al-Jawhara stadium.
    (AP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 14, A Saudi security officer was killed in an operation to free three foreign laborers taken hostage by a gunman in Riyadh. The attacker was wounded and captured in the shoot-out. A Saudi policeman was shot and killed in the eastern town of al-Awamiya by an unidentified assailant.
    (AP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 15, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said a Yemeni man convicted of robbery has had his right hand cut off, the first such punishment carried out in the kingdom this year.
    (AP, 12/15/14)
2014        Dec 15, In Austria school officials in Vienna ordered the closure of a Saudi Arabian school accused of teaching anti-Semitism, after it refused to comply with a request to identify the institution's director and teachers.
    (AP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 20, Saudi security forces killed 4 militants in a clash in Awamiya region. A ministry spokesman said the dead were behind the killing of a member of the security forces and wounding of another on Dec 14. Residents said a teenager was accidentally killed during the raid.
    (Reuters, 12/20/14)(AFP, 12/21/14)

2014        Dec 24, A Saudi Arabian court sentenced a man to death for links to a 2006 attack claimed by Al-Qaeda on the kingdom's biggest oil facility. Two other Saudis were jailed for 33 and 27 years respectively.
    (AFP, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 25, Saudi Arabia's Cabinet endorsed a 2015 budget that projects a slight increase in spending and a significant drop in revenues due to sliding oil prices, resulting in a nearly $39 billion deficit.
    (AP, 12/25/14)
2014        Dec 25, Saudi activists said two detained women's rights campaigners have been transferred to a special tribunal for terrorism.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        Dec 31, Saudi authorities beheaded a Pakistani man convicted of smuggling "large quantities" of heroin. An Associated Press tally showed 83 people have been beheaded in Saudi Arabia in 2014.
    (AP, 12/31/14)

2014        Pascal Menoret authored Joyriding in Riyadh: Oil, Urbanism, and Road Revolt in Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.75)
2014        Ziauddin Sardar authored “Mecca: The Sacred City."
    (Econ, 10/25/14, p.85)
2014        In Saudi Arabia the first female-run law firm opened this year after authorities lifted a ban preventing women law graduates from practicing.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.45)

2015        Jan 1, Saudi security forces arrested Montadhar Ali Saleh Alsbaitiin, a man believed to belong to a Shi'ite Muslim group blamed for instigating protests and unrest in the country's Eastern Province.
    (Reuters, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 4, In Saudi Arabia a general and two soldiers were killed in a rare attack and suicide bombing by "terrorists" on the border with Iraq. 4 attackers were also killed in the clash, 2 in suicide blasts.
    (AFP, 1/5/15)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.43)

2015        Jan 9, In Saudi Arabia blogger Raif Badawi was flogged 50 times, the first set of 1000 lashes over 20 weeks. He was sentenced in 2014 to 10 years in prison plus the lashes for criticizing clerics.
    (SFC, 1/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 12, Saudi Arabia said it has beheaded a Myanmar female child-killer, bringing to 7 the number of death sentences it has carried out this year. Layla bint Abdul Mutaleb Bassim is later seen screaming her innocence in a video posted on the Internet on Jan 17.
    (AFP, 1/12/15)(AFP, 1/17/15)

2015        Jan 14, Saudi Arabia beheaded a convicted Pakistani drug trafficker and one of its own citizens who killed a soldier.
    (AFP, 1/14/15)

2015        Jan 16, Saudi Arabia postponed the 2nd round of flogging for blogger Raef Badawi, sentenced to 1,000 lashes for insulting Islam, because his wounds from last week's 50 lashings have not yet healed.
    (AFP, 1/16/15)
2015        Jan 16, Saudi Arabia beheaded one of its citizens for shooting dead a compatriot with a machine gun, bringing to 10 the number of executions in just over two weeks.
    (AFP, 1/16/15)

2012        Jan 21, Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel and eight ministers decided to halt arms exports to Saudi Arabia because of instability in the region.
    (AP, 1/25/15)

2015        Jan 22, Saudi Arabia postponed the flogging of blogger Raef Badawi, whose case has sparked international criticism, for a second week on medical grounds.
    (AP, 1/22/15)
2015        Jan 22, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (b.1924) died after a short illness. He was immediately succeeded by Crown Prince Salman (79).
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)

2015        Jan 23, Saudi King Salman pledged to maintain existing energy and foreign policies and settled the succession by appointing his youngest half-brother Muqrin (69) as Crown Prince and nephew Mohammed bin Nayef (55) as Deputy Crown Prince.
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)

2015        Jan 30, In Saudi Arabia two US citizens came under gunfire, and one of them was wounded but in stable condition.
    (AFP, 1/30/15)
2015        Jan 30, Saudi Arabia postponed for a third week in a row the flogging of blogger Raef Badawi.
    (AFP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 1, Outspoken billionaire Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal launched a pan-Arab satellite news channel aimed at challenging established networks in the region. The Bahrain-based Alarab News Channel took to the air, leading with a story about Japanese hostage Kenji Goto.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)
2015        Feb 1, In Saudi Arabia the daughter of Suad al-Shammari, co-founder of the Saudi Liberal Network Internet discussion group with blogging activist Raef Badawi, said her mother has been freed after about three months in prison.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)
2015        Feb 1, In Pakistan an advance party arrived in a C-130 transport plane for Saudi Prince Fahd bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz to visit the southwestern desert region to hunt the Houbara bustard, a bird supposedly protected by law. He led a hunting party to Baluchistan last year that officials said killed more than 2,000 bustards.
    (AFP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 4, Saudi Arabia beheaded two convicted rapists and a murderer, bringing to 21 the number of people it has executed so far this year.
    (AFP, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 7, An alleged audiotape aired on a Brotherhood-allied TV station  in which Egypt’s Pres. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi and a top aide purportedly banter about how rich Persian Gulf Arabs are and add up the billions they intend to seek. Financial help, estimated at some $32 billion, has helped keep Egypt afloat after years of instability. On Feb 9 el-Sissi called leaders of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the UAE, praising their wisdom and saying relations won’t be undermined by “nefarious attempts" to do so.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lyprfja)(SFC, 2/11/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 13, Saudi Arabia, Germany and Italy became the latest countries to withdraw embassy staff from Yemen as an exodus of foreign diplomats gathered pace due to growing insecurity.
    (AFP, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 18, In Saudi Arabia military chiefs from 26 nations involved in the US-led coalition battling the Islamic State group began a two-day meeting aimed at giving military leaders an opportunity to exchange views about the fight against the extremist group.
    (AP, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 21, Saudi media reported that morality police have detained a group of young men for dancing at a birthday party and referred them to prosecutors.
    (AP, 2/22/15)
2015        Feb 21, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said two more people have died after contracting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS, pushing the total number of deaths from the virus in the kingdom to 385.
    (AP, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 24, Saudi newspapers said a court has jailed at least 13 men on counts including the recruitment of al Qaeda militants for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the US and sheltering Osama bin Laden in Pakistan.
    (Reuters, 2/24/15)

2015        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia said ten more people have died from MERS over the past week, after an international mission urged extra measures to combat the virus.
    (AFP, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 3, In Saudi Arabia three beheadings today, one for rape and two for murder, took the total so far this year to 38.
    (AFP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 9, Saudi Arabia beheaded a Filipino convicted of murdering his boss, bringing to 40 the number of executions this year. Joven Esteva was found guilty of stabbing the Saudi in the chest in 2007.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)
2015        Mar 9, Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstroem accused Saudi Arabia of blocking her speech at an Arab League meeting due to her stance on human rights in the region.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)
2015        Mar 9, In southern Yemen Al-Qaida militants overran and held the city of Mahfad for hours before an army counterattack pushed them out. Saudi Arabia agreed to host a peace talks with the Houthis requested by Pres. Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi.
    (AP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 10, Sweden scrapped a long-standing military deal with the Saudis after accusing the country of blocking Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstroem from speaking at an Arab League meeting. Saudi Arabia in response recalled its Stockholm ambassador.
    (AFP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, In Saudi Arabia a gang leader was beheaded raising the number of executions carried out this year to 44.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)

2015        Mar 13, Egypt opened an int’l. conference to promote an ambitious recovery plan. Kuwait, the UAE and Saudi Arabia all promised investments and aid of $4 billion each.
    (SFC, 3/14/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 19, A senior Saudi official said that the kingdom will no longer issue business visas to Swedes or renew the current visas of Swedish nationals living in the country in response to Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom's recent criticism of human rights and women's rights in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 25, The Saudi ambassador to the United States announced that his country had initiated airstrikes against the Houthi rebels in Yemen. The Saudi operation was called “Decisive Storm." King Salman gathered a 10-country coalition of Sunni states to bomb the Houthis.
    (AFP, 3/25/15)(SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A4)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.18)

2015        Mar 26, Warplanes from a Saudi-led Arab coalition bombed Huthi Shiite rebels in support of Yemen's embattled president, as regional rival Iran warned the intervention was a "dangerous" move. Egypt participated in the Saudi-led campaign against Shi'ite Houthis militias in Yemen with its naval and air forces. The US military rescued two Saudi pilots who ejected from their jet off Yemen's coast.
    (AFP, 3/26/15)(Reuters, 3/26/15)(AFP, 3/27/15)

2015        Mar 27, In Yemen at least 21 Shiite rebels were killed when residents in a tribal southern region opened fire at their vehicles. Warplanes targeted Houthi forces controlling Sanaa and their northern heartland and, in a boost for Riyadh, fellow monarchy Morocco said it would join the rapidly-assembled Sunni Muslim coalition against the Shi'ite Muslim group.
    (AFP, 3/27/15)(Reuters, 3/27/15)
2015        Mar 27, Egyptian and Saudi Arabian warships deployed to the Bab al-Mandab strait off Yemen to secure the strategic sea passage.
    (SFC, 3/28/15, p.A3)

2015        Mar 28, Saudi Arabia's navy evacuated dozens of diplomats from Yemen and the United Nations pulled out international staff after a third night of Saudi-led air strikes trying to stem advances by Iranian-allied Houthi fighters.
    (Reuters, 3/28/15)

2015        Mar 29, Saudi Arabia accused Russian President Vladimir Putin of hypocrisy, telling an Arab summit that he should not express support for the Middle East while fuelling instability by supporting Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 3/29/15)
2015        Mar 29, In Yemen at least 38 people were killed in clashes between rebel forces and tribes near a southern oil region. Saudi-led warplanes bombed the main international airport and struck a renegade troop base in Sanaa.
    (AFP, 3/29/15)

2015        Mar 31, Saudi-led airstrikes pounded Yemen's Shiite rebels for the sixth day, destroying missiles and weapons depots controlled by the rebels. The UN human rights office in Geneva said that in the past five days, at least 93 civilians have been killed and 364 wounded in five Yemeni cities. Airstrikes hit a dairy factory near Hodeida killing 23.
    (AP, 3/31/15)(Econ., 4/4/15, p.44)

2015        Apr 1, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition warplanes bombed Shiite rebel positions in both the north and south, setting off explosions and drawing return fire from anti-aircraft guns.
    (AP, 4/1/15)(SFC, 4/2/15, p.A3)

2015        Apr 3, In Yemen Houthi forces pulled back from a central Aden district. Warplanes from the Saudi-led coalition dropped weapons and medical aid to fighters defending the southern Yemeni city. An air strike on a village near Sanaa killed a family of nine in what appeared to be a hit by the Saudi-led military campaign against Houthi militia. Local militia forces said they killed 10 Houthis during the fighting which pushed the Shi'ite movement out of Crater. They also said Houthis killed two medics and two patients when they opened fire on an ambulance ferrying casualties from Aden peninsula to hospital on the mainland.
    (Reuters, 4/3/15)(Reuters, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 4, A Saudi adviser said Saudi Arabian special forces are involved in the military operation against Shiite Houthi rebels in neighboring Yemen. A Saudi-led coalition pounded rebels in the south and dropped more arms to loyalist fighters.
    (AFP, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 5, In eastern Saudi Arabia a policeman was killed and three were wounded during a raid in al-Awamiya, a predominantly Shiite town.
    (AP, 4/6/15)
2015        Apr 5, In Yemen warplanes from a Saudi-led coalition bombed Sanaa overnight on the eleventh day of a campaign against Iran-allied Houthi. A senior Houthi member said Yemen's Houthis are ready to sit down for peace talks as long as a Saudi-led air campaign is halted and the negotiations are overseen by "non-aggressive" parties.
    (Reuters, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 6, Saudi Arabia beheaded Saleh al-Yami for drug trafficking, raising to 57 the number of executions it has carried out so far this year.
    (AFP, 4/6/15)

2015        Apr 7, In central Yemen warplanes from a Saudi-led air coalition bombed a military base controlled by Houthi fighters and their army allies. A website of the Houthi-run defense ministry said two students were killed at a neighboring school. Suspected al Qaeda militants stormed a remote border post with Saudi Arabia, killing at least two soldiers including the senior border guard officer.
    (Reuters, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 8, In Saudi Arabia two policemen were shot dead in Riyadh. Yazid bin Mohammed Abdulrahman Abu Niyan (23) later confessed that he was following orders received from IS in Syria. A 2nd Saudi suspect was identified as Nawaf bin Sharif Samir al-Anzi. Three bomb-laden cars had been seized during investigations into the killings.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 8, In southern Yemen warplanes from a Saudi-led coalition struck al-Anad airbase overnight and targets in areas around the southern port city of Aden. At least 22 people were killed in tank and mortar shelling by rebel forces on residential areas in Aden. Warships from the Saudi-led coalition blocked a vessel carrying more than 47,000 tons of wheat from entering a Yemeni port, demanding UN guarantees that the cargo would not go to military personnel.
    (Reuters, 4/8/15)(AFP, 4/8/15)(Reuters, 4/10/15)

2015        Apr 9, The Pentagon said the US has begun daily aerial refueling for planes in the Saudi-led coalition carrying out air strikes in Yemen.
    (SSFC, 4/12/15, p.A4)

2015        Apr 10, Yemen’s Houthi rebels killed 3 Saudi border guards in a mortar attack in Saudi Arabia’s Najran province.
    (SSFC, 4/12/15, p.A9)

2015        Apr 11, In Iran hundreds of citizens defied a government ban and protested against Saudi Arabia over the alleged abuse of two Iranian pilgrims visiting the Sunni kingdom.
    (AP, 4/11/15)

2015        Apr 12, In Yemen suspected Al Qaeda militants killed an army colonel in central Shabwa province. Saudi Arabia dismissed Iranian calls to end air strikes on Yemen as Saudi-led attacks hit a military camp in Taiz, killing 8 civilians. Al Qaeda leader Ibrahim al-Rubaish, released from Guantanamo in 2006, was killed along with others in an apparent US drone strike on a group of militants west of the port city of Mukalla.
    (Reuters, 4/12/15)(SFC, 4/15/15, p.A3)

2015        Apr 14, Iran proposed a four-point peace plan for Yemen and called for an end to Saudi-led air strikes against Houthi rebels allied to Tehran. It comprised of a ceasefire, humanitarian assistance, an intra-Yemeni dialogue and the establishment of a broad-based government.
    (Reuters, 4/14/15)(Reuters, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia beheaded one of its citizens for drug trafficking. Khalid al-Rowaili was the 61st person executed in the kingdom so far this year.
    (AFP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 16, Saudi Arabia's stock market regulator said foreign investors will be allowed to trade shares on the oil-rich kingdom's exchange beginning on June 15.
    (AP, 4/16/15)

2015        Apr 18, Saudi Arabia pledged to cover the entire $274 million in humanitarian aid sought by the UN for conflict-torn Yemen, where a Saudi-led coalition has been bombing Shiite rebels for three weeks.
    (AFP, 4/18/15)

2015        Apr 19, A Saudi border guard was killed and two troops wounded by heavy gun and mortar fire from Yemen.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 20, Lebanon received the first installment of $3 billion worth of French weapons paid for by Saudi Arabia, part of a four-year plan to help arm Beirut in its battle against jihadi groups.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Yemen Saudi-led air strikes on a missile depot in Sanaa, the rebel-held capital, sparked explosions that left at least 18 people dead and 300 wounded.
    (AFP, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 21, Saudi Arabia announced that it would end almost a month of air strikes against the Iranian-allied Houthis. Hours later Houthi fighters captured an army brigade base loyal to the government in Yemen's central city of Taiz following heavy fighting. A Saudi air strike hit the brigade headquarters shortly afterwards.
    (Reuters, 4/22/15)
2015        Apr 21, The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists issued its annual list of the world's top 10 most censored countries: Eritrea tope the list followed by North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, Azerbaijan, Vietnam, Iran, China, Myanmar and Cuba.
    (AP, 4/21/15)

2015        Apr 22, In Yemen rival forces fought on despite a declared halt to a Saudi-led bombing campaign, showing how tough it may be to find a political solution to a war stirring animosities between rival Gulf powers Saudi Arabia and Iran. The Houthi rebel movement said it wanted to return to UN-sponsored peace talks but only after a complete halt to a month of Saudi-led air strikes on the group. The Saudi-led coalition bombed southern Houthi positions carrying out at least 12 air strikes.
    (Reuters, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 23, Warplanes from a Saudi-led coalition pounded Houthi militiamen and military bases with at least 20 air strikes throughout Yemen, despite Riyadh saying it was winding down its campaign.
    (Reuters, 4/23/15)

2015        Apr 26, In Saudi Arabia a plane affiliated with the King Faisal Air Academy, a military flight school in Riyadh, crashed and killed the instructor and a student pilot.
    (AP, 4/26/15)

2015        Apr 27, In Yemen Saudi-led aircraft pounded Iran-allied Houthi militiamen and rebel army units in central Yemen and Sanaa despite a formal end to the air strikes.
    (Reuters, 4/27/15)

2015        Apr 28, Saudi Arabia said it has arrested 93 people suspected of belonging to the Islamic State militant group, including two people who planned a failed suicide car bombing against the US embassy in Riyadh.
    (Reuters, 4/28/15)

2015        Apr 29, Saudi King Salman appointed a new heir and made his young son second in line to rule, a major shift in power toward two princes who have overseen a more assertive stance at a time of almost unprecedented regional turmoil. Muhammad bin Nayef (55) was named the new crown prince.
    (Reuters, 4/29/15)(Econ., 5/2/15, p.41)

2015        Apr 30, A Saudi national who murdered his father and a drug trafficker were beheaded, bringing to 71 the number of executions carried out this year in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 4/30/15)

2015        May 1, Saudi Arabia said its forces have killed dozens of Iran-backed rebels from Yemen who launched their first major attack on the kingdom since Saudi-led air strikes began last month.
    (AFP, 5/1/15)

2015        May 4, Senegal said it will send 2,100 troops to Saudi Arabia as part of an international coalition combating Houthi rebels in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 5/4/15)

2015        May 5, Saudi King Salman announced the establishment of a center to coordinate humanitarian assistance for Yemen, and invited the United Nations to join in relief work for the Arab country.
    (Reuters, 5/5/15)
2015        May 5, It was reported that Indonesia will stop sending new domestic workers to 21 Middle Eastern countries, after the recent execution of two Indonesian women in Saudi Arabia angered Jakarta.
    (AFP, 5/5/15)
2015        May 5, Yemen's Houthi rebels fired mortars and Katyusha rockets at the Saudi city of Najran, killing at least 3 civilians. A husband and wife were killed as a missile from war-torn Yemen struck their building in the Jazan region. Five soldiers were reported captured.
    (AP, 5/5/15)(Reuters, 5/6/15)(AFP, 5/6/15)

2015        May 6, Saudi-led coalition warplanes struck Yemeni provinces near the Saudi border overnight, killing at least 43 civilians. Another 9 people were killed and 18 were wounded in air strikes on a police academy in Dhamar province. Aid agencies warned that fuel shortages could halt their efforts to tackle Yemen's humanitarian crisis. Houthi fighters entered Aden's al-Tawahi district, one of the last strongholds of supporters of President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi. Fighting across Yemen killed 120 people, mostly civilians, including at least 40 who were trying to flee Aden in a boat that was struck by Houthi shells.
    (Reuters, 5/6/15)(AFP, 5/6/15)(Reuters, 5/7/15)

2015        May 7, Saudi Arabia offered a five-day humanitarian truce to the Houthi militia it has hit with weeks of air strikes in neighboring Yemen, on condition that fighting across Yemen stops.
    (Reuters, 5/7/15)

2015        May 8, In Yemen the Saudi-led coalition declared the rebel stronghold of Saada a war zone and said its entire territory would from now on be considered a "military target," urging all civilians to leave by 7 p.m. local time.
    (AP, 5/8/15)

2015        May 9, The Saudi-led coalition struck northern provinces of Yemen in a third consecutive night of heavy air strikes. More than 100 air strikes hit areas of Saada and Hajjah provinces, including the districts of Haradh, Maidi and Bakil al-Mir.
    (Reuters, 5/9/15)

2015        May 11, Saudi-led warplanes pressed air strikes against rebel positions in Yemen, 36 hours before a scheduled five-day pause to allow the delivery of much-needed humanitarian aid. The air strikes on a rocket base in Sanaa killed 90 people and wounded 300.
    (AFP, 5/11/15)(Reuters, 5/12/15)

2015        May 12, In Yemen at least 69 people were killed and 250 others were wounded by explosions after Saudi-led warplanes hit an arms depot a day earlier on the outskirts of Sanaa as bombing continued today.
    (AFP, 5/12/15)

2015        May 13, King Salman doubled Saudi Arabia's aid commitment to Yemen to $540 million on the first day of a humanitarian pause in a bombing campaign it has led. A jet-fighter from the Saudi-led coalition struck a military convoy belonging to Shiite rebels and their allies in southern Yemen, straining the humanitarian, five-day cease-fire.
    (AFP, 5/13/15)(AP, 5/13/15)

2015        May 19, Saudi Arabia advertised vacancies for eight executioners after beheading 84 people, nearly as many people since the start of the year as it did in the whole of 2014.
    (AFP, 5/19/15)

2015        May 21, In southern Yemen Saudi-led coalition warplanes carried out fresh raids on rebel positions as pro-government tribesmen advanced on Shiite Huthi strongholds in the north. Saudi shells hit an international humanitarian aid office in northern Yemen, killing 5 Ethiopian refugees and wounding ten.
    (AFP, 5/21/15)(Reuters, 5/21/15)

2015        May 22, In eastern Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber blew himself up at the Shi'ite Imam Ali mosque during Friday prayers, killing 21 people and wounding more than 50 in the village of al-Qadeeh.
    (Reuters, 5/23/15)

2015        May 24, In Yemen Saudi forces and Houthi militia traded heavy artillery fire overnight, which destroyed part of the Haradh border crossing, the main border crossing between the two countries. In Taiz Houthi forces and pro-Hadi fighters fired tank and artillery shells at each other throughout the city overnight, killing 5 civilians. Local fighters combating the Houthis in the south said they killed 8 Houthi fighters in an ambush in Dalea province.
    (Reuters, 5/24/15)

2015        May 26, In northern Yemen 7 members of a family were killed in an overnight strike by Saudi-led warplanes on a border village. In the south the Saudi-led air force launched nearly 20 raids on Houthi fighters in the port city of Aden.
    (Reuters, 5/26/15)

2015        May 27, Saudi-led air strikes killed at least 80 people near Yemen's border with Saudi Arabia and in the capital Sanaa, the deadliest day of bombing in over two months of war in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 5/27/15)
2015        May 27, Saudi Arabia said it is sanctioning two senior members of Hezbollah, Khalil Yusif Harb and Muhammad Qabalan, accusing them of leading terrorist operations in the Middle East.
    (AP, 5/27/15)

2015        May 29, In Saudi Arabia an Islamic State jihadist disguised as a woman killed 4 other people when he blew himself up in a car outside the Al-Anoud Shiite mosque in Dammam, Eastern Province. This was the second such attack in a week. The Interior Ministry later identified bomber as Saudi citizen, Khalid al-Wahbi al-Shemmari (20).
    (AFP, 5/29/15)(SFC, 5/30/15, p.A4)(Reuters, 6/3/15)

2015        May 31, In Yemen aircraft from a Saudi-led coalition bombed Houthi outposts throughout the country. Yemen's exiled government in Saudi Arabia said that senior Houthi officials are holding talks with the United States in neighboring Oman to help end the nine-week conflict. Human Rights Watch published new evidence alleging a Saudi-led coalition is using internationally banned cluster bombs in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 5/31/15)(AFP, 5/31/15)

2015        Jun 1, In Yemen at least 8 civilians were killed and 20 wounded in explosions sparked by Saudi-led air strikes on rebel arms depots in Sanaa.
    (AFP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 3, In Yemen Saudi-led air strikes killed a group of around 20 Houthi fighters outside the southern port city of Aden and also shook the capital Sanaa in the north.
    (Reuters, 6/3/15)

2015        Jun 4, Israel and Saudi Arabia admitted at a conference in America that they have held a series of meetings over shared interests.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.47)
2015        Jun 4, In central Yemen warplanes from the Saudi-led coalition pounded rebel positions as air raids intensified amid attempts to revive UN-proposed talks in Switzerland.
    (AFP, 6/4/15)

2015        Jun 5, Four Saudi troops, including an officer, were reported killed after an attack was launched from the Yemeni side on border areas in Jizan and Najran.
    (Reuters, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 6, Yemen's dominant Houthi group and its army allies fired a Scud missile at Saudi Arabia which the kingdom says it shot down. Eyewitnesses said around 10 Arab air strikes pounded Houthi positions in Aden's northwest suburbs.
    (Reuters, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 7, Saudi state-linked news websites reported that the Supreme Court has upheld an internationally condemned verdict against Raif Badawi (31), a liberal blogger who was publicly flogged after being found guilty of insulting Islam.
    (AP, 6/7/15)
2015        Jun 7, In Yemen 20 civilians were among at least 45 people killed in Saudi-led air strikes on the rebel-held armed forces headquarters in Sanaa early today.
    (AFP, 6/7/15)

2015        Jun 9, In Yemen a series of airstrikes from the Saudi-led military coalition targeted the Defense Ministry building, which is under control of Shiite rebels who control Sanaa. The airstrikes also targeted the homes of military commanders allied with the rebels in the northwest Sanaa district of Hamdan.
    (AP, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 11, In Yemen a Saudi-led airstrike hit a public bus on a highway north of the southern city of Aden, splitting the vehicle in half and killing at least 20 civilian passengers. Airstrikes over the last 48 hours also hit a family traveling in a private car and a farmer driving a pick-up truck loaded with potatoes, also near Aden.
    (AP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 12, In Yemen Saudi-led airstrikes targeting Shiite rebels and their allies destroyed historic houses in the center of, Sanaa, a UNESCO world heritage site. The Saudi-led coalition denied claims that it carried out the strike, suggesting a rebel ammunition cache may have exploded.
    (AP, 6/12/15)    (AFP, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 13, In Yemen 9 people were killed when Saudi-led coalition warplanes bombed a district in Sanaa inhabited by relatives of ex-president Ali Abdullah Saleh. At least 60 people were reported wounded.
    (Reuters, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 15, Saudi Arabia opened its stock market to foreign investors, but only the biggest financial institutions such as banks, brokers and fund managers were allowed to get into the game.
2015        Jun 15, Saudi Arabia beheaded a Syrian drug trafficker and a national convicted of murder, taking to 100 the number of executions in the kingdom this year.
    (AFP, 6/15/15)

2015        Jun 17, Saudi Arabia beheaded two of its citizens for murder, adding to what a rights group calls a "campaign of death" in which 102 people have been executed this year compared to 87 in 2014.
    (AFP, 6/17/15)
2015        Jun 17, Al Qaeda militants in Yemen killed two alleged Saudi spies, accusing them of planting tracking devices which enabled the assassination of the group's leader in a suspected US drone strike last week. Four car bombs hit three mosques and the political headquarters of the Houthi movement in Sanaa, killing and wounding dozens of people.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)

2015        Jun 19, In Yemen Saudi-led warplanes bombed elite Republican Guard forces allied with the dominant Houthi faction. Houthis reported that 9 civilians were killed in air strikes on the Razeh district of the northern province of Saada. UN-sponsored ceasefire talks broke off in Geneva without a deal to end nearly three months of fighting.
    (Reuters, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 24, Yemen's Shiite rebels launched two late night attacks along the Saudi Arabia border, killing three Saudi soldiers and one from the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 6/25/15)(Reuters, 6/26/15)

2015        Jun 26, The US Periodic Review Board, which has been re-evaluating dozens of Guantanamo prisoners, said Abdul Rahman Shalabi (39) can be released to take part in a Saudi government rehabilitation program for militants and would be subject to monitoring afterward. Shalabi began a hunger strike in 2005 and prison officials had fed him with a nasogastric tube daily for nine years.
    (AP, 6/26/15)
2015        Jun 26, In Kuwait a suicide bombing killed 27 people at a packed Shi'ite mosque. The Islamic State claimed responsibility. On June 28 the interior ministry named the bomber as Fahd Suliman Abdul-Muhsen al-Qabaa (Fahad Suleiman Abdulmohsen Al-Gabaa, born 1992) of Saudi Arabia. Saudi brother Majed al-Zahrani and Mohammad al-Zahrani had smuggled in the explosives in an icebox by car through Nuwaiseeb border post from Saudi Arabia, a day before the bombing. On August 4 Abdulrahman Sabah Saud, who drove Fahad al-Qaba'a to the mosque in Kuwait City and was arrested two days after the blast, confessed in court to having joined the jihadist Islamic State group on June 25.
    (Reuters, 6/26/15)(Reuters, 6/27/15)(Reuters, 6/28/15)(SFC, 6/29/15, p.A2)(AFP, 7/7/15)(AFP, 8/5/15)
2015        Jun 26, In Yemen air strikes by a Saudi-led force hit military bases across Yemen. 10 people were killed in air raids in Jawf.
    (Reuters, 6/26/15)

2015        Jul 1, Saudi tycoon Prince Alwaleed bin Talal promised his entire $32 billion (28.8 billion euro) fortune to charitable projects in coming years, in one of the biggest ever such pledges.
    (AFP, 7/1/15)

2015        Jul 2, Saudi Arabia officially opened a billion-dollar aviation gateway aimed at Muslim pilgrims, in the kingdom's first airport privatization.
    (AFP, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 6, In Yemen Saudi-led warplanes bombed the Sanaa headquarters of the party headed by rebel-allied former president Ali Abdullah Saleh overnight. More than 45 civilians were reported killed in a Saudi-led airstrike in Fayoush.
    (AP, 7/6/15)(SFC, 7/7/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 10, Saudi Arabia's Prince Saud al-Faisal (b.1940), formerly the world's longest-serving foreign minister, died in the US. He oversaw four decades of turbulent diplomacy for the oil-rich kingdom.
    (AFP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 11, In Yemen a UN-proposed truce, aimed at delivering desperately needed aid to millions threatened with famine, failed to take hold. The spokesman for the Saudi-led coalition targeting Yemen's Shiite rebels in airstrikes since March said the coalition is not bound by the new truce deal.
    (AFP, 7/11/15)(AP, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 16, In Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber wounded two policemen at a checkpoint near a high-security prison in Riyadh in an attack claimed by the Islamic State jihadist group. The bomber, identified as Abdullah al-Rashid (19), had also killed his uncle, a colonel in the interior ministry, before blowing himself up.
    (AFP, 7/17/15)
2015        Jul 16, In Yemen fighting intensified in the southern port city of Aden as Saudi-backed troops pushed to drive Shiite rebels out of several neighborhoods. The Shiite rebels meanwhile fired rockets at the city's airport, killing at least 3 people. Senior members of the exiled administration flew into Aden to make preparations for the government's return.
    (AP, 7/16/15)(Reuters, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 18, Saudi Arabia announced it has broken up planned Islamic State attacks in the kingdom and arrested 431 suspects in an anti-terrorism sweep.
    (AP, 7/18/15)(Reuters, 7/18/15)

2015        Jul 19, Beach lovers on the French Riviera expressed their anger over the imminent arrival of the Saudi royal family, who have ordered a long stretch of beach to be closed off to the public.
    (AFP, 7/19/15)

2015        Jul 22, In Yemen a Saudi military plane loaded with arms for fighters loyal to Yemen's deposed president landed at Aden airport, the first flight to reach the embattled port city in four months.
    (Reuters, 7/22/15)

2015        Jul 24, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition airstrikes killed more than 120 civilians and wounded more than 150 after shelling a residential area in the Taiz province.
    (AP, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 25, King Salman of Saudi Arabia arrived in France for a Riviera beach holiday at the family's seafront villa in Vallauris, bringing with him no fewer than 1,000 people from his entourage.
    (Reuters, 7/25/15)
2015        Jul 25, Saudi-led coalition forces announced a five-day humanitarian ceasefire would take effect starting July 26 evening at the request of exiled president Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi.
    (Reuters, 7/25/15)

2015        Jul 26, Saudi Arabian gas prices were reported to be about 60 cents per gallon.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 27, Yemeni military sources Saudi-led coalition warplanes hit positions of pro-government forces in south Yemen by mistake, killing 12 people on the first day of a humanitarian truce.
    (AFP, 7/27/15)

2015        Jul 28, A Saudi lawman was killed and two others were wounded during an attack in a Shiite-dominated area of Eastern Province. Two suspects were arrested after the patrol came under fire in al-Jesh village of Qatif district.
    (AP, 7/29/15)
2015        Jul 28, In Yemen Saudi-led warplanes resumed raids on rebels, who clashed with loyalists. Air strikes targeted rebels north of Aden, rebels in nearby Lahj province and a rebel convoy near Sabr. Other raids hit a building occupied by insurgents in Jaawala. An overnight strike hit rebels in Marib east of Sanaa.
    (AFP, 7/28/15)

2015        Jul 29, From Saudi Arabia Yemen's exiled President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi ordered that militias battling Shiite rebels in Yemen be merged with his national army, in an apparent attempt to unify ground forces.
    (AP, 7/29/15)
2015        Jul 29, In Yemen Saudi-led warplanes bombed targets in northerly Saada province. A car bomb exploded outside the Ismaili Al Faydh Alhatemy mosque in an eastern district of Sanaa, killing 3 people and wounding seven. The Islamic State militant group claimed responsibility. Ismailis are a minority Shi'ite Muslim sect, as are the Zaydi Shi'ites, a community whose interests the Houthi group says it defends.
    (Reuters, 7/29/15)

2015        Jul 31, In southern England a pilot and three passengers died when a Saudi-owned executive jet crashed into a parking lot and burst into flames while trying to land at Blackbushe Airport. The dead included a sister, brother-in-law and stepmother of Osama bin Laden as well as the plane's Jordanian pilot.
    (AP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 6, In in south-west Saudi Arabia a suicide bomb attack on the mosque of a local security force headquarters in Abha city killed 15 people, including 12 members of the force.
    (Reuters, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 7, A Saudi soldier was killed by shelling from across the Yemeni border, becoming the third death this week.
    (AFP, 8/7/15)

2015        Aug 8, In Yemen pro-government forces, strengthened by tanks newly supplied by a Saudi-led coalition, launched an offensive to retake Zinjibar, the rebel-held capital of Abyan province. A Saudi-led coalition airstrike hit allied fighters in a friendly fire incident, killing at least 20 fighters on a coastal road as they headed toward Zinjibar.
    (AFP, 8/8/15)    (AP, 8/9/15)

2015        Aug 11, Russia and Saudi Arabia failed in talks to overcome their differences on the fate of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a central dispute in Syria's civil war that shows no sign of abating despite renewed diplomacy.
    (Reuters, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 17, The Saudi military said 2 soldiers have been killed along the border by a missile fired from inside Yemen.
    (AP, 8/17/15)

2015        Aug 19, Saudi authorities said they have closed an emergency ward in King Abdulaziz Medical City after at least 46 people, including hospital staff, contracted the potentially fatal Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The Health Ministry recorded three new MERS deaths in Riyadh. That brings the total number of deaths to 483 since the virus was first identified in 2012.
    (AP, 8/19/15)

2015        Aug 20, Saudi authorities executed two alleged Chadian militants for murdering a French engineer in the Red Sea city of Jeddah 11 years ago.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 21, In Yemen a helicopter from the Saudi-led forces battling anti-government fighters crashed along the Saudi border, killing the two pilots. Huthi rebels said they have shot down a Saudi Apache helicopter.
    (AFP, 8/21/15)

2015        Aug 25, In Yemen about 100 Saudi forces arrived in Aden to help rebuild the local police force. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said it has temporarily suspended its activities in Aden after its office was raided by unidentified gunmen a day earlier. Al-Qaeda dynamited a headquarters of the secret police in Mukalla.
    (Reuters, 8/25/15)(AFP, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 26, The Saudi-owned Asharq al-Awsat daily reported that Ahmad Ibrahim al-Mughassil (48), a key suspect in the bombing of a housing complex in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 US airmen almost two decades ago, was detained in Beirut and sent to Saudi Arabia where he is being interrogated.
    (AFP, 8/26/15)
2015        Aug 26, In Yemen al-Qaeda militants blew up an army headquarters and set up checkpoints in the jihadist network's southeastern stronghold of Mukalla, Hadramawt province. Yemeni army units allied to the Houthi militia fired a ballistic missile toward southern Saudi Arabia but the Saudi military said it intercepted it and retaliated with air strikes on Yemeni territory.
    (AFP, 8/26/15)(Reuters, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 27, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said 15 more people have died in the last seven days after contracting the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
    (AP, 8/27/15)

2015        Aug 30, Saudi Arabia allowed women to register to stand in local elections, in a historic first for the ultra-conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)
2015        Aug 30, Saudi authorities executed a Pakistani man for attempting to smuggle drugs into the ultra-conservative kingdom. Up to 129 people have been executed in Saudi Arabia so far this year.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)
2015        Aug 30, In eastern Saudi Arabia a large fire broke out in the basement of a residential complex in Khobar, killing at least 11 people and injuring more than 200.
    (AP, 8/30/15)

2015        Aug, Iran's most expensive movie, "Muhammad", opened nationwide in the Shiite Islamic republic last week. It depicted the prophet on screen, an act that is prohibited in Sunni Islam. Saudi Arabia's top cleric soon hit out at the film describing its portrayal of the prophet's childhood as a "hostile act" and a "distortion" of Islam.
    (AFP, 9/2/15)

2015        Sep 4, A Saudi policeman was killed and two others wounded when a terrorist attacked a security site in the Abqaiq region in the country's Eastern province.
    (AP, 9/5/15)
2015        Sep 4, President Barack Obama hosted Saudi Arabia's new monarch for the first time and said that the US shares King Salman's desire for an inclusive government in Yemen that can relieve that impoverished Arab country's humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 9/4/15)
2015        Sep 4, In Yemen Iranian-allied Houthis attacked a weapons storage facility in Marib killing 45 soldiers from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), 5 Bahrainis, 10 Saudis and 4 Yemenis.
    (Reuters, 9/4/15)(AFP, 9/5/15)(Reuters, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 6, Saudi-led coalition jets bombed a Houthi military position and army bases in the Yemeni capital Sanaa through the night and into this morning in what appeared to be further retaliation for the killing of dozens of coalition soldiers two days ago.
    (Reuters, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 9, Police in India investigated complaints from two Nepalese women that a Saudi Arabian diplomat raped them repeatedly and confined them in his home near New Delhi. He claimed diplomatic immunity, and the Saudi embassy in a statement denied all the allegations.
    (AP, 9/9/15)

2015        Sep 11, Saudi Arabia said it has taken in about 2.5 million Syrians on religious and humanitarian grounds in the years since the country's conflict began and has offered residency to hundreds of thousands. Saudi Arabia did not specify how many of those Syrians admitted remain in the country.
    (AP, 9/12/15)
2015        Sep 11, In Saudi Arabia stormy winds knocked over a crane which collapsed onto Mecca’s Grand Mosque killing at least 107 people.
    (Reuters, 9/12/15)(SSFC, 9/13/15, p.A8)
2015        Sep 11, Saudi Arabia banned the slaughter of camels during this year's hajj pilgrimage, after a surge in deaths from the MERS virus linked to the animals.
    (AFP, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 13, In Saudi Arabia 5 soldiers were killed by fire from across its border with Yemen. A helicopter pilot died when his chopper crashed during a training mission.
    (AP, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 15, Saudi police captured two suspected militants, along with several weapons and an explosive vest, in two raids around the capital Riyadh.
    (Reuters, 9/16/15)

2015        Sep 18, Saudi authorities said incoming fire from Yemen hit a residence for construction workers in the south, killing at least 3 people and wounding 28.
    (AP, 9/18/15)
2015        Sep 18, In Yemen at least 14 pro-government troops were killed overnight when a Saudi-led coalition air raid targeted their position "by mistake" in the region of Harib.
    (AFP, 9/18/15)

2015        Sep 21, In Yemen Saudi alliance raids killed around 50 people.
    (Reuters, 9/22/15)

2015        Sep 22, In Saudi Arabia more than 2 million Muslims started the first rites of the annual hajj. It was estimated that the hajj brought in $8.5 billion each year.
    (AP, 9/22/15)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.45)

2015        Sep 23, In Saudi Arabia Around two million Muslims poured into the vast Saudi plain where the Prophet Mohammed is believed to have given his final sermon, for the peak of the hajj pilgrimage.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)
2015        Sep 23, In Los Angeles Saudi Prince Majed Abdulaziz Al-Saud (28) was arrested for allegedly trying to force a woman to perform oral sex on him at a Beverly Hills mansion.
    (AFP, 9/26/15)

2015        Sep 24, In Saudi Arabia at least 717 pilgrims were killed in a stampede at Mina outside of Mecca, the worst disaster to strike the annual hajj pilgrimage in 25 years. On October 8 an AP count put the number killed to at least 1,313. On Oct 14 the death toll was raised to 1,621. On Oct 19 the death toll was raised to at least 2,121.
    (Reuters, 9/24/15)(SFC, 10/9/15, p.A2)(SFC, 10/15/15, p.A2)(SFC, 10/20/15, p.A4)   
2015        Sep 24, In Saudi Arabia an Islamic State loyalist and his brother allegedly killed their cousin, a Saudi soldier, and 3 other people after luring them to a desert area. On Sep 26 Saudi forces tracked the brothers to a mountainous area where Abdul-Aziz Radi Ayash al-Anzi (18) was killed in an ensuing gunfight. His brother, Saad Radi Ayash al-Anzi (21), was wounded and arrested.
    (AP, 9/26/15)
2015        Sep 24, In northern Saudi Arabia gunmen opened fire at two police checkpoints in Hail province, killing at least 3 people.
    (AP, 9/25/15)

2015        Sep 25, In Saudi Arabia a senior officer and another border guard were killed in a gunbattle after a landmine blast along the frontier with Yemen.
    (AFP, 9/26/15)

2015        Sep 26, Saudi Arabia deployed large numbers of special forces as pilgrims performed the final rituals of a hajj marred by double tragedy, with the toll from a stampede rising to 769.
    (AFP, 9/26/15)
2015        Sep 26, In Yemen Gulf troops and allied tribesmen continued heavy ground battles with militiamen and their allies in Yemen's army in the desert province of Marib. At least 20 bodies from both sides were seen on the battlefield. Saudi Brigadier Gen. Ibrahim Omar Ibrahim Hamzi died the next day of wounds.
    (Reuters, 9/27/15)

2015        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said that security forces killed two suspected militants and arrested three others during a series of counterterrorism raids, who state-linked media said were part of an alleged Islamic State cell.
    (AP, 9/28/15)
2015        Sep 28, Indian and Pakistani authorities said Saudi Arabia has given foreign diplomats 1,090 photographs of the dead from last week's hajj crush and stampede, an indication of a significantly higher death toll than previously offered by the kingdom.
    (AP, 9/28/15)

2015        Sep 30, Saudi Arabia arrested a Syrian man, Yasser Mohammed Shafiq al-Barazi, and a Filipina, Lady Gioi Aban Bali Nang, for allegedly manufacturing suicide bomb belts in Riyadh.
    (AP, 10/3/15)

2015        Oct 1, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of people were still unaccounted, a week after a hajj stampede killed at least 769 people. A tally of death tolls from 23 countries, mostly from official sources, put the number at more than 940.
    (AFP, 10/1/15)
2015        Oct 1, Iran said its death toll from the Sep 24 Saudi hajj disaster has nearly doubled to 464 pilgrims killed.
    (AP, 10/1/15)

2015        Oct 5, In an online statement dozens of Islamist Saudi Arabian clerics called on Arab and Muslim countries to "give all moral, material, political and military" support to what they term a jihad, or holy war, against Syria's government and its Iranian and Russian backers.
    (Reuters, 10/5/15)

2015        Oct 9, India said it had lodged a protest with authorities in Riyadh after Kasthuri Munirathinam (55), a maid from Tamil Nadu, allegedly had her hand chopped off by her Saudi employer for complaining about her work conditions.
    (AFP, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 13, The British government pulled out of 5.9 million-pound ($9 million) deal to sell prison expertise to Saudi Arabia that had drawn opposition from rights groups and senior politicians.
    (AP, 10/13/15)
2015        Oct 13, France and Saudi Arabia announced signed deals worth 10 billion euros, the latest example of the deepening alliance between the two nations.
    (AP, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 16, In Saudi Arabia a suspect with an automatic weapon opened fire at a Shiite meeting hall in Qatif city, Eastern Province, killing 5 people and wounding nine more. A group calling itself Islamic State-Bahrain Province said one of its "soldiers", Shughaa al-Dosari, attacked a Shiite infidel temple with an automatic weapon.
    (AFP, 10/17/15)

2015        Oct 20, Amnesty International said a terrorism tribunal in Saudi Arabia, which was elected to the U.N. Human Rights Council in 2013, has sentenced two political activists to decade-long prison terms for establishing the Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association (ACPRA).
    (Reuters, 10/20/15)

2015        Oct 23, The United States, Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia met in Vienna to explore a political solution to the Syrian civil war despite the basic US-Russian disagreement over Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's fate.
    (AP, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 24, The United States and Saudi Arabia agreed to increase support to Syria's moderate opposition while seeking a political resolution of the four-year conflict as Secretary of State John Kerry met with King Salman.
    (Reuters, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 26, In Saudi Arabia a blast struck the mosque belonging to the Ismaili Shiite minority in Najran after sunset, killing one person and wounding several others. The bomber was identified that next day as Saudi citizen Saad Saeed Saad al-Harthy (34).
    (AP, 10/27/15)
2015        Oct 26, Lebanese authorities detained Saudi prince Abdel Mohsen Bin Walid Bin Abdulaziz and four others at Beirut international airport after finding two tons of drugs aboard a private jet bound for the Gulf kingdom. On Nov 2 the Saudi prince and nine others were charged with drug trafficking.
    (Reuters, 10/2615)(AFP, 11/2/15)
2015        Oct 26, Yemeni residents reported that a coalition air strike killed Haradh hospital director Yasser Wathab and two people he was traveling with in a car in the northwestern province of Hajja. Several shells fired from Houthi-held north Yemen over the border into the Saudi city of Najran killed 2 foreign residents and wounded a Saudi citizen. A hospital in north Yemen run by medical aid group Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) was bombed in a Saudi-led air strike, wrecking the facility and lightly wounding two staff members.
    (Reuters, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 29, Saudi blogger Raif Badawi (31), who was sentenced to 1,000 lashes and 10 years in prison for insulting Islam, was awarded the European Parliament's prestigious Sakharov human rights prize.
    (AFP, 10/29/15)

2015        Nov 2, Saudi Arabia’s local media reported that the government will raise the price of water for non-residential consumers, a sign the government is cutting back an expensive system of subsidies as low oil prices strain its finances.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)

2015        Nov 3, A British judge ordered a huge financial payout for Palestinian-born Janan Harb (68), who claims she was the "secret wife" of the late King Fahd of Saudi Arabia. Harb had told the court she secretly married the king in 1968 when he was still a prince.
    (AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 6, A Saudi woman and a child were killed in the border region of Najran by a shell fired from Yemen.
    (AP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 16, US officials said the State Department has approved the sale of thousands of smart bombs worth a total of $1.29 billion to Saudi Arabia to help replenish supplies used in its battle against insurgents in Yemen and air strikes against Islamic State in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/16/15)

2015        Nov 17, A Saudi appeals court sentenced Palestinian artist Ashraf Fayadh to execution for apostasy related to a book of poetry and alleged illicit relations with women in a case that dated back to 2013. In 2016 his sentence reduced to prison time and lashes instead.
    (SFC, 11/26/15, p.A9)(AP, 2/3/16)
2015        Nov 17, Severe weather along Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast claimed three lives, including an 11-year-old child who drowned.
    (AP, 11/17/15)

2015        Nov 18, Two members of the Saudi security forces were killed in a restive eastern province after gunmen opened fire on their vehicle. On Jan 1, 2016, authorities said Mufeed bin Ahmed Hasan Omran has been arrested for his alleged involvement in this and other attacks.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)(AFP, 1/1/16)
2015        Nov 18, Saudi Arabia's Civil Defense said thunderstorms and flooding along the Red Sea coast have claimed the lives of 12 people over the past two days.
    (AP, 11/18/15)

2015        Nov 25, A year's worth of rain deluged parts of Qatar as seasonal storms moving through Saudi Arabia flooded streets in a city northwest of the capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 11/25/15)

2015        Nov 27, Human Rights Watch alleged that at least 10 air strikes carried out by a Saudi-led coalition in Yemen broke the laws of war and killed civilians.
    (AFP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 29, Hundreds of Saudi women began campaigning for public office, in a first for women in the conservative Muslim kingdom's slow reform process even as two activists were disqualified.
    (AFP, 11/29/15)
2015        Nov 29, Three Saudi border soldiers were killed after exchanging fire with "enemy elements" trying to cross the border from Yemen to attack two watch towers.
    (Reuters, 11/30/15)

2015        Nov 30, Dozens of Yemeni Houthi fighters were reportedly killed during an assault on the border with Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)

2015        Dec 3, Saudi Arabia lent its backing to a power-sharing plan that would make Suleiman Franjieh, a family friend of Syria's Bashar al-Assad, president of Lebanon.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)
2015        Dec 3, Saudi local media said female divorcees and widows in Saudi Arabia are set to get their own ID cards allowing them to act independently from men.
    (AFP, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 9, Representatives from Syria's fragmented opposition began an unprecedented meeting hosted by Saudi Arabia, seeking a united front for potential talks with President Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)

2015        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia opponents of Syria's President Bashar al-Assad agreed to bring together political and armed factions in a single body in preparation for possible peace talks with his government. Ahrar al-Sham pulled out of opposition talks. The group had insisted the priority should be overthrowing the regime, preserving Syria's unity and rejecting sectarianism.
    (Reuters, 12/10/15)(AFP, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 12, Saudi women voted for the first time, in a tentative step towards easing sex discrimination in the ultra-conservative Islamic kingdom. Women were also allowed for the first time to stand as candidates in the polls for municipal councils, the country's only elected public chambers. Saudi Arabians voted 17 women into public office in municipal elections.
    (AFP, 12/12/15)(Reuters, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec 15, Saudi Arabia announced the formation of the military coalition. Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir said the new "anti-terrorism" military coalition of 34 Muslim countries would share intelligence and deploy troops if necessary. The coalition did not include Iran, or Syria and Iraq.
    (AFP, 12/15/15)

2015        Dec 16, In France the wife of jailed Saudi blogger Raif Badawi accepted the European Parliament's prestigious Sakharov human rights prize on his behalf, urging Arab countries to abandon theocratic diktats and embrace free speech.
    (AFP, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 17, The Syrian opposition hosted by Saudi Arabia elected former PM Riad Hijab as a coordinator of a body that is expected to lead future peace talks.
    (Reuters, 12/17/15)

2015        Dec 19, In Saudi Arabia shelling from Yemen killed a Saudi citizen and two Indian workers.
    (AP, 12/19/15)

2015        Dec 21, Saudi Arabia intercepted multiple missiles fired before dawn by Houthi rebels from Yemen towards its southern border region.
    (AFP, 12/21/15)(SFC, 12/22/15, p.A2)
2015        Dec 21, In Saudi Arabia journalist Zuhair Kutbi was found guilty of inciting public opinion, fomenting sedition, defaming state institutions and harming the government’s prestige. He was sentenced to four years in prison with two years suspended.
    (SFC, 12/23/15, p.A2)

2015        Dec 22, An appeals court in Saudi Arabia commuted a sentence of death by stoning for a Sri Lankan maid convicted of adultery. The sentence was commuted to three years in prison.
    (AP, 12/23/15)

2015        Dec 23, Saudi King Salman said he has ordered economic reforms to diversify sources of income and reduce high dependence on oil following a sharp drop in crude prices.
    (AFP, 12/23/15)

2015        Dec 24, In Saudi Arabia a fire tore through the intensive care unit and the maternity ward of a hospital in the southwestern port city of Jazan before dawn, killing at least 24 people and injuring 123.
    (Reuters, 12/24/15)(Reuters, 12/25/15)

2015        Dec 29, In Saudi Arabia Filipino murder convict Joselito Lidasan Zapanta was publicly beheaded after failing to meet the demand of the Sudanese victim's family for payment of $1 million to save him from the death penalty.
    (AP, 12/29/15)

2015        Dec 31, In southwestern Saudi Arabia 3 civilians including two children were killed in cross-border missile attacks from Yemen on a residential area.
    (AFP, 1/1/16)
2015        Dec 31, General Electric announced that it had won a contract worth nearly $1 billion from the Saudi Electricity Company to build and supply a power plant in northern Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 12/31/15)

2015        Saudi Prince Mohammed bin Salman of Saudi Arabia bought the Serene yacht for approximately 500 million euros while vacationing in the south of France. The ship was built for Russian vodka tycoon Yuri Shefler for $330 million In the summer of 2014.
2015        The population of Saudi Arabia was about 30 million.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.39)

2016        Jan 1, In Saudi Arabia the price of petrol rose by 50%.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.17)
2016        Jan 1, Saudi Arabia executed 47 criminals including prominent Shiite Muslim cleric Nimr al-Nimr (56) and dozens of al Qaeda members, signaling it would not tolerate attacks, whether by Sunni jihadists or minority Shi'ites, and stirring sectarian anger across the region. Al-Nimr was a charismatic religious leader who delivered fiery speeches demanding more rights for his minority in the Sunni-ruled kingdom.
    (Reuters, 1/2/16)(AFP, 1/2/16)(Econ, 3/19/16, p.53)

2016        Jan 2, A Saudi-led coalition that has been bombing the Houthi movement in Yemen for nine months announced the end of a ceasefire that began on Dec. 15, in a setback to attempts to end the conflict.
    (Reuters, 1/2/16)

2016        Jan 3, Saudi Arabia announced it was cutting diplomatic ties with Iran.
    (Reuters, 1/4/16)

2016        Jan 4, Saudi Arabia widened its rift with Iran, saying it would end air traffic and trade links with the Islamic republic and demanding that Tehran must "act like a normal country" before it would restore severed diplomatic relations.
    (Reuters, 1/4/16)

2016        Jan 7, In Saudi Arabia 3 civilians including a child were killed by shelling in the Jazan region from Yemen.
    (AFP, 1/8/16)
2016        Jan 7, Iran and Saudi Arabia took further steps to sever commercial ties, intensifying a feud between the regional rivals, as Tehran announced a ban on imports from Saudi Arabia and Saudi groups called for boycotts of Iranian products.
    (Reuters, 1/7/16)
2016        Jan 7, Iran said Saudi warplanes had attacked its embassy in Yemen's capital, a development that would exacerbate tensions between the major Shi'ite and Sunni powers in the region, and Riyadh said it would investigate the accusation. Residents said an air strike had hit a public square about 700 meters (yards) away from the embassy and that some stones and shrapnel had landed in the embassy's yard.
    (Reuters, 1/7/16)

2016        Jan 10, Saudi authorities executed an Ethiopian woman convicted of murdering a Saudi female with an axe, the 50th death sentence carried out in the kingdom this year.
    (AFP, 1/10/16)

2016        Jan 11, The US Pentagon said Saudi prisoner Muhammed Abd Al-Rahman Al-Shamrani, said to have been a recruiter and fighter for al-Qaida, has been sent back to his homeland from the US base at Guantanamo Bay. The prison now holds 103 men, including more than 40 cleared for release.
    (AP, 1/11/16)

2016        Jan 18, Saudi Arabia suspended the import of poultry, eggs and dairy products from seven French regions over a bird flu outbreak. The regions included southwestern Dordogne, where the highly virulent H5N1 strain of the virus was identified in November.
    (AFP, 1/18/16)

2016        Jan 19, Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in Saudi Arabia, the first stop on a trip to raise the economic giant's political profile in a troubled Middle East.
    (AFP, 1/19/16)

2016        Jan 20, In Saudi Arabia Chinese President Xi Jinping and Saudi King Salman attended a ceremony to mark the opening of the YASREF joint-venture refinery, a symbol of Beijing's deepening involvement in the Middle East.
    (AFP, 1/20/16)
2016        Jan 22, Saudi Arabia executed 47 people, most of whom were terrorists linked to al-Qaida.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.7)
2016        Jan 22, The government of Uganda said it will stop sending housemaids to Saudi Arabia, eclipsing a deal between the two nations to ship workers to the wealthy Gulf nation amid complaints of poor conditions and mistreatment.
    (Reuters, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 29, In eastern Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber, identified the next day as Saudi national Abdulrahman bin Abdullah bin Suleiman al-Tuwaijri (22), attacked a mosque in a Shiite-populated area during Friday prayers, killing 4 people before worshippers disarmed and tied up his accomplice who had fired on them.
    (AFP, 1/29/16)(AP, 1/31/16)

2016        Jan 31, The Saudi Gazette newspaper reported that authorities have arrested nine American citizens among 33 "terror" suspects rounded up over the past week.
    (AFP, 1/31/16)

2016        Feb 1, The Saudi-led coalition striking Shiite rebels in Yemen announced that it is setting up an independent committee to probe the force's actions in the deeply impoverished country amid mounting criticism over its military operations there.
    (AP, 2/1/16)

2016        Feb 3, The Saudi-led coalition said Yemeni rebels and their allies have killed or wounded 375 civilians in Saudi border regions since a Saudi-led military operation began against the rebels last March.
    (AFP, 2/3/16)

2016        Feb 6, A Saudi patrol was hit in cross-border shelling from rebel-controlled northern Yemen in the southwestern region of Assir, killing one soldier. Later in the day, the southwestern city of Najran was struck, leaving dead a foreign resident.
    (AFP, 2/7/16)

2016        Feb 8, In Saudi Arabia an explosion damaged a car in Riyadh, an incident the Islamic State militant group said was caused by a bomb one of its members had affixed to the vehicle.
    (Reuters, 2/8/16)

2016        Feb 9, Saudi Arabia said it had suspended $4 billion in funding for the French and Americans to train and equip the Lebanonese army and security forces.
    (Econ, 3/5/16, p.45)

2016        Feb 11, In Saudi Arabia a man killed six employees in a "criminal" attack at an education department office in the southern province of Jazan.
    (AFP, 2/11/16)

2016        Feb 13, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said Saudi Arabia will send aircraft to NATO-member Turkey's Incirlik air base for the fight against Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/13/16)

2016        Feb 14, A Saudi Arabian soldier died when a cross-border shell landed near him in Jazan, a southern province bordering Yemen.
    (AP, 2/15/16)

2016        Feb 15, In Saudi Arabia Brig. Gen. Ahmed Faie Asiri, a retired security official, was shot and killed in Jazan. Islamic State supporters earlier circulated a claim for responsibility online.
    (AP, 2/15/16)

2016        Feb 16, Russia's energy minister said that his country has agreed with OPEC members Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Venezuela to freeze oil production levels if other producers do the same.
    (AP, 2/16/16)

2016        Feb 23, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari met with Saudi Arabia’s King Salman before traveling on to Qatar. Analysts forecasted Nigeria’s eventual support for an output freeze to stabilise oil prices.
    (AFP, 2/23/16)
2016        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia "terrorist" suspect Ali Mahmoud Ali Abdullah was shot dead after he opened fire on officers sent to arrest him. Stray bullets killed one Indian and wounded three during the security operation that killed the wanted Bahraini.
    (AFP, 2/24/16)

2016        Feb 25, The European Parliament called on the EU to impose an arms embargo against Saudi Arabia, saying Britain, France and other EU governments should no longer sell weapons to a country accused of targeting civilians in Yemen.
    (AP, 2/25/16)

2016        Feb 27, In Saudi Arabia armed forces from 20 countries began “Thunder of the North" manoeuvres in northeast that the official Saudi Press Agency described as one of the world's biggest military exercises.
    (AFP, 2/28/16)
2016        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia's police said Sgt. Badr Hamdi al-Rashidi, a member of the kingdom's anti-terrorism force, has been murdered and that six of his relatives are wanted in connection with his death.
    (AP, 2/28/16)

2016        Mar 1, The official Saudi Press Agency reported that five people were executed today in various parts of the kingdom. That brings the total number of people executed since January 1 to 69.
    (AP, 3/1/16)

2016        Mar 2, A Saudi-led bloc of six Gulf Arab nations, the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC), formally branded Hezbollah a terrorist organization, ramping up the pressure on the Lebanese militant group fighting on the side of President Bashar Assad in Syria.
    (AP, 3/2/16)(Econ, 3/5/16, p.45)

2016        Mar 9, The Saudi Arabia-led military coalition intervening in Yemen said Huthi rebels have agreed to a prisoner swap and an apparent truce along the border following unprecedented talks with Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia released seven Yemenis in exchange for Cpl. Jaber al-Kaabi.
    (AFP, 3/9/16)(AP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 13, In Yemen Saudi-led helicopters attacked al Qaeda militants in Aden overnight in an effort to dislodge them from a stronghold in the southern port city, killing at least 18 people.
    (Reuters, 3/13/16)

2016        Mar 15, In northern Yemen Saudi-led warplanes bombed a busy market in the city of Mastaba. 22 children were among at least 119 killed.
    (AP, 3/15/16)(AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 16, Royal Dutch Shell PLC and Saudi Arabian Oil Co. said they will split up the assets of their joint US venture, which will see the kingdom's state-owned producer take full ownership of America's biggest oil refinery. The Port Arthur, Texas, refinery, had been part of a 50-50 joint venture between the two companies called Motiva Enterprises LLC, which formed in 1998.
    (AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 17, Saudi Arabia said its military coalition will scale down operations in Yemen, an announcement that came as the death toll from an airstrike by the alliance on a market north of the Yemeni capital this week nearly doubled, reaching 119.
    (AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 19, In western Saudi Arabia at least 19 pilgrims died, all of them Egyptian, and 22 were injured early today when their bus overturned.
    (AFP, 3/19/16)

2016        Mar 27, In Yemen a military coalition led by Saudi Arabia that is fighting a war with Yemen's Shiite rebels traded 109 Yemeni prisoners taken during the fighting in the neighboring country for nine Saudis who were held captive.
    (AP, 3/28/16)

2016        Apr 3, In southwestern Saudi Arabia two vans collided, killing 15 people, including six children in the Wadi bin Hashbal region of Asir province.
    (AP, 4/3/16)

2016        Apr 5, Saudi police Colonel Kattab Majid al-Hammadi was shot dead in the Riyadh region in an attack claimed by the Islamic State jihadist group.
    (AFP, 4/5/16)
2016        Apr 5, Shelling from Yemen killed two people in a Saudi town, in a rare breach of a calm in the border area agreed with Iran-backed rebels early last month.
    (AFP, 4/6/16)

2016        Apr 7, Saudi King Salman started a five-day visit to Cairo in a show of support for Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, with the leaders due to sign a raft of investment deals.
    (AFP, 4/7/16)

2016        Apr 8, Saudi King Salman announced plans to build a bridge over the Red Sea to Egypt, in a lavish show of support for the government of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
    (AFP, 4/8/16)

2016        Apr 9, Egypt’s government announced the signing of a maritime demarcation accord that puts two islands at the southern entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba in Saudi waters.
    (Reuters, 4/13/16)

2016        Apr 11, Cairo Univ., Egypt's oldest secular university, granted King Salman of Saudi Arabia an honorary doctorate for his "unique services" to Arabs and Muslims, the final function in a five-day visit clouded by opposition to Cairo's intention to hand over control of two Red Sea islands to Riyadh.
    (AP, 4/11/16)

2016        Apr 12, The official Saudi Press Agency said under changes approved by the cabinet, religious officers will no longer be allowed to detain people and instead must report violators to police or drug squad officers.
    (AFP, 4/13/16)

2016        Apr 14, Saudi Civil Defense said rains and flooding have killed 18 people throughout the country and 915 had to be rescued from inside their vehicles.
    (Reuters, 4/14/16)

2016        Apr 14, Saudi Arabia for the first time publicly confirmed Malaysia's claim that $681 million in PM Najib Razak's bank accounts was a donation from the Saudi royal family, countering accusations that the money was siphoned from heavily indebted state investment fund 1MDB.
    (AP, 4/15/16)

2016        Apr 16, In Saudi Arabia a fire at a chemical plant in al-Jubail killed 12 people.
    (SSFC, 4/17/16, p.A3)

2016        Apr 17, In Qatar major oil producers began talks to try to reach a deal on capping production to boost prices, despite Iran's absence. Saudi Arabia blocked an agreement between OPEC and non-OPEC producers to shore up global oil prices by freezing production at January’s levels.
    (AFP, 4/17/16)(Econ, 4/23/16, p.64)

2016        Apr 20, In Saudi Arabia President Barack Obama held talks with King Salman as he began a two-day visit hoping to ease tensions with the historic US ally.
    (AFP, 4/20/16)

2016        Apr 21, The White House said the US and Gulf Arab allies have agreed to various security initiatives designed to defeat the Islamic State group as well as to counter Iran's actions in the region as Pres. Obama continued meeting with top officials from six Arab nations in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/21/16)

2016        Apr 24, Rights group Amnesty International said a court in Saudi Arabia has sentenced Issa al-Hamid, a peaceful dissident, to nine years in prison and banned him from travel abroad for another nine years on charges related to his civil rights work. Al-Hamid was convicted of inciting people to breach public order, insulting the judiciary, defaming the kingdom's senior religious clerics and establishing an unlicensed organization.
    (AP, 4/24/16)

2016        Apr 25, Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman overseeing Saudi Arabia's economy unveiled ambitious plans aimed at ending the kingdom's "addiction" to oil. He said Riyadh would raise the capital of its public investment fund to 7 trillion riyals ($2 trillion) from 600 billion riyals ($160 billion) and would sell up to five percent of shares in state oil giant Aramco.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)

2016        Apr 25, Saudi Arabia's cabinet agreed to implement a broad reform plan known as Vision 2030. Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman overseeing Saudi Arabia's economy unveiled ambitious plans aimed at ending the kingdom's "addiction" to oil. He said Riyadh would raise the capital of its public investment fund to 7 trillion riyals ($2 trillion) from 600 billion riyals ($160 billion) and would sell up to five percent of shares in state oil giant Aramco. He also announced plans to set up a holding company for military industries that would be fully owned by the government at first and listed later on the Saudi bourse.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)

2016        Apr 29, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said security forces have killed two militants before they were able to detonate a car bomb in the southwestern town of Bisha.
    (AP, 4/30/16)

2016        Apr 30, In Saudi Arabia employees at the Saudi Binladin Group, a construction giant, set fire to more than seven company buses in the latest protest by disgruntled staff over not being paid salaries for months and a large round of reported layoffs.
    (AP, 5/1/16)

2016        May 5, Saudi security forces shot dead 2 alleged Islamic State fighters and two others blew themselves up outside of Mecca. Cpl. Khalaf Lafi al-Harithi was killed outside of a police station in Mecca.
    (Reuters, 5/5/16)(AP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 7, In Saudi Arabia a policeman was killed in a shootout with militants in the western city of Taif.
    (AP, 5/8/16)

2016        May 12, Iran announced that it will not send pilgrims to Saudi Arabia this year for the annual hajj pilgrimage, after a disaster during the event last year killed at least 2,426 people including 464 of its pilgrims.
    (AP, 5/12/16)
2016        May 12, The World Health Organization said air pollution causes more than 3 million premature deaths worldwide every year. The worst air pollution was recorded at Zabol in Iran. The WHO said India has four of the 10 cities in the world with the worst air pollution and Saudi Arabia had two.
    (Reuters, 5/12/16)(SFC, 5/13/16, p.A2)

2016        May 29, Iran said its pilgrims would not attend the annual Muslim haj pilgrimage, blaming regional rival Saudi Arabia for "sabotage" and failing to guarantee the safety of pilgrims.
    (Reuters, 5/29/16)

2016        Jun 1, Saudi Arabia sentenced 14 people to death for terrorism after they were convicted of attacks on police in the Shi'ite Muslim minority area of Qatif in the Eastern Province. Another nine people were given jail sentences of three to 15 years and one was acquitted.
    (Reuters, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 6, The Saudi cabinet approved a major plan to diversify the national economy away from oil and to generate 450,000 non-government jobs by 2020.
    (AFP, 6/7/16)
2016        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia a road accident involving a bus and a truck killed 15 people and left 60 injured on the road between Riyadh and al-Qassim.
    (AP, 6/7/16)

2016        Jun 21, An Egyptian court rejected a border agreement that would have transferred two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia, and which had sparked street protests in Cairo. The government has 10 days in which to apply for an injunction against the ruling and 60 days to appeal it.
    (AP, 6/21/16)

2016        Jun 24, In Saudi Arabia  a police officer working on a traffic patrol was shot dead in the kingdom's predominantly Shiite east.
    (AP, 6/24/16)

2016        Jun, Saudi Arabia lifted a two-year ban against Guinean pilgrims for the haj in September and allotted the country 7,200 places.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.43)

2016        Jul 1, In Saudi Arabia eighteen pilgrims were injured in a stampede near the Grand Mosque in Mecca as Muslims gathered in large numbers to mark the Night of Destiny, one of the high points of the holy fasting month of Ramadan.
    (AFP, 7/2/16)

2016        Jul 4, In Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber carried out an attack near the US Consulate in the city of Jiddah (Jeddah). The attacker died and two security men were lightly wounded. A suicide bombing in Medina killed 4 people. Another suicide bombing took place near a Shiite mosque in Qatif. Body parts of three people were found.
    (AP, 7/4/16)(AP, 7/5/16)

2016        Jul 20, Saudi Arabia's top clerics renewed a religious edict that warns against playing Pokemon — this time as the wildly popular mobile phone application "Pokemon Go". First issued in 2001 when the game was played with cards, the decree says Pokemon violates Islamic prohibitions against gambling uses devious Masonic-like symbols and promotes "forbidden images."
    (AP, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 25, Five Saudi border guards were killed in clashes in Najran with armed groups seeking to enter from Yemen.
    (Reuters, 7/25/16)(SFC, 7/26/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 30, In Yemen warplanes of a Saudi-led coalition bombed Houthi fighters seeking to infiltrate Saudi Arabia, killing tens of Houthi militiamen.
    (Reuters, 7/30/16)

2016        Jul 31, India's foreign minister said the government is providing food aid to thousands of Indian workers in Saudi Arabia who are not able to buy food after losing their jobs in the kingdom.
    (AP, 7/31/16)

2016        Jul, It was reported that America, Britain and France provided arms and servicing for the hundreds of Saudi planes bombing Yemen, where the war has brought a quarter of Yemen’s population of 26 million to the brink of famine.
    (Econ, 7/30/16, p.38)

2016        Aug 1, In  Saudi Arabia four family members were reported killed by a cross-border missile from Yemen that struck their home in the southern region of Jizan.
    (AP, 8/1/16)
2016        Aug 1, India's government said it plans to evacuate thousands of Indian workers who have lost their jobs in Saudi Arabia and cannot afford to pay for a flight home. The workers were mostly employed by Saudi construction companies and were laid off amid a slowdown in the industry caused by low global oil prices.
    (AP, 8/1/16)

2016        Aug 5, The Saudi-led coalition battling Yemen's Shiite rebels announced that the coalition has committed eight "unintended bombings" and blamed UN agencies for not coordinating with the coalition, causing civilian casualties.
    (AP, 8/5/16)

2016        Aug 6, The Philippines said it would within days send government missions to Saudi Arabia to help thousands of jobless Filipinos left stranded across the kingdom after the plunge in oil prices.
    (AFP, 8/6/16)

2016        Aug 9, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition warplanes resumed air strikes on the capital for the first time in more than three months, shutting down the Sanaa airport. A Saudi-led airstrike killed 14 civilians working on an overnight shift in Sanaa.
    (AFP, 8/9/16)(AP, 8/9/16)

2016        Aug 15, In northern Yemen a Saudi-led coalition air strike hit a hospital operated by Medecins Sans Frontieres killing 19 people and wounding 24.
    (Reuters, 8/16/16)(Reuters, 8/19/16)

2016        Aug 26, Yemen’s rebel news media said overnight airstrikes by a Saudi-led coalition in the northern city of Saada killed 11 civilians, including women and children.
    (AP, 8/26/16)

2016        Aug 27, In Saudi Arabia a rocket fired from Yemen killed a three-year-old boy in Najran.
    (AFP, 8/29/16)
2016        Aug 27, In Yemen warplanes from the Saudi-led coalition struck a rebel convoy near a taxi stand outside Taez late today, killing 7 civilians and 9 insurgents.
    (AFP, 8/28/16)

2016        Aug 28, In Saudi Arabia cross-border shelling from Yemen killed 3 children and wounded nine other people.
    (AFP, 8/29/16)

2016        Aug 31, In Yemen air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition hit a house in northern Sanaa killing at least 16 civilians.
    (SFC, 9/1/16, p.A2)

2016        Sep 4, Saudi Arabia said cross-border shelling from Yemen has killed a Saudi woman and wounded two other citizens in the southern Jazan region.
    (AFP, 9/4/16)

2016        Sep 5, At the G20 meeting in China Russia and Saudi Arabia announced that they would start working together to stabilize the market, including limiting output.
    (Reuters, 9/5/16)

2016        Sep 8, In Yemen at least nine civilians, including four children, were killed in an air strike by the Saudi-led coalition on a residential building north of Sanaa.
    (Reuters, 9/8/16)

2016        Sep 9, The head of Iran's Hajj Organization accused Saudi Arabia of deliberately barring Iranians from the pilgrimage and refusing to discuss security measures despite last year's deadly stampede. Thousands protested in Tehran for being barred from the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AFP, 9/9/16)
2016        Sep 9, The US Congress sent Pres. Obama a bipartisan bill that would allow families of Sept. 11 victims to sue the government of Saudi Arabia. The White House has signaled that Obama would veto the legislation over the potential for it to undermine relations with the critical US ally.
    (SFC, 9/10/16, p.A7)

2016        Sep 10, In Saudi Arabia nearly 1.5 million Muslims began the annual hajj pilgrimage to Islam's holiest sites.
    (AFP, 9/10/16)
2016        Sep 10, In northern Yemen Saudi-led airstrikes on a water well reportedly killed 30 people and wounded 17. The casualties in the village of Beit Saadan included first responders and children.
    (AP, 9/12/16)   

2016        Sep 11, Yemen’s Houthi rebels and their allies attacked a Saudi post in the border region of Jizan with artillery, rockets and light arms before taking it over. Jizan is one of several southern Saudi regions that some Yemenis claim were illegally annexed by Saudi Arabia in the last century.
    (AP, 9/15/16)

2016        Sep 17, In Saudi Arabia unknown gunmen killed two security officers late today in the eastern city of Dammam, an area heavily populated by Shiites.
    (AP, 9/18/16)

2016        Sep 19, Saudi Arabia said it has arrested 17 suspected Islamic State sympathizers accused of plotting attacks on religious officials, security forces, civilian districts and economic and military targets.
    (Reuters, 9/19/16)

2016        Sep 23, President Barack Obama vetoed a bill that would allow families of Sept. 11 victims to sue the government of Saudi Arabia for the kingdom's alleged backing of the terrorists who killed nearly 3,000 people. Obama warned of a host of unintended and severe consequences if it were enacted. Democrats and Republicans quickly vowed to decisively override the veto.
    (AP, 9/24/16)

2016        Sep 27, In Saudi Arabia activists said thousands of Saudis have signed a petition urging an end to the guardianship system that gives men control over the study, marriage and travel of female relatives.
    (AFP, 9/27/16)

2016        Sep 28, The US House and Senate voted decisively to override Pres. Obama’s veto and allow families of the Sept. 11, 2001, victims to sue Saudi Arabia in US courts for its alleged backing of the attackers. The Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act (JASTA) weakened the long-standing principle of sovereign immunity. Within a month opponents mounted an expensive political campaign, including paying American military veterans to visit Capitol Hill and warn lawmakers about what they said could be unintended consequences. Saudi Arabia's government largely payed for the effort.
    (SFC, 9/29/16, p.A4)(Econ, 10/1/16, p.28)(AP, 5/11/17)

2016        Sep 29, The Saudi Okaz newspaper reported that the country’s top religious authority has urged citizens to support government austerity measures, saying recent decrees were temporary moves necessitated by public interest.
    (Reuters, 9/29/16)

2016        Sep, Saudi Arabia slashed salaries and benefits for public-sector employees, a sector that made up two-thirds of Saudi workers.
    (Econ, 11/5/16, p.40)

2016        Oct 8, In Yemen more than 140 people were killed and at least 525 others were wounded in Saudi coalition air raids on a funeral hall in Sanaa.
    (AFP, 10/9/16)

2016        Oct 10, Yemen's Houthi movement launched a ballistic missile deep into Saudi Arabia. Two missiles were also fired from Houthi-held territory at the USS Mason. The Houthis denied firing at the US ship. On Oct 12 two more missiles were fired at the USS Mason but neither got near the ship.
    (Reuters, 10/10/16)(SFC, 10/13/16, p.A2)

2016        Oct 14, A Saudi soldier was killed when Yemen's Houthi group attacked across the border into the kingdom's southern Jizan province.
    (Reuters, 10/14/16)

2016        Oct 18, Saudi Arabia executed Prince Turki bin Saud bin Turki bin Saud Al-Kabeer for shooting another man in a melee.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jgnykqz)(SFC, 10/20/16, p.A2)

2016        Oct 19, In Yemen Saudi-led air strikes hit military bases in Sanaa and rival militias battled near the country's border with the kingdom, hours before a UN-mediated truce took effect. Houthi militia reportedly violated the truce 43 times and shelled the strategic city of Taiz.
    (Reuters, 10/19/16)(Reuters, 10/20/16)

2016        Oct 20, A Saudi-led military coalition said missiles fired from Yemen injured civilians in southern Saudi Arabia, and Houthi fighters said an air strike by the alliance killed three people. Warplanes from the Saudi-led coalition hit rebel positions outside Sanaa late today, after the alliance accused insurgents of breaching a shaky ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 10/20/16    )(AFP, 10/21/16)

2016        Oct 22, In Yemen Saudi-backed government forces and Iran-allied Houthis accused each other of violating a ceasefire as the UN tried to extend a 3-day truce.
    (Reuters, 10/22/16)

2016        Oct 23, In Yemen warplanes from a Saudi-led coalition attacked targets in Sanaa at dawn, hours after a three-day truce expired.
    (Reuters, 10/23/16)

2016        Oct 25, In Saudi Arabia gunmen shot dead two security officers in the eastern city of Dammam. The Interior Ministry later said the gunmen were connected to previous militant attacks in the region and had been trained abroad.
    (Reuters, 10/27/16)
2016        Oct 25, The Saudi-led coalition denied it had imposed a "blockade" on Yemen, saying instead that it was controlling access to the country to prevent pro-Iran rebels from obtaining arms.
    (AFP, 10/25/16)

2016        Oct 28, Yemen's Shiite rebels and their allies fired a ballistic missile deep into Saudi Arabia in an overnight strike that they said had targeted an international airport while the kingdom claimed that it flew toward the holy Muslim city of Mecca.
    (AP, 10/28/16)

2016        Oct 29, In western Yemen Saudi-led coalition air strikes late today on the rebel-held al-Zaydiya security buildings in Hodeida killed at least 60 people, many of them inmates buried under the rubble of their detention center.
    (AFP, 10/30/16)(SSFC, 10/30/16, p.A5)
2016        Oct 29, In southwestern Yemen at least 17 civilians were killed by a Saudi-led coalition air strike that struck a house in Taiz province. Exiled Pres. Hadi rejected a UN peace proposal to end the turmoil saying the deal would only be a path to more war and destruction.
    (Reuters, 10/29/16)

2016        Oct 30, Saudi Arabia said it broke up two militant plots in recent weeks, one with Islamic State militants trying to kill police officers and the second involving parking a car bomb at a soccer match with the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 10/30/16)

2016        Oct, Saudi Arabia tapped markets for the first time raising $175 billion in the largest-ever emerging market bond issue.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.61)

2016        Nov 4, Some of the world's biggest oil companies, including Saudi Aramco and Royal Dutch Shell, pledged to invest $1 billion to develop climate-friendly technologies as a global deal to wean the world off oil came into force.
    (Reuters, 11/4/16)
2016        Nov 4, Tunisia's PM Youssef Chahed sacked Salem Abd El Jalil, the minister of religious affairs. A day earlier local media quoted Jalil as saying in parliament: "I told the Saudi ambassador in Tunisia that terrorism and extremism historically came from you ... You should reform your (religious) school."
    (Reuters, 11/4/16)

2016        Nov 7, Egypt said that Saudi Arabia has halted fuel shipments indefinitely, in a sign of lingering tensions following a dispute over the conflict in Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/16)

2016        Nov 17, In Yemen clashes raged killing at least 27 people as the Saudi-led coalition said military operations will continue despite US Secretary of State John Kerry announcing a truce.
    (AFP, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 19, A Saudi soldier was killed by a missile fired by Yemeni rebels across the border into the kingdom's southern Asir province.
    (Reuters, 11/19/16)

2016        Nov 20, Yemen's dominant Houthi movement launched Katyusha rockets into Saudi Arabia and residents reported Saudi-led air strikes in a Yemeni border province in exchanges that threatened to derail a 48-hour truce.
    (Reuters, 11/20/16)

2016        Nov 30, OPEC agreed its first limit on oil output since 2008, with Saudi Arabia accepting "a big hit" on its production and agreeing to arch-rival Iran freezing output at pre-sanctions levels.
    (Reuters, 11/30/16)

2016        Dec 6, A Saudi court sentenced 15 people to death for spying for the kingdom's rival Iran, in a move likely to heighten regional tensions.
    (AFP, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 9, Saudi Arabia told its US and European customers it would reduce oil deliveries from January, signaling it had already started implementing cuts.
    (Reuters, 12/10/16)

2016        Dec 12, Police in the Saudi capital said they had arrested a woman for taking off her veil in public and posting pictures of her daring action on Twitter. Several websites identified her as Malak al-Shehri, who triggered a huge backlash on social media after posing without the hijab in a main Riyadh street last month.
    (AFP, 12/12/16)

2016        Dec 13, A US official said the Obama government is terminating some sales of military arms to Saudi Arabia over concerns about the killing of civilians in Yemen by a Saudi-led coalition.
    (SFC, 12/14/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia projected another budget deficit of 198 billion riyals ($53 billion) in 2017 but reported a less-than-expected shortfall for this year after cutbacks in the face of lower oil prices.
    (AFP, 12/22/16)

2016        Dec 25, A Saudi soldier was killed overnight in a cross-border firefight with Yemeni Huthi rebels. A Yemeni military official said that five rebels were killed in a coalition air raid in the southern Shabwa province. Also in Shabwa, 3 armed tribesman were killed in an ambush by fighters belonging to the Yemeni branch of Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 12/25/16)

2016        Dec 26, Saudi Arabia’s interior minister said more than 2,000 Saudis are fighting abroad with jihadist groups, with over 70 percent of them in Syria.
    (AFP, 12/26/16)

2016        Dec 29, Egypt's Cabinet approved the transfer of two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia despite protests earlier this year and a court ruling the transfer unconstitutional.
    (AP, 12/30/16)

2016        Dec 31, An Egyptian appeals court upheld an agreement to give control of two islands in the Red Sea to Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 12/31/16)

2016        Saudi Arabia’s military budget was the 3rd largest in the world. Only 2% of its arms were purchased at home. A new vision called for over 50% to be spent locally by 2030.
    (Econ, 4/30/16, p.41)
2016        The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) was formed by Rohingya exiles living in Saudi Arabia. It is led by Attullah Abu Amar Jununi, a Pakistani-born Rohingya who grew up in Mecca, and a committee of about 20 Rohingya emigres.
    (AP, 8/31/17)

2017        Jan 8, Pakistani media said the country’s recently retired army chief Raheel Sharif has been appointed to lead a new Saudi-military alliance to fight terrorism.
    (Reuters, 1/8/17)

2017        Jan 13, Saudi Arabia's highest-ranking cleric warned of the "depravity" of cinemas and music concerts, saying they would corrupt morals if allowed in the ultra-conservative kingdom.
    (AFP, 1/13/17)

2017        Jan 14, A Saudi Arabia soldier was killed by cross-border fire from Yemen amid the kingdom's campaign against Shiite rebels there.
    (AP, 1/15/17)

2017        Jan 16, Low-cost Saudi carrier flynas signed an $8.6-billion deal with European plane manufacturer Airbus to purchase 80 A320neo single-aisle jets.
    (AFP, 1/16/17)
2017        Jan 16, An Egyptian court ruled against the government's attempt to transfer two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia, an embarrassment for President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi that could deepen tensions with his onetime Gulf patron.
    (AP, 1/16/17)

2017        Jan 19, In Saudi Arabia six British nationals were reported killed and several more injured in a road crash as they traveled to Medina.
    (AFP, 1/19/17)

2017        Jan 21, Two Saudi men blew themselves up during a gunbattle with security forces in Jeddah. One man was later identified as Khaled al-Serwani, linked to an attack in 2015 that killed a worshipper at a Shi'ite mosque in Najan. The 2nd man, Nadi al-Medhiani, had served time in prison after fighting abroad and had ties to a militant suspected of involvement in attacks claimed by Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 1/24/17)

2017        Jan 24, Saudi Arabia warned that the Shamoon computer virus, first reported in 2012, has returned with at least one major petrochemical company apparently affected. The original infection was blamed on Iran.
    (SFC, 1/25/17, p.A2)

2017        Jan 28, UN sanctions monitors reported to the world body's Security Council that the Saudi Arabia-led military coalition has carried out attacks in Yemen that "may amount to war crimes".
    (Reuters, 1/29/17)

2017        Jan 29, President Trump and Saudi Arabia's King Salman came to an agreement to support safe zones in Syria and Yemen while strengthening efforts to fight the spread of Islamic terrorism.
    (CSM, 1/30/17)

2017        Jan 30, Yemeni rebel "suicide" boats attacked a Saudi warship on patrol in the Red Sea, killing two sailors in what the Saudi-led coalition called an escalation of the nearly two-year-old war.
    (AFP, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 6, Yemen's Shiite rebels said they have "successfully" fired a ballistic missile at Riyadh for the first time, vowing more attacks on the Saudi capital.
    (AP, 2/6/17)

2017        Feb 14, Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan met Saudi Arabia's top leadership during a visit to further strengthen ties as part of a Gulf tour ahead of Syria peace talks.
    (AFP, 2/14/17)

2017        Feb 16, The Saudi Arabian Interior Ministry said authorities have arrested 18 suspects belonging to the Islamic State group, including bomb makers.
    (AP, 2/16/17)
2017        Feb 16, In Saudi Arabia a three-day Comic-Con event opened in the Red Sea city of Jeddah. The festival of anime, pop art, video gaming and film-related events attracted a largely youthful crowd of thousands. On Feb 23 the government's General Authority for Entertainment said organizers of the event would be penalized for an unspecified violation.
    (AFP, 2/24/17)

2017        Feb 18, In Saudi Arabia one person was killed and three others injured as a result of an Aramco oil pipeline leak in the east of the kingdom.
    (AP, 2/19/17)

2017        Feb 22, Yemen's President Abedrabbo Mansour Hadi said that Saudi Arabia has earmarked $10 billion in aid for the reconstruction of provinces retaken from Shiite Huthi rebels.
    (AFP, 2/22/17)

2017        Feb 26, Saudi King Salman arrived in Malaysia to kick off a multi-nation tour aimed at boosting economic ties with Asia.
    (AP, 2/26/17)
2017        Feb 26, Saudi Arabia launched a parallel equity market designed to boost small and medium enterprises. It closed up 20 percent, the maximum allowed in a single day.
    (AFP, 2/26/17)

2017        Feb 27, Malaysian PM Najib Razak said that oil major Saudi Aramco will invest $7 billion in a mammoth oil processing hub in Malaysia, making it the single largest investor in the Southeast Asian country.
    (AP, 2/27/17)

2017        Feb 28, In Malaysia oil giant Saudi Aramco signed a $7 billion deal to take a 50 percent stake in a mega Malaysian oil refinery project, in a pact expected to help Saudi Arabia increase trade in Southeast Asia.
    (AP, 2/28/17)

2017        Feb, In Yemen Saudi and Emirati-backed forces fought each other over control of Aden’s airport.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.42)

2017        Mar 1, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia signed agreements in areas ranging from trade to aviation as the kingdom's monarch visited the world's most populous Muslim-majority country for the first time in almost half a century.
    (AFP, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 10, Saudi police said Mustafa Ali Abdullah al-Madad, wanted by security forces for his involvement in a number of terror crimes against the citizens and security personnel, has been killed in the governorate of Qatif.
    (Reuters, 3/10/17)

2017        Mar 11, Saudi teenager Waleed Talal Ali al-Areed was shot dead during a security raid in the predominantly Shiite village of al-Awamiya. The Interior Ministry said he was wanted by police and was killed in a shootout with security forces.
    (AP, 3/12/17)

2017        Mar 14, In Saudi Arabia gunfire broke out this evening when police tried to stop a suspicious car near the central hospital in Qatif. Someone in the car started shooting, mortally wounding one of the officers. The suspects escaped.
    (AFP, 3/15/17)
2017        Mar 14, US President Donald Trump and Saudi Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman discussed opportunities for new economic programs and investments between the two countries during a meeting.
    (AP, 3/15/17)

2017        Mar 16, In China Saudi Arabia's King Salman oversaw the signing of deals worth as much as $65 billion on the first day of a visit to Beijing.
    (Reuters, 3/16/17)
2017        Mar 16, A military vessel and a helicopter attacked a boat packed with Somali refugees late today killing at least 42 people including women and children in the Red Sea off the coast of Yemen. The refugees, carrying official UNHCR documents, were on their way from Yemen to Sudan. 80 survivors were brought to hospitals in Hodeidah. Shiite rebels accused the Saudi-led air coalition of carrying out the attack. A confidential UN report later said the attack was most likely carried out by the Saudi-led coalition.
    (Reuters, 3/17/17)(AP, 3/17/17)(SFC, 3/18/17, p.A4)(AFP, 5/8/18)

2017        Mar 27, Saudi Arabia cut taxes on oil companies in a major move that could attract investments in its energy giant Aramco, expected to be offered to investors in 2018.
    (AFP, 3/27/17)

2017        Apr 2, An Egyptian court ruled that a judicial decision to block the transfer of two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia is void, potentially reviving a deal that triggered protests. The decision by the Court of Urgent Matters was subject to appeal and any final deal must be approved by parliament.
    (Reuters, 4/2/17)

2017        Apr 4, British PM Theresa May has arrived in Saudi Arabia on a trip aimed at strengthening bilateral ties and increasing trade with the largest Arab economy.
    (AP, 4/4/17)

2017        Apr 5, Britain said it would help Saudi Arabia to diversify its oil-dependent economy as PM Theresa May visited the Gulf kingdom.
    (AFP, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 12, A Saudi woman claiming she sought asylum in Australia was stopped on a layover in the Philippines and returned to Riyadh. Dina Ali Lasloom said in self-recorded videos the Philippine authorities had held her at the Manila airport and confiscated her passport.
    (Reuters, 4/12/17)

2017        Apr 13, Saudi Arabia said it has raised $9 billion in its first global Islamic bond issue, a move analysts say could ease pressure on foreign reserves.
    (AFP, 4/13/17)
2017        Apr 13, Human Rights Watch called on Saudi Arabia to investigate the death of a Pakistani transgender woman who had been detained by police in the capital, Riyadh, following a February raid on a private gathering. A family member has claimed the transgender woman was tortured in custody.
    (AP, 4/13/17)

2017        Apr 18, In Yemen a Saudi military Black Hawk helicopter crashed, killing at least 12 military personnel.
    (Reuters, 4/18/17)

2017        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia’s labor ministry said foreigners will no longer be allowed to work in the country’s numerous shopping malls, in the latest measure to boost employment of Saudis.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)

2017        Apr 22, Saudi Arabia's King Salman restored cuts to financial allowances for civil servants and military personnel after a seven month cutback. The move was seen as helping the kingdom avoid recession this year while smoothing the path toward economic reforms.
    (Reuters, 4/23/17)

2017        Apr 23, Egyptian Pres. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi received a royal welcome from King Salman as he landed in Saudi Arabia for a visit to boost ties after months of tension.
    (AFP, 4/23/17)

2017        Apr 25, Saudi forces foiled an attempt to blow up an Aramco fuel terminal in southern Saudi Arabia using a high-speed boat laden with explosives. Yemen's Houthi group was accused of being behind the attempt.
    (Reuters, 4/26/17)

2017        Apr 27, Two Saudi soldiers were killed in a rocket attack near the border with war-torn Yemen.
    (AFP, 4/27/17)
2017        Apr 27, The United States blacklisted Mubarak Mohammed A Alotaibi (31), a Saudi man, who it said was the Syria-based deputy leader of Islamic State's affiliate in Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 4/27/17)

2017        Apr 30, Saudi Arabia said it had arrested 46 members of a militant cell responsible for a deadly suicide bombing attack on the Prophet's Mosque in the holy city of Medina last summer widely blamed on Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 4/30/17)
2017        Apr 30, German Chancellor Angela Merkel arrived in Saudi Arabia to press royals on a number of sensitive issues, including taking in refugees, while also boosting important business ties in her first visit to the country in seven years.
    (AP, 4/30/17)

2017        May 5, Saudi Arabia media reported that Saudi women no longer need a man's consent to carry out certain activities, but activists said the royal order does not go far enough. A royal decree issued by King Salman ordered that women are no longer required to obtain a guardian's consent for official services "unless there is a legal basis for this request" under Islamic law.
    (AFP, 5/5/17)

2017        May 10, Saudi security forces entered the old quarter of Awamiya, where authorities said Shi'ite militants are hiding. At least two people were confirmed killed in the dawn raid. Bulldozers began demolishing the historic district of al-Awamiya with plans to tear down several hundred homes. Officials said the area has become a hideout for local militants.
    (Reuters, 5/10/17)(SFC, 6/28/17, p.A2)

2017        May 16, A Saudi Arabian police officer was killed by a rocket-propelled grenade in the Almosara area of Awamiya, a Shiite town.
    (AFP, 5/16/17)

2017        May 17, In Yemen a suspected raid by the Saudi-led coalition killed 23 civilians, including women and children, near the southwestern city of Taez.
    (AFP, 5/17/17)

2017        May 20, Softbank, a Japanese telecoms group, along with Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund and smaller investors including Apple and Sharp, launched the world’s largest technology investment fund, worth nearly $100 billion.
    (Econ 5/27/17, p.59)
2017        May 20, US Pres. Donald Trump arrived in Saudi Arabia. President Donald Trump and Saudi King Salman signed a series of agreements cementing their countries' military and economic partnerships. The two leaders also signed a joint vision agreement at the Saudi Royal Court and sealed it with a handshake.
    (AFP, 5/20/17)(AP, 5/20/17)
2017        May 20, US technology and engineering conglomerate GE said it had signed $15 billion of business deals with Saudi Arabia as part of the kingdom's drive to diversify its economy beyond oil.
    (Reuters, 5/20/17)

2017        May 21, Saudi Arabia's King Salman accused regional rival Shiite Iran of exporting extremist Islamic movements to the world and vowed to eliminate the Islamic State group. US President Donald Trump called on Middle Eastern leaders to combat a "crisis of Islamic extremism" emanating from the region, casting the fight against terrorism as a "battle between good and evil," not a clash between the West and Islam.
    (AFP, 5/21/17)(AP, 5/21/17)

2017        May 24, A court in the United Arab Emirates sentenced businessman Khater Massaad to 15 years in prison over one alleged scam. He was accused of stealing $1.5 billion while working for one of its sheikhdoms. Massaad was arrested in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, in September and still remains there. He maintained his innocence and said that the charges were part of a long-running vendetta against him by the government of Ras al-Khaimah.
    (AP, 5/24/17)

2017        May 25, Saudi Arabia's largest telecommunications firm said it will set up a $500-million venture capital fund to invest in start-up companies. The fund will be managed independently of STC.
    (AFP, 5/25/17)

2017        May 28, Qatar forcibly deported Mohammed al-Otaibi (49) and his wife to Saudi Arabia while on their way to Norway where he hoped to seek asylum. Otaibi had fled to neighboring Qatar in March after he had faced in Saudi Arabia charges related to his human rights work and was referred to an anti-terrorism court.
    (AP, 5/29/17)

2017        May 31, In Saudi Arabia a teacher killed two staff at a private school owned by a prominent Saudi billionaire in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 5/31/17)

2017        Jun 5, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Yemen, the Maldives and Egypt cut ties with Qatar, the world's top seller of liquefied natural gas (LNG), stoking concern over any supply disruptions to neighboring countries spilling over into global gas markets. They accused Qatar of supporting extremism.
    (Reuters, 6/5/17)

2017        Jun 9, Saudi Arabia and its allies placed a number of Qataris and Doha-based organizations on a "terror list". As many as 18 individuals were named, including members of Qatar's royal family and a former minister. In all, 59 people and entities were listed.
    (Reuters, 6/9/17)

2017        Jun 11, In Saudi Arabia the price of a pack of cigarettes doubled for smokers under first-time tax measures to help the kingdom cope with a drop in oil revenues. The cost of energy drinks also doubled and the price of soft drinks rose 50 percent.
    (AFP, 6/11/17)
2017        Jun 11, Qatar moved to avoid an escalation of its feud with Gulf neighbors by telling their citizens they are welcome to stay, while boasting of "business as usual" for vital gas exports. The dispute saw Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain order all Qatari citizens out of their countries within 14 days.
    (AFP, 6/11/17)

2017        Jun 14, Egypt's parliament approved a controversial maritime agreement with Saudi Arabia that transfers two Red Sea islands to the kingdom. The deal is still under challenge in court.
    (AFP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jun 15, A senior constitutional panel in Egypt published a report concluding that two courts, which ruled to annul an agreement to transfer control of two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia, acted within their jurisdiction.
    (AP, 6/15/17)

2017        Jun 17, Saudi Arabia's King Salman issued a royal decree that restructures the country's system for prosecutions, essentially stripping the crown prince of longstanding powers overseeing criminal investigations.
    (AP, 6/17/17)

2017        Jun 21, Saudi Arabia's King Salman (81) ousted his nephew as crown prince on and installed his son Mohammed bin Salman, capping a meteoric rise for the 31-year-old that puts him one step from the throne. Ousted crown prince, Mohammed bin Nayef (57) was fired as deputy prime minister and interior minister. Prince Abdulaziz bin Saud bin Nayef, the ousted interior minister's nephew, was named to replace him.
    (AFP, 6/21/17)

2017        Jun 22, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirate issued an ultimatum to Qatar. The 13-point list included closing Al Jazeera television, curbing ties with Iran and shutting a Turkish base and pay reparations, demands so far reaching it would appear to be hard for Doha to comply.
    (Reuters, 6/23/17)

2017        Jun 23, Saudi security forces shot dead a man wanted for terrorism and arrested five others in Mecca. Six foreign pilgrims were wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up near the Grand Mosque in Mecca, where hundreds of thousands of worshippers had gathered for prayers.
    (Reuters, 6/23/17)(AFP, 6/24/17)

2017        Jun 24, Qatar denounced a sweeping list of demands from Saudi Arabia and its allies in an escalating Gulf diplomatic crisis as unreasonable and an impingement on the emirate's sovereignty.
    (AFP, 6/24/17)

2017        Jul 4, Saudi Arabian Airlines (Saudia) said it expects the in-cabin ban on laptops and other large electronics on direct flights to the United States to be lifted by July 19.
    (Reuters, 7/4/17)
2017        Jul 4, In Saudi Arabia a rocket-propelled grenade attack in al-Musawara, the old part of al-Awamiya, killed a soldier and wounded three others. Saudi authorities have been bulldozing al-Musawara to make way for a new project.
    (Reuters, 7/6/17)

2017        Jul 6, In eastern Saudi Arabia a special forces officer was killed and three others injured while on duty in al-Awamiya, al-Qatif province.
    (Reuters, 7/6/17)

2017        Jul 9, In Yemen a court in Sanaa sentenced to death four Saudis convicted of belonging to al Qaeda and beheading 14 Yemeni soldiers in a 2014 attack.
    (Reuters, 7/10/17)

2017        Jul 11, Saudi Arabia said its public schools will begin offering physical education for girls in the coming academic year, a long-awaited step toward social reform in the Islamic kingdom.
    (Reuters, 7/11/17)

2017        Jul 12, In Saudi Arabia a fire broke out in the southwestern city of Najran. 11 workers from India and Bangladesh were killed in the building where they lived.
    (AP, 7/13/17)

2017        Jul 13, In eastern Saudi Arabia attackers killed a border guard soldier late today and wounded another in Qatif province, heavily populated by the kingdom's minority Shiites.
    (AP, 7/14/17)

2017        Jul 14, Saudi police killed wanted “terrorist" Jaafar al-Mobireek, in the Shiite-majority district of Qatif, where there has been a string of attacks on security forces.
    (AFP, 7/15/17)

2017        Jul 17, The US Transportation Security Administration said it was lifting a ban on passengers on Saudi Arabian Airlines carrying large electronics like laptops onboard US-bound flights, the last carrier under the restrictions.
    (Reuters, 7/17/17)

2017        Jul 18, Saudi police arrested and questioned a woman who appeared in an online video over the weekend in a miniskirt and crop top walking through a historic site in the ultraconservative kingdom.
    (AFP, 7/18/17)(SFC, 7/19/17, p.A2)

2017        Jul 19, Saudi Arabia's national carrier said a US ban on laptops and tablets in the cabins of its US-bound planes has been lifted.
    (AFP, 7/19/17)

2017        Jul 19, Saudi Arabia’s King Salman ordered the arrest and interrogation of arrest of Prince Saud bin Abdulaziz bin Musaed bin Saud bin Abdulaziz, a day after short video clips were published on YouTube and shared on Twitter showing what appears to be a rifle pointed toward a man who is bleeding from the head and pleading.
    (AP, 7/20/17)

2017        Jul 24, Saudi state news reported that Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain have added nine entities and nine individuals to their individual ban lists because of alleged links to Qatar over terrorism.
    (Reuters, 7/24/17)

2017        Jul 27, Saudi local media said the Supreme Court has upheld the death sentences of 14 men convicted of armed attacks, all of them from the Sunni-ruled kingdom's Shi'ite Muslim minority. The Okaz newspaper also reported that another appeals court upheld the death sentences of 15 people convicted of spying for Iran.
    (Reuters, 7/27/17)

2017        Jul 29, Qatar accused the Saudis of politicizing Hajj and addressed the United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion on Saturday, expressing concern about obstacles facing Qataris who want to attend hajj this year.
    (Reuters, 7/30/17)

2017        Jul 30, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Bahrain met to discuss the diplomatic crisis with Qatar. They said the bloc will continue to keep current measures against Qatar in place, but are open to dialogue with the Gulf state if it shows a willingness to change course and complies with their demands.
    (AP, 7/30/17)

2017        Aug 1, Syria's government said Saudi authorities continue to place restrictions on Syrian citizens looking to take part in this year's hajj, accusing the kingdom of "politicizing" the annual Muslim pilgrimage.
    (AP, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 2, A Saudi man was shot dead helping evacuate residents the town of Awamiya, where fighting between security forces and armed Shi'ite Muslims have displaced thousands of people.
    (Reuters, 8/3/17)

2017        Aug 5, The WHO said Saudi Arabia has pledged $33.7 million to help the World Health Organization eradicate cholera in war-wracked Yemen, where the disease has killed nearly 2,000 people.
    (AFP, 8/6/17)

2017        Aug 14, The Saudi cabinet decided to establish a joint trade commission with Iraq.
    (Reuters, 8/15/17)

2017        Aug 15, Saudi media said Saudi Arabia and Iraq plan to open the Arar border crossing for trade for the first time since 1990, when it was closed after the countries cut ties following Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait.
    (Reuters, 8/15/17)

2017        Aug 17, Saudi Arabia announced that it is reopening its border with Qatar to allow Qataris to attend the hajj. A months-long rift between Doha and four Arab countries led by Riyadh has prompted both sides to trade accusations of politicizing the pilgrimage.
    (AP, 8/17/17)

2017        Aug 20, Saudi Arabia media said Qatar has blocked Saudi planes from transporting hajj pilgrims, after Riyadh reopened the border despite a major diplomatic crisis roiling the Gulf.
    (AFP, 8/20/17)

2017        Aug 25, In Yemen an air raid struck a building in Saana, killing at 16 civilians including six children, when an adjacent apartment block collapsed in the Faj Attan neighborhood. People at the scene said the warplanes were from a Saudi-led Arab coalition. On September 22 Amnesty International said a US-made bomb was used in the Saudi-led strike. Saudi Arabia later apologized for the attack.
    (Reuters, 8/25/17)(SFC, 8/26/17, p.A2)(AFP, 9/22/17)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.47)

2017        Aug 30, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of thousands of Muslims began the annual haj pilgrimage, donning traditional white garments and heading to a tent camp outside Mecca in an itinerary retracing the route Prophet Mohammad took 14 centuries ago.
    (AP, 8/30/17)

2017        Aug, The government of Saudi Arabia announced the end of a three-month campaign to flush out gunmen from the Musawara neighborhood of Awamiya. More than a dozen people were reported killed, including Saudis and foreigners, in addition to five armed militants.
    (AFP, 10/11/17)

2017        Sep 1, Muslims around the world are celebrated the Eid al-Adha holiday as some 2 million Muslim pilgrims carry out the final rites of the annual hajj in Saudi Arabia. The pilgrims performed a symbolic stoning of the devil as Saudi Arabia deployed more than 100,000 security forces and medics as well as modern technology including drones and fiber optics to ensure a safe pilgrimage.
    (Reuters, 9/1/17)(AP, 9/1/17)

2017        Sep 8, A Saudi-led bloc of Arab states hostile to Qatar took aim at Kuwaiti mediation and maintained a tough line even after US President Donald Trump offered to help resolve the crisis.
    (AFP, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 10, Saudi Arabia said it would keep pressuring Qatar until demands by a bloc of Arab states are met. The bloc's 13 demands included Doha ending its alleged support for Islamist extremist groups, closing a Turkish military base in the emirate and downgrading diplomatic ties with Tehran.
    (AFP, 9/10/17)

2017        Sep 12, Saudi Arabia urged its people to report subversive comments spotted on social media via a phone app. The move was soon denounced by a human rights watchdog as "Orwellian".
    (Reuters, 9/13/17)

2017        Sep 13, In Yemen a Saudi pilot was killed while providing air support for an operation against Al-Qaeda militants.
    (AP, 9/14/17)

2017        Sep 15, A Saudi official said at least 16 people, and perhaps more than thirty, have been arrested in recent days in a crackdown on people perceived to be critical of the policies of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
    (SFC, 9/16/17 p.A2)

2017        Sep 16, The Gulf desert emirate of Dubai announced the award of a $3.8-billion contract for the final phase of a solar park aimed at generating 5,000 megawatts of electricity by 2030. The contract went to Chinese conglomerate Shanghai Electric and ACWA Power of Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 9/16/17)

2017        Sep 17, State-owned Saudi Air Navigation Services (SANS) announced that it was offering theoretical and practical training to 80 women per year to prepare them for work in the air traffic control sector.
    (Reuters, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 19, A large Saudi public university announced it would dismiss employees suspected of ties to the banned Muslim Brotherhood, adding to concerns that the government is clamping down on its critics in academia and beyond.
    (Reuters, 9/20/17)

2017        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia celebrated the 87th anniversary of its founding with an unprecedented array of concerts and performances, including allowing women into King Fahd International Stadium in Riyadh for an evening operetta - a first in the conservative Islamic kingdom.
    (Reuters, 9/23/17)

2017        Sep 26, Saudi Arabia lifted its decades-old ban on women driving. The kingdom will issue driving licenses to women from next June.
    (AP, 9/27/17)

2017        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia announced it had undertaken another multi-billion dollar bond sale to finance a persistent budget deficit left by low oil prices.
    (AFP, 9/28/17)

2017        Sep 29, The UN Human Rights Council deadlocked over whether to send war crimes investigators to Yemen, a move being pushed by some EU states but fiercely resisted by Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 9/29/17)

2017        Sep 30, Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor issued an arrest warrant for a Twitter user who called for anyone who supports women driving to be killed, days after a royal decree ended a long-time ban on women taking the wheel.
    (Reuters, 9/30/17)

2017        Sep, Saudi authorities arrested Islamist preacher Salman al-Awdah, described by UN experts as a "reformist" and an influential religious figure who has urged greater respect for human rights within Sharia.
    (Reuters, 9/4/18)

2017        Oct 1, The Saudi government announced that Virgin airlines founder Richard Branson will invest in a Red Sea project that aims to turn 50 Saudi Arabian islands into luxury tourism destinations.
    (AFP, 10/1/17)

2017        Oct 2, Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund announced plans to set up two investment companies to develop infrastructure in Mecca and Medina, Islam's two holiest cities.
    (AFP, 10/2/17)

2017        Oct 4, Saudi Arabia announced the consolidation of development funds under a unified body led by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, cementing the powerful prince's position in the Gulf kingdom's affairs.
    (AFP, 10/4/17)

2017        Oct 5, Saudi Arabia signed preliminary agreements to buy S-400 air defence systems and receive "cutting edge technologies" from Russia during King Salman's landmark visit to Moscow.
    (AFP, 10/5/17)
2017        Oct 5, Saudi security forces foiled an attack around the Al-Salam palace that left an attacker and at least two Saudi guards killed.
    (AFP, 10/7/17)
2017        Oct 5, The International Monetary Fund said it is advising Saudi Arabia to slow down some of its sensitive cutbacks as economic growth remains stagnant this year and unemployment rises.
    (AP, 10/5/17)

2017        Oct 15, Saudi Arabia's Civil Defense said 10 people have died in a fire that broke out overnight at a carpentry workshop in Riyadh.
    (AP, 10/15/17)

2017        Oct 17, Saudi Arabia’s King Salman ordered the establishment of an authority to scrutinize uses of the "hadith" - accounts of the sayings, actions or habits of the Prophet that are used by preachers and jurists to support teachings and edicts on all aspects of life. The body would be chaired by Sheikh Mohammed bin Hassan al-Sheikh, a member of the Council of Senior Scholars, which serves as Saudi Arabia's highest religious body.
    (AP, 10/18/17)

2017        Oct 18, Saudi budget carrier flynas made the first commercial flight from Riyadh to Baghdad since 1990, as ties with neighboring Iraq show signs of improvement.
    (AFP, 10/18/17)

2017        Oct 22, A new joint body between Iraq and Saudi Arabia convened an inaugural meeting to coordinate their fight against IS and on rebuilding Iraqi territory wrested from the group.
    (AP, 10/22/17)

2017        Oct 24, Powerful Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman pledged a "moderate, open" Saudi Arabia, breaking with ultra-conservative clerics in favor of an image catering to foreign investors and Saudi youth.
    (AFP, 10/24/17)
2017        Oct 24, Saudi Arabia opened a major investment conference aimed at shining a spotlight on the country's efforts to overhaul its economy and society after being jolted into action following a plunge in oil prices that threatened the kingdom's main source of revenue and its long-term stability.
    (AP, 10/24/17)
2017        Oct 24, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman proposed a new planned cross-border city, Neom, in the northwestern Tabuk Province.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neom)(Econ., 1/16/21, p.35)

2017        Oct 25, The Swiss government said neutral Switzerland's embassies in Riyadh and Tehran have signed agreements to represent Iranian interests in Saudi Arabia and Saudi interests in Iran.
    (Reuters, 10/25/17)

2017        Oct 26, Saudi Arabia announced plans to invest $1 billion in Richard Branson’s portfolio of space companies. Virgin Galactic intends to start flying tourists to the edge of space in the coming months.
    (SFC, 10/27/17, p.A6)

2017        Oct 29, The state-run Saudi Press Agency reported that Saudi Arabia will for the first time allow women to attend sports events, preparing special sections in three selected stadiums from early next year.
    (Reuters, 10/30/17)

2017        Oct 30, Saudi Arabia plans to extract uranium domestically as part of its nuclear power program and sees this as a step towards "self-sufficiency" in producing atomic fuel.
    (Reuters, 10/30/17)

2017        Nov 4, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, aka MbS (32), Saudi Arabia's future king, tightened his grip on power through an anti-corruption purge by arresting royals, ministers and investors, including billionaire Alwaleed bin Talal who is one of the kingdom's most prominent businessmen.
    (Reuters, 11/5/17)(SFC, 11/6/17, p.A3)
2017        Nov 4, Lebanon's PM Saad al-Hariri resigned, saying from Saudi Arabia that he believed there was an assassination plot against him and accusing Iran and its Lebanese ally Hezbollah of sowing strife in the Arab world. Lebanese authorities believed Saudi Arabia forced Hariri to resign and is holding him against his will. Saudi Arabia has denied reports Hariri, a long time ally of Riyadh, is being held against his will and coerced into resigning.
    (Reuters, 11/4/17)(Reuters, 11/12/17)

2017        Nov 6, Saudi King Salman swore in new officials to take over from a powerful prince and former minister believed to be detained in a large-scale sweep that has shocked the country and upended longstanding traditions within the ruling family.
    (AP, 11/6/17)
2017        Nov 6, The Saudi-led military coalition said it would close all air, land and sea ports to Yemen to stem the flow of arms to Houthi rebels from Iran. The move was likely to worsen a humanitarian crisis in Yemen that has pushed some seven million to the brink of famine and left more than half a million infected with cholera.
    (Reuters, 11/6/17)

2017        Nov 7, Saudi Arabia's crown prince said Iran's supply of rockets to militias in Yemen is an act of "direct military aggression" that could be an act of war.
    (Reuters, 11/7/17)
2017        Nov 7, Saudi bankers and lawyers said local banks have frozen more than 1,200 accounts belonging to individuals and companies in the kingdom as part of the government's anti-corruption purge.
    (Reuters, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 9, Saudi Arabia announced it has detained 201 people as part of a sweeping probe, estimating that at least $100 billion has been misused through embezzlement and corruption in past decades.
    (AP, 11/9/17)
2017        Nov 9, Saudi state news reported that King Salman has appointed or promoted 56 judges, a step coinciding with an anti-corruption crackdown in the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 11/9/17)
2017        Nov 9, The United Nations and more than 20 aid groups said that the Saudi-led coalition's tightening of a blockade on war-torn Yemen could bring millions of people closer to "starvation and death".
    (AP, 11/9/17)

2017        Nov 11, The Elders, a group of world figures who work for international peace, called on Saudi Arabia and its partners in a coalition fighting Shiite rebels in Yemen to lift their blockade of the war-ravaged nation to avert a humanitarian disaster. The group is chaired by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan.
    (AP, 11/11/17)
2017        Nov 11, Lebanon’s president called on Saudi Arabia to clarify why Lebanese PM Saad al-Hariri could not leave the kingdom and return home. Riyadh says Hariri is free and had decided to resign because Iran's Lebanese ally, Hezbollah, was calling the shots in his coalition government.
    (Reuters, 11/11/17)
2017        Nov 11, A Yemeni government minister said the Saudi-led military coalition fighting against Yemen's Houthi movement will allow the resumption of international commercial flights to the country.
    (Reuters, 11/11/17)

2017        Nov 12, In Saudi Arabia Lebanon’s resigned PM Saad Hariri (47) pledged during a television interview that he would be home within days.
    (AFP, 11/13/17)
2017        Nov 12, Thousands of Lebanese taking part in the country's annual marathon used the event to call on PM Saad Hariri to return home after he resigned Nov. 4 under mysterious circumstances during a visit to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/12/17)

2017        Nov 13, Saudi oil giant Aramco said it had resumed operations at its Bahrain pipeline, days after it was shut down over a fire which Manama called a "terrorist" act.
    (AFP, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 17, Sources said Saudi authorities are striking agreements with some of those detained in an anti-corruption crackdown, asking them to hand over assets and cash in return for their freedom.
    (Reuters, 11/17/17)

2017        Nov 19, In Egypt Saudi Arabia and other Arab foreign ministers held an emergency meeting in Cairo to discuss ways to confront Iran and its Lebanese Shi'ite ally Hezbollah, who the Arab allies say are interfering in their internal affairs.
    (Reuters, 11/19/17)

2017        Nov 20, Iran called on Saudi Arabia to stop its "barbaric attacks" on Yemen, where a Saudi-led coalition has been at war with Tehran-backed rebels since March 2015. Foreign Ministry spokesman Bahram Ghasemi also called on Saudi Arabia to drop its boycott of the Gulf Arab nation of Qatar, which has warm ties with Iran.
    (AP, 11/20/17)

2017        Nov 21, Saudi authorities closed schools and universities after flooding in the kingdom's second-largest city, Jiddah, and the country's Red Sea coastal regions.
    (AP, 11/21/17)

2017        Nov 22, The Saudi-led military coalition fighting Shiite rebels in Yemen announced it will reopen the war-torn country's main international airport in the capital of Sanaa and a vital Red Sea port to give access to humanitarian aid.
    (AP, 11/22/17)
2017        Nov 22, In Saudi Arabia the UN envoy for Syria urged disparate Syrian opposition groups at a meeting in Riyadh to come up with a united front ahead of another round of Syrian peace talks in Geneva later this month.
    (AP, 11/22/17)

2017        Nov 23, Meeting in Saudi Arabia Syria's fragmented opposition doubled down on attempts to unify their ranks, the second day of a Saudi-sponsored meeting ahead of next week's UN-brokered peace talks.
    (AFP, 11/23/17)

2017        Nov 24, A UN official said the Saudi-led coalition has authorized the resumption of UN flights to the Yemeni capital starting Nov. 25.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Nov 26, In Saudi Arabia officials from 40 Muslim countries gathered in Riyadh in the first meeting of an Islamic counter-terrorism alliance. Prince Mohammed bin Salman vowed to "pursue terrorists until they are wiped from the face of the earth." The meeting excluded Saudi Arabia's arch-rival, Shiite-dominated Iran, as well as Syria and Iraq, whose leaders have close ties to Tehran.
    (AFP, 11/26/17)

2017        Nov 27, Amnesty Int’l. urged Greece's government to halt the sale of thousands of artillery shells to Saudi Arabia, saying the weapons could be used against civilians in the ongoing war in Yemen. Greek PM Alexis Tsipras strongly defended deal.
    (AP, 11/27/17)

2017        Nov 28, Ethiopia said more than 1,300 citizens have been expelled from Saudi Arabia in "recent days" after a warning for undocumented migrants to voluntarily leave the Gulf nation expired.
    (AP, 11/29/17)

2017        Dec 4, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition warplanes struck at Houthi militia positions in Sanaa for a second day in support of ex-president Ali Abdullah Saleh. Fighting in Sanaa intensified, with the known toll from three hospitals reaching at least 125 killed and 238 wounded in the past six days.
    (Reuters, 12/4/17)

2017        Dec 5, Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor said most of the people detained in a sweeping anti-corruption campaign launched last month have agreed to settlements to avoid prosecution.
    (Reuters, 12/5/17)
2017        Dec 5, The United Arab Emirates announced a new partnership with Saudi Arabia, separate from the Gulf Cooperation Council. announcement came just hours ahead of a GCC meeting in Kuwait, to which only Kuwait and Qatar sent their heads of state. The planned GCC summit in Kuwait fell apart within hours  over the ongoing boycott of Qatar.
    (AP, 12/5/17)(SFC, 12/6/17, p.A3)

2017        Dec 6, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition stepped up air strikes on the Houthis as the Iran-allied armed movement tightened its grip on Sanaa a day after the son of slain former president Ali Abdullah Saleh vowed revenge for his father's death.
    (Reuters, 12/6/17)

2017        Dec 7, In northern Yemen Saudi-led coalition airstrikes killed at least 23 civilians, including women and children in Saada. Saudi-led airstrikes outside a rebel-run TV station in Sanaa killed at least four people.
    (AP, 12/7/17)   

2017        Dec 8, In Yemen Saudi-led airstrikes outside a rebel-run TV station in Sanaa killed at least four people.
    (AP, 12/9/17)

2017        Dec 10, Yemen's official news agency reported that Saudi-backed forces were advancing toward the Red Sea port of Hodeida, which provides a lifeline to the Shiite rebels known as Houthis.
    (AP, 12/10/17)

2017        Dec 11, Saudi Arabia lifted a 35-year-old ban on cinemas, prompting celebrations from film fans, directors and movie chains eyeing the last untapped mass market in the Middle East. In a nod to conservatives, the government said the films would be censored.
    (Reuters, 12/11/17)

2017        Dec 12, Saudi Arabia detained Sabih al-Masri, Jordan's most influential businessman and the chairman of its largest lender Arab Bank, for questioning after a business trip to Riyadh.
    (Reuters, 12/16/17)
2017        Dec 12, Russia suspended its diplomatic presence in Yemen and all its staff left the country due to the situation in the capital Sanaa. Russia’s foreign ministry said some diplomatic staff will be working temporarily out of the Saudi capital Riyadh.
    (AP, 12/12/17)

2017        Dec 13, Saudi Arabia's King Salman bin Abdulaziz said his government was determined to confront corruption with "justice and decisiveness", signaling continued support for a crackdown on sleaze involving mass arrests of top Saudis including royals.
    (Reuters, 12/13/17)
2017        Dec 13, French President Emmanuel Macron hosted a summit for the leaders of the G5 Sahel (composed of the armies of Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad) plus Germany and Italy as well as the Saudi and Emirati ministers. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates committed 130 million euros ($152.75 million) to tackle Islamist militants in the region.
    (Reuters, 12/13/17)
2017        Dec 13, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition aircraft struck a military police camp in the Houthi-controlled capital of Sanaa, killing at least 39 people and wounding 90 more, including some prisoners.
    (Reuters, 12/13/17)

2017        Dec 17, Sabih al Masri, a Palestinian billionaire and Jordan's most influential businessman, was released after several days of detention in Saudi Arabia. Masri said that he would be returning to Jordan after finishing business meetings in Riyadh in the next two days. Masri was reportedly freed after reaching a settlement to return an unspecified amount of money.
    (Reuters, 12/17/17)(Reuters, 12/19/17)
2017        Dec 17, In Yemen an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition struck a wedding procession, killing 10 women as they marched to a village in Maarib province.
    (AP, 12/17/17)

2017        Dec 19, In Saudi Arabia a security officer and one of the kidnappers of Muslim judge Sheikh Mohammed al-Jirani were killed in a clash. A second kidnapper was arrested. Al-Jirani disappeared last December from outside his home in the Qatif region. The judge's body was found in the remote farming district of Awamiya.
    (Reuters, 12/25/17)(AFP, 12/25/17)
2017        Dec 19, The Saudi-led coalition fighting Yemen's Shiite rebels said it intercepted a missile fired over southern Riyadh, which the rebels said was targeting a "top leadership" meeting at the royal palace in the kingdom's capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 12/19/17)
2017        Dec 19, The UN human rights office said it has verified the killings of 136 Yemeni civilians and other non-combatants in airstrikes carried out over 11 days this month by a Saudi-led military coalition batting Yemen's Shiite rebels.
    (AP, 12/19/17)

2017        Dec 20, In Yemen the Saudi-led coalition targeted rebel positions near Sanaa with air strikes. The Saudi-led coalition said it would keep Yemen's Houthi-controlled Hodeidah port open for a month, despite a fresh missile attack at Riyadh, but it kept up air strikes that killed at least nine people. The rebel-run Saba press agency said 38 people, including women and children, had been killed or wounded in a series of raids targeting different parts of Yemen.
    (AFP, 12/20/17)(Reuters, 12/20/17)

2017        Dec 21, Saudi Arabia paid 2 billion riyals ($533 million) in the first monthly installment of a new welfare system for low and middle-income families that make up approximately half of the kingdom's population.
    (AP, 12/21/17)

2017        Dec 22, The US State Department re-designated China, Eritrea, Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as "countries of particular concern" under the International Religious Freedom Act for having engaged in or tolerated egregious violations of religious freedom.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2017        Dec 24, A vice president of the World Chess Federation (FIDE) said seven Israeli players have been denied visas to participate in the Dec. 26-30 speed chess championship hosted by Saudi Arabia this week.
    (Reuters, 12/24/17)

2017        Dec 25, Yemeni security and medical sources said fresh air strikes and clashes have killed over 60 fighters as Saudi-backed pro-government forces push an offensive against Huthi rebels.
    (AFP, 12/25/17)

2017        Dec 26, Saudi Arabia hosted a world chess tournament for the first time, nearly two years after the country's top cleric issued a religious edict against playing the board game. Players from Israel and Qatar missed the tournament due to regional tensions.
    (AP, 12/26/17)
2017        Dec 26, Saudi Arabia’s Okaz newspaper reported that authorities have released 23 of the 200-or-so powerful individuals detained since November on corruption charges after they reached deals with the government.
    (Reuters, 12/26/17)

2017        Dec, About a dozen US Green Berets were deployed to Saudi Arabia's border with Yemen to help locate and destroy caches of ballistic missiles and launch sites used by Houthi rebels in Yemen.
    (SFC, 5/4/18, p.A3) 

2017        Saudi billionaire Maan al-Sanea was detained for unpaid debts dating back to 2009 when his company, Saad Group, defaulted. Saudi Arabia planned to start auctioning real the estate assets of al-Sanea and his company on Dec. 2, 2018, to help repay billions of dollars due to creditors.
    (AP, 11/11/18)
2017        Bangladeshi officials said Saudi Arabia has promised $1 billion to build 560 mosques, one in each town.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.31)

2018        Jan 1, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition strikes killed at least 23 people in the port city of Hodeida.
    (SFC, 1/2/18, p.A2)

2018        Jan 2, UN human rights experts called on Saudi Arabia to end "repression" of rights activists and release dozens detained since September for peacefully exercising their civil and political rights.
    (Reuters, 1/2/18)

2018        Jan 3, In Saudi Arabia Saleh al-Shehi, a columnist for Arabic-language daily al-Watan, was detained over various articles and television appearances, including one in which he accused the royal court of corruption in distributing land. On Jan. 5 the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) called for his release.
    (Reuters, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 5, Saudi Arabia intercepted a ballistic missile over the kingdom's south near the border with Yemen, hours after Yemeni rebels said they had launched an attack.
    (AFP, 1/5/18)

2018        Jan 6, Saudi Arabia announced it had boosted stipends and benefits for citizens to cushion the impact of economic reforms including the kingdom's first ever taxes after an oil price slump.
    (AFP, 1/6/18)
2018        Jan 6, A state-linked Saudi news website said 11 princes have been arrested and will be tried for staging a protest at one of the king's palaces and refusing orders to leave.
    (AP, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 7, Human Rights Watch said Saudi authorities are holding a prominent Saudi cleric Salman al-Awda without charge and have imposed arbitrary travel bans on 17 of his relatives without showing "the slightest evidence or accusation of wrongdoing on their part." The cleric was among dozens arrested since mid-September.
    (AP, 1/7/18)

2018        Jan 8, In Saudi Arabia conjoined twin girls born in the blockaded Palestinian enclave of the Gaza Strip were separated in "successful" surgery in Riyadh.
    (AP, 1/8/18)

2018        Jan 10, Saudi press reported that Prince Abdullah bin Saud bin Mohammed, who purportedly made an audio recording criticizing the government, has been sacked as head of the kingdom's Maritime Sports Federation and replaced by a military officer. In the nearly six-minute-long audio that was posted online and published on Arabic media websites this week the prince said the government's publicly stated reasons for arresting 11 princes are "false" and "illogical". The 11 were arrested for staging a sit-in outside a palace and protesting a royal order to halt utility payments for royals.
    (AP, 1/10/18)

2018        Jan 12, Saudi women for the first time were allowed to enter a sports stadium to watch a soccer match between two local teams. They were segregated from the male-only crowd with designated seating in the so-called "family section".
    (AP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 17, Saudi Arabia's King Salman ordered the transfer of $2 billion to Yemen, a day after Yemen's Saudi-backed prime minister made an urgent appeal on the kingdom and its allies to save the local currency from complete collapse.
    (AP, 1/17/18)

2018        Jan 21, Top oil exporter Saudi Arabia called for extending cooperation between OPEC and non-OPEC producers beyond 2018, after a deal to cut output succeeded in shoring up prices.
    (AFP, 1/21/18)

2018        Jan 25, A Saudi court sentenced human rights activists Mohammad al-Otaibi and Abdullah al-Attawi to 14 and seven years in prison respectively.
    (Reuters, 1/26/18)

2018        Jan 27, Saudi Arabian billionaire Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, one of the kingdom's top international businessmen, was released from detention, more than two months after he was taken into custody in a sweeping crackdown on corruption. Alwaleed was reportedly freed after he reached a financial settlement with the attorney general.
    (Reuters, 1/27/18)

2018        Jan 30, Saudi Arabia's attorney general said $107 billion has been recovered so far in a major crackdown on high-level corruption and that 56 suspects were still being investigated.
    (AFP, 1/30/18)

2018        Feb 8, Saudi state media reported that a criminal court has sentenced a columnist to five years in prison for insulting the royal court. Saleh al-Shehi was detained after his Dec. 8 appearance on the privately owned Rotana Channel after saying that any Saudi citizen who has a contact within the royal court automatically has an advantage in buying strategically located land unavailable to the public.
    (AP, 2/8/18)

2018        Feb 9, In Saudi Arabia a senior member of the top Muslim clerical body said Saudi women need not wear the abaya - the loose-fitting, full-length robes symbolic of religious faith, another indication of the Kingdom's efforts towards modernization.
    (Reuters, 2/10/18)

2018        Feb 12, The Saudi public prosecutor's office said it will recruit women as investigators for the first time, as the kingdom seeks to boost female employment under a reform plan for a post-oil era.
    (AFP, 2/12/18)

2018        Feb 15, Saudi Arabia announced a policy change allowing women to open their own businesses without the consent of a husband or male relative.
    (AFP, 2/18/18)

2018        Feb 21, Saudi Arabia freed nine Iranian fishermen detained two years ago. A tenth fisherman was reported killed in the initial incident.
    (Reuters, 2/22/18)

2018        Mar 3, Egypt's top court dismissed all outstanding legal challenges to a deal transferring two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia, a day before a visit by its crown prince.
    (Reuters, 3/3/18)

2018        Mar 4, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman landed in Cairo at the start of his first foreign tour as heir to the throne.
    (AFP, 3/4/18)

2018        Mar 5, Egypt gave a warm welcome to Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (32), with military fanfare and a trip to the Suez Canal meant to underline a growing strategic partnership.
    (AP, 3/5/18)

2018        Mar 7, Queen Elizabeth II welcomed Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman as he began a three-day visit to Britain.
    (AP, 3/7/18)
2018        Mar 7, Air India said Saudi Arabia has given it permission to fly between New Delhi and Tel Aviv over Saudi airspace, ending a 70-year ban and marking a diplomatic shift.
    (Reuters, 3/7/18)

2018        Mar 8, In London Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman met Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, the head of the Anglican church, promising to promote interfaith dialogue as part of his domestic reforms.
    (Reuters, 3/8/18)

2018        Mar 9, Britain agreed to finalize talks with Saudi Arabia on the purchase of 48 Typhoon aircraft from BAE Systems.
    (Reuters, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 11, Saudi Arabian press announced that the king has established special anti-corruption units of prosecutors to pursue embezzlement cases in the kingdom after a recent crackdown.
    (AP, 3/11/18)

2018        Mar 12, Saudi plain-clothed security forces entered the office of the Red Crescent in Riyadh, where Abdulrahman al-Sadhan, was working. He was taken away without any explanation. His anonymous Twitter account was purportedly critical of the kingdom's economic polices. His account was later believed to be among a list of accounts whose identities were leaked to the Saudi government by spies planted in the US tech company. In April, 2021, the anti-terrorism court where he was tried handed down a shockingly long prison sentence of 20 years for al-Sadhan, followed by a 20-year travel ban.
    (AP, 8/5/21)

2018        Mar 20, Pres. Trump welcomed the crown prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman, and promised to help push through a long-stalled arms deal for the desert kingdom.
    (AP, 3/21/18)

2018        Mar 26, The Houthi movement that controls northern Yemen vowed to fire more missiles into Saudi Arabia unless it stops bombing the country, after missiles crashed into Riyadh overnight causing casualties in the Saudi capital for the first time. Debris fell on a home in the capital, killing an Egyptian resident and wounding two other Egyptians. Riyadh said it had intercepted seven missiles fired from rebel territory.
    (Reuters, 3/26/18)(AFP, 3/26/18)

2018        Mar 28, Saudi Arabia's King Salman approved a recommendation made by his son and heir, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, to grant students abroad on government scholarships and those studying at their own expense a $2000 financial boost.
    (AP, 3/28/18)
2018        Mar 28, In Japan SoftBank Group Corp. Chief Executive Masayoshi Son announced a $200 billion solar power project in Saudi Arabia, which he described as "the world's biggest solar power generation".
    (AP, 3/28/18)

2018        Mar 31, Saudi air defenses intercepted a missile fired by Yemeni rebels at the kingdom's southern city of Najran.
    (AFP, 3/31/18)

2018        Apr 2, Spying on your spouse's phone in Saudi Arabia now carries a hefty fine and up to a year in prison, under a new law that aims to "protect morals of individuals and society and protect privacy".
    (Reuters, 4/3/18)
2018        Apr 2, In Yemen an air strike by the Saudi-led coalition, killed 16 people near the port of Hodeida in a building where Huthi rebels were gathering. There were conflicting reports on the number of rebels versus civilians killed.
    (AP, 4/2/18)(AFP, 4/2/18)

2018        Apr 3, In Switzerland the United Nations raised more than $2 billion to help civilians in Yemen. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates drew praise for offering hundreds of millions of dollars in aid for Yemen, where their air campaign against Houthi rebels has killed thousands of civilians and their crippling blockade has hindered aid delivery.
    (AFP, 4/3/18)(AP, 4/3/18)
2018        Apr 3, Yemen's Houthi rebels attacked a Saudi oil tanker near the Red Sea port of Hodeida, but reportedly caused only minor damage.
    (SFC, 4/4/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 5, A Saudi soldier was killed during a raid against suspected militants in the town of al-Awamiya in the kingdom's eastern Qatif province.
    (Reuters, 4/8/18)

2018        Apr 6, In France international donors pledged billions of dollars in aid and loans for Lebanon at a conference in Paris, hoping to stave off an economic crisis in a country hard hit by the fallout from the Syrian war. Saudi Arabia said it will grant the country a $1-billion (800 million-euro) development loan.
    (AFP, 4/6/18)

2018        Apr 8, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman arrived in Paris at the start of a European tour after three weeks in the United States, where he pitched for investments and support against arch-rival Iran.
    (Reuters, 4/8/18)

2018        Apr 9, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition airstrike killed at least 15 people, including children, in the southwestern city of Taiz.
    (AP, 4/9/18)

2018        Apr 10, Saudi national company Aramco and French oil giant Total announced that they have signed an agreement to build a $9 billion petrochemical complex in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/10/18)

2018        Apr 11, Saudi Arabia's air defence forces intercepted a ballistic missile over Riyadh. At least three blasts were heard and three clouds of smoke were seen in the sky above the capital. Saudi Arabia's military brought down a Houthi drone at an international airport in the southern city of Abha.
    (Reuters, 4/11/18)
2018        Apr 11, Saudi Aramco announced a $44-billion deal to build a giant refinery complex in India with three Indian firms that will become a crucial new outlet for the world's biggest supplier.
    (AFP, 4/11/18)

2018        Apr 12, Spain signed a framework deal to sell Saudi Arabia five small warships worth around 1.8 billion euros ($2.2 billion). Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was in Madrid on a state visit.
    (Reuters, 4/12/18)

2018        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia's King Salman opened the 29th summit of the 22-member Arab League in Dhahran. King Salman named it the Jerusalem Summit and announced a $150-million (120 million euro) donation for the maintenance of Islamic heritage in East Jerusalem. He also announced a $50 million donation to UNRWA, the UN agency for Palestinian refugees. King Salman slammed Iran's "blatant interference" in regional affairs as Arab leaders met in the kingdom for an annual gathering.
    (AFP, 4/15/18)

2018        Apr 18, In Saudi Arabia the Hollywood film "Black Panther" premiered at a private screening, the first commercial film to be shown in the country after mote than 35 years.
    (SFC, 4/19/18, p.A3)

2018        Apr 19, In Saudi Arabia four policemen were killed after gunmen attacked a security checkpoint in the southwestern province of Asir. Two of the three gunmen were arrested following the attack. The 3rd gunman was killed.
    (AP, 4/20/18)
2018        Apr 19, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition air strikes killed Saleh al-Samad, the top civilian leader in the armed Houthi movement. The strikes also killed six others in his retinue in the coastal province of Hodeida.
    (Reuters, 4/24/18)(AP, 4/28/18)

2018        Apr 20, Saudi Energy Minister Khaled al-Faleh said the global market has the capacity to absorb higher oil prices, drawing a swift reaction from US President Donald Trump who accused OPEC of inflating prices.
    (AFP, 4/20/18)
2018        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia hosted its first public film screening in over 35 years, two days after US movie giant AMC unveiled the kingdom's debut theater in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 4/21/18)
2018        Apr 20, Saudi sports authorities shut down a female fitness center in Riyadh over a contentious promotional video that appeared to show a woman in figure-hugging workout attire.
    (AFP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 27, In Yemen an airstrike by a Saudi-led coalition in Sanaa killed two Shiite rebel leaders and dozens of their militiamen.   
    (AP, 4/28/18)

2018        Apr 28, Saudi Arabia intercepted four ballistic missiles fired by Yemeni rebels. One person was reported killed by "shrapnel" from the ballistic missile attack.
    (AFP, 4/28/18)
2018        Apr 28, Saudi Arabia's King Salman launched construction of an "entertainment city" near Riyadh, part of a series of multi-billion dollar projects aimed at helping the oil-dependent kingdom diversify its economy.
    (AFP, 4/28/18)

2018        Apr 29, Saudi national oil giant Aramco said that five new members had been appointed to its board of directors, including the first woman in the firm's history. Lynn Laverty Elsenhans (60) is the former head of US oil company Sunoco Inc. and has been director of oil services company Baker Hughes since July last year.
    (AFP, 4/29/18)

2018        May 1, Jeff Bezos received a message on WhatsApp from an account belonging to Saudi Arabia’s crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman. Hidden in 14 bytes of that file was a separate bit of code that most likely implanted malware, malicious software, that gave attackers access to Bezos’ entire phone, including his photos and private communications. In 2019 a United Nations statement raised concerns about the digital tactics of Crown Prince Mohammed.
    (NY Times, 1/23/20)

2018        May 2, Ahmed Mohammed al-Darbi (43) became the first detainee to leave the US base in Cuba since President Donald Trump took office. The Pentagon announced his transfer to Saudi Arabia in a brief statement. The agreement to repatriate al-Darbi was made under President Barack Obama.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

2018        May 3, Saudi Arabia kicked off an initiative to invest 130 billion riyals ($34.7 billion, 29 billion euros) in culture and leisure by 2020. The initiative aims to create 300,000 new jobs and represents a key pillar of the nation's "Vision 2030" reforms.
    (AFP, 5/4/18)

2018        May 6, Al Arabiya TV reported that Saudi Arabia's King Salman has ordered protection for employees who report financial and administrative corruption, as part of an effort to combat graft that saw dozens of royals and top businessmen detained last year.
    (Reuters, 5/6/18)
2018        May 6, Human Rights Watch said Saudi Arabia has detained thousands of people for years without trial, slamming the country's powerful crown prince for the "arbitrary detentions".
    (AFP, 5/6/18)

2018        May 7, In Yemen airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition fighting Shiite rebels targeted the presidency building in the heart of Sanaa, leaving at least six people dead and 30 wounded.
    (AP, 5/7/18)

2018        May 9, Yemen's Houthis fired a salvo of ballistic missiles at Saudi Arabia's capital, an attack Saudi authorities said they intercepted in the skies over Riyadh.
    (Reuters, 5/9/18)

2018        May 19, Saudi Arabia began releasing Ethiopian citizens from detention centers following a request by new PM Abiy Ahmed to Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman during a visit to Riyadh.
    (AP, 5/19/18)
2018        May 19, Ethiopia PM Abiy Ahmed said Saudi Arabia will soon release Mohammed Hussein Al Amoudi, an Ethiopian-born Saudi billionaire arrested in November during a crackdown on corruption.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)
2018        May 19, Saudi state security said seven prominent women's rights advocates have been arrested since May 15, just weeks before the kingdom's longstanding driving ban on women is set to be lifted.
    (AFP, 5/19/18)(SSFC, 5/20/18, p.A6)

2018        May 22, Amnesty International said Saudi Arabia has arrested at least three more women's rights activists in a widening crackdown just weeks before a ban on women driving is set to end.
    (Reuters, 5/22/18)

2018        May 24, Rights groups said Saudi authorities have released two prominent women's rights activists, but continue to hold at least eight others in a sweep targeting prominent icons of the women's rights movement.
    (AP, 5/24/18)

2018        May 26, Qatar said it was banning products originating from the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Bahrain, almost a year after those states imposed an embargo on Doha, accusing it of supporting terrorism.
    (Reuters, 5/27/18)
2018        May 26, In Yemen a Saudi-led airstrike near a gas station in Sanaa killed four civilians and wounded 10.
    (AP, 5/27/18)

2018        Jun 2, Saudi state news said the government has temporarily released eight people accused of communicating with organizations opposed to the kingdom but is holding nine others in detention.
    (Reuters, 6/3/18)

2018        Jun 9, Saudi and French officials said a Frenchman has committed suicide by throwing himself off the roof of the Grand Mosque in Islam's holiest city of Mecca.
    (AFP, 6/9/18)

2018        Jun 10, A summit, hosted by Saudi Arabia and attended by Jordan, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, pledged $2.5 billion in aid to help Jordan ease an economic crisis that has sparked angry protests.
    (AFP, 6/11/18)

2018        May 12, Kuwait deported Nawaf al-Rasheed, a Saudi man with dual Qatari nationality, to Saudi Arabia at the kingdom's request.
    (Reuters, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 13, The state-run Saudi Press Agency reported that King Salman has ordered a 1.7 billion riyal ($453 million) payout to beneficiaries of social security in the kingdom ahead of the upcoming Islamic Eid holiday that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 6/13/18)
2018        Jun 13, Yemeni forces backed by a Saudi-led coalition launched a major offensive to retake the rebel-held port city of Hodeida, a key aid hub, sparking calls from the United Nations for restraint.
    (AFP, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 14, In Yemen Arab warplanes and warships pounded Houthi positions in Hodeidah for a second day, as a Saudi-led alliance tried to seize the main port in the largest battle of a war that has created the world's worst humanitarian crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/14/18)

2018        Jun 22, Saudi-led OPEC oil cartel members meeting in Vienna agreed to a new oil output level that effectively increases production by almost 1 million barrels per day.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 24, In Saudi Arabia a ban ended on female drivers getting behind the wheel on the Gulf kingdom's roads.
    (Reuters, 6/24/18)

2018        Jun 24, Saudi air defense forces intercepted two rockets late today over Riyadh fired by the Iran-aligned Houthi movement .
    (Reuters, 6/25/18)

2018        Jun 25, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition airstrike killed at least 41 Shiite rebels, known as Houthis, including eight Lebanese Hezbollah members who were fighting with them in northern Saada province. A pair of airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition killed at least eight civilians, all members of a single family, in northwestern Amran province.
    (Reuters, 6/25/18)(AP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jun 27, Sources including London-based Saudi rights group ALQST said Saudi Arabia has detained prominent women's rights advocate Hatoon al-Fassi, widening a crackdown that has ensnared more than a dozen activists even as the kingdom lifted a ban on women driving.
    (Reuters, 6/27/18)

2018        Jun 30, US President Donald Trump said that Saudi Arabia's King Salman had agreed to his request to ramp up oil production, a week after OPEC already announced an output rise, because of the turmoil & dysfunction in Iran and Venezuela.
    (AFP, 6/30/18)

2018        Jul 2, Yemeni government forces backed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates bombarded rebel positions outside Hodeida over the last 24 hours after pausing their push into the strategic Red Sea port city. 11 civilians and 43 rebel fighters were reported killed over the last two days.
    (AFP, 7/3/18)

2018        Jul 3, Comoros President Azali Assoumani and visiting Saudi interior minister Prince Abdulaziz bin Saud bin Nayef signed agreements worth $22 million to help finance water and road infrastructure in the poor Indian Ocean island nation.
    (AP, 7/4/18)

2018        Jul 10, Saudi state media said Saudi Arabia's air defense forces intercepted a missile launched toward the kingdom's southwestern Jizan region by Yemen's armed Houthi movement. The Houthi-run al-Masirah TV said earlier that a Badr 1 missile had targeted Jizan Economic City, where Saudi Aramco is building a 400,000-barrel-per-day refinery that is expected to become fully operational in 2019.
    (Reuters, 7/10/18)
2018        Jul 10, The Saudi-based Organization of Islamic Cooperation began hosting a two-day conference to encourage peace talks to end Afghanistan's nearly 17-year war.
    (AP, 7/10/18)

2018        Jul 11, In Saudi Arabia more than 100 Muslim scholars from around the world meeting in Mecca issued an urgent appeal for peace in Afghanistan as they ended a two-day conference.
    (AFP, 7/11/18)

2018        Jul 16, Saudi Arabia said it's banning a long list of popular video games after allegations surfaced that two children killed themselves after being encouraged to do so in an online game. A girl (13) and a boy (12) had reportedly killed themselves after playing the so-called "Blue Whale" social media game.
    (AP, 7/16/18)

2018        Jul 17, Saudi Arabia executed seven people convicted of criminal offenses, including five men for the robbery and murder of a Pakistani warehouse guard in the western city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 7/17/18)

2018        Jul 18, Saudi Arabia intercepted a missile fired from rebel-held territory in neighboring Yemen, where a Riyadh-led coalition is fighting the insurgents.
    (AFP, 7/18/18)

2018        Jul 19, Saudi state news agency SPA reported that state-owned Saudi Arabian Military Industries (SAMI) has signed an agreement with Spain's Navantia to set up a joint venture in the kingdom to build five warships.
    (Reuters, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 20, The official Saudi Press Agency said the kingdom "rejects and disapproves" of Israel's new legislation which it argued contradicts international law.
    (AP, 7/21/18)

2018        Jul 25, Yemen's Houthis attacked a Saudi oil tanker in the Red Sea, causing slight damage. The Houthis' Al Masirah TV said earlier on Twitter that it had targeted a warship named the Dammam off the western coast of Yemen.
    (AP, 7/25/18)

2018        Jul 26, Saudi Arabia said it was suspending oil shipments through a strategic Red Sea lane after Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthis attacked two tankers in the waterway, underscoring the risk of an escalation in tensions in the region.
    (Reuters, 7/26/18)

2018        Jul 27, A Saudi-led coalition launched heavy air strikes on Yemen's main port city of Hodeidah, in an apparent resumption of military operations on the Red Sea city after the Iranian-aligned Houthi movement attacked two Saudi oil tankers.
    (Reuters, 7/27/18)

2018        Aug 1, Human Rights Watch said Saudi Arabia has arrested two more women's rights activists. HRW said authorities arrested Samar Badawi and Nassima al-Sadah in the past two days. Badawi's former husband is already in prison, serving a 15-year sentence for human rights activism, and her brother Raif Badawi, a prominent blogger, is serving a 10-year sentence for expressing controversial opinions online.
    (Reuters, 8/1/18)

2018        Aug 4, Saudi Arabia said that it was resuming oil shipments through the Bab al-Mandab Strait, ending a 10-day suspension triggered by rebel attacks off the coast of Yemen.
    (AFP, 8/4/18)

2018        Aug 5, Iranian news agency IRNA reported that Saudi Arabia has agreed to admit an Iranian diplomat to head an office representing Iranian interests in the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 8/5/18)

2018        Aug 6, Saudi Arabia suspended scholarships to Canada and said it will relocate students already there, after the kingdom abruptly cut ties with Ottawa over criticism of its jailing of rights activists. More than 8,000 students from Saudi Arabia were reportedly enrolled in programs in Canada and were accompanied by more than 6,400 dependents.
    (AFP, 8/6/18)

2018        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia began selling Canadian assets in an escalating row after Ottawa criticized the arrest of a female activist.
    (Reuters, 8/8/18)

2018        Aug 8, Saudi Arabia said there is no room for mediation in the kingdom's deepening diplomatic dispute with Canada, and that Ottawa knew what it needed to do to "fix its big mistake".
    (Reuters, 8/8/18)
2018        Aug 8, Oil giant Saudi Aramco said it will buy out the other 50-percent stake in a joint chemical venture in the Netherlands in a deal valued at 1.5 billion euros, or $1.7 billion.
    (AP, 8/8/18)
2018        Aug 8, Saudi Arabia said it executed and crucified a man from Myanmar convicted of killing a woman and carrying out other crimes. In Saudi crucifixions the condemned is usually beheaded and the body then put on display.
    (AP, 8/8/18)

2018        Aug 9, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition air strikes killed dozens of people, including at least 40 children traveling on a bus as it drove through a market of Dahyan, Saada province.
    (Reuters, 8/9/18)(Reuters, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 10, The Saudi-led coalition announced a probe into an air strike on a bus that killed at least 29 children a day earlier in northern Yemen. The armed Houthi group said at least 40 children were killed in the strike.
    (AFP, 8/10/18)(Reuters, 8/10/18)

2018        Aug 13, Tesla chief executive Elon Musk said he was in talks with Saudi Arabia's sovereign wealth fund and other investors to take the electric automaker private.
    (AFP, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 16, Qatari broadcaster BeIN said it has "irrefutable evidence" that a pirate channel illegally showing hundreds of live European football matches is being carried on the Saudi-based satellite provider Arabsat.
    (AFP, 8/16/18)

2018        Aug 17, Saudi Arabia pledged $100 million to reconstruct areas of northeastern Syria formerly held by the Islamic State group, in a move sharply criticized by President Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 8/17/18)

2018        Aug 18, Qatar accused Saudi Arabia of barring its citizens from this year's haj, something Riyadh denies, saying a diplomatic dispute is not stopping Qataris from making the pilgrimage to Mecca. Saudi Arabia has said Qatari pilgrims can arrive on any airline other than Qatar Airways.
    (Reuters, 8/18/18)

2018        Aug 19, In Saudi Arabia more than two million Muslims from around the globe started the hajj pilgrimage.
    (AFP, 8/19/18)

2018        Aug 21, In Saudi Arabia Muslims celebrated Eid al-Adha as over 2 million pilgrims carry out the final rites of the hajj.
    (AP, 8/21/18)

2018        Aug 24, Human Rights Watch said the Saudi-led coalition fighting Shiite rebels in Yemen failed to redress civilian victims and conduct credible investigations into alleged war crimes committed there.
    (AP, 8/24/18)

2018        Aug 26, Yemen's Houthi group said it fired two Zelzal-1 missiles in the direction of Saudi Arabian provinces alongside the joint border.
    (Reuters, 8/26/18)

2018        Aug 28, Three experts working for the UN's top human rights body said the governments of Yemen, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia may have been responsible for war crimes including rape, torture, disappearances and "deprivation of the right to life" during 3½ years of battling Yemeni rebels.
    (AP, 8/28/18)

2018        Sep 4, The Spanish Defence Ministry said Spain has halted the sale of a shipment of bombs to Saudi Arabia amid concerns about their use in the conflict in Yemen. Spain said it has cancelled a 2015 deal to sell 400 laser-guided bombs to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/4/18)(AFP, 9/4/18)

2018        Sep 5, In Saudi Arabia 26 civilians were wounded by shrapnel when the Saudi military shot down a missile fired across the border by Yemen's Houthi rebels. The rebel-run Al-Masirah TV said the missile targeted a Saudi military camp, hitting it "accurately."
    (AP, 9/6/18)

2018        Sep 6, In Saudi Arabia American trainer Paul Reddy was killed and a Saudi trainee injured in a helicopter crash at Khashm Al-An Airport in Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/6/18)

2018        Sep 12, Spain's El Periodico newspaper said Spain will go ahead with the sale of 400 laser-guided bombs to Saudi Arabia, a contract it had decided to halt last week because of the Saudis' role in the war in Yemen. Saudi Arabia had reportedly threatened to cancel a 1.8 billion euro contract with Spain to buy warships if the bomb sale did not take place.
    (Reuters, 9/13/18)
2018        Sep 12, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition launched air strikes on the outskirts of the port city of Hodeidah as heavy fighting resumed days after UN-sponsored talks between the warring parties collapsed.
    (Reuters, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 14, In Yemen sporadic fighting took place in various areas around Hodeida. Two Saudi pilots died when their helicopter crashed due to a technical fault in Mahra province.
    (AFP, 9/14/18)(Reuters, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 16, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki and Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed signed a "peace agreement "during a summit in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/16/18)
2018        Sep 16, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition fighting alongside the Yemeni government against Shiite Huthi rebels carried out an air raid on a radio station tower in the port city of Hodeida killing at least three people. At least 32 insurgents were reported killed and 14 others wounded in clashes and air strikes over the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 17, Saudi Arabia's sovereign wealth fund said it has secured its first ever international loan, boosting the kingdom's diversification drive after its flotation of state oil giant Aramco stalled.
    (AFP, 9/17/18)

2018        Sep 18, Pakistan's new PM Imran Khan arrived in Saudi Arabia as part of his first official overseas trip.
    (AP, 9/19/18)

2018        Sep 25, Saudi Arabia's King Salman inaugurated a 6.7 billion euro ($7.87 billion), high-speed, 450-km (280-mile) Haramain Railway linking Mecca and Medina, the two holiest cities in Islam.
    (Reuters, 9/25/18)

2018        Sep 29, North Dakota's Bismarck Tribune reported that 67 male students at the National Power Academy in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, have enrolled in a three-year energy training program run by BSC, after months of negotiations.
    (AP, 9/29/18)

2018        Sep, Two sisters (18 and 20) from Saudi Arabia fled the conservative kingdom and arrived in Hong Kong from Sri Lanka. They did so to escape beatings at the hands of their brothers and father.
    (Reuters, 2/23/19)

2018        Oct 1, Qatar also launched an action at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva, accusing Saudi Arabia of violating intellectual property rights, over beIN. Qatari sports broadcasting giant beIN launched a massive $1-billion compensation claim against Saudi channels it accuses of "flagrantly breaching international law" by showing live sports programs.
    (AFP, 10/1/18)

2018        Oct 2, Saudi Arabia said it will deposit $200 million in Yemen's central bank to help stem a slide in the riyal that has sent food prices soaring in the famine-threatened country.
    (AFP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, A Saudi newspaper reported that a Saudi woman has lost a judicial battle to marry the man of her choice as a court deemed him "religiously" unfit because he plays a musical instrument. The woman said she will seek intervention from the country's "highest authorities" -- a reference to the royal court.
    (AFP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, In Turkey Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi (59), who has written Washington Post columns critical of the kingdom's assertive crown prince, went missing after visiting the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul.
    (AP, 10/3/18)

2018        Oct 7, Turkey's President Tayyip Erdogan said he was closely following the case of missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi after Turkish officials said they believed he had been killed at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 10/7/18)

2018        Oct 9, Turkey said it will search the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul as part of an investigation into the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi (59), the missing Saudi contributor to The Washington Post, a week after he vanished during a visit there.
    (AP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 10, A pro-government Turkish daily published preliminary evidence from investigators it said identified a 15-member Saudi intelligence team involved in the unexplained disappearance of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 10/10/18)

2018        Oct 11, Saudi Arabia's new high-speed railway opened to the public, whisking Muslim pilgrims and other travelers between Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest cities.
    (AFP, 10/11/18)
2018        Oct 11, US President Donald Trump said he was wary of halting arms sales to Saudi Arabia over the case as the key US ally would just shift its weapons purchases to Russia and China. Major US defense contractors were concerned that lawmakers angered by the disappearance of a Saudi journalist in Turkey will block further arms deals with Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 10/12/18)

2018        Oct 12, Bloomberg withdrew from a Saudi investment conference at the end of the month, following other media companies that have dropped plans to participate after the disappearance of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi. CNBC cable news network added its name to the growing list of media companies, citing the disappearance of dissident Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 10/12/18)

2018        Oct 13, Saudi Arabia dismissed accusations that Jamal Khashoggi was ordered murdered by a hit squad inside its Istanbul consulate as "lies and baseless allegations".
    (AFP, 10/13/18)
2018        Oct 13, US President Donald Trump said in a CBS interview that there would be "severe punishment" for Saudi Arabia if it turns out that missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 10/13/18)
2018        Oct 13, In Yemen air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition fighting the Houthi group killed 10 civilians in Hodeidah province. The Houthi movement’s Al Massira TV said 17 died and many others were in a critical condition.
    (Reuters, 10/13/18)

2018        Oct 14, Saudi Arabia warned it would retaliate against any sanctions imposed on the oil-rich kingdom over the disappearance of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, as the Riyadh stock market plunged on growing investor jitters.
    (AFP, 10/14/18)
2018        Oct 14, Britain, France and Germany insisted that "light must be shed" on the whereabouts of journalist Jamal Khashoggi as they called for a credible investigation into his disappearance at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 10/14/18)

2018        Oct 15, Saudi Arabia's King Salman ordered an internal probe into the unexplained disappearance of prominent journalist Jamal Khashoggi as a joint Turkish-Saudi team was set to search the Saudi consulate in Istanbul where he was last seen on Oct. 2.
    (Reuters, 10/15/18)
2018        Oct 15, Turkish authorities said they have an audio recording which indicates that missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 10/15/18)

2018        Oct 17, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said that Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan had made clear in talks in Ankara that Saudi officials were cooperating with Turkey's investigation into missing journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 10/17/18)

2018        Oct 18, The Committee to Protect Journalists, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and Reporters Without Borders urged Turkey to request a UN investigation into the possible murder of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi to prevent a "whitewash" of the alleged crime.
    (AFP, 10/18/18)

2018        Oct 19, Turkey widened the investigation into the disappearance of journalist Jamal Khashoggi after his visit to the Saudi consulate, searching a forest in the city and interviewing the mission's staff.
    (AFP, 10/19/18)

2018        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia said that Jamal Khashoggi, a prominent journalist and critic of the kingdom's de facto leader Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, had died in a fight inside its Istanbul consulate. This came after two weeks of denials that it was involved in his disappearance. Saudi state media said King Salman had ordered the dismissal of five officials, including Saud al-Qahtani, a royal court adviser seen as the right-hand man to Prince Mohammed, and deputy intelligence chief Ahmed Asiri.
    (Reuters, 10/20/18)

2018        Oct 21, Exchange data showed that foreigners sold a net 4.01 billion riyals ($1.07 billion) in Saudi stocks in the week ending October 18, - one of the biggest selloffs since the market opened to direct foreign buying in mid-2015.
    (Reuters, 10/21/18)

2018        Oct 22, Saudi Arabia scrambled to prepare for the three-day Future Investment Initiative (FII) after a string of cancellations from global business titans, with Turkey's threat to reveal the "naked truth" over critic Jamal Khashoggi's murder casting a fresh shadow.
    (AFP, 10/22/18)

2018        Oct 23, A high-profile economic forum in Saudi Arabia began in Riyadh. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman trumpeted a conference that has drawn investment deals worth $50 billion despite a boycott over the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AP, 10/23/18)
2018        Oct 23, Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih said the OPEC kingpin was ready to boost its crude production and spare capacity to help maintain a balance in the global oil market.
    (AFP, 10/23/18)
2018        Oct 23, Saudi Arabia said it and Bahrain had added Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps and senior officers of its Quds Force to their lists of people and organizations suspected of involvement in terrorism.
    (Reuters, 10/23/18)
2018        Oct 23, Pakistan negotiated a $6 billion assistance package of loans and deferred payments from Saudi Arabia in hopes of resuscitating its flagging economy, struggling under the weight of a whopping $18 billion deficit.
    (AP, 10/24/18)

2018        Oct 24, Saudi Arabia's crown prince said the case of Jamal Khashoggi was "painful" and that "justice will prevail" following the killing of the Saudi journalist at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 10/24/18)
2018        Oct 24, Turkey's state media reported that Saudi authorities have denied permission to Turkish police to search a well in the garden of the kingdom's consulate in Istanbul as part of a probe into the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AFP, 10/24/18)
2018        Oct 24, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition airstrike at a fruit-and-vegetable market near the Red Sea port of Hodeida killed at least 21 civilians, including children.
    (AP, 10/25/18)

2018        Oct 25, Saudi state TV quoted the Saudi public prosecutor as saying the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi was premeditated, and that prosecutors were interrogating suspects on the basis of information provided by a joint Saudi-Turkish task force. 18 Saudis have been arrested and five top officials fired in the case.
    (Reuters, 10/25/18)(SFC, 10/25/18, p.A2)

2018        Oct 26, French President Emmanuel Macron dismissed as "demagoguery" the calls by several European countries including Germany to suspend arms sales to Saudi Arabia following the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 10/26/18)
2018        Oct 26, Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan urged Saudi Arabia to disclose who ordered the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul, as well as the location of his body, heightening international pressure on the kingdom to come clean on the case.
    (Reuters, 10/26/18)

2018        Oct, Saudi Arabia's King Salman ordered the resumption of annual bonus payments to all government workers from the beginning of next year. The bonuses had been suspended under austerity measures in 2016 amid low oil prices.
    (AFP, 11/6/18)

2018        Nov 1, The Saudi-backed Yemeni government said it was ready to work on confidence-building measures under UN-led peace efforts as the United States pressed for an end to a war that has pushed Yemen to the brink of starvation.
    (Reuters, 11/1/18)

2018        Nov 2, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition fighting Shiite Houthi rebels bombed an air base adjacent to the Sanaa international airport allegedly being used by the rebels to launch drone and ballistic missile attacks.
    (AP, 11/2/18)

2018        Nov 5, Saudi Arabia told the United Nations it would prosecute those responsible for the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi at its Istanbul consulate, as Western states pressed it for a credible investigation.
    (Reuters, 11/5/18)
2018        Nov 5, In Yemen battles raged near the port of Hodeida, crucial for humanitarian aid, but Saudi Arabia and its allies said they were committed to de-escalating hostilities with rebels as calls for a ceasefire mount.
    (AFP, 11/5/18)

2018        Nov 6, Yemen's Houthi rebels claimed they halted advances of their adversaries, the US-backed, Saudi-led Arab coalition, at a key battlefield around a strategic Red Sea port city. Fighting continued around Hodeida despite the statement from the Shiite rebels.
    (AP, 11/6/18)

2018        Nov 7, Saudi Arabia's King Salman began a domestic tour with a first stop in the conservative heartland of Qassim province, where he pardoned prisoners serving time on financial charges and announced 16 billion riyals (about $4.27 billion) in new projects.
    (AP, 11/7/18)
2018        Nov 7, In Yemen troops from a US-backed, Saudi-led coalition pounded Houthi rebel positions in Hodeida with airstrikes and a ground assault and took control of a major road leading into the city.
    (AP, 11/7/18)

2018        Nov 10, It was reported that Saudi Arabia and the US have agreed to end US refueling of aircraft from the Saudi-led coalition battling Houthi insurgents in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 11/10/18)
2018        Nov 10, President Tayyip Erdogan said that Turkey has given recordings related to the killing of Jamal Khashoggi to Germany, France and Britain, seeking to maintain international pressure on Riyadh over the Saudi journalist's death.
    (AP, 11/10/18)

2018        Nov 12, Canadian PM Justin Trudeau became the first Western leader to acknowledge his country had heard recordings of the killing of Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AP, 11/12/18)

2018        Nov 13, Turkey's President Tayyip Erdogan said recordings related to the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, which Turkey has shared with Western allies, are "appalling" and shocked a Saudi intelligence officer who listened to them.
    (Reuters, 11/13/18)
2018        Nov 13, Yemeni officials said an informal agreement to reduce hostilities between Saudi-led coalition forces and rebels in and around the Red Sea port city of Hodeida has taken hold.
    (AP, 11/13/18)
2018        Nov 13, In Yemen an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition killed at least seven civilians late today in the rebel-held port city of Hodeida.
    (AP, 11/14/18)

2018        Nov 15, Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor's office said it is seeking the death penalty for five out of 11 suspects charged in the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. The prosecutor's spokesman Shaalan al-Shaalan denied Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had any knowledge of the killing.
    (Reuters, 11/15/18)(AFP, 11/15/18)

2018        Nov 16, It was reported that the CIA believes Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul, complicating President Donald Trump's efforts to preserve ties with a key US ally.
    (Reuters, 11/17/18)

2018        Nov 18, Saudi Arabia's King Salman received Iraq's Pres. Barham Salih in Riyadh, a day after the Iraqi official visited the kingdom's rival, Iran.
    (AP, 11/18/18)

2018        Nov 19, Germany banned Saudi citizens suspected of involvement in the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi from much of Europe and moved to halt all arms sales to the kingdom in a firming of its stance towards Riyadh.
    (Reuters, 11/19/18)
2018        Nov 19, Yemen's Shiite rebels said that they will halt rocket fire into Saudi Arabia for the sake of peace efforts, answering a key Saudi demand in the latest push to stop the civil war in the Arab world's poorest country.
    (AP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 20, Amnesty International, citing three separate testimonies, said activists, held since May in Saudi Arabia's Dhahban prison on the western Red Sea coast, have faced repeated electrocution and flogging, leaving some of them unable to stand or walk. Human Rights Watch said in a separate statement that at least three women activists also endured "forcible kissing and hugging".
    (AFP, 11/23/18)

2018        Nov 22, France said it had imposed sanctions, including travel bans, on 18 Saudi citizens linked to the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi and warned that more could follow depending on results of the current investigation.
    (Reuters, 11/22/18)

2018        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia dismissed as "baseless" reports that detained activists, including women, faced sexual harassment and torture during interrogation.
    (AP, 11/23/18)
2018        Nov 23, The Iranian judiciary’s website Mizan reported that Iran's Revolutionary Guards have detained a Saudi Arabian fishing boat and arrested its crew.
    (AP, 11/23/18)

2018        Nov 26, Saudi energy giant Aramco said it has signed 31 agreements and memoranda of understandings worth $27.5 billion with local and international suppliers.
    (AFP, 11/26/18)
2018        Nov 26, Human Rights Watch asked Argentina to use a war crimes clause in its constitution to investigate any involvement by Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in possible crimes against humanity in Yemen and Khashoggi's murder.
    (Reuters, 11/28/18)
2018        Nov 26, Five int'l. charities urged the US to halt all military support for the Saudi-led coalition fighting Yemen's Shiite rebels, saying the move would save millions of lives.
    (SFC, 11/27/18, p.A2)

2018        Nov 27, Hundreds of Tunisian protesters marched through Tunis in opposition to a planned visit by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, urging justice over the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AFP, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 28, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman landed in Buenos Aires for the G20 summit of industrialized nations.
    (Reuters, 11/28/18)

2018        Nov 29, Canada announced targeted sanctions against 17 Saudi nationals it said were linked to the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul last month.
    (AFP, 11/29/18)

2018        Nov 30, French President Emmanuel Macron told Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman Europeans will insist on international experts being part of the investigations into a Saudi journalist's murder.
    (Reuters, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 2, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman arrived in Mauritania, resuming a tour of Arab countries after attending the G20 summit in Argentina.
    (Reuters, 12/2/18)
2018        Dec 2, Saudi dissident Omar Abdulaziz filed a lawsuit in Tel Aviv against an Israeli surveillance company, claiming its sophisticated spyware targeted him and helped lead to the killing of his friend, Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 3, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (81) called off a meeting with visiting Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman because of ill health, the national news agency APS reported. The prince held talks instead with PM Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 5, A Turkish court issued arrest warrants for two suspects close to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman over the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, increasing pressure on the kingdom's de facto leader.
    (AFP, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 9, In Saudi Arabia a summit of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) opened. Kuwait's Emir, Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber al-Sabah, called for an end to media campaigns in the region which threatened the unity of the Gulf. Qatar's Sheikh Tamim sent Sultan bin Saad al-Muraikhi, minister of state for foreign affairs, to represent the country.
    (AP, 12/9/18)(Reuters, 12/9/18)

2018        Dec 12, In Saudi Arabia representatives from Egypt, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen and Jordan gathered in Riyadh to discuss an alliance of the six countries bordering the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. No final agreement was reached.
    (AP, 12/12/18)

2018        Dec 13, The US Senate delivered an unusual rebuke of Pres. Donald Trump's response to the death of journalist Jamal Khashoggi In back-to-back votes against Saudi Arabia, and signaled new skepticism from Capitol Hill toward the longtime ally.
    (AP, 12/14/18)

2018        Dec 19, In Yemen the Saudi-led coalition bombed the air base next to Sanaa's international airport as a local cease-fire held around the Red Sea port city of Hodeida.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2018        Dec 22, Saudi Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz (87), a half-brother of King Salman, died. He was known as a tireless advocate of reform, sometimes in defiance of the royal family.
    (AFP, 12/22/18)

2018        Dec 27, Saudi Arabia's King Salman ordered a sweeping government reshuffle, replacing key security and political figures including the foreign minister, as the kingdom grapples with the international fallout over critic Jamal Khashoggi's murder.
    (AFP, 12/27/18)

2019        Jan 2, It was reported that Netflix has removed an episode of a satirical comedy show from its service in Saudi Arabia over its criticism of the kingdom, following a legal request by officials in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 1/2/19)
2019        Jan 2, Saudi Arabia announced plans to build an entertainment complex in the capital Riyadh, the latest in a series of state-backed efforts to encourage public leisure activities after decades of tight social restrictions.
    (Reuters, 1/2/19)

2019        Jan 3, Saudi Arabia announced that it will seek the death penalty against five suspects in the slaying of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi, a killing that has seen members of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's entourage implicated in the writer's assassination.
    (AP, 1/3/19)

2019        Jan 6, In Saudi Arabia a new regulation that took effect aimed at curbing seemingly rampant cases of men secretly ending marriages without informing their wives. Saudi courts will now notify women by text message when they get divorced.
    (AFP, 1/6/19)
2019        Jan 6, In Thailand Rahaf Mohammed M Alqunun, a Saudi woman held at Bangkok airport, said she would be killed if she was repatriated by Thai immigration officials, who confirmed the 18-year-old was denied entry to the country.
    (AFP, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 7, In Saudi Arabia six people were killed and others arrested in a "preemptive" security operation in al-Qatif, a predominantly Shiite region in the Eastern Province of the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 1/8/19)(AP, 1/9/19)
2019        Jan 7, The head of Thailand's immigration police said that Saudi woman Rahaf Mohammed Alqunun (18), who was stopped in Bangkok as she was trying to travel to Australia for asylum to escape alleged abuse by her family, will not be sent anywhere against her wishes.
    (AP, 1/7/19)

2019        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia's energy ministry said proven oil reserves stood at 263.2 billion barrels at the end of last year, up from the figure of 261 billion barrels that has been used for almost three decades. The kingdom has another 2.9 billion barrels of crude in a border zone shared with neighboring Kuwait, bringing total oil reserves to 266.1 billion barrels. Saudi oil remains among the cheapest in the world to extract, at only $4 a barrel.
    (AFP, 1/9/19)

2019        Jan 10, Saudi Arabia awarded a contract to build a $500 million wind farm, a first for the world's top oil exporter as it pushes to diversify its energy sector. A consortium led by France's EDF and Abu Dhabi's Masdar won the bid for the 400-megawatt Dumat al-Jandal wind project in the northern Al Jouf province.
    (AFP, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 11, Thailand's immigration police chief said Saudi woman Rahaf Mohammed Alqunun, who fled alleged abuse by her family, will leave Bangkok for Canada.
    (AP, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 12, Rahaf Mohammed al-Qunun (18), a Saudi woman who fled her family this week saying she feared for her life, arrived in Toronto after Canada granted her asylum.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 17, It was reported that another Saudi woman has turned to social media for protection from her father, just days after Canada granted refuge to Rahaf al-Qunun, the 18-year-old Saudi who fled her family. Nojoud al-Mandeel has not fled the kingdom, has not revealed her face and has only made her pleas for help on Twitter in Arabic.
    (AP, 1/17/19)
2019        Jan 17, Comoros President Azali Assoumani asked: "What's wrong when a Saudi is assassinated in an embassy of Saudi Arabia?" during a speech at a function to launch the construction of a Saudi-funded road in the Indian Ocean island nation.
    (Reuters, 1/18/19)

2019        Jan 19, US Republican Sen. Lindsey Graham said Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was responsible for the Oct. 2 murder of Jamal Khashoggi and must be "dealt with", as he threatened new sanctions.
    (AFP, 1/19/19)

2019        Jan 20, Saudi-led forces launched overnight air strikes on Yemen's capital, described by one resident as the worst in a year. The overnight targets included al-Dulaimi Air Base, a drone storage site, and military training sites. At least two civilians were killed, and others injured.
    (Reuters, 1/20/19)

2019        Jan 24, Agnes Callamard, the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, said she will travel to Turkey next week to head an "independent international inquiry" into the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 27, In Saudi Arabia Mohammed Hussein al-Amoudi, a Saudi-Ethiopian businessman arrested more than 14 months ago in a crackdown on corruption, was released from detention.
    (Reuters, 1/27/19)

2019        Jan 31, Saudi Arabia said that it has concluded a crackdown on high-level corruption that began 15 months ago.
    (SFC, 2/1/19, p.A4)
2019        Jan 31, Yemeni security officials said seven Houthi rebel prisoners have been released by Saudi Arabia and returned to Sanaa.
    (SFC, 2/1/19, p.A2)

2019        Feb 4, Saudi media reported that Saudi Arabia will study how its male guardianship system is being abused, after the flight of an 18-year-old woman to Thailand last month focused global attention on the issue.
    (Reuters, 2/4/19)
2019        Feb 4, Saudi state media reported that the government has launched a new office to monitor state spending, saying it would help keep up the fight against corruption after the closing of a 15-month crackdown.
    (Reuters, 2/5/19)

2019        Feb 12, Global oil cartel OPEC said it sharply reduced crude oil production last month, after heavyweight Saudia Arabia slashed output and exports fell in crisis-hit Venezuela.
    (AFP, 2/12/19)

2019        Feb 13, Saudi Arabia said it will lift its warning against citizens traveling to Lebanon as a visiting envoy from the kingdom met top Lebanese officials in Beirut.
    (Reuters, 2/13/19)

2019        Feb 15, A top Airbus official said Germany's halt in exports to Saudi Arabia is preventing Britain from completing the sale of 48 Eurofighter Typhoon warplanes to Riyadh, and has delayed potential sales of other weapons such as the A400M military transport. The Eurofighter is built by a consortium of four founding countries: Germany, Britain, Italy and Spain.
    (Reuters, 2/15/19)

2019        Feb 17, Saudi Arabia signed a preliminary agreement with France's Naval Group to build warships in the kingdom, as part of its efforts to develop domestic manufacturing capabilities. Saudi Arabian Military Industries (SAMI), the kingdom’s state defense company, made the announcement at the IDEX military exhibition in Abu Dhabi.
    (Reuters, 2/17/19)
2019        Feb 17, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was greeted with a booming 21-gun salute in Pakistan, as he kicked off an Asia tour months after being tarnished by his alleged links to the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AFP, 2/17/19)

2019        Feb 20, In India Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and Indian leader Narendra Modi vowed to increase pressure on countries that fuel terrorism.
    (AFP, 2/20/19)

2019        Feb 22, In China Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman hailed relations with China as trouble-free, during talks with President Xi Jinping in Beijing aimed at strengthening relations in the face of criticism from the West over the kingdom's human rights record and its war in Yemen.
    (AP, 2/22/19)

2019        Mar 1, Saudi Arabia announced it had revoked the citizenship of Hamza bin Laden, the son of the late al-Qaida leader who has become an increasingly prominent figure in the terror network. The royal decree stripping his citizenship was signed in November, but only became public now.
    (AP, 3/1/19)
2019        Mar 1, Saudi Arabia decided to put jailed women activists on trial after holding them for nearly a year without charge.
    (AFP, 3/2/19)

2019        Mar 3, Authorities in Saudi Arabia suspended a new television talk show that tackled sensitive issues and aired critical views after just two weeks.
    (AP, 3/4/19)

2019        Mar 5, In Italy a proposal to use 15 million euros in Saudi Arabian government funds for Milan's La Scala opera house came under fire because of anger over the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AFP, 3/5/19)

2019        Mar 7, The 28 member states of the European Union all backed a decision on to reject a proposal from the EU executive to add Saudi Arabia to a blacklist of countries suspected of being lax on terrorist financing and money laundering. The decision will force the European Commission to prepare a new list.
    (Reuters, 3/7/19)
2019        Mar 7, In Geneva three dozen countries, including all 28 EU members, called on Saudi Arabia to release 10 activists and cooperate with a UN-led investigation into the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi at its Istanbul consulate. This was the first rebuke of the kingdom at the UN Human Rights Council since it was set up in 2006.
    (Reuters, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 8, Saudi Arabia's air defense systems shot down a drone over the kingdom. The Saudi-led military coalition in Yemen accused the country's Houthi fighters of launching the aircraft and targeting civilians.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 14, The head of the state-backed Saudi human rights commission dismissed an international investigation into the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi as interference, and said everyone accused was already facing justice in the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 3/14/19)
2019        Mar 14, PEN American announced that Saudi women Nouf Abdulaziz, Loujain al-Hathloul and Eman al-Nafjan have won the PEN/Barbey Freedom to Write Award. The award was established in 1987 and is given to writers imprisoned for their work.
    (AP, 3/14/19)
2019        Mar 14, In Yemen the Saudi-led coalition launched a series of airstrikes along the Yemen-Saudi border that mistakenly killed 8 border guards and wounded 33 others allied with the government in the Jawf governorate.
    (AP, 3/14/19)

2019        Mar 18, Milan's Mayor Giuseppe Sala said Italy's famed La Scala opera house will immediately return 3 million euros ($3.4 million) sent to an escrow account by Saudi Arabia. He did not rule out future dealings with the kingdom despite concerns raised over its human rights record.
    (AP, 3/18/19)

2019        Mar 23, Al-Arabiya TV reported that the Saudi-Led coalition in Yemen launched raids on Houthi camps in the capital Sanaa, including the Al-Dailami air base.
    (Reuters, 3/23/19)

2019        Mar 25, The Hong Kong-based lawyer for two Saudi sisters who fled the kingdom said the young women have secured emergency visas and departed to a new country of residence.
    (AP, 3/25/19)

2019        Mar 26, The academy of Italy's premier opera house, Teatro alla Scala, agreed to start a conservatory for both girls and boys in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 3/27/19)

2019        Mar 28, Three of eleven Saudi women's rights activists were temporarily released after 10 months in prison. The releases came a day after 11 women's rights activists appeared before a three-judge panel in a Riyadh courtroom and laid out their defense.
    (AFP, 3/28/19)

2019        Apr 1, Fitch Ratings said Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil company, posted $224 billion in earnings before tax last year, as the secretive giant opens its accounts for the first time.
    (AFP, 4/1/19)

2019        Apr 4, Saudi Arabia reopened a consulate in Baghdad for the first time in nearly 30 years, a sign of improving ties between the two neighbors whose relations have been uneasy for years.
    (AP, 4/4/19)
2019        Apr 4, It was reported that the four adult children of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Kkashoggi have received tens of thousands of dollars and millions in real estate from kingdom rulers in the form of so-called "blood money" as compensation for the killing of their father by a team of Saudi agents.
    (SFC, 4/4/19, p.A4)
2019        Apr 4, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and non-Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member Egypt said they will boycott an Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) annual meeting in Doha April from 6-10 because Qatar "has not responded to the just demands of the four countries and has continued its supportive policy for extremism, terrorism and interference in the affairs of the countries of the region".
    (Reuters, 4/5/19)
2019        Apr 4, Saudi Arabia arrested at least eight writers and bloggers, including two US citizens, in an apparent crackdown on supporters of detained women activists whose trial has drawn global censure.
    (AFP, 4/5/19)
2019        Apr 4, US lawmakers voted to end military support for a Saudi-led war in Yemen.
    (AFP, 4/5/19)

2019        Apr 7, Saudi media reported that four attackers targeted a security checkpoint with guns and explosives in eastern Saudi Arabia as they tried to flee the country, leading to the death of two and the arrest of two others.
    (Reuters, 4/7/19)

2019        Apr 8, The UAE said it and Saudi Arabia, which head an Arab coalition fighting Iran-aligned Houthi forces in Yemen, will provide $200 million in aid to Yemen for use during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The aid is part of a $500 million joint food aid program announced last November.
    (Reuters, 4/8/19)

2019        Apr 9, A bond sale by energy giant Saudi Aramco that aims to help diversify the Saudi economy attracted record demand of over $100 billion from investors.
    (AFP, 4/9/19)

2019        Apr 15, Saudi Aramco said it has reached an agreement to acquire a $1.25 billion stake in South Korean refiner Hyundai Oilbank that would provide Saudi Arabia's state-run oil company with a dedicated outlet for its crude to South Korea.
    (AP, 4/15/19)
2019        Apr 15, A leaked intelligence report published by investigative website Disclose showed that French arms including tanks and laser-guided missile systems sold to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are being used in the Yemeni war against civilians. The report was written by France's DRM military intelligence agency.
    (Reuters, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 16, President Donald Trump vetoed a Congressional resolution directing him to end support for the Saudi-led war in Yemen.
    (AFP, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 17, Two Saudi sisters, Maha al-Subaie (28) and Wafa al-Subaie (25), appealed for help from the former Soviet republic of Georgia after fleeing their country. They said their father and brothers have arrived in Georgia looking for them.
    (AP, 4/17/19)
2019        Apr 17, Iraqi PM Adel Abdul Mahdi made his first visit to Saudi Arabia since taking office six months ago, meeting King Salman during the stop on a regional tour that has also seen visits to Cairo and Tehran in recent weeks.
    (AP, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 18, Officials said Saudi Arabia and the UAE have sent 95 tons of humanitarian aid to their rival Iran as it reels from deadly floods, after Tehran complained US sanctions were obstructing relief.
    (AFP, 4/18/19)

2019        Apr 20, The Saudi-led coalition launched an air raid on a cave in the Yemeni capital Sanaa, used by Huthi rebels to stockpile drones.
    (AFP, 4/20/19)
2019        Apr 20, Iraqi Parliament Speaker Mohamed al-Halbousi led a one-day summit between Iraq and its six neighbors: Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Jordan, and Kuwait, in an effort to bridge relations and invest in Iraq.
    (AP, 4/20/19)

2019        Apr 21, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates announced three billion dollars (2.7 billion euros) in financial support for Sudan following the overthrow of longtime leader Omar al-Bashir.
    (AFP, 4/21/19)
2019        Apr 21, In Saudi Arabia four gunmen were killed and three security officers were wounded in an attack on a security building in Zulfi north of Riyadh. The assault was soon claimed by the jihadist Islamic State group. Saudi authorities arrested 13 "terrorist" suspects the next day.
    (AP, 4/21/19)(AFP, 4/23/19)
2019        Apr 21, Pakistani PM Imran Khan began his first official visit to Iran for talks set to focus on strengthening ties and countering terrorism.
    (AFP, 4/21/19)

2019        Apr 22, Saudi Arabia said it had arrested 13 individuals in connection with planning attacks in the kingdom, a day after security forces said they had thwarted an attack north of the capital. Four alleged Islamic State militants were killed in that attack.
    (Reuters, 4/22/19)

2019        Apr 23, Saudi Arabia executed 37 of its citizens convicted of terrorism, three years after another mass execution that ultimately led to a break in relations with Iran.
    (AFP, 4/23/19)

2019        Apr 25, The Office of the US Trade Representative said that Alibaba's on-line marketplace Taobao.com continues sell "high volumes" of pirated goods, according to companies that say they've been victimized. It also said that Alibaba has "ineffective" procedures for removing counterfeit products. The trade office also added Saudi Arabia to its yearly "priority watchlist" of countries that don't adequately protect intellectual property.
    (AP, 4/25/19)

2019        Apr, Press freedom group Reporters Without Borders (RSF) took an unprecedented 3-day mission to Saudi Arabia to advocate for the release of 30 jailed journalists in the aftermath of the killing of Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi. The mission was kept confidential until July 10 because the possibility of pardons had been discussed.
    (AP, 7/10/19)

2019        May 9, A French human rights group sought to block the loading of weapons onto a Saudi Arabian vessel that is due to dock in northern France later in the day, arguing the cargo contravened an international arms treaty.
    (Reuters, 5/09/19)

2019        May 10, A Saudi vessel that had been due to load arms in France left the country's Le Havre port without its cargo of weapons and sailed towards Santander in Spain.
    (Reuters, 5/10/19)

2019        May 11, Saudi Arabia's security forces killed eight alleged terrorists in a shootout in the predominantly Shiite eastern region of Qatif.
    (AP, 5/12/19)

2019        May 12, The UAE said that four commercial vessels were sabotaged near Fujairah emirate, one of the world's largest bunkering hubs lying just outside the Strait of Hormuz, but did not describe the nature of the attack or say who was behind it. Two Saudi oil tankers were targeted in the attack.
    (Reuters, 5/13/19)

2019        May 13, Arab activist Iyad el-Baghdadi, living in Norway, said he's been given protection by two different Norwegian entities after the CIA informed officials of an unspecified threat against him, which he said is likely linked to his research on Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/13/19)

2019        May 14, Saudi Arabia said armed drones had struck two oil pumping stations in the kingdom in what it called a "cowardly" act of terrorism two days after Saudi oil tankers were sabotaged off the coast of the United Arab Emirates. Houthi-run Masirah TV earlier said the group had launched drone attacks on "vital" Saudi installations in response to "continued aggression and blockade" on Yemen.
    (Reuters, 5/14/19)

2019        May 16, Saudi Arabia's deputy defense minister accused Iran of ordering an attack on Saudi oil pumping stations that Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi militia has claimed responsibility for.
    (Reuters, 5/16/19)
2019        May 16, The Saudi-led military coalition in Yemen carried out several air strikes on the Houthi-held capital Sanaa after the Iranian-aligned movement claimed responsibility for drone attacks on Saudi oil installations. The Houthi health ministry said six civilians, including four children, had been killed and 52 wounded, including two Russian women working in the health sector.
    (Reuters, 5/16/19)

2019        May 18, Saudi Arabia called for urgent meetings of the regional Gulf Cooperation Council and the Arab League to discuss escalating tensions in the region. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) began "enhanced security patrols" in the international waters of the Arabian Gulf area.
    (AFP, 5/19/19)(Reuters, 5/19/19)

2019        May 19, Saudi Arabia called for emergency regional talks to discuss mounting Gulf tensions, saying that it does not want war with Iran but is ready to defend itself.
    (AFP, 5/19/19)
2019        May 19, Saudi Arabia announced that it has deposited $250 million in Sudan's central bank as part of a support package for the country following the overthrow of longtime leader Omar al-Bashir.
    (AFP, 5/19/19)

2019        May 21, Yemen’s Houthis, who claimed responsibility for last week's armed drone strikes on oil assets in Saudi Arabia, said that one of their drones hit an arms depot at the kingdom's Najran airport near the Yemeni border, causing a fire.
    (Reuters, 5/21/19)

2019        May 24, US Pres. Donald Trump, declaring a national emergency because of tensions with Iran, swept aside objections from Congress to complete the sale of $8.1 billion worth of weapons to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Jordan, citing a threat from Iran, infuriating lawmakers who fear the weapons could kill civilians in Yemen. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo had pushed the sales to Saudi Arabia of munitions, mostly made by Raytheon, despite a two-year bipartisan congressional hold on the proposed transfer of the arms, comprising 22 packages. Mr. Pompeo did that by declaring an “emergency" over Iran’s activities in the region. In August, 2020, the US State Dept. of the Inspector General concluded that Pompeo had the legal authority to declare an emergency and bypass Congress under the Arms Export Control Act.
    (AFP, 5/24/19)(Reuters, 5/25/19)(SFC, 8/12/20, p.A6)

2019        May 26, Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi movement reportedly launched a drone strike on military hangars in Saudi Arabia's Jizan airport near the Yemeni border.
    (Reuters, 5/26/19)

2019        May 29, Al Arabiya TV reported that the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen has started an operation against Houthi targets in the Yemeni province of Dalea.
    (Reuters, 5/29/19)

2019        May 31, Saudi Arabia opened an emergency meeting of Arab leaders in Mecca with a call for the int’l. community to use all means to confront Iran.
    (SFC, 6/1/19, p.A4)

2019        Jun 1, A Saudi-hosted Islamic summit threw its support behind Palestinians ahead of a US-led peace plan suspected to be skewed in favor of Israel, as Muslim states rallied around Saudi Arabia over tensions with Iran. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) meeting, was the third and final Iran-focused summit in the holy city of Mecca this week. Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was notably absent from the summit of the 57-member OIC. The Mecca summit refused all illegal Israeli measures aimed at changing facts in occupied Palestinian territories including Jerusalem, and undermining the two-state solution.
    (AFP, 6/1/19)(Reuters, 6/1/19)

2019        Jun 3, Saudi Arabia's special forces captured Abu Osama Al-Muhajir, the leader of the Islamic State group's branch, in Yemen during a raid on a house that was under surveillance. Also captured were the group's chief financial operator in Yemen and other suspects who were not named.
    (AP, 6/25/19)
2019        Jun 3, It was reported that British petrochemicals maker Ineos is investing $2 billion to build three plants in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 6/3/19)

2019        Jun 4, Muslim Sunni powerhouse Saudi Arabia, as well as Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, announced the first day of Eid, whereas Egypt, Syria, Jordan, the Palestinian territories and others said the Shawwal crescent moon was not visible across the country and won't start till tomorrow.
    (AP, 6/4/19)
2019        Jun 4, A French government report said France's weapons sales to Saudi Arabia rose 50 pct. in 2018 despite the government calling for an end to the "dirty war" in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 6/4/19)

2019        Jun 5, US senators across the political spectrum moved to block President Donald Trump's plan to sell $8.1 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia and other Arab allies as lawmakers' frustration with the kingdom soars.
    (AFP, 6/5/19)

2019        Jun 12, A Yemeni rebel missile attack on an airport in southwestern Saudi Arabia wounded 26 civilians, drawing promises of "stern action" from the Saudi-led coalition fighting the rebels.
    (AFP, 6/12/19)

2019        Jun 13, In Yemen planes from the Saudi-led military coalition bombed areas around the capital Sanaa.
    (Reuters, 6/13/19)

2019        Jun 14, Saudi forces intercepted five drones launched by Iran-aligned Yemeni rebels, in a second assault on an airport in the kingdom's southwest in two days.
    (AFP, 6/14/19)

2019        Jun 15, Yemen's Houthi rebels launched a new drone attack against Saudi Arabia. The next day the kingdom said it shot down one Houthi drone.
    (AP, 6/15/19)

2019        Jun 16, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman joined the US in accusing its bitter rival Iran of being behind the attacks on two oil tankers traveling near the Strait of Hormuz, a vital trade route for Arabian energy exports to Asia.
    (AP, 6/16/19)

2019        Jun 19, An independent UN report into the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi said there is "credible evidence" to warrant further investigation into the possible role of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, and suggested sanctions on his personal assets.
    (AP, 6/19/19)
2019        Jun 19, A Yemeni rebel strike targeted a desalination plant in the southwestern Saudi province of Jizan. No casualties or damages were reported.
    (AFP, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 20, A British court ruled that Britain broke the law by allowing arms sales to Saudi Arabia that might have been used in Yemen's war, after activists said there was a clear risk the weapons could be operated in violation of human rights legislation. Britain temporarily suspended approving new Saudi arms export licenses that might contribute to the Gulf kingdom's four-year bombing campaign in neighboring Yemen. International Trade Minister Liam Fox said he disagreed with the judgment and would seek permission to appeal.
    (Reuters, 6/20/19)(AFP, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 23, A Yemeni rebel attack on the Abha airport civilian airport in southern Saudi Arabia killed a Syrian national and wounded 21 other civilians.
    (AFP, 6/24/19)

2019        Jun 25, Hatice Cengiz, the Turkish fiancee of slain journalist Jamal Khashoggi, took her campaign for justice in his killing to the United Nations' top human rights body and urged the UN to take "the next step" following a key investigator's finding that Saudi Arabia bears responsibility.
    (AP, 6/25/19)

2019        Jun 26, South Korean President Moon Jae-in met with visiting Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, who promised to help with possible fuel shortages in case of supply disruptions caused by tensions in the Middle East. South Korea and Saudi Arabia signed an $8.3 billion economic co-operation pact during Salman's first visit to Seoul.
    (AP, 6/26/19)(AFP, 6/26/19)

2019        Jun 28, In Yemen airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition fighting rebels hit a house in the southwestern province of Taiz, killing at least seven people from one family.
    (AP, 6/29/19)

2019        Jun 29, Saudi Arabia intercepted two Yemeni rebel drones. The first drone targeted the province of Jizan and the second was aimed at a residential area in Asir province.
    (AFP, 6/29/19)

2019        Jun 30, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe praised Saudi Arabia's efforts to reduce its dependence on oil and promised Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman that Japan will help the kingdom with a sweeping reform plan.
    (Reuters, 6/30/19)

2019        Jul 1, A Saudi-led military coalition said it had intercepted a drone launched by Yemen's Houthi group that was heading toward the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 7/1/19)

2019        Jul 2, A Yemeni rebel attack on the civilian Abha airport.in southern Saudi Arabia wounded nine civilians.
    (AFP, 7/2/19)

2019        Jul 6, The Saudi-led coalition at war in Yemen said its forces intercepted drones fired by Yemeni rebels at the kingdom.
    (AP, 7/6/19)

2019        Jul 15, A delegation of three former Lebanese premiers asked Saudi Arabia for financial assistance to help shore up their country’s deteriorating finances ahead of a probable shift toward austerity.
    (Bloomberg, 7/17/19)

2019        Jul 16, The Saudi military said it has intercepted three drones launched at Saudi cities near Yemen's border. Another drone was intercepted the following day launched the kingdom's southern border by Iranian-backed rebels in Yemen.
    (AP, 7/17/19)

2019        Jul 19, Officials say the US is sending several hundred troops as well as aircraft and air defense missiles to Saudi Arabia to counter Iran.
    (AP, 7/19/19)

2019        Jul 23, Saudi Arabia's cabinet said that Iran's interception of commercial vessels in Gulf waters, including its seizure of a British tanker, violated international law and must be prevented.
    (Reuters, 7/23/19)

2019        Jul 24, The Saudi foreign ministry informed the Congo's embassy in Riyadh that it has stopped issuing visas to people from Congo, citing the Ebola outbreak there, even as the World Health Organization recommends against travel restrictions.
    (AP, 7/26/19)
2019        Jul 24, Pres. Donald Trump vetoed three congressional resolutions to block the billion-dollar sales of weapons to key allies Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
    (The Independent, 7/25/19)

2019        Jul 29, The US Senate failed in a bid to override a trio of vetoes issued by President Donald Trump, allowing the administration to move forward with plans to sell billions of dollars of weapons to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 7/29/19)

2019        Aug 2, Saudi Arabia published new laws that loosen restrictions on women by allowing all citizens — women and men alike — to apply for a passport and travel freely, ending a long-standing guardianship policy that had controlled women's freedom of movement. The new laws are to go into effect by the end of the month.
    (AP, 8/2/19)

2019        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates state media said their countries are providing Sudan 540,000 tons of wheat to support the country whose president was ousted earlier this year.
    (Reuters, 8/7/19)

2019        Aug 9, More than 2 million pilgrims were gathered in the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to perform initial rites of the hajj, an Islamic pilgrimage that takes the faithful along a path traversed by the Prophet Muhammad some 1,400 years ago.
    (AP, 8/9/19)

2019        Aug 10, In Saudi Arabia more than 2 million Muslims gathered at the sacred hill of Mount Arafat for an intense day of worship and reflection on what's considered the climax of the Islamic hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 8/10/19)

2019        Aug 11, Around 2.5 million pilgrims took part in a symbolic stoning of the devil, marking the final days of the hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia and the start of the Eid al-Adha celebrations for Muslims around the world.
    (AP, 8/11/19)
2019        Aug 11, Saudi state TV reported that the separatists in Yemen had heeded calls for an immediate cease-fire and begun withdrawing from all positions seized in recent days. The coalition said it struck an area of Aden considered a "direct threat" to the government. Yemen’s southern separatists denied claims by the Saudi-led coalition that they were withdrawing from areas captured from the internationally recognized government in the port city of Aden.
    (AP, 8/11/19)(Bloomberg, 8/11/19)

2019        Aug 12, Saudi Arabia’s Aramco oil company, the world’s most profitable company, held an earnings call, its first interaction with public investors. India-based Reliance industries said Aramco would pay $15 billion or so for a 20% stake in its refining and petrochemicals business.
    (Econ, 8/17/19, p.48)

2019        Aug 15, A joint Saudi-Emirati military delegation travelled to Aden to discuss demands for a pullout of UAE-backed southern separatists from positions they captured in Yemen's interim capital.
    (AFP, 8/15/19)

2019        Aug 16, Yemen's Houthis launched more drone attacks on Saudi Arabia's Abha international airport. The attacks reportedly halted air traffic at the airport.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)

2019        Aug 17, In eastern Saudi Arabia a drone attack launched by Yemen's Houthi group on the Shaybah oil field caused a limited fire at a gas plant but had no impact on oil production.
    (Reuters, 8/17/19)

2019        Aug 21, Human Rights Watch said the Saudi-led coalition carried out at least five deadly attacks on Yemeni fishing boats in 2018, killing at least 47 fisherman including seven children.
    (SFC, 8/22/19, p.A6)

2019        Aug 25, A Saudi-led military coalition fighting the Houthis in Yemen downed a drone that the Iran-aligned group has said they launched in the direction of a Saudi airbase. Saudi Arabia intercepted six missiles fired by Yemeni rebels at the southern city of Jizan, as the insurgents escalated cross-border attacks.
    (Reuters, 8/25/19)(AFP, 8/25/19)

2019        Aug 26, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates pledged to keep their floundering coalition war against Yemen's Houthi rebels together after an Emirati troop pullout and the rise of the southern separatists they supported.
    (AP, 8/26/19)

2019        Aug 30, Saudi King Salman issued a number of royal decrees, including creating a new ministry for natural resources separate from the energy ministry that oversees the kingdom's vast oil resources.
    (AP, 8/30/19)

2019        Sep 1, In Yemen more than 100 people were killed in an air strike by the Saudi-led military coalition on a detention center in the city of Dhamar. There were around 170 detainees at the facility when the airstrikes hit.
    (AP, 9/2/19)

2019        Sep 3, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has deployed more troops in southern Yemen to try to contain clashes between nominal allies in the Saudi-led military coalition fighting the Houthis that risk further fragmenting the country.
    (Reuters, 9/3/19)

2019        Sep 4, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates sent their top diplomats to Pakistan to help Islamabad defuse tensions with India over the disputed Kashmir region.
    (AP, 9/4/19)
2019        Sep 4, A Yemeni official said government officials have begun indirect talks with United Arab Emirates-backed southern separatists in the Saudi Red Sea city of Jeddah to end fighting in Aden and other southern provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/4/19)

2019        Sep 8, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates called for an end to fighting in southern Yemen between forces loyal to the internationally recognized government and UAE-backed separatists.
    (AP, 9/8/19)
2019        Sep 8, Saudi Arabia's king appointed his son, Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman, as energy minister, replacing Khalid al-Falih and for the first time handing the portfolio in the world's top oil exporter to a member of the royal family.
    (Reuters, 9/8/19)

2019        Sep 9, Saudi Arabia said it wants to enrich uranium for its nuclear power program, potentially complicating talks with Washington on an atomic pact and the role of US companies.
    (Reuters, 9/9/19)
2019        Sep 9, Germany said it will resume training border police in Saudi Arabia, after suspending the practice following the killing last year of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AP, 9/9/19)

2019        Sep 12, A French court found Princess Hessa bint Salman, the only daughter of Saudi Arabia's King Salman, guilty of complicity in violence for ordering her bodyguard to detain and strike a plumber in 2016 for taking photos at the Saudi royal family's apartment in Paris. The court also found the bodyguard, Rani Saida, guilty on charges of violence, sequestration and theft.
    (AP, 9/12/19)
2019        Sep 12, The US said that it will disclose the name of a Saudi citizen sought by lawyers for victims of the Sept. 11 attacks who want to link the kingdom to the terrorist plot. Justice Department lawyers said in a court filing that the FBI will make the name available to a limited circle of people that includes lawyers for survivors and victims' relatives as well as to attorneys for the Saudi government.
    (AP, 9/13/19)

2019        Sep 14, Saudi Arabia's oil production and exports were disrupted after drone attacks on two Aramco plants, including the world's biggest oil processing facility.
    (Reuters, 9/14/19)
2019        Sep 14, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo accused Iran of leading attacks on Saudi oil plants that have cut the kingdom's output roughly in half, as he ruled out Yemeni involvement and denounced Tehran for engaging in false diplomacy. Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi group claimed credit for the attacks on two plants at the heart of Saudi Arabia's oil industry, including the world's biggest petroleum processing facility.
    (AP, 9/14/19)

2019        Sep 15, President Donald Trump said the US is "locked and loaded" to respond to a weekend drone assault on Saudi Arabia's energy infrastructure that his aides blamed on Iran. The attack on Saudi Arabia triggered the biggest surge in oil prices since 1991.
    (AP, 9/16/19)(Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 16, UN aid chief Mark Lowcock said Saudi Arabia plans to pay $500 million next week of a pledge it made in February to help fund a humanitarian response in Yemen, which the world body has described as the world's worst aid crisis.
    (Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin discussed weekend attacks on Saudi Aramco's oil infrastructure by phone with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in Moscow.
    (AP, 9/18/19)
2019        Sep 18, In Yemen an explosion targeting a government military convoy killed at least six Yemeni troops and one Saudi Arabian officer in the eastern Hadramawt province. 13 people, many of them Saudi soldiers, were wounded.
    (AP, 9/19/19)

2019        Sep 19, Former Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (83) died in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The autocrat had led his small North African country for 23 years before being toppled by nationwide protests that unleashed revolt across the Arab world.
    (AP, 9/19/19)

2019        Sep 20, The Pentagon announced it will deploy additional US troops and missile defense equipment to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, as Pres. Donald Trump has at least for now put off any immediate military strike on Iran in response to the attack on the Saudi oil industry.
    (AP, 9/21/19)
2019        Sep 20, The leader of the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah called for Saudi Arabia to stop its war in Yemen, or else face more attacks on its soil.
    (AP, 9/20/19)
2019        Sep 20, Yemen's Huthi rebels accused Saudi Arabia and its allies of endangering a fragile truce around Hodeida with strikes on four rebel targets north of the key aid port. Houthi rebels said late today that they were halting drone and missile attacks against Saudi Arabia, one week after they claimed responsibility for a strike that crippled a key oil facility in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 9/20/19)    (AP, 9/20/19)

2019        Sep 23, Two dozen mainly European countries voiced concern at alleged torture, unlawful detentions and unfair trials of critics, including women activists and journalists, in Saudi Arabia. This was the second joint statement criticizing the kingdom read out at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva in six months.
    (AP, 9/23/19)
2019        Sep 23, Yemen's rebels and tribal leaders said an airstrike early today by the Saudi-led coalition killed at least seven people including children, when it hit a mosque in the northwestern Amran province.
    (AP, 9/23/19)

2019        Sep 24, Saudi Arabia's cabinet renewed the kingdom's call for the international community "to put a limit" to what it described as Iran's aggressive behavior and "sabotage acts".
    (Reuters, 9/24/19)
2019        Sep 24, Yemeni tribal leaders said airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition killed at least 11 civilians including children, when they hit a residential building earlier today in southern Dhale province.
    (AP, 9/24/19)

2019        Sep 27, Saudi Arabia said it has agreed to a limited cease-fire in several areas of Yemen including the capital Sana’a, which is controlled by Iranian-backed Houthi rebels, as part of broader efforts to end a four-year conflict that has threatened to escalate into regional war.
    (AP, 9/27/19)
2019        Sep 27, Saudi Arabia said it will offer tourist visas for the first time, opening up the ultra-conservative kingdom to holidaymakers as part of a push to diversify its economy away from oil.
    (AFP, 9/27/19)

2019        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia said it would issue fines for 19 offences related to public decency, such as immodest dress and public displays of affection, as the Muslim kingdom opens up to foreign tourists.
    (Reuters, 9/28/19)
2019        Sep 28, Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi group said it had carried out an attack near the border with the southern Saudi region of Najran, but was no immediate confirmation from Saudi Arabian authorities. Houthi rebels said they captured many Saudi soldiers and officers in a large operation near the border between the two countries, shortly after the kingdom agreed to a limited ceasefire with the Iranian-backed group.
    (Reuters, 9/28/19)(Bloomberg, 9/28/19)

2019        Sep, Oman-mediated talks between Saudi Arabia and Yemen’s Iran-backed rebels began after a Houthi-claimed drone struck a key crude processing plant in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/13/19)

2019        Oct 6, The Saudi Commission for Tourism & National Heritage posted the new requirements on Twitter, confirming an Oct. 4 report by the Saudi daily Okaz. New guidelines allowed women to rent hotel rooms without a male guardian's presence, and foreign men and women to share a room without proof of marriage.
    (AP, 10/6/19)

2019        Oct 11, The Pentagon announced it was bolstering US forces in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh asked for reinforcements following the September 14 drone-and-missile attack on Saudi oil plants which Washington blames on Iran.
    (AFP, 10/11/19)

2019        Oct 13, Saudi Arabia launched a new logistics zone open to private investors in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah, as part of a wider industrial initiative to diversify the economy away from oil and create jobs for Saudis.
    (Reuters, 10/13/19)

2019        Oct 14, Saudi Arabia and Russia signed a key deal to bolster cooperation among the world's oil giants. Visiting President Vladimir Putin and Saudi King Salman, penned a string of multi-million-dollar investment contracts targeting the aerospace, culture, health, advanced technology and agriculture sectors.
    (AFP, 10/14/19)

2019        Oct 15,  Yemeni officials said Saudi Arabian troops have taken control of the airport and ports in the interim capital Aden from separatists backed by the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 10/15/19)

2019        Oct 16, Several families of Palestinians detainees imprisoned by Saudi Arabia held a rare protest in Gaza, calling on the kingdom to free them. Hamas officials said Saudi authorities intensified a crackdown on the Islamist group's supporters in the kingdom this year, rounding up dozens of Palestinian doctors, engineers and traders across the country.
    (AP, 10/16/19)
2019        Oct 16, In Saudi Arabia 35 pilgrims were killed in a bus crash near the city of Mecca.
    (AP, 10/17/19)

2019        Oct 26, Sources said a preliminary deal between Yemen's Saudi-backed government and southern separatists to end a power struggle in Aden will see the separatists included in a new technocrat cabinet and both sides' forces placed under government control.
    (Reuters, 10/26/19)

2019        Nov 3, Saudi Arabia's giant state oil company finally kick-started its initial public offering (IPO), announcing its intention to float on the domestic bourse in what could be the world's biggest listing as the kingdom seeks to diversify its economy away from oil.
    (Reuters, 11/3/19)

2019        Nov 5, Yemen's internationally recognized government signed a power-sharing deal in Riyadh with Yemeni separatists that are backed by the United Arab Emirates. The deal envisages a new Cabinet and allows for Pres. Hadi to return to the temporary capital in Aden.
    (AP, 11/5/19)

2019        Nov 6, The Washington Post reported that US federal prosecutors have charged two former Twitter employees with spying on behalf of the Saudi Arabian government. Beginning in 2015 the former employees snooped on the accounts of people who were critical of Saudi Arabia.
    (Business Insider, 11/7/19)
2019        Nov 6, US federal prosecutors said that three Saudi nationals were charged in Southern California with violating federal export laws by buying $100,000 worth of gun parts in the US while on student visas and smuggling them to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/7/19)

2019        Nov 9, Saudi state oil giant Aramco unveiled the prospectus for its initial public offering (IPO), laying out the main material risks that may adversely affect the company's business or its financial position.
    (Reuters, 11/10/19)

2019        Nov 11, In Saudi Arabia two men and a woman were wounded in a knife attack this evening as they performed on stage in a park in Riyadh, marking the first such incident since the kingdom began loosening restrictions on entertainment. Police detained a 33-year-old Yemeni male resident of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/11/19)

2019        Nov 12, Saudi state run television said a Saudi court has convicted 38 people of financing terrorism and declaring other Muslims non-believers, handing out sentences ranging from 30 months to 25 years.
    (Reuters, 11/12/19)

2019        Nov 13, An attack on the Saudi-Yemen border by Yemeni rebels killed six members of a Sudanese paramilitary force that’s been fighting in Yemen.
    (AP, 11/16/19)   

2019        Nov 14, It was reported that Saudi Arabia is intensifying informal talks with the Iran-aligned Houthi movement on a ceasefire in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 11/14/19)

2019        Nov 17, Saudi Aramco is worth up to $1.7 trillion at the price range set by the oil giant, below the $2 trillion sought by Saudi's crown prince but putting it in the running to become the world's biggest IPO.
    (Reuters, 11/17/19)
2019        Nov 17, Yemen's Houthi rebels seized a Saudi vessel while it was towing a South Korean drilling rig. Rebels said in a statement that they had seized three vessels including, a Saudi one, allegedly for entering Yemeni waters. The ships were returned on Nov. 20.
    (AP, 11/18/19)(AP, 11/20/19)

2019        Nov 20, The Saudi-led coalition battling the Houthis in Yemen confirmed the return of the impounded ships.
    (AP, 11/20/19)

2019        Nov 25, Retail subscription for Saudi Aramco's initial public offering (IPO) reached 21.77 billion Saudi riyals ($5.8 billion). The last day of subscription for the retail tranche of the share sale is Nov. 28. Aramco launched the IPO on Nov. 3. Aramco said it plans to sell 1.5% of the company, or about 3 billion shares, at an indicative price range of 30 riyals to 32 riyals, valuing the IPO at as much as 96 billion riyals ($25.6 billion) and giving the company a potential market value of between $1.6 trillion and $1.7 trillion.
    (Reuters, 11/25/19)

2019        Nov 26, A Saudi-led military coalition said it will release 200 Yemeni rebels and permit some flights from the insurgent-held capital Sanaa, as efforts to end the nearly five-year conflict gain momentum.
    (AFP, 11/26/19)

2019        Nov 27, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has detained at least eight intellectuals and former bloggers in a fresh wave of arrests targeting people with links to reformers.
    (SFC, 11/27/19, p.A2)

2019        Dec 3, Agnes Callamard, the UN rapporteur for extrajudicial executions, said the world has not done enough to ensure justice is done over the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2019        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia and Russia spearheaded a deal in which OPEC and its allies committed to some of the deepest oil output cuts this decade aiming to avert oversupply and support prices.
    (Reuters, 12/6/19)
2019        Dec 6, In Florida a shooter opened fire at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola in an attack that left four people dead including the assailant, and multiple people injured. The gunfire prompted a massive law enforcement response to the base, which was locked down. The shooter as soon identified as aviation student Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani, a second lieutenant in the Saudi Air Force. The New York Times later reported that six other Saudi nationals were being questioned by investigators in Florida, three of whom were seen filming the incident.
    (Reuters, 12/6/19)(Reuters, 12/7/19)

2019        Dec 8, Saudi authorities said restaurants in Saudi Arabia will no longer need to maintain entrances segregated by sex, further eroding some of the world's strictest social rules as sweeping reforms take hold.
    (Reuters, 12/8/19)

2019        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia a summit of Arab Gulf nations opened in Riyadh without Qatar’s ruler in attendance, despite signs of a thaw in a diplomatic crisis that has gripped the regions US allies. Qatar's PM Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser Al Thani attended the annual Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
    (AP, 12/10/19)    Reuters, 12/10/19)
2019        Dec 10, In Spain a global assessment at UN climate talks of countries' emissions trajectories said the United States and Saudi Arabia are among major polluters showing "hardly any signs" of reducing their greenhouse gas production.
    (AFP, 12/10/19)
2019        Dec 10, Spanish arms control groups staged a protest against the presence of a Saudi cargo ship they suspect is carrying weapons for use in Yemen.
    (AP, 12/10/19)
2019        Dec 10, The United States barred from entering the country Mohammed al Otaibi, the former Saudi consul general in Istanbul in October 2018, when Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed there.
    (Reuters, 12/10/19)

2019        Dec 11, Saudi Aramco shares surged the maximum permitted 10% above their IPO price to $9.39 per share on their Riyadh stock market debut, in a move hailed by the government as a vindication of its towering $2 trillion valuation of the state oil company.
    (Reuters, 12/11/19)(SFC, 12/12/19, p.D3)

2019        Dec 12, In Saudi Arabia a fire broke out at a prison in Riyadh. Three inmates were killed and 21 others injured 21.
    (AP, 12/12/19)

2019        Dec 15, Saudi Aramco shares gained for a third consecutive day, rising 1.63% to 37.4 Saudi riyal ($9.97), pushing the company's value back toward the $2 trillion level it topped last week.
    (Reuters, 12/15/19)

2019        Dec 23, A Saudi court sentenced five people to death for the murder of government critic Jamal Khashoggi, but ruled that last year’s assassination wasn’t premeditated and said it didn’t have enough evidence to incriminate two top officials close to Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Three out of 11 who stood trial for the murder at the kingdom’s consulate in Istanbul were given a total of 24-year prison terms.
    (Bloomberg, 12/23/19)

2019        Dec 24, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia said they are ending a long-running dispute over an oil-rich strip of land between the two countries. The move will allow as much as 500,000 barrels of crude per day to return to the world market. Shared fields in the neutral zone were shut down in 2015 following a feud over land use and environmental issues.
    (SFC, 12/25/19, p.D4)

2019        Dec 25, In Saudi Arabia Ahmed Abdullah Saeed Suwaid and Abdullah Hussain Saeed al-Nimr were shot and killed in the eastern city of Dammam. Authorities later said had been planning an attack and were in possession of explosives that could have been used to deploy a car bomb.
    (AP, 12/30/19)

2019        Dec 29, Saudi state media reported that a court has ruled that a Yemeni man (33) be executed for attacking and wounding dancers and a security guard during a performance on stage at a park in Riyadh. A second suspect, who also was not identified, was sentenced to 12.5 years in prison for aiding and abetting the attacker and sending money to al-Qaida in Yemen.
    (AP, 12/29/19)

2019        Saudi Arabia this year executed the highest number of prisoners in recent years. In total, 184 people were executed, including 90 foreign nationals, according to a report by the legal charity Reprieve.
    (ABC News, 1/14/20)

2020        Jan 1, Yemeni rebels released six Saudi prisoners, after the kingdom two months ago released over 100 rebels, known as Houthis.
    (AP, 1/1/20)

2020        Jan 7, It was reported that Saudi Arabia's largest and longest debt saga, fueled by a feud that has split one of its richest families, could be nearing a resolution after a court approved about $14 billion in claims related to the 2009 collapse of two business empires.
    (Reuters, 1/7/20)

2020        Jan 12, State-owned oil company Saudi Aramco said it had exercised its "greenshoe option" to sell an additional 450 million shares, raising the size of its initial public offering (IPO) to a record $29.4 billion.
    (Reuters, 1/12/20)

2020        Jan 13, It was reported that the US is sending 21 Saudi cadets back to Saudi Arabia. Many of the cadets had contact with child pornography and possessed jihadist or anti-American material. This followed the shooting last month in which Saudi 2nd Lt. Mohammed Alshamrani opened fire at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola, Fl., killing three US soldiers before he was killed by a sheriff's deputy.
    (SFC, 1/14/20, p.A5)

2020        Jan 16, President Emmanuel Macron said in a speech to the French military that France has deployed a radar system on the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia to beef up its ally's defenses after missile attacks on the kingdom's oil infrastructure in September.
    (Reuters, 1/17/20)

2020        Jan 17, The Pentagon announced new restrictions and controls on all international military students at American bases, including barring them from having privately owned firearms on base, in response to a shooting by a Saudi trainee in December that killed three sailors in Florida. The Pentagon issued a memo giving the Navy and other military services conditional approval to resume training of Saudi Arabian nationals in the US. It said non-classroom training can resume once the military services have met certain conditions, including implementing a prohibition on the possession — on or off US military property — of privately owned firearms and ammunition by international military students and their families.
    (AP, 1/17/20)(AP, 1/21/20)

2020        Jan 22, It was reported that Saudi Arabia’s de-facto ruler, known as MBS, started a hacking process by sending the Amazon.com Inc. chief Jeff Bezos a WhatsApp message containing hidden malware, which gave the Saudis access to the billionaire’s phone. The message to Bezos in May, 2018, preceded the grisly murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, by five months.
    (Bloomberg, 1/22/20)

2020        Feb 4, In Saudi Arabia the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) caimed another victim, bringing the total to 858.
    (https://tinyurl.com/cgn6qfp)(Econ., 5/2/20, p.65)
2020        Feb 4, The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) said Saudi Arabia has reported an outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N8 bird flu virus on a poultry farm.
    (AP, 2/4/20)

2020        Feb 6, Saudi Arabia barred its citizens and residents of the kingdom from traveling to China amid the new virus outbreak.
    (AP, 2/6/20)
2020        Feb 6, Amnesty International said Saudi Arabia has used a secretive court established to try terrorism cases as "a weapon of repression" to imprison peaceful critics, activists, journalists, clerics and minority Muslim Shiites, including some who were sentenced to death and executed.
    (AP, 2/6/20)

2020        Feb 14, In Yemen a Saudi warplane was shot down over in northern Al-Jawf province while providing air support to government forces fighting the country’s rebels.
    (AFP, 2/15/20)

2020        Feb 15, In Yemen insurgents reported multiple coalition air strikes in the Huthi-controlled area where a Saudi plane went down the previous evening as local residents gathered near the wreckage. The attack in Al-Jawf took the lives of 19 children (eight boys and 11 girls) and injured another 18 (nine boys and another nine girls).
    (AP, 2/15/20)(Reuters, 2/15/20)(AFP, 2/15/20)(AP, 2/18/20)(AFP, 2/20/20)

2020        Feb 16, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia started trial oil production from the jointly-operated Wafra and Khafji oilfields. Trial production from the two fields in the Neutral Zone will increase gradually till it reaches its normal levels.
    (Reuters, 2/16/20)

2020        Feb 22, In Saudi Arabia finance ministers and central bankers of the world's 20 biggest economies (G20) began a 2-day discussion on top global economic challenges in Riyadh, focusing on the growth outlook and new rules to tax global digital companies. Diplomats said the US is against mentioning climate change in the communique of the world's financial leaders.
    (Reuters, 2/22/20)

2020        Feb 23, The Saudi-led coalition said it launched air raids targeting ballistic missile and drone depots in Yemen's capital of the Iran-backed Huthis, two days after the rebels fired missiles into the kingdom.
    (AFP, 2/23/20)
2020        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia finance leaders of the world's top 20 economies wrapped up their two-day meeting in Riyadh, a session that was dominated by growing concern over the widening fallout from the coronavirus outbreak. In a draft G20 communique the finance leaders clung to their upbeat projection of a modest pick-up in global growth despite the outbreak.
    (Reuters, 2/23/20)

2020        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia banned pilgrims from visiting Islam's holiest sites as the number of deaths jumped in neighboring Iran. Japan and Iraq ordered the closure of schools. Saudi Arabia made the unprecedented decision to halt the umrah pilgrimage amid the global outbreak of the coronavirus. The lesser umrah pilgrimage can be performed year-round. Nearly 20 million Muslims undertake the umrah pilgrimage each year, including more than 7 million foreign travelers.
    (AFP, 2/27/20)    (Good Morning America, 2/27/20)

2020        Mar 1, In Saudi Arabia the 2nd Riyadh International Humanitarian Forum opened in Riyadh.
    (PRNewswire, 3/1/20)

2020        Mar 2, Saudi Arabia confirmed its first case of coronavirus after one its citizens who had returned from COVID-19 hotspot Iran tested positive.
    (AFP, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 4, Saudi Arabia banned its citizens and other residents of the kingdom from performing the pilgrimage in Mecca due to the coronavirus. Saudi Arabia said its second coronavirus case for a Saudi national came from Iran through Bahrain.
    (AP, 3/4/20)(Reuters, 3/4/20)

2020        Mar 7, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has detained three senior Saudi princes including Prince Ahmed bin Abdulaziz, the younger brother of King Salman, and Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, the king's nephew, for allegedly planning a coup.
    (AP, 3/7/20)

2020        Mar 8, Saudi Arabia said it has imposed a temporary lockdown on the eastern Qatif province, an oil-producing region and home to a large Shi'ite Muslim population, to prevent the spread of coronavirus after 11 people there were infected.
    (AP, 3/8/20)

2020        Mar 9, Crude oil prices tumbled by as much as a third after Saudi Arabia launched a price war with Russia, sending investors already spooked by the coronavirus outbreak fleeing for the safety of bonds and the Japanese yen.
    (Reuters, 3/9/20)
2020        Mar 9, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said it has detected five new cases, bringing the total to 20.
    (Reuters, 3/10/20)
2020        Mar 9, Hamas criticized the secretive criminal trials in Saudi Arabia of dozens of members and supporters of the militant Palestinian group.
    {Palestine, Saudi Arabia}
    (AP, 3/9/20)

2020        Mar 13, Saudi Arabia detected 17 new coronavirus cases, 11 of whom were Egyptians.
    (Reuters, 3/13/20)

2020        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said it would halt all flights to the kingdom for two weeks beginning March 15.
    (AP, 3/14/20)

2020        Mar 18, Saudi Arabia suspended work in most of the private sector for 15 days and directed businesses to implement work-from-home policies due to the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 3/18/20)

2020        Mar 19, Saudi Arabia said the government will cut spending by 5%, or about $13.3 billion, to offset the impact of plunging oil prices and the effects of the new coronavirus on its economic outlook and deficit. The kingdom has reported a total of 238 coronavirus cases identified so far.
    (AP, 3/19/20)

2020        Mar 21, Saudi Arabia announced 48 new coronavirus cases, bringing the total to 392, with five of the new infections being healthcare workers in Riyadh.
    (Good Morning America, 3/22/20)

2020        Mar 23, Saudi Arabia announced overnight that an evening curfew would go into effect starting today from 7 p.m. to 6 a.m. for 21 days.
    (AP, 3/23/20)

2020        Mar 25, Human Rights Watch reported that Saudi military forces have committed grave abuses against civilians in an eastern province of Yemen over the past year, including torture, forced disappearances and arbitrary detention.
    (AP, 3/25/20)

2020        Mar 26, Saudi authorities announced a total lockdown on the capital, Riyadh, and Islam's two holiest cities, Mecca and Medina, in addition to a nationwide curfew.
    (AP, 3/26/20)

2020        Mar 28, Saudi air defenses intercepted Yemeni rebel missiles over Riyadh and a city on the Yemen border late today, leaving two civilians wounded in the curfew-locked capital amid efforts to combat coronavirus.
    (AFP, 3/29/20)

2020        Mar 30, Saudi Arabia said it will finance treatment for anyone infected with the coronavirus in the country. The agriculture ministry took steps to boost wheat and livestock supplies amid global fears of a food shortage. The kingdom has registered eight deaths among 1,453 infections.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)
2020        Mar 30, The Saudi-led military coalition launched airstrikes on Yemen's rebel-held capital. More than 12 airstrikes hit rebel-held Sanaa.
    (AP, 3/30/20)

2020        Mar 31, A senior Saudi official urged more than 1 million Muslims intending to perform the hajj to delay making plans this year, comments suggesting the pilgrimage could be cancelled due to the new coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 3/31/20)

2020        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia started the month by boosting its oil supply to more than 12 million barrels a day, the most ever. Riyadh has insisted that it will only back away from a decision to flood the global market if all the world’s leading producers, including the US, agree to cut output.
    (Bloomberg, 4/1/20)

2020        Apr 2, US Pres. Donald Trump in a phone call told Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman that unless the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) started cutting oil production, he would be powerless to stop lawmakers from passing legislation to withdraw US troops from the kingdom. Production cuts were announced ten days later.
    {Saudi Arabia, TrumpD, USA, OPEC, Oil}
    (Reuters, 4/30/20)
2020        Apr 2, Twitter said it has deleted 20,000 fake accounts linked to the governments of Serbia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Honduras and Indonesia, saying they violated company policy and were a “targeted attempt to undermine the public conversation".
    (The Guardian, 4/2/20)

2020        Apr 7, Saudi Arabia has so far reported 2,795 cases and 41 deaths due to the coronavirus, the highest in the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Health Minister Tawfiq al-Rabiah said four studies by infectious disease experts indicated the number of cases was likely to reach between 10,000 and 200,000 in coming weeks. King Salman ordered the temporary release from prison of people serving sentences related to unpaid private debts, and ordered the suspension of all rulings related to such cases in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 4/7/20)(AP, 4/8/20)

2020        Apr 8, Saudi state media said the Saudi king has suspended final rulings and judicial orders on visitation rights of children of separated parents in the latest effort to try and curb the spread of the novel coronavirus among households. Saudi Arabia has more than 2,900 confirmed cases of the virus, including 41 deaths.
    (AP, 4/8/20)
2020        Apr 8, Saudi officials said a cease-fire in Yemen would last for two weeks and that it's in response to UN calls to halt hostilities amid the new coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 9, Saudi Arabia began a cease-fire in the war in Yemen, which could pave the way toward ending the five-year conflict. Separately, as many as 150 members of the Saudi royal family are believed to have contracted the virus.
    (NY Times, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 10, The OPEC oil cartel and other nations including Russia and Mexico agreed to boost oil prices by cutting as much as 10 million barrels a day in production until July, then 8 million barrels per day through the end of the year.
    (SFC, 4/11/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 12, OPEC, Russia and other oil producers agreed to reduce output by 9.7 million barrels a day in May and June, close to 10 percent of the world’s production. Demand for oil is down about 35 percent since the start of the crisis.
    (NY Times, 4/13/20)

2020        Apr 13, The Saudi Ports Authority (Mawani) said it had signed an agreement worth more than 7 billion riyals ($1.9 billion) with Saudi Global Ports (SGP) to build and operate container terminals at a port in Dammam.
    (Reuters, 4/13/20)
2020        Apr 13, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has deported nearly 3,000 Ethiopian migrants in recent days, despite concerns that such operations could hasten the spread of the coronavirus. Ethiopia has reported just 74 cases of COVID-19 and three deaths.
    (AFP, 4/13/20)

2020        Apr 16, Saudi Arabia executed Emad Abdelqawi al-Mansouri (33), a Yemeni man found guilty of attacking a Spanish dance troupe and wounding three people on stage before a stunned audience in the capital last November 11.
    (AP, 4/16/20)

2020        Apr 24, The Saudi-led coalition said it would extend a unilateral a cease-fire with Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi rebels through Ramadan.
    (AP, 4/24/20)
2020        Apr 24, Imprisoned Saudi activist Abdullah al-Hamid died in custody in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. He was a 2018 award recipient of Sweden's “Alternative Nobel".
    (AP, 4/25/20)

2020        Apr 25, Saudi Arabia said it has abolished flogging as a punishment in a reform program launched by the king and his powerful son.
    (The Telegraph, 4/25/20)

2020        Apr 26, Saudi Arabia eased curfews across the country, while keeping 24-hour curfews in the city of Mecca and in neighborhoods previously put in isolation.
    (Reuters, 4/26/20)
2020        Apr 26, It was reported that Saudi Arabia's King Salman has ordered an end to the death penalty for crimes committed by minors.
    (AP, 4/26/20)
2020        Apr 26, The group of 20 rich and emerging economies launched an international initiative to accelerate access to health tools needed to fight the new coronavirus. The finance minister of Saudi Arabia, the current G20 chair, said the group is still working to bridge an estimated $8 billion funding gap to combat the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 4/26/20)

2020        Apr 27, Saudi Arabia's sovereign wealth fund, the Public Investment Fund (PIF), disclosed a 5.7% passive stake in Live Nation Entertainment Inc., an entertainment company that promotes events including ticketing, sponsorship and advertising services.
    (Reuters, 4/27/20)
2020        Apr 27, The Saudi-led military coalition in war-torn Yemen rejected a declaration of self-rule by separatists in the country's south and demanded "an end to any escalatory actions".
    (AFP, 4/27/20)

2020        May 7, An American official said the US is pulling two Patriot missile batteries and some fighter aircraft out of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/7/20)

2020        May 8, Saudi Arabia reported 1,701 new cases, taking the total to 35,432. The kingdom has recorded a daily average of around 1,500 new cases over the past week.
    (Reuters, 5/8/20)

2020        May 11, Saudi Arabia announced it was tripling taxes on basic goods, raising them to 15%, and cutting spending on major projects by around $26 billion as it grapples with blows from the coronavirus pandemic and low oil prices on its economy.
    (AP, 5/11/20)

2020        May 13, Saudi Arabia said it will go into a full lockdown during the days of celebration that follow the Muslim holy fasting month of Ramadan, May 23 – May 27.
    (AP, 5/13/20)
2020        May 13, It was reported that the FBI inadvertently revealed one of the US government’s most sensitive secrets about the 2001 Sept. 11 terror attacks: the identity of a mysterious Saudi Embassy official in Washington who agents suspected had directed crucial support to two of the al-Qaida hijackers.
    (Yahoo News, 5/13/20)

2020        May 14, Saudi Arabia country recorded some 2,000 new coronavirus cases, its highest ever count. The country has so far seen more than 46,000 cases.
    (Business Insider, 5/17/20)
2020        May 14, Facebook and a team of African and global telecom majors said they have struck a deal to build one of the world's largest subsea cable networks, boosting internet availability across three continents. The 2Africa partners included South Africa's MTN GlobalConnect, Mauritius-based infrastructure provider WIOCC, China Mobile International, French telecoms major Orange SA, Saudi Arabia's stc, Telecom Egypt, and Vodafone.
    (Reuters, 5/14/20)

2020        May 16, In Saudi Arabia the number of coronavirus cases topped 50,000. The health ministry reported 2,840 new cases, taking the cumulative total to 51,980. The death toll in the kingdom increased by 10 to 302.
    (Reuters, 5/16/20)

2020        May 22, The family of slain Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi announced they have forgiven his Saudi killers, giving legal reprieve to five government agents who had been sentenced to death for the 2017 operation that cast a cloud of suspicion over the kingdom's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Saudi activists claimed that the family’s decision to pardon Mr Khashoggi was made following intense pressure by the Saudi authorities.
    (AP, 5/22/20)(The Telegraph, 5/22/20)

2020        May 26, In Saudi Arabia a shootout in Azir province, sparked by a dispute between two families, killed six people. The cause of their dispute was unclear.
    (AP, 5/27/20)

2020        May 31, Tens of thousands of mosques across Saudi Arabia reopened for the first time in more than two months, with worshipers ordered to follow strict guidelines to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Islam's holiest site in Mecca remained closed to the public. Saudi Arabia also lifted a ban on domestic air travel and permitted some public sector workers to resume office work again, though full attendance will not be allowed until mid-June.
    (AP, 5/31/20)

2020        Jun 15, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres took the Saudi-led coalition backing Yemen’s government off a global blacklist of parties whose actions have harmed children in conflict, a move that drew immediate protests from human rights groups.
    (AP, 6/15/20)
2020        Jun 15, In northern Yemen an airstrike from the Saudi-led coalition struck a vehicle carrying civilians, killing 13 people, including four children in the Shada area of Saada province.
    (AP, 6/15/20)

2020        Jun 22, Saudi Arabia said it will drastically limit the number of pilgrims to this year’s hajj, with only Saudis and foreign nationals already in the kingdom allowed to take part.
    (NY Times, 6/23/20)
2020        Jun 22, The Saudi-led coalition announced that Emirati-backed southern separatists and the country’s internationally recognized government have agreed to a cease-fire after months of infighting. The agreement aims to close the rift between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, nominal allies in a war against Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi rebels.
    (AP, 6/22/20)
2020        Jun 22, Yemen's Houthi rebels launched ballistic missiles and bomb-laden drones in an attack on Saudi Arabia. All were reportedly destroyed by Saudi air defenses.
    (AP, 6/22/20)

2020        Jun 24, Saudi officials effectively canceled this year’s hajj, one day after restricting the journey to people already in the country. Because of the coronavirus, only about 1,000 people will be permitted to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, compared with the 2.5 million who did so last year.
    (NY Times, 6/24/20)

2020        Jun, Saudi Arabia seized a dhow carrying anti-tank missiles and thousands of assault rifles made in Iran on their way to Yemen via smuggling networks in Somalia.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.47)
2020        Jun, Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil firm, completed its $69.1 billion acquisition of a 70% stake in SABIC, Saudi Arabia's chemicals giant.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SABIC)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.53)

2020        Jul 2, It was reported that dozens of US embassy employees in Saudi Arabia became sick last month, and more than 20 others were quarantined after a birthday barbecue became a potential vector for the spread of the disease. A Sudanese driver for the top diplomats died.
    (NY Times, 7/2/20)
2020        Jul 2, In Yemen the Saudi-led coalition fighting Iran-backed rebels unleashed a new air campaign overnight on the war-torn country's capital and on other provinces, in retaliation for drone attacks on Saudi Arabia that were claimed by the rebels.
    (AP, 7/3/20)

2020        Jul 3, Turkey launched a trial for 20 Saudi officials accused of killing Jamal Khashoggi in October, 2018, with rights groups saying the prosecution offered the best chance for justice for the slain journalist. The next session was scheduled for November 24.
    (The Telegraph, 7/3/20)

2020        Jul 6, Saudi Arabia issued guidelines for about 1,000 pilgrims who will be allowed to perform the hajj pilgrimage in Mecca later this month, an experience that will be unlike any before because of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 7/7/20)
2020        Jul 6, Britain used a new legislation drafted in the memory of a killed Russian tax adviser to sanction 25 Russian nationals linked to prosecution and mistreatment of tax adviser Sergei Magnitsky as well as 20 Saudis involved in the murder of a journalist in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
    (The Telegraph, 7/7/20)

2020        Jul 7, It was reported that a Washington, DC federal court has ordered the Islamic Republic of Iran to pay $879 million in its decision after finding the Iranian defendants directed the 1996 terrorist bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia where US forces were housed.
    (PR Newswire, 7/7/20)
2020        Jul 7, Britain said it would resume arms sales to Saudi Arabia, halted last year after a UK court ruling over the Gulf kingdom's bombing campaign in neighboring Yemen.
    (AFP, 7/7/20)

2020        Jul 2, A US judge ordered Iran to pay another $879.1 million over a 1996 bombing in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 US airmen, ruling again that Tehran bore responsibility.
    (AP, 7/10/20)

2020        Jul 14, The UN's top court (ICJ) backed Qatar in a bitter row with four Middle East nations that imposed an air blockade against Doha after accusing it of backing radical Islamists and Iran. The acrimonious standoff erupted three years ago pitting Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates against Qatar.
    (AFP, 7/14/20)

2020        Jul 15, An airstrike by a Saudi-led coalition killed at least 10 civilians, including six children and two women, in the mountainous northern Yemeni province of Jawf.
    (AP, 7/15/20)

2020        Jul 29, Yemeni separatists said they would give up their dreams of self-administration over southern Yemen to pursue a Riyadh agreement. Saudi Arabia declared early today that it had proposed a plan to “accelerate" implementation of a deal which calls for the creation of a new government within 30 days and the appointment of a new governor and security director for Aden.
    (AP, 7/29/20)

2020        Jul 30, In Saudi Arabia masked pilgrims arrived at Mount Arafat, a desert hill near Islam’s holiest site, to pray and repent on the most important day of the hajj, the annual pilgrimage in Mecca. The number of hajj pilgrims this year was limited to anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000. All of this year's pilgrims are either residents or citizens of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/30/20)

2020        Jul 31, In Saudi Arabia small groups of pilgrims, masked and physically distancing, made their way toward the massive multi-story Jamarat Complex in the Saudi valley area of Mina. There, the pilgrims cast pebbles at three large columns. It is here where Muslims believe the devil tried to talk the Prophet Ibrahim, or Abraham, out of submitting to God’s will. Muslims worldwide marked the start of the Eid al-Adha holiday.
    (AP, 7/31/20)

2020        Aug 6, Saad Aljabri, a former top Saudi intelligence official publicly, filed a lawsuit in a US federal court, accusing Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of sending a team of agents to Canada to kill him in October 2018.
    (NY Times, 8/7/20)

2020        Aug 9, The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), torn apart by internal strife, endorsed an extension of a UN arms embargo on Iran, just two months before it is set to expire.
    (AP, 8/9/20)

2020        Sep 1, Saudi Arabia said Lt. Gen. Fahad bin Turki bin Abdulaziz, its top military commander in its yearslong war in Yemen, and his son, Prince Abdulaziz bin Fahad bin Turki, have been removed from their posts along with other officials as part of an anti-corruption investigation. The kingdom is investigating four other officials as well, all on the orders of 84-year-old King Salman.
    (AP, 9/1/20)

2020        Sep 2, Saudi Arabia announced that flights to and from the United Arab Emirates “from all countries" will now be able to use its airspace — a statement apparently allowing flyovers by Israel following a deal to normalize UAE-Israel relations.
    (AP, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 3, Ethiopia’s government said it is “thankful" to Saudi Arabia for accepting Ethiopian migrants entering the country, but it barely commented on the squalid conditions they face in some Saudi detention centers, after a media report showed migrants crowded in bare rooms pleading for assistance.
    (AP, 9/3/20)

2020        Sep 7, A Saudi court issued final verdicts in the 2018 case of slain Washington Post columnist and Saudi critic Jamal Khashoggi after his son, who still resides in the kingdom, announced pardons that spared five of the convicted individuals from execution. The court ordered a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison for five men. Another individual received a 10-year sentence, and two others were ordered to serve seven years in prison.
    (AP, 9/7/20)

2020        Sep 22, Saudi Arabia said Muslims will be allowed to perform the smaller, year-round pilgrimage starting Oct. 4 as the kingdom gradually begins lifting restrictions that had been in place on Islam's holiest site for the past seven months due to the coronavirus.
    (AP, 9/22/20)

2020        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia’s King Salman (84) made a rare address to the UN General Assembly, using the moment to highlight the foundational notions of his regime — his steadfast commitment to the Palestinians, his stature as custodian of Islam’s holiest sites and his assertion that Iran is responsible for much of the region’s instability.
    (AP, 9/23/20)

2020        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia said its security forces uncovered a “terrorist cell" with alleged ties to Iran's Revolutionary Guard and have detained 10 people in connection.
    (AP, 9/28/20)

2020        Oct 2, Amnesty International said at least three people have died in detention centers housing thousands of Ethiopian migrants in Saudi Arabia. some 2,000 Ethiopians remain stranded on the Yemeni side of the border, without food, water or healthcare.
    (BBC, 10/2/20)

2020        Oct 4, The Saudi government started allowing a maximum of 6,000 pilgrims a day to enter the sprawling Grand Mosque in Mecca. Only Saudi citizens and residents will be permitted to enter the mosque during this first phase of reopening, and each person has up to three hours to complete the pilgrimage.
    (AP, 10/4/20)

2020        Oct 9, It was reported that Saudi Arabia served the Palestinian leadership with a writ of divorce this week and a stinging bill of particulars that explained the break-up. This was delivered by Prince Bandar bin Sultan, the country’s leading elder statesman.
    (Bloomberg, 10/9/20)

2020        Oct 29, In Saudi Arabia a Saudi man stabbed and slightly wounded a guard at the French Consulate in the city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 10/29/20)

2020        Nov 11, In Saudi Arabia three people were wounded when an improvised explosive device targeted a ceremony of French, American, British, Italian and Greek officials commemorating the end of World War I at a cemetery in Jiddah. The Islamic State group soon claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 11/11/20)(AP, 11/12/20)

2020        Nov 14, The western Chinese city of Lanzhou said it had detected the new coronavirus on the packaging of a batch of shrimp imported from Saudi Arabia, as China ramps up testing of frozen foods. The shrimp entered the country on Oct. 21 and reached Lanzhou on Nov. 8. The WHO says the risk of catching COVID-19 from frozen food is low.
    (AP, 11/14/20)

2020        Nov 18, Iraqi officials said the Arar crossing to Saudi Arabia, the main border crossing for trade between the two nations, has been reopened after three decades of closure.
    (AP, 11/18/20)

2020        Nov 21, The G20 summit began virtually, with Saudi Arabia serving as host. The two-day meeting of the world's wealthiest nations focused on the coronavirus pandemic and the economic crisis it has caused.
    (AP, 11/21/20)

2020        Nov 22, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu reportedly made an unprecedented clandestine visit to Saudi Arabia late today, fuelling speculation that the Gulf state might be the next to normalize relations with Tel Aviv.
    (AP, 11/23/20)

2020        Nov 23, In Saudi Arabia a cruise missile attack struck an oil facility in Jeddah. Houthi rebels in Yemen claimed responsibility.
    (The Week, 11/23/20)

2020        Nov 25, A mine in the Red Sea off Saudi Arabia's coast near Yemen exploded and damaged an oil tanker near Shuqaiq.
    (AP, 11/25/20)

2020        Dec 10, Saudi Arabia said it has approved an inoculation by Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech to fight the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 12/10/20)

2020        Dec 13, In Saudi Arabia the Singapore-flagged BW Rhine was hit “by an external source" while discharging refined oil products at Jeddah. The incident did not result in any casualties, and there was no damage caused to the unloading facilities.
    (The Telegraph, 12/14/20)

2020        Dec 20, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Oman said they are closing their borders and suspending commercial flights over fears about a new coronavirus strain.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 21, Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi rebels shot down a Chinese-made, Saudi drone along the border with Saudi Arabia over the Madghal district, Marib province.
    (AP, 12/22/20)

2020        Dec 28, Prominent Saudi Arabian activist Loujain al-Hathloul (31), who campaigned for the right to drive and was arrested in 2018, was sentenced to five years and eight months in jail, despite international criticism of her trial and claims she had been tortured. The court suspended two years and 10 months of her sentence and backdated the start of her term, so she would serve only three more months.
    (The Telegraph, 12/28/20)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.32)

2020        Dec 31, Saudi-led coalition warplanes struck targets in Yemen's Houthi-held capital Sanaa in retaliation for attacks in the southern port city of Aden the previous day that took place as officials in a government backed by Riyadh arrived there.
    (Reuters, 12/31/20)

2020        Saudi Arabia dramatically reduced its use of capital punishment by 85 percent this year after it stopped executing non-violent drug offenders.
    (The Telegraph, 1/18/21)
2020        Ben Hubbard, a New York Times journalist, authored "MBS: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman."
    (Econ, 3/21/20, p.71)

2021        Jan 4, Saudi Arabia opened its land, sea and air borders to Qatar late today, allowing Sheik Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani to attend a regional summit and sign a new “stability and solidarity" agreement.
    (The Telegraph, 1/5/21)

2021        Jan 5, In Saudi Arabia Gulf Arab leaders signed a declaration to mark a new page in relations following the kingdom's decision to end a 3 1/2-year embargo of Qatar, easing a rift that deeply divided regional US security allies and frayed social ties across the interconnected Arabian Peninsula.
    (AP, 1/5/21)
2021        Jan 5, Saudi Arabia, the world's biggest oil exporter, said it would voluntarily reduce its production by 1 million barrels per day (bpd) in February and March, after Russia pushed to increase output, worried about US shale capitalizing on the group's cuts.
    (Reuters, 1/9/21)

2021        Jan 15, The Saudi government said Chinese technology firm Huawei plans to establish a flagship store in Riyadh, the largest such store outside China.
    (Reuters, 1/15/21)

2021        Jan 23, In Saudi Arabia three drones struck the royal palace in Riyadh. It was later reported that they were launched from Iraqi-Saudi border areas by a relatively unknown Iran-backed faction in Iraq, exacerbating regional tensions.
    (AP, 2/25/21)

2021        Jan 27, The US State Department said it is pausing some arms sales to the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia that the Trump administration approved. Democrats have opposed the sales because of the countries’ involvement in Yemen’s civil war.
    (NY Times, 1/27/21)

2021        Jan 29, Italy said it has stopped the sale of missiles to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in an effort to impede their involvement in the war in Yemen, which has left 80 percent of its people in need of emergency aid.
    (The Telegraph, 1/29/21)

2021        Jan 31, Saudi Arabia's health minister said that complacency around coronavirus restrictions had led to a notable increase in daily cases. The kingdom has recorded more than 367,800 cases and 6,370 deaths so far, the highest tally in the region.
    (AP, 1/31/21)

2021        Feb 4, Saudi Arabia closed down all shopping malls, gyms and other locations for 10 days, as well as indoor dining. Authorities warned the new measures could be extended. Gulf Arab states launched new restrictions over fears of the coronavirus resurging across their countries.
    (AP, 2/4/21)
2021        Feb 4, President Biden ordered an end to arms sales and other support to Saudi Arabia for a war in Yemen that he called a “humanitarian and strategic catastrophe" and declared that the United States would no longer be “rolling over in the face of Russia’s aggressive actions".
    (NY Times, 2/4/21)

2021        Feb 10, Saudi activist Loujain al-Hathloul, best known for challenging the ban on women driving, was released after the kingdom had jailed her for nearly three years on charges that Western governments and rights groups roundly dismissed as politically motivated.
    (NY Times, 2/10/21)
2021        Feb 10, Yemen’s Houthi rebels targeted an airport in southwestern Saudi Arabia with bomb-laden drones, causing a civilian plane on the tarmac to catch fire at Abha airport.
    (AP, 2/10/21)

2021        Feb 23, Ahmed Zaki Yamani (90), Saudi Arabia’s powerful oil minister (1962-1986) and architect of the Arab world’s drive to control its own energy resources in the 1970s and its subsequent ability to affect oil production, fuel prices and international affairs, died in London.
    (NY Times, 2/23/21)

2021        Feb 26, United Nations human rights chief Michelle Bachelet, in rare public comments on Saudi Arabia, said that people were unlawfully held in the kingdom and urged it to uphold freedom of expression and the right to peaceful assembly.
    (Reuters, 2/26/21)
2021        Feb 26, Agnes Callamard, the UN human rights expert who led a UN investigation into the 2018 death of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, called on the United States to take the lead in ensuring justice is served for his murder.
    (Reuters, 2/26/21)

2021        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia said it intercepted a missile attack over its capital and bomb-laden drones targeting a southern province, the latest in a series of airborne assaults it has blamed on Yemen’s rebel Houthis.
    (AP, 2/27/21)

2021        Mar 1, Paris-based Reporters Without Borders filed a criminal case against Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and others in the Saudi hierarchy in a German court for the brutal 2018 murder, dismemberment, and disappearance of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AP, 3/2/21)

2021        Mar 4, Yemen's Houthi rebels said they have attacked a Saudi oil facility in the port city of Jiddah using a new Quds-2 cruise missile.
    (SFC, 3/5/21, p.A4)

2021        Mar 7, The Saudi-led coalition fighting Iran-backed rebels in Yemen said that it had launched a new air campaign on the country’s capital and other provinces, in retaliation for missile and drone attacks on Saudi Arabia. The Houthi-run al-Masirah satellite TV channel reported at least seven airstrikes on Sanaa's districts of Attan and al-Nahda.
    (AP, 3/7/21)

2021        Mar 19, In Saudi Arabia a drone attack struck an oil installation in of Riyadh, igniting a blaze at the facility deep in the kingdom's territory. A few hours earlier, Houthi military spokesman Brig. Gen. Yehia Sarie reported the group had fired six drones at an Aramco facility in Riyadh.
    (AP, 3/19/21)

2021        Mar 21, Saudi Arabian state oil giant Aramco reported a steep slide in net profit for 2020 on Sunday and scaled back its spending plans. The company said it is betting on an Asian-led rebound in energy demand this year.
    (Reuters, 3/21/21)

2021        Mar 22, Saudi Arabia proposed a ceasefire deal to Yemen's Houthi rebels in the hopes of halting the country's civil war that has created the world's worst humanitarian crisis.
    (AFP, 3/22/21)
2021        Mar 22, Saudi Arabia’s state-backed oil giant Aramco said it paid the Saudi government 30% less in taxes in 2020. The kingdom on the energy sector for 80% of its exports and two-thirds of its financial revenues.
    (AP, 3/22/21)

2021        Mar 25, In Saudi Arabia a barrage of bomb-carrying drones launched by Houthi rebels struck an oil distribution center in Jizan. Houthis reportedly targeted several Aramco sites 18 drones and 8 ballistic missiles. Rebels also said drones and missiles struck military sites in Asir and Najran provinces.
    (SFC, 3/27/21, p.A3)

2021        Apr 1, The OPEC oil cartel and allied countries said that they have decided to add gradually add back some 2 million barrels per barrel per day of oil production from May to July, moving cautiously in pace with the recovery of the global economy from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (AP, 4/1/21)

2021        Apr 10, Saudi Arabia executed three soldiers it accused of committing “high treason," without elaborating on which enemy the kingdom believed the men aided.
    (AP, 4/10/21)

2021        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia's Jizan University, near the country's border with Yemen, caught fire early today after the kingdom's air defenses intercepted a barrage of ballistic missiles and bomb-laden drones. There were no immediate reports of injuries.
    (AP, 4/15/21)

2021        Apr 20, It was reported that regional rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran held a first round of direct talks earlier this month in Iraq, signaling a possible de-escalation following years of animosity.
    (AP, 4/20/21)

2021        Apr 21, It was reported that Saudi Arabia's daily coronavirus cases have soared to 1,070 infections. Total confirmed cases have reached 407,000 and 6,846 confirmed deaths.
    (SFC, 4/21/21, p.A5)

2021        Apr 23, It was reported that Saudi Arabia will ban Lebanese fruits and vegetables entering the kingdom or passing through it because those shipments have been increasingly used to smuggle drugs. The ban will begin April 25.
    (AP, 4/23/21)

2021        Apr 26, Lebanon called on Saudi Arabia to reconsider its decision to ban Lebanese produce from entering the oil-rich kingdom over a drug smuggling case. Officials vowed to investigate and institute strict new measures.
    (AP, 4/26/21)
2021        Apr 26, Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi movement launched a drone attack early today on a military base in the southern Saudi city of Khamis Mushait.
    (Reuters, 4/26/21)

2021        Apr 27, A remotely piloted boat packed with explosives targeted the Saudi port of Yanbu in the Red Sea, with the blast sending black smoke into the sky off the coast. Saudi Arabia claimed to have intercepted and destroyed the attack boat.
    (AP, 4/27/21)

2021        May 3, Saudi Arabia's King Salman appointed a new economy minister and named his eldest living son as a special adviser in a series of royal decrees.
    (AP, 5/3/21)

2021        May 10, Iran confirmed publicly for the first time that it is in talks with its regional arch rival Saudi Arabia, saying it would do what it could to resolve issues between them.
    (Reuters, 5/10/21)
2021        May 10, Qatar’s ruling emir visited Saudi Arabia for the first time since signing a declaration with the kingdom and other Arab Gulf states to ease a years-long rift and end an embargo that had frayed ties among important US allies and security partners.
    (AP, 5/10/21)

2021        May 17, Vaccinated Saudis will now be allowed to leave the kingdom for the first time in more than a year as the country eases a ban on international travel aimed at containing the spread of the coronavirus and its new variants.
    (AP, 5/17/21)

2021        May 27, A Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen acknowledged having equipment on an island in the Bab el-Mandeb Strait where a mysterious air base is now under construction.
    (AP, 5/27/21)

2021        Jun 15, Saudi Arabia executed Mustafa bin Hashim bin Isa al-Darwish (26). He was convicted on charges stemming from his participation in an anti-government rebellion by minority Shiites. He was detained in 2015 for alleged participation in riots between 2011 and 2012.
    (AP, 6/15/21)

2021        Jun 20, In Yemen Saudi-led coalition airstrikes responded to attacks by Houthi forces in the outskirts of Marib.
    (AP, 6/20/21)

2021        Jun 27, Rights groups said Saudi women’s rights campaigners Samar Badawi and Nassima al-Sada have been released from prison, three years after a sweeping crackdown by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman targeting female activists who'd peacefully advocated for greater freedoms.
    (AP, 6/27/21)

2021        Jun 28, It was reported that Saudi Arabian veterinary services company MAS has signed an agreement with Argentine biotechnology company Biogenesis Bago to set up the country's first animal vaccine manufacturing plant with investments worth $60 million.
    (Reuters, 6/28/21)

2021        Jul 11, Oman’s sultan arrived in Saudi Arabia, starting the first visit by an Omani ruler to the kingdom in years against the backdrop of intensified efforts to end the war in Yemen and the sultanate’s worsening economic woes.
    (AP, 7/11/21)

2021        Jul 18, In Saudi Arabia tens of thousands of vaccinated Muslim pilgrims circled Islam's holiest site in Mecca, but remained socially distanced and wore masks as the coronavirus takes its toll on the hajj for a second year running.
    (AP, 7/18/21)
2021        Jul 18, OPEC+ ministers agreed to boost oil supply from August to cool prices which have climbed to 2-1/2 year highs as the global economy recovers from the coronavirus pandemic. From August until December 2021 the group will increase supply by a further 2 million bpd or 0.4 million bpd a month.
    (AP, 7/18/21)

2021        Jul 21, Saudi Arabia’s state oil giant acknowledged that leaked data from the company — files now apparently being used in a cyber-extortion attempt involving a $50 million ransom demand — likely came from one of its contractors.
    (AP, 7/21/21)

2021        Aug 3, Saudi Arabia announced the execution of Ahmed bin Saeed bin Ali al-Janabi. He had been found guilty of armed rebellion and protesting against the state in the Shiite populated eastern region of Qatif. The kingdom has executed more than 30 people so far this year, including at least one other young Shiite man accused of similar charges.
    (AP, 8/3/21)

2021        Aug 8, Saudi Arabian state oil producer Aramco reported a near four-fold rise in second-quarter net profit, beating expectations and boosted by higher oil prices and a recovery in oil demand.
    (Reuters, 8/8/21)

2021        Aug 10, Saudi Arabia announced the arrest of 207 employees across about a dozen government ministries in the latest sweep by an anti-corruption body empowered by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Those detained were not named and it was unclear when the arrests were made.
    (AP, 8/10/21)

2021        Aug 31, In Saudi Arabia a bomb-laden drone crashed into an airport in the southwest, wounding eight people and damaging a civilian plane. Saudi Arabia blamed the assault on Yemen's Iran-backed Houthi rebels.
    (AP, 8/31/21)

2021        Sep 4, The Saudi-led coalition fighting Yemen's Houthi group said it has intercepted an explosive-laden drone launched by the Iran-aligned group towards the Saudi city of Khamis Mushait. Saudi Arabia said it intercepted a ballistic missile fired by Yemen's Houthi rebels and debris that fell on a neighborhood near Dammam wounded at least two children. Rebels claimed they sent at least eight explosive-laded drones and fired one ballistic missile on Aramco facilities in the city of Ras Tanura.
    (Reuters, 9/4/21)(AP, 9/5/21)

2021        Oct 8, The Saudi-led coalition fighting the Houthi movement in Yemen said a hostile projectile launched by the group hit King Abdullah airport in Jizan, injuring five civilians.
    (Reuters, 10/8/21)

2021        Oct 9, In Saudi Arabia ten people were injured in two explosives-laden drone attacks at King Abdullah airport in the southern city of Jizan over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 10/9/21)
2021        Oct 9,  Pride in Football, the alliance of LGBT+ supporters' groups in Britain, criticized Newcastle United's takeover by a Saudi Arabia-led consortium and called for reforms to the Premier League's owners' and directors' test.
    (Reuters, 10/9/21)

2021        Oct 16, Saudi Arabia's sovereign wealth fund, the Public Investment Fund, announced the launch of "THE RIG", which it said would be the world's first tourism destination on offshore platforms.
    (Reuters, 10/16/21)

2021        Oct 23, Saudi Arabia pledged to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2060, deepened its 2030 targets and joined an international coalition seeking to cut emissions of the potent planet-warming gas methane by 30% in nine years.
    (Axios, 10/23/21)

2021        Oct 27, Saudi Arabia released Ali al-Nimr from prison after spending nearly a decade behind bars in a case that drew international scrutiny because until recently he'd been facing a possible death sentence for protest-related crimes committed as a minor.    He was arrested in 2012 at the age of 16.
    (AP, 10/27/21)
2021        Oct 27, Saudi Arabia said it had licensed 44 international companies to set up regional headquarters in the capital Riyadh under the kingdom's push to become a regional commercial hub and vie for foreign capital and talent.
    (Reuters, 10/27/21)

2021        Nov 1, Iraqi media said the government plans to sign energy contracts worth tens of billions of dollars with Saudi Arabia. State newspaper Al-Sabaah reported that Baghdad is discussing a partnership with Saudi Aramco to explore and develop natural gas fields in Iraq's western desert.
    (Reuters, 11/1/21)

2021        Nov 11, Saudi Arabia issued a royal decree which grants citizenship to "experts and exceptional global talents" who will contribute to the growth of the kingdom under its ambitious reform plans.
    (Reuters, 11/15/21)

2021        Nov 18, Saudi state media said a Saudi-led coalition carried out a wide operation against targets in Yemen after intercepting and destroying a drone that attempted to attack Saudi Arabia's Abha international airport.
    (Reuters, 11/18/21)

2021        Nov 20, Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi movement said it had fired 14 drones at several Saudi Arabian cities, including at Saudi Aramco facilities in Jeddah. Saudi state news said the Saudi-led coalition has attached 13 targets during a military operation against the Houthis in Yemen.
    (Reuters, 11/20/21)

2021        Nov 23, In Yemen a Saudi-led coalition airstrike gutted a plastics factory in the rebel-held capital of Sanaa, the latest attack amid an escalation in fighting in recent weeks.
    (AP, 11/23/21)

2021        Nov 27, The Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen launched air strikes on military targets in Sanaa, asking civilians not to gather around or approach the targeted sites.
    (Reuters, 11/27/21)

2021        Dec 1, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has confirmed its first case of the Omicron COVID-19 variant coming from a north African country.
    (Reuters, 12/1/21)

2021        Dec 4, French President Emmanuel Macron met Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman for the final leg of a two-day Gulf tour. France and Saudi Arabia agreed to do more to help the Lebanese population, work to solving a diplomatic row between Beirut and the Gulf states and jointly push to get the government there running.
    (AP, 12/4/21)(Reuters, 12/4/21)
2021        Dec 4, Pakistan received a $3 billion loan from Saudi Arabia as part of an economic support package.
    (Reuters, 12/4/21)

2021        Dec 4, Saudi Aramco said it has signed five agreements with French companies, including an agreement to explore a hydrogen-powered vehicle business with Gaussin.
    (Reuters, 12/4/21)

2021        Dec 5, It was reported that a Saudi-led coalition fighting Iran-backed rebels in Yemen accelerated airstrikes on the capital and elsewhere in the conflict-stricken country in recent weeks, as government forces advanced in the west coast and the key province of Marib.
    (AP, 12/5/21)

2021        Dec 7, The Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen said it bombed military targets in the capital Sanaa after the Iran-aligned Houthis launched ballistic missiles and armed drones into Saudi Arabia, including at Aramco oil facilities in Jeddah.
    (Reuters, 12/7/21)
2021        Dec 7, French RTL radio reported that one of the suspected killers of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was arrested today at the Roissy airport near Paris as he was about to board a flight to Riyadh. He was released the next day after officials concluded it was a case of mistaken identity.
    (Reuters, 12/7/21)(Reuters, 12/8/21)

2021        Dec 13, Saudi Arabia's energy minister said that the kingdom plans to invest 380 billion riyals ($101 billion) in renewable energy projects and a further 142 billion riyals in energy distribution through 2030.
    (Reuters, 12/13/21)

2021        Dec 14, Gulf Arab leaders gathered in Riyadh for an annual summit expected to stress cohesion after a deep rift, at a time of regional concern over Iran and rising economic rivalry within the oil-producing bloc.
    (Reuters, 12/14/21)

2021        Dec 17, Saudi state news agency (SPA) said Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has launched the plan and main features of the Jeddah Central Project, previously known as New Jeddah Downtown, with total investments of 75 billion riyals ($19.99 billion).
    (Reuters, 12/17/21)

2021        Dec 20, A Saudi-led coalition fighting the Iran-backed rebels in Yemen launched “precision airstrikes" against rebel targets at the airport in the Yemeni capital of Sanaa.
    (AP, 12/20/21)

2021        Dec 24, A Yemeni rebel attack on Saudi Arabia's southern border town of Jizan killed two people and wounded seven more late today.
    (AP, 12/24/21)

2021        Dec 25, The Saudi-led coalition launched a "large-scale" assault on Yemen after missiles fired by Iran-backed Huthi rebels killed two people in the kingdom, the first such deaths in three years.
    (AFP, 12/25/21)

2021        Dec 26, The Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen said it struck a Huthi rebel camp in the capital Sanaa, as it intensified an aerial bombing campaign against the Iran-backed insurgents.
    (AFP, 12/26/21)    

2050        The population of Saudi Arabia was expected to reach 45 million by this time.
    (Econ, 5/23/15, p.20)

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