Timeline South Sudan

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1955        A rebellion first began in the south, the year before Sudan gained independence after joint British-Egyptian control. Fighting lasted until a 1972 peace agreement, which failed to resolve the fundamental issues. Fighting resumed in the early 1980s and about 2 million people died over the next two decades. The 2005 peace agreement granted the south autonomy for six years, at the end of which a referendum on independence was to be held. Rebels in the western region of Darfur and in the northeast also have rebelled against the Khartoum-based government, accusing it of concentrating wealth in the hands of a politically privileged Islamist elite and ignoring development in outlying regions. U.N. officials say up to 300,000 people have died in Darfur since 2003 and 2.7 million have been forced from their homes because of the conflict.
    (AP, 1/9/11)

1977        The East African Community (EAC), founded in 1967, collapsed. In 2000 the regional club was resurrected with six members: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_Community)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.51)

2000        Jul 7, The East African Community (EAC), founded in 1967, was resurrected following its collapse in 1977. The regional club included six members: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. In 2005 members agreed on a customs union and in 2010 they agreed on a common market.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_Community)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.51)

2006        Dave Eggers authored ďWhat Is the What: The Autobiography of Achak Deng.Ē Deng, a Sudanese ďlost boy,Ē managed to escape to Ethiopia and work his way to Kenya and ultimately America in 2001. Eggersí novel is based on interviews with Deng. In 2010 Deng returned to his home in Marial Bai, South Sudan.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.58)

2011        Jan 9, In Sudan millions of jubilant south Sudanese started voting in an independence referendum expected to see their war-ravaged region emerge as Africaís 54th sovereign state. Khartoum's government was expected to lose a third of its land, nearly a quarter of its population and much of its main moneymaker, oil. Armed Arab nomads clashed with tribespeople in the disputed Abyei region for the third day leaving 20 people dead. At least 36 people were reported dead in clashes over the last three days between tribespeople and Arab nomads near Sudan's north- south border.
    (Reuters, 1/9/11)(Reuters, 1/9/11)(AP, 1/10/11)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.11)
2011        Jan 9, South Sudan journalist Nhial Bol published the first edition of The Citizen newspaper to mark the referendum that paved the way for South Sudan's full independence six months later. In 2015 Bol quit journalism following death threats.
    (AFP, 9/10/15)

2011        Jan 10, Thousands of south Sudanese poured out to vote for a second straight day in a landmark independence referendum, bringing the region a step closer to becoming the world's newest state. Former US President Jimmy Carter told CNN that Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir offered to take on all of the country's crippling debt if the south declares independence after a referendum.
    (AFP, 1/10/11)(Reuters, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 13, South Sudan's independence vote cleared two major hurdles after former president Jimmy Carter gave the poll his endorsement and organizers said high turnout meant the result would be binding. Former US president Jimmy Carter said that Khartoum wants all of Sudan's $39-billion debt forgiven, saying he had erred in earlier saying it was ready to assume the south's share.
    (Reuters, 1/13/11)(AFP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 15, In South Sudan voters began celebrating after the end of a weeklong independence referendum.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 16, Southern Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir offered a prayer of forgiveness for northern Sudan and the killings that occurred during a two-decade civil war, as the first results from a weeklong independence referendum showed an overwhelming vote for secession.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 18, South Sudan appealed for investors to plough $140 million into its war-hit wildlife parks, seeking to kick-start a tourism industry and wean itself off oil months ahead of its expected independence.
    (Reuters, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 23, South Sudanís referendum commission's website said provisional results from the referendum showed that almost 99 percent of voters have chosen independence, after 98.7 percent of the votes had been counted. Turnout exceeded 100 percent in several areas, and a top election official said that some results were being quarantined.
    (AP, 1/23/11)

2011        Jan 30, Sudanís government welcomed the preliminary results of the southern Sudan referendum but said there was a "huge amount" to do before it becomes an independent nation. Southern Sudan's referendum commission said close to 99 percent of south Sudanese chose to secede from the north in the landmark January 9-15 referendum.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 4, In Sudan two days of fighting in Malakal, a flashpoint town near the north-south border, has killed nine people, including a UN staff member.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 5, In South Sudan a rebellion by former pro-Khartoum militiamen against giving up their heavy weapons sparked clashes in oil-producing Upper Nile state. Fighting in Malakal close to the border with the north, has killed 20 people and wounded at least 24. Soldiers in north Sudan's army fought each other, killing at least 30 in a dispute over who gets to keep the artillery they are holding in Southern Sudan. The fighting took place in two towns in Upper Nile state. 11 soldiers were killed in Paloich and 19 in Melut.
    (AP, 2/5/11)(AP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 7, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir accepted a southern vote for independence in a referendum that is set to create Africa's newest state and open up a fresh period of uncertainty in the increasingly volatile region. The final results of the historic independence referendum showed that 98.83 percent had voted for secession.
    (Reuters, 2/7/11)(AFP, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 9, A south Sudanese minister, Jimmy Lemi Milla, and his bodyguard were shot dead in Juba in a revenge killing by the minister's brother-in-law. At least 16 people died when rebels attacked troops in troubled Jonglei state, breaking a ceasefire signed last month.
    (AFP, 2/9/11)(AFP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 10, The fighting in Southern Sudan between the region's army and a rebel faction left 105 people dead, including 39 civilians, 24 southern soldiers and police officers and 42 rebels. Rebel commander George Athor's troops captured Fangak a day earlier, and the fighting continued today until the southern military retook it. Rebel troops attacked the town of Phom el-Zeraf over two days. Women and children ran for their lives ó straight into a river, where many drowned or were shot to death. Some 240 people, mostly civilians, were killed.
    (AP, 2/11/11)(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A3)(AP, 3/11/11)(http://tinyurl.com/4bsgaep)

2011        Feb 12, In Sudan hundreds of civilians sought refuge at a UN compound in the contested town of Abyei following a spate of violence that killed three people from north Sudan.
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 15, A senior South Sudan official said more than 200 people died in a rebel attack in south Sudan's troubled Jonglei state last week, nearly double an earlier death toll. Some 20,000 people were displaced by the fighting.
    (AFP, 2/15/11)(AFP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 16, In South Sudan a one-day meeting began in Juba between leaders of all the southís parties, the start of a consultation process to draw up a constitution for the new nation. South Sudan's ruling party accused northern authorities of arming rebels since the region's landmark independence vote last month, including renegade troops behind clashes that killed more than 200 people last week.
    (AFP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 27, In Sudan at least 10 people died when a militia attacked a police post in the disputed area of Abyei. The fertile area is claimed by both north and south Sudan and is near several large oil fields.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, In Sudan fresh clashes broke out in the Abyei region between gunmen from the northern-supported nomadic Arab Misseriya people and local the Ngok Dinka tribe, who backed the south.
    (AP, 3/2/11)(Econ, 5/28/11, p.54)

2011        Mar 2, In Sudan at least 70 people were killed and two villages razed in two days of fighting in the flashpoint oil-producing border district of Abyei.
    (AFP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 6, In South Sudan clashes began between government soldiers and a rebel group in the village of Owachi. More than 60 people, mostly civilians, were killed over 2 days. More than 7,000 others were displaced. Soldiers from Southern Sudan's government fired indiscriminately at civilians and burned and looted homes in Upper Nile state, near the north-south border.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Mar 12, South Sudan's ruling party said it has suspended talks with Khartoum after uncovering a plot overseen by President Omar al-Bashir to topple it ahead of southern independence in July. Renegotiating a revenue sharing formula was one of the various issued that Juba and Khartoum were trying to resolve ahead of July. A pre-dawn rebel attack on the capital of south Sudan's oil-rich Upper Nile state killed 11 people, with the army battling to regain control of Malakal. The rebel group that launched the attack was commanded by a man called Ulony, whose men fought with the SPLA in Owach, west of Malakal, earlier this week.
    (AFP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 13, A top Southern Sudanese official said Southern Sudan is suspending talks and diplomatic contact with northern Sudan over claims that the northern government is funding militias in the south.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 17, South Sudan's army fought heavy battles with militia in the oil-producing Unity state. At least 59 soldiers and militiamen were killed and dozens wounded in clashes between the South Sudan army and local militia groups in three oil-producing states.
    (Reuters, 3/17/11)(Reuters, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 23, South Sudan's army (SPLA) accused the north of bombing its territory, violating a 2005 peace deal ahead of the oil-producing region's independence.
    (Reuters, 3/23/11)

2011        Apr 5, In South Sudan 13 people died in tribal violence. The governor of Western Equatoria, Joseph Bangasi Bakosoro, later said gunmen attacked his village while authorities from the two states were meeting to find ways of ending hostilities between the communities.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 7, Northern Sudanese Armed Forces have deployed two Mi-24 helicopter gunships and at least nine T-55 tanks about 60 miles (100 km) from Abyei's border according to the US-based Satellite Sentinel Project.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 13, The UN said that more than 800 people have been killed and 94,000 displaced because of violence in Southern Sudan this year. A top official warned of a humanitarian crisis if the violence continues. A militia aligned with the northern government reportedly attacked el-Feid and the nearby village of Um Barmbita in the Nuba Mountains of southern Kordofan state. Attackers burned between 300 to 500 houses and reportedly killed more than 20 people, including women and children.
    (AP, 4/13/11)(AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, Rebels in south Sudan's oil-rich Unity state continued for a third day to attack southern army positions.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 23, In South Sudan clashes broke out in the Canal area of northern Jonglei state as thousands of civilians fled fighting between rebels and south Sudan's army in oil-producing Unity state. In northern Jonglei state 57 gunmen led by Gabriel Tang were killed in a shoot-out with SPLA troops, before fleeing into the surrounding bush,
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AFP, 4/24/11)(AFP, 4/25/11)

2011        Apr 24, South Sudanís Brig. Malaak Ayuen, the head of the Southern Sudan's Army Information Department, said at least 115 people have died in violence between government forces and a rebel militia in Southern Sudan this week. Militia chief Gabriel Tang and around 1,300 of his men surrendered peacefully.
    (AP, 4/24/11)(AP, 4/25/11)

2011        Apr 25, South Sudanís army said at least 165 people have been killed in the past week in fighting between its army and militia. The UN said more than 800 civilians have been killed since January.
    (AP, 4/25/11)(SFC, 4/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 28, Sudanís President Omar al-Bashir warned that Khartoum will not recognize the new state of south Sudan when it declares independence in July if it insists on claiming the disputed Abyei region.
    (AFP, 4/28/11)

2011        May 1, In Sudan tribal clashes over a land dispute in the oil-producing state of South Kordofan left at least 15 people dead. A heavily armed Sudanese military convoy entered the flashpoint border district of Abyei, sparking clashes that left up to 14 people dead. Neither the northern or southern armies are authorized to maintain troops in the disputed Abyei area.
    (AFP, 5/2/11)(AFP, 5/3/11)(AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 7, In South Sudan militiamen, under the leadership of Philip Bepan, attacked the southern Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in Unity state. They were chased away and went to Warrap state, where they attacked cattle camps the next day.
    (AFP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 8, North and south Sudan agreed to start withdrawing unauthorized troops from the flashpoint Abyei border region, a week after clashes there left 14 people dead. The pullout would begin May 10 and be completed within a week.
    (AFP, 5/9/11)
2011        May 8, In Southern Sudan rebels attacked cattle herders. 38 militia were killed in the village of Nadiet. SPLA spokesman Philip Aguer said 34 of those killed were civilians.
    (AP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 9, In Southern Sudan 46 militia were killed in fighting in Kuei Koi.  Most of the dead killed over the last 2 days were rebels loyal to Peter Gadet, a formerly high-ranking army officer who launched his own rebel group.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 10, In South Sudan 4 UN peacekeepers from Zambia were shot and wounded while on patrol in Abyei.
    (SFC, 5/11/11, p.A2)

2011        May 15, Sudan said the northern ruling party won an election for governor in South Kordofan, the north's main oil state, after a vote the south said was rigged, creating a fresh flashpoint before the south secedes in July.
    (Reuters, 5/15/11)

2011        May 19, In Sudan a UN convoy transporting 200 northern army troops was attacked as they were pulling out of the contested region of Abyei along the north-south border. Sudan's army spokesman said northern troops were ambushed by the southern army and suffered "huge losses." A spokesman for the south's Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army (SPLA) said the northern forces provoked the fighting in at attempt to seize the disputed area. 70 northern troops were killed and more than 120 others were missing.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 21, Southern Sudan's army said the northern army is bombing by air for a second day in the border hotspot of Abyei. Local officials said at least six rebels and soldiers have been killed in clashes between the southern army and rebels over the last 24 hours in Unity state. Northern Sudanese forces with tanks occupied the disputed town of Abyei, scattering southern troops that were there as part of a joint security unit.
    (AP, 5/21/11)(AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 22, Northern Sudanese troops seized control of most of Abyei district on Sudan's north-south border as the south accused Khartoum of an "illegal invasion" that threatens the lives of thousands.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, In Sudan armed men burned and looted the flashpoint town of Abyei. Southern Sudan's military said the northern army is moving to carry out a "full-scale war" in the contested region. Angry Sudanese rallied in the southern capital of Juba, demanding northern forces end their "invasion" of the contested Abyei region.
    (AP, 5/23/11)(AFP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, In Sudan gunmen from an Arab tribe fired on four UN helicopters taking off from Abyei a disputed border town at the heart of a new north-south conflict.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 25, Sudan's president gave northern troops a "green light" to attack southern forces if provoked. President Barack Obama, speaking at a news conference in London, called for the rapid reinforcement of UN peacekeeping troops in the Abyei region, from which tens of thousands of civilians have fled over the last week.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 26, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir called on north Sudan to withdraw its forces from the disputed Abyei region. He also said there would be no war over the incursion and it would not derail independence.
    (Reuters, 5/26/11)

2011        May 28, South Sudan's vice president flew to Khartoum on a mission to "ease tensions" over Abyei, one week after northern troops overran the contested border region.
    (AFP, 5/28/11)
2011        May 28, Sudanís Suna news agency said Khartoum has ordered the official termination of the UN's north-south peacekeeping mission on July 9, the date the south is to declare full independence following a referendum.
    (AFP, 5/29/11)

2011        May 29, In South Sudan a week of fighting subsided near water points in Jonglei state with at least 68 people killed. Nuer tribesmen allegedly attacked the area and drove off with more than 100,000 cattle owned by the Murle.
    (AP, 5/2/11)
2011        May 29, Advocacy group Satellite Sentinel Project said new satellite images provide evidence that northern Sudanese troops have committed war crimes, including ethnic cleansing, in the contested border town of Abyei where forces rolled in on May 21. Save the Children's U.K. office said the conflict has displaced up to 35,000 children in the Abyei region.
    (AP, 5/29/11)

2011        May 31, The African Union said representatives from north and south Sudan have agreed to set up a demilitarized zone along their shared border, ten days after the north seized the disputed Abyei region.
    (Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 3, The UN Security Council demanded that Sudan withdraw troops from Abyei and stop looting and attacks in the region disputed with rival southern Sudan.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 8, In Sudan an eyewitness allegedly saw 100 bodies or more put into a pit in Southern Kordofan state, where the Arab military has been targeting a black ethnic minority loyal to the military of the newly independent Republic of South Sudan. On July 14 the Satellite Sentinel Project released images showing what appeared to be freshly dug grave sites in Southern Kordofan state. In August satellite imagery revealed the existence more mass graves, bringing the total number of mass graves sited there to eight.
    (AP, 7/14/11)(AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Jun 9, In Sudan fighting resumed for a 5th day along the north-south order.
    (SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 16, The Sudanese army said it will continue to fight by all available means to stop the rebellion in South Kordofan, as concern grew over the humanitarian impact of the conflict. Aid workers and a UN report said fighting has erupted along a new front near the internal border between north and south Sudan with dozens of people reported killed.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)(AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 17, The army of north Sudan shelled a town just south of the flashpoint Abyei border region, with tensions rising along the frontier just weeks before southern independence. Satellite images showed northern Sudanese military vehicles including heavy transports and artillery massing in the capital of the conflict-stricken Southern Kordofan state.
    (AFP, 6/17/11)(Reuters, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, Rival north and south Sudan signed a deal to demilitarize their disputed frontier region of Abyei and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force. Sudanese intelligence agents were said to have posed as Red Crescent workers and ordered some 7000 civilians to leave a UN camp in Kadugli, Southern Kordofan. The IFRC launched an investigation but found no evidence that its emblem was misused.
    (AP, 6/21/11)(AP, 6/23/11)(AP, 6/28/11)(AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jun 25, A South Sudanese officials said 8 members of a militia tied to the northern government were killed during an attack on Turalei. 3 South Sudanese soldiers were also killed.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 27, The UN Security Council ordered a 4,200-strong Ethiopian peacekeeping force to Abyei to monitor the withdrawal of northern Sudanese troops who occupied the disputed border region on May 21.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 29, North and south Sudan agreed to create a demilitarized buffer zone along their common border just days before the country splits.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun, In South Sudan some 400 Murle tribesmen were killed in Pibor county by the Lou Nuer group.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.53)

2011        Jul 2, Sudanís northern army carried out cross-border air strikes that killed three civilians and wounded 17 in south Sudan's oil-producing Unity state just a week before independence.
    (AFP, 7/3/11)

2011        Jul 4, North and south Sudan agreed to continue negotiating outstanding issues between the two sides after southern independence on July 9.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 9, South Sudan raised the flag of its new nation for the first time, as thousands of South Sudanese citizens and dozens of international dignitaries swarmed the new country capital of Juba to celebrate the country's birth. Salva Kiir was sworn in as South Sudan's president. South Sudan expected to become the 193rd country recognized by the United Nations next week and the 54th UN member state in Africa.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 13, Sudan's parliament passed a law cancelling the Sudanese nationality of southerners, four days after their homeland proclaimed formal independence from the north.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 14, South Sudan became the newest and 193rd member of the United Nations, as it was welcomed into the world's top club amid pledges to help one of the planet's poorest states take its first steps.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)
2011        Jul 14, The Satellite Sentinel Project released images showing what appear to be freshly dug sites in Southern Kordofan state, where Sudan's Arab military has been targeting a black ethnic minority loyal to the military of the newly independent Republic of South Sudan. The group said that an eyewitness reported seeing 100 bodies or more put into one of the pits on June 8.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 23, In South Sudan rebel leader Gatluak Gai was shot and killed by his own men in oil-rich Unity state days after he signed a peace deal to integrate his forces into the southern army.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 24, Sudan launched a new currency, six days after the newly independent south did so amid fears of a currency war, but the central bank said it was ready to negotiate with Juba on the old money.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)

2011        Jul 25, A Southern Sudanese official said northern Sudan has declared "economic war" by violating an agreement and issuing a new currency just weeks after the two countries split. He said the north had agreed not to issue a new currency until six months after the south did. The move will cost the southern government at least $700 million.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 27, It was reported that the price of a cow in Juba, South Sudan, has risen to between $375 and $560. The price for a bride ranged from 150 cows to 400.
    (SFC, 7/25/11, p.D2)

2011        Jul 28, South Sudan became the 54th member of the African Union (AU) after it received a majority vote from member states, including one from Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)

2011        Aug 4, A group of South Sudanese rebels formerly linked to militia leader Peter Gadet, who agreed to a ceasefire this week, accused him of taking government bribes and rejected the peace deal. The splinter faction (SSLM/A) disowned his accord with the government, adding that it had not affected the group, which remained with 780 officers and a force of 5,000.
    (AFP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 5, Sudanís foreign ministry said it has blocked a shipment of southern oil after Juba refused to pay customs fees, escalating a row between the two sides, with the south accusing Khartoum of sabotaging its economy. The ship was released the next day but negotiations over transit fees remained stalled.
    (AFP, 8/5/11)(AFP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 9, Chinaís Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi ended a two-day visit to Khartoum and headed for Juba, the capital of South Sudan, in the first trip by a senior Chinese official to the world's newest nation.
    (AP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 15, The United Nations called for a thorough probe into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sudan's South Kordofan region between June 5-30, shortly before the nation formally separated into two countries.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 18, In South Sudan 125 people were killed in a cattle raid during which tribesmen stole 2,000 cattle in the country's east. 8 villages were destroyed when warriors from the Murle tribe in Pidor county attacked the Lou-Nuer tribe of Uror county. On Aug 22 the numbers rose to at least 600 people killed and up to 985 people injured in the clashes. The UN later said over 25,000 cows were stolen in the attack.
    (AP, 8/21/11)(AFP, 8/22/11)(AFP, 9/28/11)

2011        Aug 19, In South Sudan fighters loyal to rebel leader George Athor crossed the border from north Sudan and attacked a town in Upper Nile state. The violence left 60 people dead, including seven soldiers and 53 militia members. Soldiers managed to repel the attackers.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 20, In South Sudan Human Rights' representative Benedict Sannoh was severely beaten at his hotel in Juba. Sannoh, a Liberian, had refused to allow police to search his room and possessions before the assault. He was hospitalized for five days and received medical treatment outside the country.
    (AP, 8/26/11)

2011        Sep 1, South Sudan completed the swift circulation of its new currency, a move matched by Khartoum, but strengthening the south's formal independence from the north less than two months ago.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, South Sudanís government decided to relocate its capital from Juba to a more central location in Ramciel, Lakes state. The new capital will have to be built from scratch.
    (AFP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 8, The governments of the rival Sudans struck a new agreement to withdraw their troops from the flashpoint border region of Abyei where UN forces are now in place. They agreed that between September 11 and 30 there is going to be a redeployment or withdrawal of the troops" from Abyei by both sides.
    (AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 16, The UNHCR warned that more than 8,000 people have fled violence in Sudan's South Kordofan state to South Sudan and more are expected to arrive.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 19, Sudan's official news agency said Sudan and its newest neighbor, breakaway South Sudan, have signed their first agreement since their split in July. The accord sets out 10 crossing points between the two nations for people and goods.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 23, The Satellite Sentinel Project said images from Sudan show heavily camouflaged military equipment and several thousand troops moving south toward the rebel stronghold of Kurmuk in Blue Nile state. The group said the force appears to be equipped with tanks, artillery and infantry fighting vehicles.
    (AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 28, South Sudan UN Rep. Hilde F. Johnson said hundreds of millions of dollars meant for South Sudan's government have been wired to private bank accounts abroad. She called such acts unacceptable. President Salva Kiir announced at UN headquarters that steps were being taken to end impunity for perpetrators.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 30, Sudan failed to meet an agreed troop withdrawal deadline for the contested Abyei region and blocked the return of displaced southern residents.
    (AFP, 9/31/11)

2011        Oct 8, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir led the first top-level delegation to Khartoum since southern secession. After one-to-one talks both presidents pledged to work together for peace and stability, and to put the years of conflict behind them.
    (AFP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 9, In South Sudan an anti-tank mine reportedly blew up a civilian bus killing 20 people, including four children, in central Unity state.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 29, In South Sudan about 80 people, including 15 civilians and 60 rebels, were killed when government forces in the oil-rich Unity state repelled an attack by rebel militia, most of them fighting under the banner of the South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA). Among the dead was the notorious rebel fighter Colonel Ruadheal Gatwech.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 1, Japan approved a plan to send a unit of ground troops to South Sudan as part of a UN nation-building force, where they are expected to help construct infrastructure for the fledgling nation.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 10, Military aircraft from Sudan crossed the new international border with South Sudan and dropped bombs in and around a camp filled with refugees fleeing violence in the north. At least 12 people were killed. The violence in and near the Yida refugee camp, located 10 miles (15 km) south of the border, came one day after bombings were reported in another region of South Sudan. A cross-border attack by Sudanese troops on a military base left 18 fighters dead and 73 wounded.
    (AP, 11/10/11)(AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, Global aid organization Oxfam said it has withdrawn 22 staff from South Sudan's Upper Nile state because of escalating violence along the newly independent country's tense border with the north.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 17, Sudanís government blocked South Sudanese oil exports through its Red Sea port due to a dispute over transit fees. The pipeline was not been shut down, but the south was not being allowed to ship its oil cargo out of Port Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 18, Amnesty International reported that South Sudan has released two journalists without charge who were detained for weeks for criticising President Salva Kiirís family. Ngor Garang, editor-in-chief of Destiny newspaper, and reporter Dengdit Ayok were arrested in Juba at the beginning of this month after Ayok wrote an opinion article accusing the president of "staining his patriotism" by allowing his daughter to marry an Ethiopian man.
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 20, South Sudan rebel chief George Athor vowed to continue battling the government in Juba and demanded new elections to end his bloody war.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 30, Sudan said it will take 23% of the south's vital oil exports as payment in kind, after talks in Addis Ababa failed, but will not block Juba's exports. Sudan was looking to charge the south $36 per barrel for the use of its oil infrastructure, in contrast to a southern offer of 70 cents. Southern oil minister Stephen Dhieu Dau rejected the north's fee as "extortionate."
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 7, China inserted itself into the fight over oil between Sudan and its former territory South Sudan, sending a special envoy to try to break a deadlock between two rivals who often appear on the brink of renewed conflict.
    (AP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 11, In South Sudan suspected rebels under the command of renegade general George Athor attacked Atar town, in Pigi county, killing 9 people, while another raid cost the lives of two people in Kapat, near the state capital Bor.
    (AFP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 19, South Sudanese rebel chief George Athor was killed in a clash with soldiers of the newly independent nation.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 25, In South Sudan a group calling itself the Nuer Youth White Army issued a statement vowing to "wipe out the entire Murle tribe on the face of the earth as the only solution to guarantee long-term security of Nuer's cattle."
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

2011        Dec 29, Sudanese air raids killed 17 people in the South Sudan border state of Western Bahr al-Ghazal, the second day of stepped-up bombing along the northern frontier.
    (AFP, 12/29/11)

2011        Dec 31, In South Sudan some 6,000 Lou Nuer gunmen attacked the Murle tribe at Pibor, torching huts and looting a hospital, and only withdrew after government troops opened fire. Over 3,000 people were killed in the brutal massacres that forced tens of thousands to flee.
    (AFP, 1/6/12)

2011        South Sudanís population was estimated at 8-14 million.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.57)

2012        Jan 7, In Sudan aerial bombing reportedly left 16 villagers and five government troops dead near the South Sudanese frontier. Rebels later said more bombing the next day around Al-Buram killed another seven civilians.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 9, In South Sudan Jonglei state governor, Kuol Manyang Juuk, said that Murle fighters had burned down three villages, killed at least 24 people and wounded 20 over the last 24 hours with fighting still ongoing.
    (AP, 1/9/12)(AFP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 12, In South Sudan hundreds of armed attackers from Murle ethnic group that suffered a devastating assault last month charged into three Lou Nuer villages, burned them to the ground and killed 57 people.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 13, South Sudan signed its first oil deals with foreign nations since it won independence last July, inking agreements with Chinese, Indian and Malaysian firms.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, The Sudanese military denied bombing civilians in a Jan 7-8 operation which rebels said left 16 villagers and five government troops dead near the South Sudanese frontier.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 16, In South Sudan members of the Murle community attacked a Lou Nuer community called Duk Padiet in Jonglei state. 47 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 20, South Sudan ordered the shutdown of oil production that provides some 98 percent of its revenue, amid a deepening row with Khartoum over pipeline fees. Shutting down production would not be immediate, and that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir would meet with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir before it was stopped.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 23, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir accused Sudan of stealing $815 million of the crude oil that makes up the new nation's economic lifeblood, as it began a production shutdown in protest. At least one Sudanese refugee boy was injured and 14 others left missing following an air raid in South Sudan.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)(AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 28, Sudan agreed to free ships with South Sudanese oil as a goodwill gesture to ease negotiations aimed at resolving a furious row over pipeline transit fees.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)
2012        Jan 28, In South Sudan a Nuer tribe from Unity state attacked a Dinka community in neighboring Warrap state. 70 people were reported killed and attackers took more than 4,000 cattle. On Jan 30 South Sudan accused its former foes in the Khartoum government of arming gunmen who killed over 40 people in the cattle raid.
    (AP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 29, Sudan released three oil tankers held in a dispute with breakaway South Sudan, which has accused Khartoum of theft.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 31, Israel's Interior Ministry said some 7,000 people from South Sudan must leave or face deportation. Spokeswoman Sabine Haddad said the South Sudanese will be offered voluntary deportation and around $1,300. After March 31 they will be deported.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 12, Sudan and breakaway South Sudan agreed to cooperate in the transfer of more than 300,000 people to the South. The deal allowed South Sudanese to choose where they want to live and set an April 8 deadline for 500,000 people to go back to their homeland or to "normalize" their stay in Sudan.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)(AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, South Sudan said Khartoum's decision to stop the return of hundreds of thousands of Southerners by barge on the White Nile was a looming disaster, and that alternative means were untenable.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 18, It was reported that more than 3,000 children in northern Uganda are suffering from a debilitating mystery ailment known as nodding disease. For several years, scientists have tried and failed to determine the cause of the illness. Scientists did not know if the disease is linked to similar outbreaks in neighboring South Sudan and Tanzania.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 22, South Sudan said it has expelled the Chinese head of the country's largest oil firm Petrodar, a China-Malaysia-owned company, on charges of colluding with former civil war foe Sudan to "steal" millions of barrels of its oil.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)
2012        Feb 22, The top US special operations commander for Africa said  US troops helping in the fight against a brutal rebel group called the Lord's Resistance Army are now deployed in four Central African countries: Uganda, Congo, South Sudan and Central African Republic.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 27, South Sudan signed a ceasefire with the largest of several rebel groups which threaten the stability of the world's newest nation. The agreement was with the former rebels of George Athor, in which they agreed to the amnesty laid down by President Salva Kiir. Athor was killed by government forces last December.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Mar 1, South Sudan officials said Sudanese fighter jets have bombed oil and water wells deep inside South Sudan and its ground troops have crossed into contested oil-rich border regions. Khartoum swiftly denied the claims.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 5, A marketing campaign was launched by the Ugandan advocacy group Invisible Children (www.kony2012.com) to vastly increase awareness about Joseph Kony, a jungle militia leader wanted for atrocities by the International Criminal Court and hunted by 100 US Special Forces advisers and local troops. His Lordís Resistance Army (LRA) was operating in Congo, the Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 6, Talks between Sudan and South Sudan resumed in the Ethiopian capital to resolve a furious oil dispute as tensions remain high between the two nations.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 10, In South Sudan some 100,000 cows were stolen over the last 2 days as cattle raiders from the Murle community in Jonglei state attacked the ethnic Lou Nuer living in neighboring Upper Nile state. The ethnic clashes over cattle rustling killed more than 200 people, and hundreds more were abducted.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 26, Sudan and South Sudan clashed in the disputed border town of Jau, prompting Sudan to cancel Pres. al-Bashir's trip to meet with South Sudan President Salva Kiir next week.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 27, South Sudan said Sudan's military bombed oil fields in the town of Bentiu.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar, South Sudanís People's Liberation Army, tasked with carrying out a disarmament campaign among feuding ethnic groups, embarked on a disarmament campaign. By the end of May more than 10,000 weapons were taken. Aid groups and community members later alleged that the SPLA was killing and torturing members of the Murle, who appear to be ostracized by most other tribes in South Sudan in part because they received military support from leaders in Khartoum.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        Apr 1, In Ethiopia African Union mediators redoubled their efforts to kickstart crisis talks between Sudan and South Sudan after fresh fighting that Khartoum accuses Juba of backing.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)

2012        Apr 4, South Sudan said it shot down a Sudanese fighter jet after two military planes dropped bombs around its oil fields, but Sudan denied it had lost such an aircraft.
    (AP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 9, Airlines cancelled flights from Sudan to the newly independent South, after new rules treating the route as international took effect.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, South Sudanese troops moved into Heglig, an oil-rich border town claimed by Sudan, as fighting intensified between the countries over who controls the area.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 11, Sudan and South Sudan ordered mass civilian mobilizations for defense as their armies battled along their contested border, raising the specter of a return to all-out war.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 12, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir rejected calls to pull out from contested border regions, but said he did not want war with Khartoum. Sudanese war planes dropped five bombs at dawn targeting a strategic bridge on the edge of Bentiu, the capital of the oil-producing Unity border state.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 15, The first batch of Sudanese prisoners of war captured in days of bloody fighting arrived in the South Sudanese capital, as the South's army said clashes continued in contested border regions. A Sudanese division raided Mugum, killed 25 rebels and seized a large quantity of weapons and equipment.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)(AP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 16, Sudan's parliament voted unanimously to brand the government of South Sudan an enemy, after southern troops invaded the north's main oilfield. The Sudan Media Center reported that Sudan's army took control of Mugum, a stronghold of the southern army in Blue Nile state. Officials said clashes have spread along the border of Sudan and South Sudan. Sudan's military bombed an oil well outside Heglig.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 17, Along the Sudan-South Sudan border a firefight killed seven South Sudan soldiers and 15 Sudan soldiers. It reportedly began after a Sudanese soldier shot a South Sudan soldier who was getting water from the river.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 19, South Sudan said it repulsed four attacks from Sudan over a 24-hour period as fighting on the border showed no signs of slowing. A Sudanese air raid struck a Heglig oil processing facility, setting it ablaze. A pipeline was damaged and oil poured into the ground.
    (AP, 4/19/12)(AFP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 20, Sudan said its forces have retaken the main town in the Heglig oil region 10 days after South Sudanese troops seized it. The announcement came shortly after South Sudanese President Salva Kiir ordered the immediate withdrawal of his troops from Heglig, following intensified global diplomatic efforts to pull the two nations from the brink of wider war.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 21, In Sudan a Muslim mob has set ablaze a Catholic church frequented by Southern Sudanese in the capital Khartoum.
    (AP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said there will be no more talks with South Sudan, as fresh Sudanese air raids drew swift condemnation from the US and France. Sudanese bombs fell on a key bridge and a market, killing at least two children in the state capital of Bentiu. Sudanís armed forces commander said more than 1,000 South Sudanese troops died during the battle for the oilfield of Heglig.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 24, South Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir, on a visit to Beijing where he met President Hu Jintao, said his "neighbor in Khartoum has declared war on the Republic of South Sudan." Kiir accused Sudan of declaring war as Khartoum's fighter jets bombed border regions in defiance of international calls for restraint.
    (AFP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 25, South Sudan freed 14 Sudanese prisoners of war as a "goodwill gesture" despite weeks of fierce fighting along their contested border. South Sudanís Pres. Kiir cut short his visit to China amid violence with Sudan, as Beijing announced plans to send a peace envoy.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 28, South Sudan government spokesman Barnaba Mariel Benjamin said China has agreed to loan the country eight billion dollars for infrastructure development.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)
2012        Apr 28, Sudan rejected UN Security Council involvement in efforts to end weeks of border clashes with South Sudan, which said it repelled an attack by Khartoum-backed rebels. A Briton, a Norwegian, a South African and a South Sudanese were captured by Sudanese troops in the oil-rich region of Heglig. The next day a representative for one of the three said that they were on a humanitarian mine-clearing mission.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)(AP, 4/29/12)

2012        May 2, Sudanese officials extended the expulsion deadline for thousands of ethnic South Sudanese encamped south of Khartoum. A UN Security Council resolution called for Sudan and South Sudan to cease hostilities along their border, and resume talks to settle unresolved issues.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)(AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 3, South Sudan President Salva Kiir, in an appeal for stolen funds to be returned, wrote a letter to government officials saying corrupt officials have stolen an estimated $4 billion from the world's newest nation.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2012        May 7, Sudan's finance minister told parliament that failure to agree with South Sudan on oil fees has cost the Sudanese economy $2.4 billion dollars. Sudan resumed its aerial bombardment of South Sudan, violating international calls for a cessation of hostilities between the two countries. Attacks over the next 24 hours took place in the states of Upper Nile, Unity and Northern Bahr el Ghazal.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)(AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 9, Sudan offered African tribesmen in the disputed oil-rich region of Abyei its citizenship in an effort to woo them to the north. Abyei's fate was left unresolved when South Sudan split from Sudan. Sudanese armed forces said they have repulsed an attack by Darfur rebels in Gereida (Girayda). 9 soldiers and an unknown number of rebels were reported killed.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)(AP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 12, The first group of ethnic South Sudanese, among up to 15,000 camped in Sudan, began their journey home ahead of a major airlift to begin May 13.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 25, South Sudanís military said a disarmament campaign has collected more than 10,000 weapons. Recent raids in Jonglei state prompted the government to launch its fifth disarmament campaign in six years. Leaders of a minority community said troops shot and killed a teenager while he was fishing, linking the death to the military's disarmament campaign. A member of the Murle community said the bodies of two other people shot by troops were found, bringing the overall death toll of Murle during the disarmament campaign to at least 14.
    (AP, 5/25/12)

2012        May 28, South Sudan said Sudanese war planes and artillery have bombarded its territory for the last 3 days on the eve of peace talks, as Southern officials set off to attend African Union-led negotiations in Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 29, Sudanese troops withdrew from the disputed territory of Abyei. Top negotiators for Sudan and South Sudan met in Ethiopia for their first talks since deadly border fighting last month took them to the brink of war.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 31, South Sudan filed a complaint with the UN over alleged Sudanese attacks. Juba said attacks numbered more than 100 since November.
    (AFP, 6/1/12)

2012        Jun 6, In Sudan an "exceptional" airlift of almost 12,000 South Sudanese ended with a final flight from Khartoum, but thousands more continue to live in makeshift conditions while they, too, await transport to the South.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, A UN report said Joseph Kony's Lord Resistance Army has abducted more than 600 child soldiers and sex slaves over the past two years even as the hunt for the rebel leader intensifies. At least 591 children, including 268 girls, were reported seized over the same time in Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Ethiopia peace talks between Khartoum and Juba to set up a demilitarized buffer zone ended with Sudan accusing South Sudan of seeking to create "10 disputed areas."
    (AFP, 6/8/12)
2012        Jun 7, An Israeli court cleared the way for the deportation of an estimated 1,500 South Sudanese, after rejecting a petition against a change in the policy on illegal migrants from there.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 10, Israeli police rounded up some 25 immigrants, around a third of them from South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 11, Israeli authorities rounded up 115 of African migrants slated for deportation, most of them from South Sudan, as the government weighs tough penalties against Israelis who help illegal aliens.
    (AFP, 6/11/12)(AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 12, Israeli officials from the Population and Migration Authority said a total of 140 people had been arrested on Jun 10-11, with another 73 picked up in nationwide raids today. Most of the 213 arrested immigrants were from South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 28, Amnesty International said both South Sudan's army and rebel groups are using weapons imported from China, Ukraine and neighboring Sudan in fighting that has claimed dozens of civilian lives. Amnesty said the army was using Ukrainian-supplied T-72 battle tanks and that the rebel SSLA laid Chinese-made anti-vehicle mines and were firing Sudanese-made ammunition.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun, South Sudanís government admitted that itís missing $4 billion in stolen funds, about double its annual revenue, since the mostly autonomous administration was set up in 2005 as part of a US-brokered peace deal that led to independence in 2011.
    (SFC, 7/27/12, p.A7)

2012        Jul 5, Rivals Sudan and South Sudan resumed security talks aimed at easing tensions on the disputed border, after they failed to reach a deal at negotiations last week.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 7, Sudan and South Sudan pledged to cease hostilities along their disputed oil-rich border but stopped short of actually signing an agreement.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)

2012        Jul 23, Sudan turned down South Sudan's proposal of a higher oil transit fee and an $8.2 billion financial deal, ruling out any comprehensive settlement of outstanding issues by the August 2 deadline.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Aug 4, Landlocked South Sudan said it has a struck a deal with Sudan over the exportation of oil through Sudan's pipelines. In a statement South Sudan's government said that it will pay approximately $9.48 a barrel to transport its fuel through Sudan's pipelines.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 15, The UN food agency staged a rare air drop of food to thousands of desperate refugees in South Sudan stranded by floods.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 22, In South Sudan 24 soldiers were killed in clashes with a militia group that the southern government accuses of subverting a disarmament campaign. 12 soldiers remained missing in Jonglei State.
    (AP, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 29, Israeli Interior Minister Eli Yishai warned that illegal immigrants from Sudan who do not leave the country by October 15 will be detained. Israel began expelling South Sudanese in June.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Sep 4, Sudan and South Sudan resumed talks in the Ethiopian capital to resolve outstanding disputes over oil, border demarcation, security and the Abyei region.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 26, The leaders of Sudan and South Sudan reached nine agreements but did not work out the issues surrounding the contested Abyei region or the demarcation of their shared border. South Sudan President Salva Kiir said the two countries would sign a "protocol of collaboration" on Sep 27.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Oct 9, Sudanís military said rebel shelling has killed 5 women and wounded over 20 near the border with South Sudan.
    (SFC, 10/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 16, Sudan said that fighting in two states along its disputed border with South Sudan has left over 600 people dead over the past 16 months.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 18, South Sudan ordered oil companies to restart production and officials said oil export could resume in about 90 days, ending a nearly nine-month shutdown following a dispute with Sudan over borders and oil.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Nov 21, In South Sudan an army official said clashes between troops and Yau Yau rebels have left at least 16 people dead in Jonglei state.
    (SFC, 11/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 23, A South Sudanese official said Sudan has carried out aerial bombardments on the northern part of South Sudan in the last three days, killing seven people and wounding others, accusing their northern neighbor of breaking an agreement between the two countries to end hostilities.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Dec 11, South Sudan soldiers were being blamed for the deaths of up to 23 civilians in two separate regions. The first incident took place in Jonglei state last week. An official said soldiers rounded up civilians and fired on the group, killing 13. The UN mission confirmed that nine people were killed during the two days of violence over the weekend in Western Equatoria state.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 25, Sudan reportedly launched attacks in the border area with South Sudan killing at least five people. Antonov warplanes bombed the village of Werguet, in Northern Bahr el Ghazal state, while ground forces working with "militiamen" attacked nearby Kiir Adem.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2012        South Sudanís first major paved road, from Juba to Nimule, was completed. The cost of paved roads to connect the cities of the countryís 10 states was later estimated to cost $7 billion.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.47)

2013        Jan 17, South Sudan said it is withdrawing its troops from a disputed border region with Sudan so that a demilitarized zone can be established.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 19, Officials in Ethiopia said South Sudan and Sudan have failed to reach an agreement on security arrangements and oil exports after several days of talks in Addis Ababa.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 27, In South Sudan a showdown in the middle of the market town of Pibor between rebels and South Sudan's military led to the deaths of four civilians and some 2,000 people seeking refuge with the UN.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Feb 8, In South Sudan 103 people were killed in Akobo County when one tribe attacked members of the Lou Nuer ethnic group while cattle were being moved across land. The attackers were believed to be members of the rebel group led by David Yau Yau of  the Murle ethnic group.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 15, The UN said an outbreak of hepatitis E has killed 111 refugees in camps in South Sudan since July, and has become endemic in the region.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 19, The Sudanese army said clashes in the country's south near the border with South Sudan have killed at least 60 rebels.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Mar 4, South Sudan troops killed 28 fighters led by the rebel leader David Yau Yau in the restive state of Jonglei. Ten soldiers were wounded in the fights.
    (AP, 3/6/13)

2013        Mar 18, The International Committee of the Red Cross said more than 60 people have been wounded in fighting between South Sudan's army and a rebel group over the last two weeks.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 26, In South Sudan  143 rebels led by David Yau Yau died in a battle between soldiers and rebels backed by Sudan. 20 soldiers were killed and 70 wounded.
    (AP, 3/28/13)

2013        Apr 9, In South Sudan armed rebels that South Sudan believes are backed by Sudan opened fire on a UN convoy, killing five UN peacekeepers from India and at least seven civilians.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 12, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir traveled to South Sudan for the first time since the south peacefully broke away from Sudan in 2011. The two presidents agreed to the free movement of people and goods across the border.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 12, The Small Arms Survey, an independent Swiss research group, said Sudan has supplied weapons and ammunition to rebels fighting neighboring South Sudan's government.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 15, South Sudanís government, enraged by recent cattle thefts and resulting deaths, deployed hundreds of soldiers to hunt down the raiders. But an official later said the security forces instead indiscriminately shot and killed civilians and burned down houses and shops and attacked a hospital, where four medical staff and a patient were killed.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        May 8, South Sudan's military spokesman says a rebel force under David Yau Yau has overrun part of Boma, a town in the country's east near the border with Ethiopia.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 19, In South Sudan a battle in Jonglei state killed 20 rebel fighters and 4 government troops as the army recaptured the town of Boma, near the border with Ethiopia, from rebels led by David Yau Yau who took over the town earlier this month.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 31, A UN official said more than 23,500 people have fled fighting in South Sudan's Jonglei state and sought refuge in neighboring countries of Uganda (2.5k), Kenya (5k) and Ethiopia (16k).
    (AP, 6/1/13)

2013        Jun 2, In South Sudan cattle rustlers attacked a village killing 11 people and wounding eight. More than 50 cattle were reported stolen.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 3, The Enough Project, the Satellite Sentinel Project and two other groups said in a new report that members of Joseph Konyís LRA have turned to elephant poaching in CongoDRC and the CAR and that the militia trades illegal ivory to acquire food and other supplies. The report also said elephants of Garamba National Park also are being targeted by "members of the armed forces of (Congo), South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda," citing the concerns of park rangers there.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 8, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir ordered the closure of pipelines exporting South Sudanese oil. Al-Bashir said that the move was in response to South Sudan's funding of rebels fighting his regime.
    (AP, 6/8/13)

2013        Jun 28, In South Sudan the government of the central Lakes state ordered the Good News Radio station to stop broadcasting for three days for "criticizing the government." Activists said the station had annoyed the government by questioning the official line on the death of a civilian in jail, among other critical reports.
    (Reuters, 7/3/13)

2013        Jul 5, South Sudan accused Sudan's army of launching two separate attacks with planes and land troops on areas near their disputed border, in a new sign of friction between the former civil war foes.
    (Reuters, 7/5/13)

2013        Jul 14, Toby Lanzer, the UN humanitarian coordinator in South Sudan, said some 200 civilians have been wounded in ongoing clashes between rival tribes in Jonglei state. He urged the central government and local officials to stop "the cycle of violence" that has killed many people and displaced thousands.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 23, South Sudan media said President Salva Kiir has sacked his cabinet, the deputy president and suspended his top negotiator at talks to defuse tensions with Sudan.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul, In South Sudan 328 people died in ethnic violence this month. Most of the dead were women and children from the Murle ethnic community in Jonglei state according to Jongolei Boyoris, a member of parliament in the Jonglei State Assembly.
    (AP, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 5, A South Sudanese staff member of Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) was killed and another wounded in an attack by armed men on their vehicle outside the country's capital, Juba.
    (Reuters, 8/9/13)
2013        Aug 5, One Sudanese soldier was killed in a clash with troops from South Sudan after a patrol from the south crossed the border.
    (Reuters, 8/5/13)

2013        Aug 8, In South Sudan cattle rustlers killed 8 people in Jonglei state. One of the raiders was also killed.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Sep 13, Human Rights Watch said South Sudan's army has killed almost 100 members of a small tribe, executing some of them in cold blood, during seven months of fighting with rebels in Jonglei state.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Oct 17, In South Sudan  5 people including four children were killed in a market when explosives left over from decades of civil war were accidentally set off on the outskirts of Juba.
    (AFP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 20, In South Sudan  79 people were killed in attacks on villages in Twic East county, Jonglei state. Authorities blamed fighters loyal to anti-government rebel leader David Yau Yau.
    (AP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 23, The UN said xxtreme floods across vast parts of remote and impoverished South Sudan have affected over 156,000 people.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 25, A South Sudan army spokesman said ten soldiers were imprisoned for human rights abuses perpetrated during a 2012 campaign to disarm fighters from warring communities.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 27, Hundreds of Sudanese in the disputed border region of Abyei voted in a referendum that they hope will decide whether they join Sudan or South Sudan.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Dec 15, In South Sudan violence erupted when the presidential guard attempted to disarm fellow guard members who belong to the Nuer ethnic group.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 16, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir declared a curfew in the capital Juba after overnight clashes between rival factions of soldiers followed months of tension between Kiir and his sacked deputy. Kiir said disgruntled soldiers and politicians led by ousted VP Riek Macha had attempted to overthrow the government.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)(AP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 18, South Sudan said at least 500 people, most of them soldiers, have been killed since Dec 15. The clashes apparently were pitting soldiers from the majority Dinka tribe of President Salva Kiir against those from ousted Vice President Riek Machar's Nuer ethnic group. Fighting spread to Jonglei, the largest state in South Sudan.
    (AP, 12/18/13)
2013        Dec 18, In South Sudan fighting between workers in two oil fields killed at least 16 people but the government regained in control and oil production was not affected.
    (Reuters, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 19, South Sudan said that the government no longer controls Bor, the capital of Jonglei, its largest and most populous state. Two UN peacekeepers from India were killed and a third wounded when a UN base was overrun by armed youths in Jonglei State. Two dozen Dinka officials were killed during the attack in Akobo.
    (AP, 12/19/13)(AP, 12/20/13)(Reuters, 12/20/13)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.36)

2013        Dec 20, The United Nations says 34,000 people in South Sudan are seeking refuge at UN bases in three locations across the country.
    (AP, 12/20/13)
2013        Dec 20, President Barack Obama said the United States has deployed 45 military personnel to volatile South Sudan to protect the embassy and US government employees there.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 21, In South Sudan rebel gunfire hit a US military aircraft trying to evacuate American citizens caught in a Bor, a battle ground between the country's military and renegade troops. Four US service members were wounded, one critically.
    (AP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 22, South Sudan's central government lost control of Bentiu, the capital of key oil-producing Unity state. Renegade forces loyal to a former deputy president seized more territory in fighting that has raised fears of full-blown civil war in the world's newest country.
    (AP, 12/22/13)

2013        Dec 23, South Sudan's government said it will start a major offensive to retake two strategic towns controlled by rebels loyal to former Vice President Riek Machar, deepening fears that the conflict is provoking broader ethnic bloodletting. Some 3,000 foreigners were trapped in Bor as the city experienced bouts of heavy machine gun fire.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)(AP, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 24, The UN office of the Commissioner for Human Rights said a mass grave believed to contain the bodies of 75 ethnic Dinka soldiers has been found in South Sudan. Later the office revised that figure to 34 bodies and 75 people feared missing. The UN mission in South Sudan said the erroneous report was an inflation of a "skirmish" in which 15 people were killed. The UN Security Council approved plans to increase number of peacekeepers in South Sudan  to 12,500 troops and 1,323 police.
    (AP, 12/24/13)(Reuters, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, South Sudan's army battled rebel forces in Malakal while troops flushed out insurgents in Bor after its recapture.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 26, In South Sudan heavy fighting raged in the key oil-producing north. Neighbors Kenya and Ethiopia said they had made "good progress" in efforts to broker an end to the civil war.
    (AP, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, Regional leaders said South Sudan's government has agreed to end hostilities, at the end of a crisis summit, raising hopes for a potential breakthrough in efforts to cease violence that has displaced more than 120,000 people in the world's newest country. An army spokesman said South Sudanese rebels loyal to former VP Riek Machar have been defeated in Malakal, the capital of major oil producing Upper Nile state, after four days of intense fighting.
    (AP, 12/27/13)(Reuters, 12/27/13)

2013        Dec 28, In South Sudan some 25,000 young men, who make up a tribal militia known as the "White Army," began marching on Bor. The youths are from the Lou Nuer sub-clan ó the same tribe as opposition leader former VP Riek Machar. Nuer community leaders in Jonglei state soon persuaded the "White Army" fighters to go home.
    (AP, 12/28/13)(AP, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 29, South Sudan's army fought with "White Army" ethnic militia, accusing rebels of mobilizing the force despite its offer of a truce to end the conflict in the new country.
    (Reuters, 12/30/13)

2013        Dec 31, South Sudan's warring factions agreed to attend peace talks in Ethiopia. Government troops fought renegade forces loyal to former VP Riek Machar as well as a pro-Machar tribal militia known as the "White Army," as rebels tried to retake Bor.
    (AP, 12/31/13)

2014        Jan 1, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir declared a state of emergency in Unity and Jonglei states. Negotiators from the two warring sides arrived in Ethiopia for peace talks.
    (Reuters, 1/1/14)(AP, 1/1/14)

2014        Jan 2, A South Sudanese military official says rebels are trying to march on Juba from Bor, a town under the control of rebel forces. South Sudan's army (SPLA) advanced towards Bor.
    (AP, 1/2/14)(Reuters, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 3, In Ethiopia South Sudan's warring parties began negotiations to end nearly three weeks of raging conflict which has left thousands feared dead and taken the world's youngest nation to the brink of all-out civil war. Fighting intensified as the army moved on rebel-held Bor.
    (AFP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 4, South Sudanís rebel and government sides met mediators from the regional IGAD grouping in Ethiopia for a second day but did not sit down together.
    (Reuters, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 5, Fighting continued across South Sudan, even as peace talks between the government and rebels were set to begin in Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 1/5/14)

2014        Jan 6, China, the biggest investor in South Sudan's oil industry, called for an immediate ceasefire in the world's newest state as rebel and government negotiators haggled over the scope of peace talks meant to end three weeks of fighting.
    (Reuters, 1/6/14)
2014        Jan 6, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Juba calling for an end to three weeks of fighting in South Sudan as mediators struggled to get peace negotiations under way in neighboring Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 7, South Sudanese rebels and a government delegation started face-to-face peace talks in Ethiopia to try to end fighting that has left the world's newest state on the brink of civil war.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, South Sudan's government and rebels were locked in fierce battles across the country, as peace talks taking place in neighboring Ethiopia appeared to flounder.
    (AFP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, South Sudanese government forces battled to retake the key rebel-held town of Bentiu, as thousands of civilians continued to flee fighting and peace talks appeared deadlocked.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, South Sudan said that government troops retook Bentiu, the capital of Unity state, after a 2.5-hour battle. Rebels still controlled Bor, a state capital outside Juba, the country capital.
    (AP, 1/10/14)
2014        Jan 10, The UN refugee agency warned that fighting in South Sudan could by April drive more than half a million people from their homes, doubling the number of those already affected.
    (AFP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, South Sudanese government troops battled to recapture Bor, the last remaining rebel-held town.
    (AFP, 1/11/14)
2014        Jan 11, Three African envoys of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a regional grouping of east African nations that initiated the talks, met with South Sudanese rebel leader Riek Machar in an effort to agree the terms of truce, but he turned them down. His demand for the release of detainees remains a stumbling block to a ceasefire deal.
    (AP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 12, The UNís refugee agency said around 10,000 people have fled north to Sudan from South Sudan where government troops and rebels have battled for the past month.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 13, South Sudanese government troops advanced on Bor, the last state capital still in rebel hands, as ceasefire talks in neighboring Ethiopia were called off for the day.
    (AFP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 14, In South Sudan some 200 people fleeing warfare died after a boat crossing the Nile River sank, as fighting between rebels and government forces moved closer to Juba, the national capital.
    (AP, 1/14/14)
2014        Jan 14, A Ugandan military spokesman said that Ugandan and South Sudanese army officials are drafting what he called a "status of forces agreement" that will soon be signed by both countries after Pres. Kiir requested the Ugandans to extend their deployment.
    (AP, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 15, South Sudan's military battled rebels in the streets of the key northern oil town of Malakal, as violence in the world's newest nation entered its second month.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)
2014        Jan 15, Uganda confirmed its troops are fighting alongside South Sudan's government against rebels.
    (AFP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 16, Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report detailing atrocities in South Sudan and warning that "appalling crimes have been committed against civilians for no other reason than their ethnicity."
    (AFP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 18, South Sudanese government forces said they seized the flashpoint town of Bor back from rebels. Uganda's army claimed credit for the operation.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 19, South Sudanese troops fought to win back the key oil town of Malakal from rebels loyal to sacked vice president Riek Machar.
    (AFP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 20, South Sudan's army said it has seized back full control of the strategic town of Malakal, the last major settlement under rebel control.
    (AFP, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 21, Uganda said 9 of its soldiers have been killed and 12 others wounded during a month fighting in South Sudan, dismissing rebel claims to have killed scores.
    (AFP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 23, South Sudan's government and rebels signed a peace deal in Ethiopia aimed at ending the month-old conflict as fighting continued in oil-rich Unity state and in Jonglei state.
    (AP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 24, The World Food Program said looters in South Sudan have stolen UN food aid that would have fed over 220,000 people for a month.
    (AFP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 25, South Sudan's government said that rebel fighters had attacked government troops after the cease-fire had come into force. New satellite images showed that fighting has resulted in the intentional burning of some 750 homes near the town of Bentiu.
    (AP, 1/25/14)

2014        Jan 26, South Sudan's government and rebels traded accusations that each had breached a ceasefire deal by attacking the other, but insisted they were committed to ending weeks of brutal conflict.
    (AFP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 27, UN aid chief Valerie Amos arrived in war-torn South Sudan amid a growing humanitarian crisis, with rebels and government accusing each other of breaking a ceasefire aimed at ending the conflict.
    (AFP, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 29, South Sudan released to Kenya seven of the 11 key leaders held after an alleged coup bid last month, as Nairobi accepted to host the group.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)

2014        Feb 1, South Sudan government forces and allied militias reportedly attacked northern Leer town and surrounding villages in Unity state, killing an unknown number of people and destroying property. Rebels' defensive positions in Upper Nile state also came under attack.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 4, The UN issued an urgent appeal for $1.27 billion for aid for South Sudan, hit by a seven-week-old conflict that has forced close to a million people from their homes.
    (AFP, 2/4/14)

2014        Feb 5, In South Sudan government forces and allied militia attacked rebel defensive positions in the northern part of Jonglei state, close to the border with Upper Nile. Government soldiers mutinied in Lakes state while they were being sent to fight the rebels in Panyijar county in neighboring Unity state.
    (AFP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 6, South Sudan rebels fighting government troops said that 700 men from the government side have defected with all their equipment and were heading to join the rebels.
    (AFP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 12, UN leader Ban Ki-moon condemned what he said was the use of cluster bombs in the war in South Sudan.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 18, South Sudan rebel forces launched a major assault against the key oil-hub of Malakal, as a ceasefire agreement with the government appeared to be in tatters. The government admitted that the rebels controlled some parts of the town. A top government general was seriously wounded in the attack said to involve tens of thousands of rebel fighters. 10 people were killed in "inter-communal clashes" within a peacekeeping base in Malakal.
    (AFP, 2/18/14)(AP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 19, South Sudan's army said that it has lost contact with its troops in the key oil hub of Malakal following a major offensive by rebels.
    (AP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 22, The World Health Organization began a campaign to prevent outbreaks of cholera in temporary camps in South Sudan housing thousands of people who have fled the country's two-month-old conflict.
    (AFP, 2/22/14)

2014        Feb 26, In South Sudan Doctors Without Border said that the extreme violence and lack of respect for health care workers shown by warring sides has made the group's work almost impossible. Sick patients have been shot to death in their beds and medical facilities have been looted and burned to the ground.
    (AP, 2/26/14)
 
2014        Mar 5, In South Sudan at least 35 people were killed after heavy fighting broke out in the Giada military barracks in Juba, underscoring serious tensions within the national army as it battles a rebel uprising.
    (AFP, 3/5/14)(Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 13, East African heads of state met in Addis Ababa in the latest push for peace in war-torn South Sudan, where almost three months of raging conflict has left thousands dead.
    (AFP, 3/13/14)
2014        Mar 13, A court in Sudan sentenced former governor of the southern Blue Nile State and leader of the opposition group Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North Malik Agar and 17 other members of the group to death by hanging. 47 others were given life sentences in a hearing. All but one were tried in absentia.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 28, The UN said over a million people in South Sudan have been forced from their homes during more than three months of ongoing fighting, with conditions continuing to worsen.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)

2014        Apr 3, President Barack Obama signed a decree authorizing punitive sanctions, such as seizure of assets and visa bans, against anyone in South Sudan deemed to be threatening peace efforts, targeting UN peacekeeping forces and violating human rights.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 5, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir arrived in Khartoum to meet Sudanese President Omar Bashir.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 3, President Barack Obama signed a decree authorizing punitive sanctions, such as seizure of assets and visa bans, against anyone in South Sudan deemed to be threatening peace efforts, targeting UN peacekeeping forces and violating human rights.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 15, In South Sudan rebel fighters captured Bentiu, the capital of oil-rich Unity state. They issued an ultimatum to oil companies to shut down production and evacuate workers. UN peacekeepers rescued 10 oil workers from the violence, but not before five were wounded. Over the next 24 hours hundreds of people sheltering inside a mosque and a Catholic church in Bentiu were killed or wounded.
    (AP, 4/15/14)(AP, 4/21/14)(SFC, 4/23/14, p.A4)

2014        Apr 17, In South Sudan gunmen attacked civilians sheltering inside a UN peacekeeping base in the war-ravaged town of Bor. At least 58 people were killed and more than 100 others wounded in the attack.
    (AFP, 4/17/14)(AFP, 4/18/14)

2014        Apr 23, South Sudan media reported that President Salva Kiir has sacked his army chief, replacing him with a loyalist from his own ethnic group as the country's four-month conflict shows signs of being increasingly fought along tribal lines. Kiir also replaced his head of intelligence. South Sudanese rebel forces battling President Kiir captured the town of Renk, close to the border with Sudan and began advancing on the Paloich oil fields.
    (Reuters, 4/24/14)(AFP, 4/24/14)

2014        Apr 25, South Sudan released four top leaders accused of rebellion and treason, dropping charges for attempting to overthrow the government in a move aimed at ending a four-month-old civil war.
    (AFP, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 26, South Sudan's military spokesman said a "misunderstanding" between military troops and a local community sparked clashes a day earlier that killed 5 Nuer trainees. Rebel Brig. Gen. Lul Ruai Koang charged that 220 Nuer officers and trainees at Mapel Military Training Centre in Western Bahr El Ghazal state were deliberately killed.
    (AP, 4/27/14)

2014        Apr 30, The UN's human rights chief said over 9,000 children have been recruited as soldiers in South Sudan's brutal four-month long civil war by both government and rebel forces.
    (AFP, 4/30/14)

2014        May 2, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir agreed to fly to Ethiopia for talks and to consider forming a transitional government to try and end four months of fighting in the world's newest nation following talks with US Sec. of State John Kerry.
    (Reuters, 5/2/14)

2014        May 4, South Sudanese government forces overran Nasir, a key rebel base and moved to recapture Bentiu, the capital of the oil-producing Unity state, from rebel control.
    (AFP, 5/4/14)(AP, 5/514)

2014        May 5, South Sudan signed a deal with rebels to consider a "month of tranquility" that would start today to allow civilians caught up in a four-month conflict to move to places of safety and plant crops. South Sudanese troops and rebels battled in the key oil town of Bentiu as the government pushed forward a major offensive.
    (Reuters, 5/514)(AFP, 5/514)

2014        May 9, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir arrived in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to meet rebel leader Riek Machar under growing international pressure for an end to ethnic fighting that has raised fears of genocide. Kiir and Machar, a former vice president, met, shook hands and prayed together, and agreed to order a halt to fighting within 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/9/14)(AFP, 5/10/14)

2014        May 11, South Sudan's army and rebel forces blamed each other for violating a ceasefire hours after it came into effect.
    (Reuters, 5/11/14)
2014        May 11, China signed a deal with East African leaders to build a $3.8 billion rail link between Kenya's Indian Ocean port of Mombasa and Nairobi, the first stage of a line that will eventually link Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan.
    (AFP, 5/11/14)

2014        May 20, In Norway international donors pledged more than $600 million dollars in aid to South Sudan at a conference in Oslo aimed at averting a famine threatening millions of people.
    (AFP, 5/20/14)

2014        Jun 26, The UN said the number of civilians seeking shelter in UN bases in South Sudan has reached over 100,000 for the first time in more than six-months of conflict.
    (AFP, 6/26/14)

2014        Jul 1, Doctors Without Borders said 58 people have been killed in four hospitals in South Sudan since last December.
    (SFC, 7/2/14, p.A3)

2014        Jul 2, The UN's food aid agency warned that Ethiopia is facing a huge wave of refugees from South Sudan, where the specter of famine threatens to heap further misery on a people already rocked by civil war.
    (AFP, 7/2/14)
2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 11, Save the Children said a cholera outbreak in South Sudan has infected over 2,600 people and left at least 60 people dead since the first cases were reported in Juba in May.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 16, The UN said the worsening conflict in Darfur and an influx of people fleeing war in South Sudan helped push to almost seven million the number needing aid in Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 20, South Sudanese rebels and government soldiers clashed in the northern town of Nasir, adding to fears that a shaky ceasefire agreement signed in May could totally collapse.
    (Reuters, 7/20/14)

2014        Jul 21, South Sudan rebels and government troops battled over the strategic town of Nasir, with rebels launching their largest offensive since an oft-broken May truce.
    (AFP, 7/21/14)

2014        Aug 10, Warring rivals in South Sudan missed a 60-day deadline to forge a unity government, despite warnings of famine and the threat of sanctions if fighting continues.
    (AFP, 8/10/14)

2014        Aug 12, UN Security Council envoys warned South Sudan's warring leaders they would face sanctions if a civil war that has pushed the young nation to the brink of famine does not stop.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 15, South Sudan's civil war entered its ninth month with rebels and government troops engaged in heavy battles.
    (AFP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 19, The UN said the spiraling crisis in war-ravaged South Sudan has sent nearly 200,000 refugees into Ethiopia, making it Africa's largest refugee-hosting country.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 24, In South Sudan a member of an East African regional body monitoring a ceasefire died of a heart attack after some monitors were detained by rebels in Unity state, further complicating a peace process.
    (Reuters, 8/24/14)

2014        Aug 26, In South Sudan a UN mission Mi-8 cargo helicopter crashed near Bentiu, a hotly contested between the government and rebel fighters. A South Sudan government spokesman blamed the rebels for shooting down the helicopter. 3 people were reported killed with one surviver.
    (AP, 8/26/14)

2014        Sep 16, Authorities in South Sudan announced a ban on foreign workers, including aid agency staff, and ordered their jobs to be given to locals. A day later Minister of Labor Ngor Kolong Ngor backpeddled  saying they were only targeting low-level positions.
    (AFP, 9/16/14)(AFP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 18, In South Sudan fighting started when gunmen detained Ugandan local government officials carrying out a census, accusing them of straying into South Sudanese territory. By the next day at least 7 people were killed on both sides of Uganda and South Sudan's border.
    (Reuters, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 25, China said it will send 700 troops to join a UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan, where fighting has threatened Beijing's oil investments.
    (Reuters, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 29, In South Sudan at least 35 people were killed when a bus collided with a truck on a highway linking South Sudan to Uganda. Most of the victims were from Uganda.
    (AP, 9/29/14)

2014        Sep 30, Mediators said South Sudan's warring factions have agreed on the installation of a federal system of government, saying progress was being made in talks aimed at finding a political solution to violence in the world's newest country.
    (AP, 9/30/14)

2014        Oct 16, In South Sudan gunmen seized a UN worker while he was waiting in line for a flight from the northern town of Malakal.
    (AFP, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 23, A group of South Sudanese women peace activists said they have suggested that men in the civil war-torn country be denied sex until they stop fighting.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 27, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced at the start of a visit to Ethiopia that the EU and several regional development banks have pledged $8 billion in development aid for projects across eight countries in the Horn of Africa. Countries targeted are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda.
    (AFP, 10/27/14)(AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Oct 29, South Sudan rebels killed, raped and kidnapped civilians during an attack, leaving at least 11 dead in the oil-rich town of Bentiu.
    (AFP, 12/19/14)

2014        Nov 8, South Sudanese rebels accused the government of violating their latest ceasefire deal, just hours after both sides pledged to end almost a year of fighting.
    (Reuters, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 12, Sudanese warplanes reportedly bombed South Sudan, wounding six civilians in areas bordering war zone regions where Khartoum was trying to crush rebel fighters.
    (AFP, 11/14/14)

2014        Dec 29, The United Nations said it had begun delivering food aid to war-torn South Sudan via the Nile River from Sudan for the first time since it became independent in 2011.
    (Reuters, 12/29/14)

2014        James Copnall authored ďA Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudanís Bitter and Incomplete Divorce.Ē
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.82)

2015        Jan 21, South Sudan President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar signed an agreement to unite the ruling Sudan People's Liberation Movement in the Tanzanian town of Arusha.
    (AP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 27, South Sudanese rebels released 280 child soldiers, the first batch of some 3,000 to be freed but with thousands more still fighting.
    (AFP, 1/27/15)

2015        Jan 29, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar met in Ethiopia for the latest round of peace talks mediated by East African leaders aimed at ending their 13-month-old civil.
    (AFP, 1/29/15)

2015        Feb 2, South Sudan's warring factions signed another peace deal in the latest effort to end hostilities that have raged for more than a year.
    (AP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 9, The UN said over 2.5 million South Sudanese are on the brink of famine, with the civil war likely to intensify as it launched a $1.8 billion aid appeal.
    (AFP, 2/9/15)

2015        Feb 13, South Sudan's cabinet postponed elections and extended President Salva Kiir's powers for two years. That goes against a deal struck between Kiir and rebel chief Riek Machar earlier this month, in which they agreed to set up a transitional unity government in the bitterly divided nation to run for 30 months from July 9.
    (AFP, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 16, In South Sudan an unidentified armed group abducted at least 89 boys, some as young as 13, from their homes in the northern town of Wau Shilluk.
    (AP, 2/21/15)

2015        Feb 17, In South Sudan a British worker for the US-based Carter Center was killed in Juba, bringing to 14 the number of aid workers killed over the course of the country's 14-month conflict.
    (AP, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 18, South Sudan's army and rebels fought heavy battles for a third day with scores of casualties, a day ahead of a planned restart of peace talks.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)

2015        Mar 3, The UN Security Council established a sanctions regime for South Sudan but stopped short of imposing worldwide travel bans and asset freezes on officials in the conflict-torn country or an arms embargo.
    (Reuters, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 6, South Sudan's warring leaders failed to reach a deal to end more than a year of civil war, with the latest collapse in peace talks paving the way for possible sanctions.
    (AFP, 3/6/15)

2015        Mar 21, A South Sudanese rebel group freed 250 child soldiers -- including a girl as young as nine. The UN children's agency warned the next day that thousands were still being forced to fight.
    (AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Apr 1, In South Sudan 3 staff members of the UN World Food Program disappeared while traveling in a convoy from Malakal to distribute food to Melut, Upper Nile state. UN food operation in some parts of the country were soon suspended.
    (SFC, 4/23/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 9, A Sudanese airstrike on South Sudanese killed 4 people and wounded nine others.
    (SFC, 4/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 22, In South Sudan heavy fighting broke out in the war-ravaged northeastern town of Malakal. The fighting pitted troops loyal to the state governor against those of rogue general Johnson Olony, an ex-rebel who commands a pro-government ethnic Shilluk militia. At least 2 soldiers were reported killed over the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 4/22/15)

2015        May 9, In South Sudan Doctors Without Borders and the International Committee of the Red Cross evacuated their staff from the rebel-held town of Leer in the south of Unity State fearing clashes between the rebels and government troops.
    (AP, 5/9/15)

2015        May 15, South Sudanese military spokesman Col. Philip Aguer said government troops have been ordered to pursue rebels in Jonglei state as well as south of Unity state. Earlier this week the UN announced there were credible reports of atrocities being carried out, including killing of civilians, rape and the torching of 28 villages. Rebels in launched a large-scale attack on the strategic northern oil hub and state capital of Malakal.
    (AP, 5/15/15)(AFP, 5/16/15)

2015        May 19, In South Sudan 4 civilians, including a woman and a child, were killed when two mortar bombs exploded inside a UN compound in Melut, Upper Nile state.
    (SFC, 5/21/15, p.A2)

2015        May 25, South Sudan said its troops are back in full control of the strategic northern oil town of Malakal, after days of fierce fighting with rebel forces.
    (AFP, 5/25/15)

2015        May 27, The UN said more than 40 percent of South Sudan's 11 million people need food aid, the highest hunger levels recorded in the world's youngest country, where fighting erupted 18 months ago.
    (Reuters, 5/27/15)

2015        May, Warring forces in South Sudan carried out horrific crimes against children, including castration, rape and tying them together before slitting their throats. At least 129 children were reported killed.
    (AP, 6/19/15)(SFC, 6/19/15, p.A6)

2015        Jun 6, South Sudan's rebels claimed they had seized control of key oilfields in the north of the country after weeks of heavy fighting with government forces.
    (AFP, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 17, South Sudan's government accused Sudan of bombing two locations in its territory, killing at least one soldier and wounding others on June 14-15.
    (AP, 6/17/15)
2015        Jun 17, In Congo DRC heavily armed poachers, believed to be from South Sudan, killed a ranger and two soldiers patrolling in Garamba National Park.
    (AP, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 23, South Sudanís top politician Pagan Amum, arrested and sacked as secretary general of the ruling party as civil war erupted 18-months ago, was reinstated to his post.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 27, In South Sudan Malakal was attacked and captured by rebels led by ex-government general Johnson Olony, accused by aid agencies of forcibly recruiting hundreds of child soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/2/15)

2015        Jun 30, A UN rights report said South Sudan's army raped then torched girls alive inside their homes during a recent campaign.
    (AFP, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 1, The UN said South Sudan rebels have opened fire on a UN peacekeeping base sheltering 30,000 civilians, killing one and wounding six in a possible war crime.
    (AFP, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 2, The Obama administration placed sanctions on leaders from opposing military forces in South Sudan for their roles in the country's conflict.
    (Reuters, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 3, The UN children's agency said at least 29 people have died in South Sudan's latest cholera outbreak.
    (AP, 7/3/15)

2015        Jul 6, South Sudan's army said it has retaken the strategic northeastern town of Malakal from rebels, the latest time the ruined state capital has swapped hands.
    (AFP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 8, South Sudan rebel leader Riek Machar called on President Salva Kiir to resign along with all ministers and the parliament or risk sparking a revolution.
    (AP, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 10, The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said a dozen patients have died and dozens more wounded are without care in a South Sudanese hospital after fighting forced medics to flee.
    (AFP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 12, South Sudan said it it has decided to expel UN diplomat Mary Cummins from norhtern Unity state in retaliation for the publication of a human rights report  that accused the government of committing widespread attacks on civilians there.
    (SFC, 7/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 27, The US State Department took Malaysia and Cuba off its ďtier 3Ē list of countries failing to combat modern-day slavery, leaving the US open to criticism that politics is swaying the often-contentious rankings in its annual human trafficking report. Burundi, Belize, Belarus, Comoros and South Sudan were downgraded to Tier 3, where Thailand remained for a second year.
    (AP, 7/27/15)(Reuters, 7/27/15)

2015        Jul 31, In South Sudan thousands of civilians in Upper Nile state faced starvation after the government blocked aid groups from using the Nile River to deliver relief food.
    (AP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 6, South Sudan's rival forces began peace talks, as international pressure mounts ahead of an August 17 deadline to strike a deal to end 19 months of civil war.
    (AFP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 11, A top South Sudan rebel general said that he and other powerful commanders had split from their chief Riek Machar, rejecting ongoing peace talks and risking a worsening of the country's civil war.
    (AFP, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 14, South Sudan's government said it was pulling out of peace talks to end a 20-month long civil war after rebel forces split despite international threats of sanctions. The UN said South Sudan's army has lifted a more than a month-long aid blockade into rebel areas.
    (AFP, 8/14/15)

2015        Aug 15, South Sudan's government said it would continue with peace talks to end a 20-month civil war, but without President Salva Kiir attending.
    (AFP, 8/15/15)

2015        Aug 16, East African leaders met in Ethiopia ahead of a deadline for South Sudan's warring leaders to strike a peace deal or risk international sanctions.
    (AFP, 8/16/15)

2015        Aug 17, South Sudan's government and rebels signed a peace agreement, hours before the end of a deadline threatening international sanctions. The agreement was signed by rebel chief Riek Machar and Pagan Amum, the secretary-general of the ruling party. Pres. Salva Kiir, who only initialed the deal, rather than signing it as Machar did, had reservations over the proposal's plan to demilitarize the capital, Juba.
    (AFP, 8/17/15)(Reuters, 8/18/15)

2015        Aug 18, Uganda told South Sudan's warring factions to put their egos aside and make peace, a day after President Salva Kiir refused to sign a deal to end a 20-month-old conflict.
    (Reuters, 8/18/15)

2015        Aug 19, Peace efforts in South Sudan were in tatters as warring rivals blamed each other for attacks and the army claimed that the rebels had broken their own peace deal hours after signing.
    (AFP, 8/19/15)
2015        Aug 19, In South Sudan Peter Julius Moi, a reporter for the Corporate Weekly, was shot twice in the back late today. The attack that came days after President Salva Kiir was reported to have threatened to kill reporters "working against the country." Moi was the seventh journalist to be killed in South Sudan this year.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 26, South Sudanís President Salva Kiir signed a peace deal to end a 20-month conflict with rebels. Kiir also issued a list of "serious reservations" warning the deal might not last.
    (AFP, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 28, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir ordered all government troops to cease fighting rebel forces as part of a peace agreement. A full ceasefire was to begin August 29.
    (AFP, 8/28/15)

2015        Aug 29, South Sudan's rebel chief Riek Machar ordered his troops to lay down their arms in line with a ceasefire to end a 20-month civil war. South Sudan's army and rebels accused each other of sparking fresh fighting in the north-east, hours before the start of a ceasefire to end a brutal 20-month civil war.
    (AFP, 8/29/15)

2015        Aug 30, South Sudan government troops attacked a village in Unity state on the first day of a cease-fire that both sides have pledged to implement. The attack on the village in Mayendit County followed attacks on two other villages in the same area the previous evening.
    (AP, 8/30/15)   

2015        Aug 31, South Sudan's rebel chief Riek Machar accused the government of breaking a ceasefire, jeopardizing a peace agreement aimed to end the country's 20-month civil war.
    (AFP, 8/31/15)

2015        Sep 2, In South Sudan monitors of the regional bloc of East African states known as IGAD witnessed government "helicopter gunships flying towards and engaging the SPLM/A(IO) rebel forces on the west bank of the Nile. Machar's rebels also violated the August ceasefire by launching attacks in Unity state on August 23.
    (Reuters, 9/17/15)

2015        Sep 14, South Sudan's army repelled a fresh rebel attack, the latest battle to rock the country despite a ceasefire aimed at ending a brutal 21-month civil war.
    (AFP, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 15, South Sudan's president urged his people to "join hands" in implementing a peace deal to end more than 20 months of conflict.
    (Reuters, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 16, In South Sudan at least 203 people were killed when an oil truck exploded as a crowd tried to gather fuel from the vehicle after it had veered off the road.
    (Reuters, 9/17/15)(AFP, 9/23/15)

2015        Sep 28, Britainís PM David Cameron says more than 300 British troops will be deployed to South Sudan and Somalia as part of peacekeeping efforts to counter Islamic militants.
    (AP, 9/28/15)

2015        Oct 3, South Sudanese rebels said government troops had attacked their positions over the last three days, casting further doubt on a fragile peace agreement in the world's youngest country. A military official said 52 soldiers and rebels have been killed over the last week in fighting in the contested state of Unity.
    (Reuters, 10/3/15)(AP, 10/3/15)

2015        Oct 15, In South Sudan a consortium of civic and aid groups said violence against civilians is continuing despite a peace agreement. They said at least 1,000 civilians have been killed between April and September and that 1,300 women and girls were abducted in Unity state.
    (SFC, 10/16/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 22, In South Sudan government troops killed about 50 people by stuffing them into a shipping container in baking heat in Unity state. This was only made public on Jan 31, 2016. On March 11, 2016, Amnesty International said the deliberate suffocating of over 60 men and boys stuffed into a baking hot shipping container in South Sudan is a war crime.
    (AFP, 2/1/16)(AFP, 3/11/16)

2015        Oct 24, Humanitarian organizations monitoring civilian casualties in South Sudan said 80 civilians, including 57 children, were killed in just one county in war-torn Unity state between October 4 and 22.
    (AP, 10/24/15)

2015        Oct 26, Rebels in South Sudan seized UN barges they suspected were transporting weapons for government troops. 28 UN peacekeepers were freed on Oct 29, but 12 contractors were kept hostage. On Nov 1 the UN sent helicopters to pick up the South Sudanese workers, and recovered the barge, but not the 55,000 liters of fuel it was carrying.
    (AP, 10/29/15)(SFC, 10/30/15, p.A4)(Reuters, 11/2/15)

2015        Oct 28, African Union investigators discovered mass graves in South Sudan and found evidence of horrific crimes, including forced cannibalism, according to a long-awaited report. Investigators found that the conflict began on Dec. 15, 2013, as a skirmish broke out between Dinka and Nuer soldiers of the presidential guard following political tension between Kiir and Machar, who had been fired as Kiir's deputy the previous July.
    (AP, 10/28/15)

2015        Oct, The UNís World Food Program was reported to be spending $1.1 million a day to feed the hungry of South Sudan.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.50)

2015        Nov 4, In South Sudan a Russian-built Antonov AN-12 turbo prop cargo plane with passengers on board crashed after taking off from the airport in Juba, killing 37 people. Officials said the plane belonged to freight and logistics firm Allied Services Ltd. and was not authorized to carry passengers. One man and a baby survived.
    (Reuters, 11/4/15)(AP, 11/5/15)(AP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 19, South Sudan's parliament changed the constitution to boost presidential powers amid fears violence is spreading to new areas in the country, with seven killed on the highway to Uganda.
    (AFP, 11/19/15)

2015        Nov 26, On the South Sudan border with Sudan a 4-year-old girl and an Ethiopian peacekeeper were killed and three others wounded in an attack in the contested Abyei area.
    (AP, 11/27/15)

2015        Dec 24, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir made a Christmas Eve decree dissolving the nation's 10 states and creating 28 new ones. Critics said it threatens the peace deal signed in August to end the country's two-year civil war.
    (AP, 12/25/15)

2016        Jan 8, South Sudan President Salva Kiir named 50 lawmakers from the rebel movement and agreed to share ministerial posts with his rivals in line with a peace deal aimed at ending a two-year civil war.
    (AFP, 1/8/16)
2016        Jan 8, A South Sudan official said patients, including premature babies, have died in its main public hospital since early December because the Juba Teaching Hospital cannot afford fuel to run its generators.
    (AP, 1/8/16)

2016        Jan 9, The UN Refugee Agency said a rise in fighting in a once peaceful part of South Sudan has forced tens of thousands of civilians to flee their homes in Western Equatoria state since December.
    (SFC, 1/10/16, p.A5)

2016        Jan 15, British brewer SABMiller said it will close the only beer factory in South Sudan due to an acute shortage of foreign currency in the world's youngest country.
    (AFP, 1/15/16)

2016        Jan 21, A UN report said South Sudanese government troops held women as sex slaves while attacking scores of civilians just outside UN bases in Unity state.
    (SFC, 1/22/16, p.A2)

2016        Jan 22, Sudan's state-run news agency said the Sudanese President Omar Bashir has ordered revisions to the economic agreements struck with South Sudan in a positive gesture to the breakaway southern state.
    (AP, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 23, Warring rivals in South Sudan missed a key deadline to forge a unity government, with rebels rejecting President Salva Kiir's creation of new regional states as fighting continues.
    (AFP, 1/23/16)

2016        Feb 3, The ministers of Sudan and South Sudan at a meeting in Juba agreed to tie the fee to oil prices after slumps in global prices made Juba effectively pay to export crude. Exact details were yet to be settled.
    (AFP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 8, The UN said at least 40,000 people are being starved to death in South Sudan war zones on the brink of famine.
    (AFP, 2/8/16)

2016        Feb 11, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir named his arch-rival Riek Machar as vice-president, raising hopes for the implementation of a repeatedly broken peace deal to end more than two years of civil war.
    (AFP, 2/12/16)

2016        Feb 18, Gunmen in South Sudan opened fire overnight on civilians sheltering inside a United Nations base. At least 18 people were killed and over 70 wounded in the clashes in the UN camp over the last 24 hours in the north-eastern town of Malakal. Troops wearing the uniform of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) reportedly took part in the attack.
    (AP, 2/18/16)(AP, 2/19/16)

2016        Mar 3, On World Wildlife Day the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society said all sides in South Sudan's civil war have slaughtered wildlife including elephant, giraffe and antelope, warning huge efforts must be made to protect the surviving animal population.
    (AFP, 3/3/16)

2016        Mar 11, The UN said South Sudan has encouraged fighters to rape women in place of wages while children have been burnt alive and called the young nation one of the world's most "horrendous" human rights situations.
    (AFP, 3/11/16)

2016        Apr 6, In Sudan an anti-terrorism court in Khartoum sentenced 22 South Sudanese nationals to death and three others to life in prison for belonging to a militant group in Darfur. The defendants belong to the Justice and Equality Movement, a rebel group based in Darfur that took up arms against the Sudanese government in 2003, complaining that their region was being marginalized.
    (Reuters, 4/7/16)

2016        Apr 15, Ethnic Murle gunmen from South Sudan killed 208 people and kidnapped 102 children in a cross-border raid on the Nuer tribe in Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 4/17/16)(AFP, 4/18/16)

2016        Apr 21, Ethiopian troops were operating in South Sudan after crossing the border to rescue some 125 Ethiopian children who were kidnapped during a bloody cattle raid. Top officials from both countries sought to coordinate their efforts.
    (AP, 4/21/16)

2016        Apr 23, South Sudan's rebel chief Riek Machar missed an international deadline to return to Juba to become vice-president under a peace deal hoped to end war, claiming the government denied permission.
    (AFP, 4/23/16)

2016        Apr 26, South Sudan rebel chief Riek Machar was sworn in as vice-president in the capital Juba as part of a peace deal aimed at ending more than two years of ferocious civil war.
    (AFP, 4/26/16)

2016        Apr 29, South Sudan's leaders formed a transitional coalition government bringing together politicians from the government and the armed opposition who have been at war for two and a half years.
    (AP, 4/29/16)

2016        Apr 30, Authorities in South Sudan said they have recovered 32 of the 125 Ethiopian children who the Ethiopian government said were abducted from its Gambela region two weeks ago during a deadly cattle raid blamed on a South Sudanese militia.
    (AP, 4/30/16)

2016        May 9, The UN World Food Program said up to 5.3 million people in South Sudan may face a severe food shortages during this year's lean season, nearly double the number in the first three months of the year.
    (Reuters, 5/9/16)

2016        May 24, South Sudan authorities arrested an army major for allegedly trafficking elephant ivory through the country's Paloich oil fields.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        May 25, In South Sudan an airport sniffer dog unit found 10 kg (22 pounds) of frozen pangolin meat in the luggage of a Chinese national upon his arrival in Juba from Paloich where he works as an oil engineer.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 5, South Sudan resumed talks with Sudan on a raft of thorny issues, including borders and oil revenues, still outstanding from its 2011 secession.
    (AFP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 25, In South Sudan at least 43 people were killed in two days of fighting between armed groups and government forces around the northwest South Sudanese town of Wau. A church official later said he had seen 50 bodies at a mortuary in Wau.
    (Reuters, 6/28/16)(AP, 6/29/16)

2016        Jul 7, In South Sudan 5 government soldiers were killed in a shootout late today between opposing army factions in the capital. The UN mission reported an attack on a senior official in the Tomping area of Juba.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 8, In South Sudan at least 115 soldiers from rival factions were killed in gunbattles in the capital Juba as gunfire erupted near the state house where President Salva Kiir and vice president Riek Machar, former rivals, were meeting for talks.
    (Reuters, 7/9/16)

2016        Jul 10, The residence of South Sudan's vice president and former rebel leader Riek Machar was attacked by forces loyal to President Salva Kiir. Kenya Airways said it was suspending flights to Juba due to uncertain security.
    (Reuters, 7/10/16)

2016        Jul 11, South Sudan's as President Salva Kiir ordered a ceasefire after a new day of heavy fighting in the capital Juba that sent thousands of people fleeing and threatened a return to civil war. Five foreigners were raped and their local colleague murdered at the Terrain Hotel in Juba as Pres. Kiir's troops won a three-day battle over opposition forces loyal to ex-Vice President Riek Machar. Lt. Col. Luka Akechak, the unit commander at the hotel, later became one of more than a dozen South Sudanese soldiers standing trial in a military court. Akechak was found dead in October 2017 following medical treatment in Juba.
    (AFP, 7/11/16)(Reuters, 10/20/17)

2016        Jul 15, The UN said at least 300 people were killed and 42,000 fled their homes this month during the July 8-11 intense gun battles in Juba, South Sudan. The dead included two Chinese peacekeepers.
    (AFP, 7/15/16)(Reuters, 7/29/16)

2016        Jul 17, The African Union opened a summit in the Rwandan capital Kigali. The renewed fighting in South Sudan dominated discussions.
    (AP, 7/17/16)

2016        Jul 22, The United Nations refugee agency said more than 26,000 people have fled South Sudan to Uganda this month.
    (AP, 7/22/16)

2016        Jul 26, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir installed Taban Deng Gai as the new first vice president to replace opposition leader Riek Machar, who fled into hiding this month amid clashes with government forces. Loyalists to Machar alleged a conspiracy to remove him.
    (AP, 7/26/16)

2016        Aug 2, UN agencies said tens of thousands of people have fled a fresh outbreak of violence in South Sudan, reporting mass killings, looting and forced recruitment of child soldiers. At least 9 people were reported killed over the weekend in the latest clashes on a road in Central Equatoria state, the region that includes the capital Juba.
    (Reuters, 8/2/16)

2016        Aug 2, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir fired five ministers, in a move that removed figures known for close ties to ex-rebel leader Riek Machar. A presidential decree showed that cabinet posts including the interior and petroleum portfolios in the oil-rich state had been filled with allies of the new vice president, Taban Deng Gai.
    (AFP, 8/3/16)

2016        Aug 9, South Sudan said it requested $1.9 billion from the Chinese government to develop oil fields and infrastructure projects.
    (AP, 8/9/16)

2016        Aug 13, Fighting flared in South Sudan late today southwest of the capital between forces loyal to the president and those backing the opposition, after clashes last month raised fears of a slide back into civil war.
    (Reuters, 8/14/16)

2016        Aug 18, Aides said South Sudan's former rebel leader and ex-vice president Riek Machar has left the country following violent clashes last month and is now in a "safe" country in the region.
    (AFP, 8/18/16)

2016        Sep 21, Sudan said it is hosting about 400,000 South Sudanese refugees who fled a brutal civil war that erupted after it broke away in 2011.
    (AFP, 9/21/16)

2016        Sep 30, The UN warned that around 100,000 people were trapped in the South Sudanese town of Yei, where they were facing serious shortages of food and medicine.
    (AFP, 9/30/16)

2016        Oct 7, It was reported that President Barack Obama has issued waivers that continue millions of dollars in US military assistance for troubled South Sudan and six other nations where child soldiers have been used, disappointing advocates who say his administration hasn't made curbing the use of children in combat a higher priority. Waivers also have been granted to Somalia, Congo, Nigeria, Rwanda, Iraq and Myanmar.
    (AP, 10/7/16)

2016        Nov 5, In South Sudan an angry football fan fired on others watching a match in a bar in Juba. By Nov 7 the death toll numbered least 13 people after some of the injured died of their wounds.
    (AP, 11/7/16)

2016        Nov 9, The first batch of Kenyan troops who had served in a UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan arrived home, after Nairobi ordered them to withdraw in response to the sacking of the Kenyan commander of the UNMISS force.
    (Reuters, 11/9/16)

2016        Nov 16, South Sudanese soldiers and rebels clashed in Unity State, killing at least 15 people, as rebels loyal to former vice president Riek Machar tried to steal cattle in the small village of Adaab el Bahr.
    (Reuters, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 21, Japanese peacekeepers, with a broader mandate to use force, landed in South Sudan, the first overseas deployment of the country's troops with those expanded powers in nearly 70 years. The 350 Self-Defense Forces will replace a previous contingent of Japanese peacekeepers who served in the UN Mission in South Sudan, but did not have mandate to use force.
    (AP, 11/21/16)

2016        Nov 26, South Sudan's government said it has accepted with "no conditions" increase the peacekeeping force in the country as mandated by the UN Security Council in August.
    (AP, 11/26/16)

2016        Dec 1, Yasmin Sooka, the head of the UN commission of human rights in the South Sudan, said ethnic cleansing is taking place in some areas of South Sudan and the stage is set for a repeat of the Rwandan genocide. Attacks on aid workers and bureaucratic interference were preventing supplies from reaching tens of thousands of desperate South Sudanese who have fled their homes amid escalating violence.
    (Reuters, 12/1/16)

2016        Dec 2, UN investigators said South Sudanese soldiers have brutally raped an elderly woman and a pregnant woman lost her baby after being gang-raped by seven soldiers. Three in five women in UN-administered "protection of civilian" sites around the capital Juba experienced rape or sexual assault, according to a 2016 report by the UN Population Fund.
    (Reuters, 12/2/16)

2016        Dec 3, Congolese troops detained 41 South Sudanese soldiers and one police officer after they fled a rebel assault over the frontier.
    (Reuters, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 9, The Norwegian Refugee Council said South Sudan has expelled Victor Moses, its country director there.
    (AP, 12/9/16)

2016        Dec 14, A team of UN investigators said South Sudan is "on the brink of an all-out ethnic civil war which could destabilize the entire region".
    (AP, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 23, The United Nations Security Council failed to adopt a US-drafted resolution to impose an arms embargo and further sanctions on South Sudan despite warnings by UN officials of a possible genocide in the world's newest state.
    (Reuters, 12/23/16)

2016        Dec, In Uganda the number of refugees since last July from South Sudan has increased from 250,000 to almost 600,000. New arrivals were crossing the border at a rate of 25,000 a week.
    (Econ, 12/10/16, p.49)

2016        In South Sudan only 27% of adults were able to read.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.47)

2017        Jan 15, South Sudanís Minister of Information Michael Makuei said that Dec. 15th was the expiration date for the deployment of peacekeepers to bolster the existing 12,000 UN troops. He said a new resolution is needed for the additional troops. Makuei also announced that President Salva Kiir has created four new states in South Sudan bringing the total number to 32.
    (AP, 1/15/17)

2017        Jan 31, In South Sudan fresh clashes broke out around Malakal, the latest turn in the struggle for the capital of the oil-producing Upper Nile region.
    (Reuters, 1/31/17)

2017        Jan, In Kenya Aggrey Idri Ezibon, a member of a South Sudanese opposition group, and Dong Samuel Luak, a human rights lawyer disappeared in Nairobi. In 2019 a report by the UN Security Council panel of experts said multiple credible sources suggested that the two men were likely killed by South Sudanese National Security Service (NSS) officers on Jan. 30, 2017, on a farm owned by President Salva Kiir.
    (Reuters, 5/1/19)

2017        Feb 6, South Sudanís Pres. Salva Kiir said that soldiers who rape civilians should be shot, trying to mollify citizens outraged by abuses by security forces and quell growing international anger over attacks.
    (Reuters, 2/6/17)

2017        Feb 11, South Sudanese Lt. Gen. Thomas Cirillo Swaka resigned while telling President Salva Kiir "you have disgraced yourself" by subjecting the conflict-torn country to ethnic bias and "unacceptable cycles of violence."
    (AP, 2/11/17)

2017        Feb 13, The UN said more than 1.5 million South Sudanese have become refugees and their humanitarian needs are overwhelming aid efforts during the country's civil war.
    (AP, 2/13/17)

2017        Feb 17, South Sudan's labor minister Gabriel Duop Lam resigned and declared allegiance to rebel leader Riek Machar, making him the second top official to quit in the war-torn country this week.
    (AFP, 2/17/17)
2017        Feb 17, In South Sudan Khalid Ono Loki, the former head of military courts, resigned alleging corruption and a military fractured along ethnic lines. It is the third top official in a week to leave while criticizing the government of President Salva Kiir.
    (AP, 2/18/17)
2017        Feb 17, Uganda warned that its resources are strained by the more than 400,000 refugees who have poured into the country in recent months from South Sudan's civil war.
    (AP, 2/17/17)

2017        Feb 20, South Sudan declared famine in some parts of the country, with more than three years of war leaving nearly five million hungry in what aid groups called a "man-made" tragedy.
    (AFP, 2/20/17)

2017        Feb 21, UNICEF said nearly 1.4 million children are at "imminent risk" of death in famines in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen.
    (Reuters, 2/21/17)

2017        Feb 27, The United Nations refugee agency said more than 31,000 South Sudanese refugees - mostly women and children - have crossed the border into Sudan this year, fleeing famine and conflict.
    (Reuters, 2/27/17)

2017        Mar 2, South Sudan announced it would increase work permit fees for foreign workers from the $100-$300 range to between $1,000 and $10,000 per year, depending on the qualifications of the worker. International aid agencies on March 10 warned this would worsen a humanitarian crisis in the famine-hit country. In early April South Sudan suspended the plans to charge foreign workers a $10,000 work permit fee, after criticism that it would create a huge expense for aid organizations.
    (AFP, 3/11/17)(AP, 4/3/17)

2017        Mar 3, South Sudan said it has arrested four soldiers after residents accused the army of beating and raping civilians in a small village near the capital last month.
    (Reuters, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 7, A new United Nations report described South Sudan as teetering on the edge of genocide and experiencing ethnic cleansing, a stark portrayal of a nation whose crises now include famine.
    (AP, 3/7/17)

2017        Mar 10, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir said he had pardoned two senior government officials and promised to release other political prisoners, as his rule faces surging resistance, warfare and famine.
    (Reuters, 3/10/17)
2017        Mar 10, Japanís PM Shinzo Abe announced that Japan is ending its peacekeeping mission in troubled South Sudan after five years. Abe said Japan would not renew the mission after the current rotation returns in May.
    (AP, 3/10/17)
2017        Mar 10, The UN warned that the world is facing its worst humanitarian crisis since the end of World War II, with more than 20 million people facing starvation and famine in four countries (northeastern Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen).
    (AFP, 3/11/17)

2017        Mar 13, A South Sudanese military spokesman said rebels have kidnapped eight locals working for a US charity and are demanding aid deliveries as ransom.
    (Reuters, 3/13/17)
2017        Mar 13, In Ethiopia gunmen from South Sudan killed 28 people and kidnapped 43 in Gambella's Gog and Jor areas.
    (Reuters, 3/15/17)

2017        Mar 14, In South Sudan gunmen killed two people and wounded three when they attacked a humanitarian convoy in the center of the country.
    (Reuters, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 16, Ethiopia's military rescued six children kidnapped by South Sudanese raiders in a cross-border attack, but dozens of others remain missing and soldiers are pursuing the gunmen to recover them.
    (Reuters, 3/17/17)

2017        Mar 18, South Sudanese rebels kidnapped four oil workers including a Pakistani national, in a bid to force their Chinese and Malaysian consortium to leave the country.
    (Reuters, 3/20/17)

2017        Mar 22, The International Red Cross appealed for $400 million to help some 20 million people facing famine or the risk of it in four conflict-ridden countries: Somalia, Yemen, South Sudan and Nigeria.
    (AP, 3/22/17)(Econ, 4/1/17, p.39)

2017        Mar 25, In South Sudan six aid workers were killed in an ambush while traveling from the capital Juba towards the town of Pibor.
    (Reuters, 3/27/17)

2017        Mar 25, In South Sudan six aid workers working for the Grass Roots Empowerment for Development Organization (GREDO), were killed in an ambush while traveling from the capital Juba towards the town of Pibor. The death toll soon rose to seven after the driver, David Kim Choop, also died.
    (Reuters, 3/27/17)(AFP, 3/27/17)(SFC, 3/28/17, p.A2)

2017        Mar, United Nations satellite images showed at least 18,000 structures have been destroyed in the Yei area of South Sudan, one of the most significant caches of evidence of widespread destruction in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 4/7/17)

2017        Apr 5, Hundreds of South Sudanese refugees fled into Uganda for a second day, bearing further grim testimony of an attack by government forces on the border town of Pajok in which at least 17 people were killed.
    (Reuters, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 10, In South Sudan at least 16 civilians were killed in the town of Wau, as ethnic militias went house to house searching for people from other groups. Witnesses said the militias were aligned with the government's side in the ethnically-charged civil war. The dead included three men contracted to work as porters for the World Food Program. The fighting came to Wau after government soldiers were killed in an ambush a day earlier south of the town.
    (Reuters, 4/9/17)(AP, 4/14/17)(SFC, 6/1/17, p.A4)

2017        Apr 15, In South Sudan army troops reportedly attacked Raga killing 14 civilians. The army denied the rebel charges.
    (AP, 4/16/17)

2017        Apr 17, Japan started withdrawing its 350 troops from a UN mission in war battered South Sudan, a move coinciding with escalating violence in a conflict where killings have been described as genocide.
    (Reuters, 4/17/17)

2017        Apr 26, South Sudanís government launched a new offensive. Some 50,000 people in Kodok in Upper Nile state, many of whom fled fighting six weeks ago in the town of Wau Shilluk, were at risk from the violence.
    (AFP, 4/29/17)

2017        Apr 29, The United Nations called for a halt to fighting in South Sudan after the government launched a new offensive earlier this week.
    (AFP, 4/29/17)

2017        May 1, The UN said an advance party of peacekeepers with a bolstered mandate to use force have arrived in South Sudan, the first blue helmets with a greater authority to protect civilians in the troubled East African nation.
    (AP, 5/1/17)

2017        May 5, In South Sudan a commercial vehicle coming from Juba was attacked at a checkpoint in Jamaza and the other at Sudan Safar. At least 21 people were killed and 25 injured.
    (Reuters, 5/8/17)

2017        May 8, The UN said war and famine have forced more than 2 million children in South Sudan to flee their homes.
    (Reuters, 5/8/17)

2017        May 22, South Sudanís President Salva Kiir declared a unilateral ceasefire and promised to release political prisoners, but with no sign of a political deal with rebels it was not clear whether a truce would take hold.
    (Reuters, 5/22/17)

2017        May 25, The last Japanese troops withdrew from a UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan.
    (Reuters, 5/25/17)

2017        May 26, It was reported that hunger is forcing desperate refugees from South Sudan to steal food from poverty-stricken locals in northern Uganda, after a funding crisis compelled the United Nations slash rations in refugee camps by half this month.
    (Reuters, 5/26/17)

2017        Jun 2, South Sudanís health ministry said fifteen children died in Nachodopele village last month after being administered with contaminated measles vaccines. Local officials failed to follow guidelines, storing the vaccine unrefrigerated for four days and using a single syringe for the entire campaign.
    (AFP, 6/2/17)   

2017        Jun 17, In Uganda about 26 gunmen reportedly attacked Gbari identifying themselves as South Sudanese military and taking 108 cattle. Three days later, a second group attacked and arrested two South Sudanese refugees living in the village.
    (Reuters, 7/3/17)

2017        Jun 19, Amnesty International said rich countries have failed in their obligation to help Uganda support thousands of refugees fleeing violence in South Sudan. Over 900,000 refugees from South Sudan were sheltering in Uganda.
    (AP, 6/19/17)

2017        Jun 21, The Vatican said Pope Francis is offering 460,000 euros (more than $500,000) in aid for South Sudan to help finance two hospitals, a school and farm equipment.
    (AP, 6/21/17)

2017        Jun 22, The EU pledged 85 million euros ($95 million) to Uganda, ahead of a summit to raise twenty times that amount to help it deal with nearly one million refugees from South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/22/17)

2017        Jul 8, US President Donald Trump promised $639 million in funding for humanitarian programs, including $331 million to help feed starving people in four famine-hit countries - Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria and Yemen. Trump's pledge came during a working session of the G20 summit of world leaders in Hamburg.
    (AP, 7/8/17)

2017        Jul 10, In South Sudan Adil Faris Mayat, the head of state television, was arrested by security officials for failing to broadcast Pres. Kiir's speech live.
    (Reuters, 7/15/17)

2017        Jul 18, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir declared a three-month state of emergency in Gogrial, his home state, where clashes have raged for months between clan-based militias.
    (Reuters, 7/18/17)

2017        Jul 28, South Sudan's government said it had taken the last town before the main rebel base of Pagak, where thousands of civilians have fled to escape fighting near the border with Ethiopia.
    (Reuters, 7/28/17)

2017        Aug 7, South Sudan's government forces overtook the rebel-held stronghold and opposition headquarters of Pagak, along the Ethiopian border. Opposition IO rebels still held territory in Panyijiar County in Unity state as well rural areas of Jonglei state and Akobo state, traditionally areas where South Sudan's Nuer people live.
    (AP, 8/7/17)

2017        Aug 8, The head of South Sudan's UN mission announced the long-awaited arrival of troops from a regional force meant to patrol roads and quell violence in the war-ravaged country. About 150 troops from Rwanda arrived at the weekend for the regional protection force (RPF).
    (AFP, 8/8/17)

2017        Aug 11, In South Sudan heavy fighting erupted in the town of Pagak near the border with Ethiopia when rebels launched an offensive against government forces.
    (Reuters, 8/11/17)

2017        Aug 12, South Sudan's rebels said they had wrested control of Pagak, their stronghold town near the country's border with Ethiopia, from government forces, a day after launching an offensive to drive them out.
    (Reuters, 8/12/17)

2017        Aug 21, The head of the International Committee of the Red Cross warned that South Sudan's inability to pay civil servants risked worsening a humanitarian crisis and urged donors to step in.
    (AFP, 8/21/17)

2017        Aug 26, In South Sudan American freelance journalist Christopher Allen was killed while covering clashes between government and rebel forces in Kaya. The fighting also killed 18 others.
    (AFP, 8/27/17)

2017        Aug 28, South Sudan's parliament passed its 2017/2018 budget but, after four years of war, acknowledged it does not know where much of the funding will come from.
    (Reuters, 8/29/17)

2017        Sep 8, In South Sudan a Red Cross driver was shot dead when a convoy of their vehicles was ambushed in Western Equatoria State.
    (Reuters, 9/9/17)

2017        Sep 13, The Red Cross said it has halted operations across a third of South Sudan after gunmen shot dead a staff member on Sep 8. The UN said this was the biggest such suspension during the country's four-year civil war.
    (Reuters, 9/14/17)

2017        Sep 18, In South Sudan an outbreak of fighting between government and rebel forces in the oil-producing north left at least 25 people dead.
    (AFP, 9/19/17)

2017        Sep 27, South Sudanís President Salva Kiir ordered police to cooperate with a new 4,000-strong United Nations force being deployed in the capital Juba.
    (AFP, 9/27/17)

2017        Oct 18, South Sudanese rebel groups fought each other over the last 24 hours in Kajo Keji between two groups: one loyal to former army general Thomas Cirillo and one loyal to former vice president Riek Machar. At least three people were killed.
    (Reuters, 10/19/17)

2017        Nov 1, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir began a two-day visit to Sudan aimed at resolving border disputes and addressing mutual accusations of supporting rebels in each other's territory.
    (AFP, 11/1/17)

2017        Nov 4, South Sudan's capital Juba was tense as more than 100 soldiers surrounded the residence of powerful former army chief Paul Malong in a bid to disarm his bodyguards. Malong, a general who was sacked by Pres. Salva Kiir in May, is a hardline ethnic nationalist who belongs to the president's majority Dinka tribe.
    (AFP, 11/4/17)

2017        Nov 7, South Sudanese military commander Lt. Colonel Chan Garang, an ally of former army chief Paul Malong, said he has defected with more than 200 soldiers to the country's largest rebel group, amid a showdown between President Salva Kiir and his former military chief.
    (Reuters, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 14, A judge of South Sudan's Supreme Court resigned, saying a lack of independence from the executive had turned the judiciary into a "mockery" and complaining of poor working conditions. All of South Sudan's judges went on a five-month strike in May over poor pay.
    (Reuters, 11/14/17)

2017        Nov 28, In South Sudan a tribal militia killed at least 43 people in Jonglei state, extending a spate of tit-for-tat revenge killings. Raiders from the Murle ethnic group killed 20 men, 22 women and one child, and injured 19 people in the village of Duk Payel.
    (Reuters, 11/29/17)

2017        Dec 4, The Vatican said Pope Francis has donated 25,000 euros ($30,000) to help feed the South Sudanís most vulnerable citizens ahead of the upcoming dry season. The money was given to the United Nations' agricultural arm.
    (AP, 12/4/17)

2017        Dec 8, South Sudan officials said at least 60 people have been killed and dozens wounded in battles over livestock.
    (AFP, 12/7/17)

2017        Dec 12, A South Sudan lawmaker said more than 170 people have been killed in fighting between rival cattle herders in central South Sudan in the past week.
    (AFP, 12/12/17)

2017        Dec 13, The UN announced that South Sudan needs $1.7 billion in aid next year to help 6 million people, half of its population, cope with the effects of war, hunger and economic decline. Aid groups said South Sudan is hiking fees for humanitarians and blocking them from reaching hungry families.
    (Reuters, 12/13/17)(Reuters, 12/14/17)

2017        Dec 14, South Sudan's president gave top jobs to three generals facing UN sanctions over alleged violations during a four-year-old civil war.
    (Reuters, 12/15/17)

2017        Dec 17, In South Sudan six aid workers were missing after clashes broke out between government and opposition soldiers near the northwestern town of Raga. An opposition spokesman said four aid workers were found when fighting a government-allied militia, during which they killed 35 militia fighters between the towns of Wau and Raga in Western Bahr el Ghazal state.
    (AP, 12/17/17)
2017        Dec 17, In South Sudan President Salva Kiir's troops attacked the town of Lasu in Central Equatoria State, which has served as the headquarters for Riek Machar's SPLA-IO, the countryís main opposition movement.
    (AFP, 12/21/17)

2017        Dec 18, South Sudanese rebels accused the government army of attacking one of their bases overnight as a new round of peace talks between the warring sides opened in the Ethiopian capital.
    (Reuters, 12/18/17)

2017        Dec 20, In South Sudan government and rebel parties signed a ceasefire, effective on Dec. 31, in a four-year war that has already killed tens of thousands of people.
    (Reuters, 12/22/17)

2017        Dec 21, In South Sudan a spokesman for the SPLA-IO rebel group said army forces had attacked a rebel base in Deim Jalab, in the western part of the country. Lam Paul Gabriel said two rebels and five government troops were killed in the fighting.
    (Reuters, 12/22/17)

2017        Dec 24, South Sudan's armed opposition accused government troops of violating a cease-fire just hours after it came into effect.
    (AP, 12/24/17)

2017        Dec 27, Officials said the Congolese army has stepped up arrests of South Sudanese refugees and tightened the border in a bid to block rebels from seeking sanctuary in its country.
    (AFP, 12/27/17)

2017        Dec 28, South Sudanese troops raided the home of exiled former army commander Paul Malong, after his rival was named to command troops in his home region to counter any threats he might pose to the government.
    (Reuters, 12/29/17)

2018        Jan 4, In South Sudan new fighting erupted between government and opposition forces less than 20 km (12 miles) outside Juba.
    (AP, 1/5/18)

2018        Jan 8, The South Sudanese government declared army chief of staff General Paul Malong a rebel and accused him of being behind a series of attacks last week.
    (Reuters, 1/8/18)

2018        Jan 16, South Sudan government and opposition forces have committed multiple violations since the cease-fire began on Dec. 24, according to four separate investigations released by the Cease-fire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism, an independent body.
    (AP, 1/16/18)

2018        Jan 27, South Sudan said it has temporarily abandoned some of the fees it charges foreign and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a bid to encourage groups to help with a humanitarian crisis.
    (Reuters, 1/27/18)

2018        Feb 2, The Trump administration imposed a US arms embargo on civil war-torn South Sudan and urged the United Nations and other countries to do the same. The State Department said the US is restricting all sales of defense equipment and services to all parties to South Sudan's conflict.
    (AP, 2/2/18)

2018        Feb 4, It was reported that child abductions have risen during South Sudan's civil war as desperate people try to make a living. One child, no matter the age, is said to sell for 20 cows, worth about $7,000.
    (AP, 2/4/18)

2018        Feb 6, In South Sudan hundreds of protesters massed outside the US embassy and UN headquarters in Juba, chanting slogans against an arms embargo imposed by Washington, before some attacked journalists at the scene.
    (Reuters, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 7, The UN said more than 300 child soldiers have been released by armed groups in South Sudan.
    (SFC, 2/8/18, p.A2)

2018        Feb 12, In South Sudan a spokesman for rebel leader Riek Machar was sentenced to death on charges of treason and incitement against the government.
    (Reuters, 2/12/18)

2018        Feb 22, The UN said journalists and rights activists in South Sudan have been killed or arrested and newspapers closed, often by the government, hampering coverage of one of the world's biggest humanitarian crises.
    (Reuters, 2/22/18)

2018        Feb 23, South Sudan's government said it was asking the UN commission for the names of accused senior military officials and will investigate. A new UN report told of gang-rapes, castrations, ethnic violence and other abuses. UN investigators said they had identified more than 40 South Sudanese military officers who may be responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 2/23/18)(Reuters, 2/24/18)
2018        Feb 23, In South Sudan former South African Col. William Endley (55) was sentenced to death for attempting to overthrow the government. Endley, who can appeal the ruling, was also sentenced to nine years and four months in prison for other related crimes, which must be served before his execution.
    (AFP, 2/23/18)

2018        Feb 24, The UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan said it has recalled a Ghanaian police unit working at one of its protection camps while it investigates allegations that some of them were involved in sexual abuse.
    (Reuters, 2/24/18)

2018        Feb 26, It was reported that the UN mission in South Sudan has recalled a 46-member peacekeeping unit after some members allegedly paid women living in a protection camp for sex. Ghanaian officers were recalled from Wau to Juba.
    (SFC, 2/26/18, p.A2)

2018        Mar 5, The Sentry, Washington D.C.-based group, accused South Sudan's government of funneling cash from the state oil company to militias responsible for atrocities and attacks on civilians. South Sudanís government dismissed the accusations.
    (Reuters, 3/5/18)

2018        Mar 9, South Sudan said it is suspending the UNís Radio Miraya station for allegedly refusing to comply with the country's media laws. The government may not be able to take the station off the air because the transmitter is on the UN base in Juba.
    (AP, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 15, The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution renewing for a year its peace mission in South Sudan, while also threatening to later impose an arms embargo if necessary.
    (AFP, 3/15/18)

2018        Mar 21, The US announced sanctions on 15 South Sudanese oil operators. They will require companies and government bodies to apply for special licenses to do business in the United States, an action designed to increase pressure on President Salva Kiir to end the conflict and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.
    (Reuters, 3/22/18)

2018        Apr 7, In South Sudan armed men fired at the vehicle marked with logos of the Catholic Organization for Relief and Development Aid as it travelled on a road near the town of Bentiu and one of the workers died. A local worker with the UNIDO organization was killed near Leer town in Unity state.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ya6c24je)(SFC, 4/11/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 18, In South Sudan more than 200 child soldiers were released by armed groups, part of a series of releases that will see almost 1000 children freed in the coming months.
    (SFC, 4/19/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 19, In South Sudan government forces and opposition forces loyal to former military chief Malong clashed in the town of Luri about 12 miles (19 km) outside Juba. The opposition said one of its fighter was killed and about 15 government soldiers lay dead beside a "destroyed tank".
    (AP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 20, South Sudan's military chief, Gen. James Ajongo Mawut, died during a visit to Egypt and after a "short illness".
    (Reuters 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 25, In South Sudan ten aid workers went missing in the town of Yei.
    (Reuters, 4/26/18)

2018        Apr 30, The UN said ten aid workers have been released after being abducted in South Sudan almost a week ago.
    (AP, 4/30/18)

2018        May 17, The UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) said it is sending 150 peacekeepers to Unity state to protect civilians who are being targeted in clashes between the government and rebel troops.
    (Reuters, 5/17/18)

2018        Jun 20, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir headed to Ethiopia for talks with rebel leader Riek Machar on ending a five-year civil war in which tens of thousands of civilians have been killed.
    (Reuters, 6/20/18)

2018        Jun 21, South Sudanese rebels said that more time is needed to secure lasting peace in the country and it would be necessary to address the root causes of a civil war, after peace talks in Ethiopia between its leader Riek Machar and Pres. Salva Kiir.
    (Reuters, 6/21/18)

2018        Jun 22, The latest attempt at ending South Sudan's five-year civil war failed as President Salva Kiir rejected working again with rival Riek Machar after their first face-to-face meeting in almost two years.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 25, South Sudan President Salva Kiir met again with rival Riek Machar in neighboring Sudan amid fragile efforts to end their country's five-year civil war.
    (AP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jun 26, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar reached an agreement on "some points" in peace talks in Khartoum.
    (Reuters, 6/26/18)
2018        Jun 26, In South Sudan a peacekeeper from Bangladesh was killed when unidentified gunmen ambushed a humanitarian convoy on a road between the towns of Yei and Lasu.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jun 27, In Khartoum South Sudan's President Salva Kiir and his arch-foe Riek Machar agreed to a "permanent" ceasefire to take effect within 72 hours, raising hopes of an end to four-and-a-half years of war.
    (AFP, 6/27/18)

2018        Jun 30, South Sudan's armed opposition claimed that government troops violated the country's latest cease-fire just hours after it began at midnight, while a government spokesman accused the rebels of attacking instead.
    (AP, 6/30/18)

2018        Jul 1, In South Sudan rebels reportedly attacked Maban in Upper Nile state in the far northeast near the border with Sudan violating the latest peace deal aimed at ending a nearly five-year-old conflict. Government forces responded. 18 civilians were reported killed and 44 wounded.
    (Reuters, 7/2/18)

2018        Jul 4, In South Sudan one person was killed when unidentified gunmen attacked a convoy of humanitarian trucks belonging to a contractor of UN children's agency UNICEF north of Juba.
    (Reuters, 7/4/18)

2018        Jul 5, Sudan's officials news reported that South Sudan's warring sides have reached an agreement on security arrangements amid talks on a peace deal to end a five-year civil war.
    (AP, 7/6/18)

2018        Jul 8, South Sudan's the presidency said former vice president Riek Machar will be reinstated in his position as part of a peace deal to end a near five-year-old war following talks held in Entebbe, Uganda.
    (Reuters, 7/8/18)

2018        Jul 10, In South Sudan rebels reportedly ambushed and killed three government soldiers who had gone to look for wild cassava.
    (AP, 7/12/18)
2018        Jul 10, The UN human rights office said at least 232 civilians were killed and 120 women and girls raped in "scorched earth" attacks by South Sudan government troops and aligned forces in opposition-held villages earlier this year.
    (Reuters, 7/10/18)

2018        Jul 12, South Sudan's parliament voted to extend President Salva Kiir's mandate until 2021 in a move likely to undermine peace talks as opposition groups have said the change would be illegal. The extension also applies to vice presidents, state lawmakers and governors. government troops attacked rebel positions in Kajo Keji in the country's northwest in fighting that killed five government soldiers and one rebel.
    (Reuters, 7/12/18)

2018        Jul 13, The United Nations Security Council imposed an arms embargo on South Sudan, nearly five years after civil war erupted in the country.
    (Reuters, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 19, The latest Global Slavery Index showed one in 10 people in North Korea live in slavery, with most forced to work for the state. The index listed Eritrea, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Afghanistan, Mauritania, South Sudan, Pakistan, Cambodia and Iran as the worst offenders after North Korea.
    (AP, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 25, South Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar initialed an agreement in Khartoum to once again share power. The initialed agreement will be signed on August 5.
    (SFC, 7/26/18, p.A4)

2018        Aug 5, South Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir and rebel opposition leader Rick Machar signed a peace deal in Khartoum, Sudan, to share power in a transitional government.
    (SFC, 8/6/18, p.A2)

2018        Aug 19, In South Sudan the UN World Food Program dropped food supplies in Nyal, an opposition-held town in the war-ravaged region. The WFP said it expected 30,000 people will have come by the time it has delivered the final drop on August 21. The UN has been dropping food supplies in Nyal every three months since 2014.
    (Reuters, 8/20/18)

2018        Aug 28, South Sudan rebel chief Riek Machar refused to sign a final peace deal with the government, in a setback for a regional drive to end nearly five years of brutal civil war. Officials said the rebel groups had differences over the functioning of a proposed transitional government, how many states the country should be divided into and on the writing of a new constitution.
    (AFP, 8/28/18)

2018        Aug 30, South Sudan said it will resume oil production in northern Unity State for the first time since the fields were destroyed in late 2013.
    (SFC, 8/31/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 4, A new Amnesty Int'l. report accused authorities in South Sudan of torturing people to death and letting many others languish  behind bars since the civil war began in late 2013.
    (SFC, 9/5/18, p.A3)

2018        Sep 6, A South Sudan military court found 10 soldiers guilty for their role in an attack on a Juba hotel in which five foreign aid workers were gang-raped, and a journalist was killed in July 2016.
    (AFP, 9/6/18)

2018        Sep 9, In central South Sudan 20 people were killed when a small plane crashed into a lake in Yirol. An Anglican bishop and four foreigners among the dead. Three people survived.
    (AFP, 9/10/18)

2018        Sep 12, In Ethiopia an agreement, brokered by regional bloc the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), was signed late today by South Sudan's President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar in Addis Ababa.
    (AFP, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 14, In South Sudan clashes erupted in Central Equatoria state when government troops stormed bases in Lainya and Kajo Keji counties. Eight government troops were killed in the battle in Lainya county. Another attack took place in Mangalatore, near the site of the first attack, where four government soldiers were killed. This came two days after the warring sides signed what the government called a "final final" peace agreement to end the civil war.
    (AP, 9/14/18)(Reuters, 9/15/18)

2018        Sep 25, A new study said South Sudan's civil war has caused the deaths of at least 382,900 people, far higher than previous estimates and more than the conflict in Syria. The statistical research was carried out by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and was published after being commissioned by the US Institute for Peace in partnership with the US State Department.
    (AFP, 9/26/18)

2018        Sep 28, In South Sudan at least 10 people died and dozens others injured after a hand grenade exploded late today in a night club in the western town of Yambio.
    (Reuters, 10/1/18)

2018        Oct 7, In South Sudan prisoners disarmed guards and seized control of part of a detention center in Juba early today. A detainee said the inmates taking the action were political prisoners seeking freedom.
    (Reuters, 10/7/18)

2018        Oct 18, A new UN report said South Sudan's armed opposition abducted women and girls as young as 12 and lined them up so commanders could choose "wives," and those not selected were left to be raped repeatedly by other fighters. The report focused on the Western Equatoria region between April and August, saying 900 people were abducted and some 24,000 people forced to flee their homes as fighting surged after months of relative calm.
    (AP, 10/18/18)

2018        Oct 25, South Sudan freed five political detainees and prisoners of war, although none appeared to be senior rebel officials, a category of captive whose release is required by a peace deal signed last month.
    (Reuters, 10/25/18)

2018        Oct 29, The World Food Program said violence in South Sudan is blocking deliveries of food aid needed to stave off severe hunger in some areas, adding to evidence that a peace deal signed last month is not holding.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)

2018        Oct 31, In South Sudan opposition leader Riek Machar returned to Juba to take part in a nationwide peace celebration after fleeing South Sudan more than two years ago. To further reinforce the peace deal, President Salva Kiir ordered the release of a jailed advisor to Machar, and a spokesman to his rebel group.
    (AP, 10/31/18)(Reuters, 10/31/18)

2018        Dec 1, Doctors Without Borders said a "dramatic increase" in sexual violence occurred in South Sudan over 10 days, between Nov. 19 and Nov. 29, as 125 women and girls walked to a food distribution site in Bentiu in Unity state. The women and girls were raped, whipped and clubbed in attacks so shocking that some aid workers in South Sudan said they are left speechless.
    (AP, 12/1/18)

2018        Dec 18, South Sudan's National Security Service forced several officials assessing the country's new peace deal to strip and face "inhuman" treatment. Four East African monitors were blindfolded, bound, kicked and robbed of money and a wedding ring. The men were stripped to their underwear and the woman was stripped naked. All were released five hours later.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2019        Jan 23, South Sudan called on the international community to fund efforts to implement a peace deal, which is already four months behind schedule due to lack of money.
    (AFP, 1/23/19)

2019        Feb 15, A report by the UN human rights office and the UN mission in South Sudan recorded 175 cases, mainly rapes lasting hours by multiple uniformed and armed men, just between September and December 2018.
    (Reuters, 2/15/19)

2019        Feb 20, A UN report said investigators have identified perpetrators of pervasive rape and killings and torture in secret safe houses in South Sudan, and believe oil revenues have driven much of the violence in its civil war.
    (Reuters, 2/20/19)

2019        Mar 4, In South Sudan the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea met with President Salva Kiir seeking to breathe new life into a flagging peace agreement signed six months ago between his government and rebels.
    (AFP, 3/4/19)

2019        Apr 11, A retreat at the Vatican for the leaders of South Sudan entered its second day, a month before the end of the pre-transitional period of a shaky peace deal.
    (AP, 4/11/19)

2019        Apr 20, South Sudan's opposition called for a six-month extension to implement next steps in a fragile peace deal as a major deadline approaches next month to form a power-sharing government between the president and his longtime rival.
    (AP, 4/21/19)

2019        Apr, South Sudan's government signed a contract paying a US-based lobby firm $3.7 million to improve its relationship with the Trump administration and to block a path to justice for victims of the country's five-year civil war.
    (AP, 4/29/19)

2019        May 2, South Sudan's rival parties began two days of talks in Addis Ababa in a bid to salvage a peace deal, with just days left before a unity government is meant to be formed.
    (AFP, 5/2/19)

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