Timeline Tibet

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  Bon Po is an ancient religion of Tibet.
 (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T6)
  The Drokpa are pastoral nomads of Tibet.
 (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T6)
Tibet’s sacred Kailas (Kailash) mountain is the source of 4 major river systems: the Indus, which flows north through Pakistan; the Sutlej, which flows west to irrigate India’s Punjab region; the Karnali, which flows south to join the Ganges; and the Tsangpo, which becomes the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)

50Mil BC    The Tibetan Plateau began to lift about this time as India thrust northward. This led to the creation of the Gobi Desert north of the plateau.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)

40Mil BC    The entire Tibetan Plateau underwent major uplifting as the Indian subcontinent bumped into Eurasia. Vast ranges rose from the Himalayas on the east to Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush and Iran’s Elburz mountains on the west.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.31)

400000BC - 48000BC     A human group, later called the Denisovans, lived in Asia during this period. They then interbred with humans expanding from Africa along the coast of South Asia. In 2010 fossil evidence from a Siberian cave in 2008 revealed that their DNA was related to the DNA of people from New Guinea, which contained 4.8% Denisovan DNA. 3-5% of the DNA from native people of Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and other nearby islands came from Denisovans, who left Africa as far back as 800,000 BC. In 2014 scientists reported that a genetic between extinct Denisovans and some modern-day Tibetans and Sherpas.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A4)(SSFC, 9/16/12, p.C11)(SFC, 7/3/14, p.D1)

3500BC    Farmers began to settle the lower slopes of the Tibetan plateau with millet as the dominant crop.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

1600BC    Farmers began to settle the above 3,000 meters on the Tibetan plateau about this time and gradually moved up to 4,700 meters with barley as the dominant crop.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

740BC    A population of people that came to called Tibetans moved to the Tibetan plateau about this time. In 2010 researchers claimed that people known as the Han and Tibetans had both come from a single ethnic group which split about this time.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.50)

c600-700    King Songstan Gampo reigned in the 7th century. He introduced Buddhism and started construction of the Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple. He married the Chinese princess Wen Cheng.
    (WSJ, 8/2/01, p.A12)

c700        The Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet, was constructed. It became the traditional home of the Dalai Lama.
    (SSFC, 10/5/03, p.D2)

763        Tibetan armies occupied the capital of China.
    (SFEM, 1/24/99, p.6)

779        King Trisong Detsen led Tibet. Under his rule the first Buddhist monastery, Samye, was built. It was built under the influence of Padmasambhava (Guru Rimpoche), Tibet’s greatest saint. Padmasambhava was an 8th century sorcerer and saint who converted Tibet to Buddhism. Legend has it that he dictated "sacred geography" texts to his queen consort and then hid them for future discovery. The texts were discovered by 17th century charismatic lamas.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.72,75)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A20)

1100-1200    The 12th century book "Gyuschi" was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.C4)

1193        The Karma Kargyu sect preceded the Geluk sect of the Dalai Lama. It introduced the idea of religious succession by reincarnation when a great lama used it to predict his own rebirth.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)

c1200        The Rakhor nunnery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities ordered the nuns to leave and everything except the main assembly hall was destroyed.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

c1300        The Jonang Buddhist monastery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities closed down the 700-year old monastery and sent the monks home after they refused to denounce the Dalai Lama.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1400-1500    The Thikse monastery was established 12 miles east of Leh.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)

1600-1700    Ladakh was a West Tibetan kingdom of this time with lands that extended into what is now Nepal.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)

1600-1700    In the 17th century the Geluk sect of Buddhism cultivated the Mongols under Altyn Khan. The Khan named the Geluk Lama Sonam Gyatso, "dalai," in reference to his oceanic wisdom. The 4th Dalai Lama was discovered in the great-grandson of Altyn Khan. The Gelukpa school gained power over the Kagyud (Black Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.19)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)

1630        The Spiti Valley, a part of western Tibet, became part of India.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.T9)

1634        Ngawang Namgyal, in the Battle of Five Lamas, prevailed over the Tibetan and Bhutanese forces allied against him and was the first to unite Bhutan into a single country.

1640s        The Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682) invented a unique institution to rule his country, a collaboration of monastics and aristocrats. It gradually accomplished demilitarization and elevated monasticism with an emphasis on education and spiritual development.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

c1650        The Kagyupa sect of Buddhism, known as the "Black Hats," under the leadership of the Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as Tibet's most politically powerful group.
    (SFC, 1/800, p.A8)

1655        The first Terchen Taksham Rinpoche was born under the name Taksham Nuden Dorje.
    (SSFC, 8/8/21, p.A2)

1682        In Tibet the Fifth Dalai Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet's neighbors not take advantage of an interregnum in the succession.

1717        Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.

1783        Captain Samuel Turner, a British army officer, traveled through Bhutan and Tibet.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.91)

1812        Jun 30, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Tibet. He found no horses to improve his stock but learned of Russian presence.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)

1834        The maharaja of Jammu was able to annex Ladakh.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)

1891        British captain and spy H. Bower noted antelope and yak in incredible numbers in the Aru basin of Tibet.
    (NH, 5/96, p.50)

1894        H. Bower published his "Diary of a Journey Across Tibet."
    (NH, 5/96, p.68)

1897        British officer Capt. H. Deasy encountered migrating chirus in Tibet and named the local Antelope Plain.
    (NH, 5/96, p.50)

1903        Sven Hedn published "Central Asia and Tibet."
    (NH, 5/96, p.68)

1903        English Col. Francis Younghusband (1863-1942) marched off from Darjeeling, India, with 1,000 British and Indian soldiers, 7,000 mules and 4,000 yaks to invade Tibet.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Younghusband)

1904        Sep 4, Dali Lama signed a treaty allowing British commerce in Tibet.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1905        C. Rawling published "The Great Plateau" [Tibet].
    (NH, 5/96, p.68)

1910        Feb 25, The Dalai Lama fled from the Chinese and took refuge in India.
    (HN 2/25/98)

1912        Apr 4, A Chinese republic was proclaimed in Tibet.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1921        George Leigh Mallory (36) took part in the 1st expedition of mountain climbers to explore Mt. Everest on the border of Nepal and Tibet.
    (ON, 3/05, p.6)

1922        George Leigh Mallory (36) took part in a 2nd expedition of mountain climbers to Mt. Everest. 7 porters were killed and the expedition failed to reach the summit.
    (ON, 3/05, p.7)

1924        Jun 8, George Mallory (38), a British schoolteacher, and Andrew Irvine (28), a student at Cambridge, attempted to reach the top of Mount Everest from their camp at 26,800 feet. The body of Mallory was found May 1, 1999 on a ledge at 27,000 feet. Irvine’s body was not found. Two books were published in 1999 that used parallel narratives for the 2 expeditions: "The Lost Explorer" by Conrad Anker and David Roberts, and "Ghosts of Everest" by Jochen Hemmleb, Larry A. Johnson and Eric R. Simonson (as told to William E. Northdurft).
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/16/99, p.W10)

1924        Frank Kingdon Ward, British botonist, explored Tibet.
    (SSFC, 11/21/04, p.E4)

1933        Dec 17, Thubten Gyatso (b.1876), Tibet’s 13th Dalai Lama, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/13th_Dalai_Lama)(Econ., 3/21/15, p.38)

1934        May 31, Maurice Wilson (36),  British soldier, mystic, mountaineer and aviator, died in an ill-fated attempt to climb Mount Everest alone. In 2021 Ed Caesar authored "The Moth and the Mountain," an account of Wilson's venture.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Wilson)(Econ., 11/21/20, p.78)

1935        Jul 6, Dalai Lama 14, spiritual leader of Tibet's Lamaistic Buddhists, was born as Lhamo Thondup in Hong Ya, a mountain hamlet on the Tibetan Plateau. He was formally recognized as the reincarnated Dalai Lama at age 2 and was renamed Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (Holy Lord, Gentle Glory, Compassionate, Defender of the Faith, Ocean of Wisdom). He became a Nobel Peace Prize winner (1989) for his efforts to end China's domination of Tibet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenzin_Gyatso,_14th_Dalai_Lama)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.44)

1938        German SS officer Ernst Schafer led an expedition Tibet in an effort to trace the origins of the Aryan race. In 1939 he brought back a 23.4 statue of the Buddhist god called Vaisravana that was carved from a meteorite that had crashed to Earth thousands of years earlier. The existence of the statue, perhaps a thousand years old, was only revealed in 2007.
    (SFC, 9/28/12, p.A2)

1947        The 5th Reting Lama died in a Lhasa prison following a power struggle over the regency of the Dalai Lama.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A8)

1948        The former kingdom of Ladakh and Kashmir, annexed in 1834 by the maharajah of Jammu, became the East Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)
1948        Robert Ford (1923-2013), British radio operator, was hired by the Tibetans to create a modern communications network. In 1950 he was imprisoned by Chinese authorities and spent five years in jail.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)

1949        The Chinese Red Army invaded Tibet believing it was liberating the serfs and peasants.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1949        Phuntso Wangye (1922-2014), founder of the Tibetan Communist Party, joined forces with the Chinese Communist Party. He had already launched a series of guerrilla uprisings against Nationalist Chinese rule.
    (Reuters, 3/30/14)

1950        Aug 15, A magnitude 8.6 earthquake in Assam, Tibet, killed at least 780 people.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1950        Oct 21, Chinese forces occupied Tibet.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. C1)(MC, 10/21/01)

1950        Oct, Chamdo, Tibet, fell to Chinese occupation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chamdo)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)

1950        Dec 19, Tibet's Dalai Lama fled a Chinese invasion.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1950-1996    It has been reported that 1.2 million Tibetans have been slain under Chinese rule.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, p.B5)

1951        Mar 28, China proclaimed the “peaceful liberation" of Tibet.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.40)

1951        May 23,  The Dalai Lama signed the “17-point agreement" in which he agreed to accept Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
    (www.friends-of-tibet.org.nz/17-point-agreement.html)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.42)

1951        May 27, Chinese Communists forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1951        Jul 21, Dalai Lama returned to Tibet.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1951        Gendun Choephel (b.1903), a rebellious Tibetan monk, died. His work included a political history of Tibet. In 2002 Luc Schaedler created the documentary “Angry Monk: Reflections on Tibet."
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.E8)(www.angrymonk.ch/current_project/screenplay.shtml)

1951        Indian troops occupied Tawang, some 2000 square km. of valley and high mountains just south of the McMahon Line in northeast Arunachal Pradesh. This took place shortly after China dispatched troops to Tibet.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)

1953        Heinrich Harrer wrote his memoir "Seven Years in Tibet."
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)

1955        Tibetan fighting flared up in the eastern Kham region prompting an exodus of refugees and swelling the ranks of resistance to Chinese rule.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1955        Sydney Wignall (1922-2012), a Welsh explorer, launched the first Welsh Himalayan Expedition. The 3-man team was captured by the Chinese and held for two months under interrogation for spying. 25 years later it was revealed that Wignall had been recruited by Gen. Thimayya of the Indian army to find out what the Chinese were up to in Tibet. In 1997 his book: "Spy on the Roof of the World" was published.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.94)

1957        The first team of 6 Tibetans trained at a Saipan US CIA base and then airdropped back into Tibet with modern weapons and radios. From 1957 to the early 1970s America spirited young Tibetans out through East Pakistan, trained them in Colorado, and parachuted them back to Tibet where they fought the Chinese army.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.64)

1958        Mar 24, Kejun, a Chinese army doctor posted to Tibet, died soon after his arrival. His newly wed wife and doctor, Shu Wen, traveled to Tibet to verify that he had died. In 2005 her story was told in novel form by Xinran: “Sky Burial: An Epic Love Story of Tibet," translated by Julia Lovell and Esther Tyldesley.
    (SSFC, 7/17/05, p.F1)

1958        Apr 25, The Xunhua Incident, an uprising of Tibetan and Salar people, ended in suppression and a massacre by the People's Liberation Army. 435 people were killed within four hours, most of whom were unarmed civilians.

1958        The US CIA began airdropping weapons over Tibet.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1959        Mar 10, In Tibet an uprising against Chinese occupation force took place in Lhasa. China reacted harshly, arrested tens of thousands and held strict control until the late 1970s. The Chinese forced the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, and many of his followers to flee to India. The Communists destroyed 6,500 monasteries. About 250 monks of the Drepung Loseling Monastery escaped to India and established a replica of their ancient institution.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(TMC, 1994, p.1959)(SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A9)(MC, 3/10/02)
1959        Mar 28, China announced the dissolution of the Tibetan government. The State Council of the People's Republic of China dissolved the Government of Tibet, which according to official history, liberated Tibetans from feudalism and theocracy. On January 19, 2009, this day was adopted as a holiday, “Serf Emancipation Day," by the Tibetan legislature.
    (AP, 1/16/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serfs_Emancipation_Day)

1959        Mar 30, Dalai Lama (b.1935), Tenzin Gyatso, having fled the Chinese suppression of a national uprising in Tibet, crossed the border into India. India granted him political asylum.

1959        Jul 17, Tibet abolished serfdom.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1959-1961    Almost all animal husbandry stopped and food reserves of Tibetan nomads were confiscated by the Chinese.
    (SFC, 2/12/98, p.A12)

1960        Tibetan fighters retreated to a mountain range on Tibet’s border with Nepal, known as Mustang.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1962        Oct 20, A Chinese army landed in India for a brief border war in the Himalayas. The northeast Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, twice the size of Switzerland, was occupied in a week-long assault by China and closed to foreign tourists. Some 3,000 Indian officers and men were killed. China gained control from India of the northeast region of Kashmir known as Aksai Chin. Some 4,500 lives were lost before China unilaterally declared the war over. Arunachal Pradesh re-opened in 1993. In 2015 Bruce Riedel authored “JFK’s Forgotten Crisis: Tibet, the CIA and the Sino-Indian War."
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.C10)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.95)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.17)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.36)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.63)

1962        The Panchem Lama, senior Buddhist cleric after the Dalai Lama, issued a 120-page report that described conditions in Tibet under Chinese control: "The 70,000 Character Petition." He described starvation due to the Chinese "Great leap Forward" program when authorities confiscated the nomad’s food reserves. The Panchem Lama was arrested and sent to Beijing for rehabilitation [for 14 years] until 1988.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(SFC, 2/12/98, p.A12)

1962        The Chinese exacted control over western Tibet and many nomad refugees fled to Ladakh. Only 70 of Tibet’s 2,500 Buddhist monasteries remained.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)(SFC, 2/12/98, p.A12)

1964        Tashi Tsering returned to Tibet after studying in the US and joined the Chinese Red Guards. He was soon arrested and exonerated in 1978. He desired the overthrow of Tibet’s feudal system and continued to work for education in Tibet. In 1997 he published "The Struggle for Modern Tibet."
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)

1965        Sep 9, Tibet was made an autonomous region of China.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1972-1974    The Dalai Lama urged Tibetan fighters to return to India. Many committed suicide rather than give up the fight against Chinese rule.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1979        Sep 25, The 14th Dalai Lama arrived in SF for a weeklong visit.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.F9)

1979        Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping met with Gyalo Thondup, the brother of the Dalai Lama, beginning nearly a decade of on and off dialogue over Tibet.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1979        Gungthang Rinpoche, Buddhist leader from the Labrang monastery, was released from prison after serving over 20 years. He had refused to cooperate with Chinese authorities after the takeover of Tibet.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)

1980        Aug 20, Reinhold Messner of Italy became the 1st to solo ascent Mt. Everest.

1983        Tanak Jigme (57) Sangpo, teacher, was sentenced to prison for "counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement" against the Chinese government. He was released in 2002 after 19 years in Drapchi prison.
    (SFC, 4/4/02, p.A7)

1984        Richard Jay Kohn (d.2000 at 51), Tibetan scholar, filmed his documentary "Lord of the Dance / Destroyer of Illusion." It featured the ritual festival of Mani Rimdu that dated back to the 9th century.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.D6)

1984        China began sending huge work teams into Tibet to build roads and infrastructure.
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.A12)

1985        Ned Gilette (d.1998 at 53) and Jan Reynolds published "Everest Grand Circle: A Climbing and Skiing Adventure Through Nepal and Tibet."
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A24)

1985        Ogyen Trinley, recognized in 1992 by the Chinese government and the Dalai Lama as the incarnate 17th Karmapa, was born to nomadic parents in the Lhathok region of Tibet.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)(www.kagyu.org/karmapa/kar/kar03.html)

1985        Ma Jian, Chinese Buddhist poet and dissident, fled Tibet. In 1987 he published “Stick Out Your Tongue," an account of his travels in Tibet. The book was denounced and banned n China. In 2006 it was translated to English.
    (SSFC, 6/4/06, p.M3)

1986        Feb 2, Dalai Lama met Pope John Paul II in India.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1986        May 9, Tenzing Norgay (b.1914), Tibetan climber (Mount Everest 1953), died.

1987        Tibetan Buddhist guru Trungpa Rinpoche died.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.B5)

1988        Hu Jintao was appointed as the top Chinese party official in Tibet.
    (WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)

1988        Tashi Tsering completed his 15,000 word, trilingual Chinese-Tibetan-English dictionary. He wrote an autobiography in 1997 with 2 American professors titled: "The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering."
    (WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A9)

1989        Jan, Choekyi Gyaltsen, the Panchen Lama, died in Tashilumpo Monastery. In 2000 Isabel Hilton authored "The Search for the Panchen Lama."
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W9)

1989        Mar, Hu Jintao, Chinese Party Secretary, imposed martial law in Tibet to quell separatist unrest following the worst there violence in 30 years. Martial law was not lifted until May 1990.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.28)

1989        Oct 5, The Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A22)(AP, 10/5/99)

1991        The Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies adopted the Charter of Tibetans in Exile. It transferred the power to select a cabinet from the Dalai Lama to the legislature.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A22)

1992        Sep 27, In Tibet Ogyen Trinley Dorje (7) was enthroned as the 17th Karmapa under an agreement with the Chinese government.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)(www.kagyu.org/karmapa/kar/kar03.html)

1992        The Dalai Lama announced the Guidelines for Future Tibet’s Polity. It was based on the hope for a negotiated settlement with the Chinese government for full autonomy.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A22)

1993        China and the Tibet Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as Germany.
    (NH, 5/96, p.52)

1993        The Tibet Transit School near Dharamsala, India, was founded for arrivals from Tibet aged 18-30.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.57)

1994        The 17th Karmapa, Ugyen Trinley Dorje (8), visited Pres. Jiang Zemin in Beijing and was recognized as the legitimate holder of the title. Dorje escaped to India from Tsurphu Monastery in 2000.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.D3)

1995        May 14, The 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama, Gedhun Choikyi Nyima, was announced by the exiled Dalai Lama. Gedhun Choekyi (5) disappeared days after his designation. Six months later China declared Gyaincain Norbu (Gyaltsen Norbu) (5) as the 11th Panchen Lama. Six months later China declared Gyaincain Norbu (Gyaltsen Norbu) (5) as the 11th Panchen Lama.
    (SFC, 5/8/97, p.C2)(SFC, 6/19/99, p.A11)(SFC, 8/12/11, p.A2)

1995        May 17, Gedhun Choekyi (6) was taken from Tibet along with his parents just days after his designation as the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.34)

1995        Sep, Ngawang Choepel, a musician on a Fullbright scholarship, was arrested on grounds of espionage. He had arrived as a Chinese citizen to make a documentary on folk music and dance.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A13)(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A18)

1996        Dec 27, Ngawang Choepel, a musician on a Fullbright scholarship, was sentenced to 18 years in prison for espionage. He had arrived as a Chinese citizen in 1995 to make a documentary on folk music and dance.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A13)

1996        The Chinese government was building a 112,500 kilowatt hydroelectric station at Yamdrok Lake (Yamdrok Tso).
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.A6)

1996        The World Bank proposed to move 58,000 poor Chinese farmers from the eastern half of Qinghai 300 miles west to an area of Tibet called Dulan. The $81 million project faced heavy opposition prior to a Bank vote in 1999.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.D2)

1997        May 7, Chadrel Rinpoche, a senior Tibetan monk, was sentenced to 6 years in prison for plotting to split China and leaking state secrets. He led the Beijing approved search for the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama and was suspected to have leaked the information to the Dalai Lama.
    (SFC, 5/8/97, p.C3)

1997        Jul, Chinese authorities closed down the 700-year old Jonang monastery and sent the monks home after they refused to denounce the Dalai Lama.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1997        Chinese authorities ordered nuns to leave the 800 year-old Rakhor nunnery and everything except the main assembly hall was destroyed.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1997        The book "The Voice That Remembers" is the story of Ama Adhe told to Joy Blakeslee about her 27 year imprisonment by Chinese communists in labor camps in Tibet.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)

1997        The film "Seven Years in Tibet" was directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. It was about the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer, who tutored the Dalai Lama in the 1940s and chronicled human rights abuses. Harrer had also been a Nazi storm trooper in 1933.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.E4)

1997        The Kham Aid Foundation was established to aid Tibet within the Chinese system
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)

1998        Mar 10, In India 6 Tibetans in New Delhi, aged 28-70, began a hunger strike to force the UN to address Tibet’s dispute with China.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C2)

1998        Jun, Five nuns at the Drapchi prison committed suicide in the face of Chinese torture. The nuns had been arrested for protesting China’s occupation of Tibet. They were tortured for refusing to sing patriotic songs.
    (SFC, 10/6/00, p.A18)

1998        Nov 8, In Tibet Ian Baker and a team sponsored by National Geographic discovered the “Hidden Falls of Dorge Pagmo." In 2004 Baker authored “The heart of the World: A Journey to the Last Secret Place."
    (SSFC, 11/21/04, p.E1)

1998        The exiled 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, authored "The Art of Happiness," based on his conversations with psychiatrist Howard Cutler.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.7)

1998        The film "Knowledge of Healing" was made by Eliot Tokar and was about the holistic practice of Tibetan medicine.
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.E1)

1998        The Martin Scorsese film "Kundun," about the Dalai Lama, opened. The music was by Philip Glass.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.C3)(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.42)

1998        The documentary film "The Saltmen of Tibet" was about a 45 day search for salt and showed at the SF Film Fest.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.55)

1998        The Dalai Lama acknowledged receiving $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the US CIA, but denied having personally benefited.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1999        Jun 24, The World Bank approved a plan to relocate 58,000 poor Chinese farmers to land historically farmed by Tibet. However work on the $40 million project was delayed pending a review panel.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 6/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 26, In Tibet Tashi Tsering, a carpenter, lowered the Chinese flag in the capital and attempted to put up the banned Tibetan flag. He was arrested and died on Oct 13 from beatings while under Chinese police custody.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A14)

1999        Oct 25, It was reported that the chiru, a goat from the high Tibetan plateau, was seriously endangered and down to some 75,000. The animal's hide is used to make expensive shahtoosh shawls.
    (WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A1,15)

1999        Oct, To world-class mountain climber Alex Lowe died under an avalanche.
    (WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A26)

1999        The exiled 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, authored "Ethics for the New Millennium."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.7)

1999        Ogyen Trinley, recognized by the Chinese government and the Dalai Lama as the incarnate 17th Karmapa, fled to India.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)

1999        The Chinese film "Red River Valley" starred Ning Jing and Ying Zhen. It was shot in Tibet and directed by Feng Xiaoning.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.C7)

2000        Jan 5, The 17th Karmapa, Ugyen Trinley Dorje (14), arrived in India after a week-long flight from Tsurphu Monastery.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.D3)

2000        Jan 16, In Lhasa, Tibet, Soinam Puncog (2), was designated the 7th Reting Lama in a ceremony presided over by Chinese authorities.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A8)

2000        Feb 29, Gungthang Rinpoche, 2nd most senior leader of the Labrang monastery, died at age 74. He had spent over 20 years in prison for refusing to cooperate with Chinese authorities after the takeover of Tibet.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)

2000        Jul 1, In Washington DC thousands of Tibetans and their supporters rallied to urge the World Bank to scrap a plan to resettle some 60,000 poor farmers, many of them Chinese, on traditional Tibetan lands.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A16)

2000        Jul 7, The World Bank cancelled its Chinese resettlement project for Tibet. China then withdrew its request for a $40 million loan and vowed to proceed with its own development program.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A10)

2000        Orville Schell, Prof. at UC Berkeley, authored "Virtual Tibet." It traced the history of Western contact with Tibet.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.B13)

2001        Feb 8, In China the cabinet approved a 700-mile rail line to link Lhasa, Tibet, and Qinghai province.
    (WSJ, 2/9/00, p.A1)

2001        Feb 24, Ugyen Thinley Dorje (15), the 17th Karmapa Lama, led prayers to mark the Tibetan year of the iron snake in northern India.
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, p.A16)

2001        Jun 29, A new $2.4 billion 700-mile railway project was begun to connect Lhasa, Tibet, to the Chinese interior.
    (SSFC, 7/1/01, p.A18)

2002        Jan 23, It was reported that China was moving 17,000 settlers to a traditionally Tibetan region.
    (WSJ, 1/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr, There was a bomb blast in Chengdu, China. Tibetan monks Lobsang Dhondup (28) and Tenzin Deleg Rinpoche were detained. Dhondup was executed Jan 27, 2003.
    (SFC, 1/28/03, p.A6)

2002        Oct 12, Dolma Tsering won the first Miss Tibet beauty pageant, an event its organizers said would reinforce Tibetan identity.
    (Reuters, 10/12/02)

2002        Michael McRae authored "The Siege of Shangri-La," an account of the attempts to reach Tibet’s inner Tsangpo Gorge.
    (WSJ, 1/24/03, p.W9)

2002        China began constructing a $3.2 billion railroad to Tibet, to be completed in 2007.
    (SFC, 11/5/03, p.A13)

2003        India changed its verbiage on Tibet to say that the Tibet Autonomous Region is part of China as opposed to the previous description of Tibet as an autonomous region of China.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.16)

2005        Jun 28, In Madrid a Tibetan group presented a criminal case against top Chinese officials for genocide and crimes against humanity, seeking to take advantage of Spain's laws on international human rights crimes.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Nov 8, Tibet's spiritual leader the Dalai Lama spoke in Washington DC and accused the Chinese authorities of imposing "very, very repressive" policies in his Himalayan territory.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        China appointed Zhang Qingli, a Han Chinese, as Tibet’s party chief.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.29)

2006        Jun 3, Thousands of Tibetan exiles cast their votes for a de facto prime minister. Voting for one of two candidates took place at 53 polling stations set up by the election commission in India, Nepal, North America, Europe, Australia and Taiwan.
    (AFP, 6/3/06)

2006        Jul 1, China’s new $4.2 billion, 710-mile-long railway from Golmud to Lhasa, Tibet, began operations. Canada’s Bombardier manufactured high-tech cars for the Sky Train with regulated oxygen levels to cope with 16,500-foot passes. Two years later the line was extended from Lhasa to Shigatse.
    (SFC, 6/30/06, p.A18)(Reuters, 7/1/06)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.37)

2006        Jul 3, China's new train from Beijing to Tibet arrived in the ancient capital of Lhasa, ending its maiden journey after climbing to elevations so high that ballpoint pens and packaged foods burst.
    (AP, 7/3/06)

2006        Jul 26, An unhappy China said that Canada's decision to bestow honorary citizenship on the Dalai Lama could hurt commercial relations between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 7/26/06)

2006        Sep 30, In Tibet Sergiu Matei, a Romanian cameraman with an expedition climbing Cho Oyu, shot a video that shows Chinese forces fatally shooting Tibetan refugee Kelsang Namtso (17), who was with a group of people trying to flee to Nepal at the 19,000-foot Nanpa La Pass. Chinese border guards opened fire on some 75 Tibetans making their way over a 19,000-foot-high Himalayan pass, killing a 25-year-old Buddhist nun and another person. 32 were caught and detained. In January Jamyang Samten (15), one of those detained, escaped to India and provided the first reported account of the fate of the group. Some 3,000 Tibetans continued to sneak across the border to Nepal and India every year. In 2010 Jonathan Green authored “Murder in the High Himalaya: Loyalty, Tragedy, and Escape from Tibet."
    (AP, 10/14/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.18)(AP, 1/30/07)(Econ, 6/12/10, p.96)

2006        Oct 13, Pope Benedict XVI met privately with the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibet, but the Vatican released no details of the low-key visit that was not even listed on the pontiff's official calendar.
    (AP, 10/13/06)

2006        Nov 23, In India a Tibetan activist protesting against Chinese rule in the Himalayan region set himself on fire outside a hotel where China's president was staying. An official later said the activist was not seriously injured.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Jalue Dorje of Columbus Heights, Minn., was born. He was soon recognized as a reincarnated lama by Kyabje Trulshik Rinpoche, a master of Tibetan Buddhism and leader of the Nyingma lineage. Two years later the Dalai Lama recognized him as the guru's reincarnation.
    (https://tinyurl.com/en72ujfk)(SSFC, 8/8/21, p.A2)

2007        Apr 25, China detained four Americans on Mount Everest after they called for independence for Tibet and protested the Beijing Olympics. More than 50 children were poisoned by a kindergarten breakfast in Zhengzhou city in Henan province, in the latest case highlighting problems in the country's food supply chain.
    (AP, 4/25/07)(AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 27, China said it has expelled five Americans who staged a protest against the Olympics on Mount Everest to challenge Chinese rule over the mountainous region.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        Jun 12, Australian PM John Howard agreed to meet the Dalai Lama after opponents charged he was afraid of offending China, drawing an immediate rebuke from Beijing. The Dalai Lama warned major nations not to try to contain China's economic and military rise, and urged countries like Australia to use their trading clout to pressure Beijing on human rights.
    (AP, 6/12/07)(Reuters, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 14, In Australia New Zealand PM Helen Clark met briefly with the Dalai Lama as they both toured Australia, where the Tibetan spiritual leader's visit has drawn fire from China.
    (AFP, 6/14/07)

2007        Aug 3, China asserted the sole right to recognize living Buddhas, reincarnations of famous lamas that form the backbone of the religion's clergy. All future incarnations of living Buddhas related to Tibetan Buddhism must get government approval.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Oct 10, Some 30 Tibetan exiles protesting Chinese religious policies stormed the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi, with several breaching the front gate and chaining themselves to the flag pole inside.
    (AP, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 16,     President Bush and the Dalai Lama met with a ceremony planned for tomorrow to award the spiritual leader the Congressional Gold Medal. China warned that the events are bad for US-Chinese ties.
    (AP, 10/16/07)

2007        Oct 17,     President Bush attended a ceremony in which the Dalai Lama was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, Congress’ highest civilian honor. China lodged an official protest over the honoring of the Dalai Lama in Washington, while bluntly rejecting US President George W. Bush's advice on how to handle the Tibet issue.
    (AFP, 10/16/07)(WSJ, 10/18/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 21, A Hong Kong newspaper reported that police in the capital of Tibet clashed for four days with Buddhist monks trying to celebrate the awarding of a congressional honor for the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 10/21/07)

2007        Oct 29,     Canada’s PM Harper received Tibet's exiled spiritual leader in his office in Parliament. He presented the 1989 Nobel laureate with a maple-leaf scarf. The next day China condemned Harper for "disgusting conduct" for playing host to the Dalai Lama.
    (Reuters, 10/30/07)

2007        Nov 20, A Chinese court sentenced a Tibetan nomad to eight years in prison for seeking Tibetan independence after he urged a crowd to proclaim loyalty to the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 11/20/07)

2007        Dec 5, A Tibetan woman said that she pulled out of a beauty pageant in Malaysia after organizers, reacting to pressure from Beijing, told her halfway through the event that she could only participate if she added "China" to her "Miss Tibet" title.
    (AP, 12/6/07)

2007        A rail line from China’s Qinghai province to Lhasa, Tibet, was expected to be completed. The world’s highest railroad required pressurized rail cars.
    (SFC, 2/24/05, p.A1)

2008        Mar 10, Hundreds of Tibetan exiles began a six-month march from India to Tibet to protest Beijing's hold on the Himalayan region and China's hosting of the Olympic Games. Indian police barred the Tibetan exiles from marching.
    (AP, 3/10/08)(WSJ, 3/11/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 11, Thousands of Chinese security personnel fired tear gas to try to disperse more than 600 monks taking part in a second day of rare street protests in Tibet.
    (Reuters, 3/12/08)

2008        Mar 13, Indian police arrested 100 Tibetan exiles trying to walk to their homeland as part of a major protest ahead of the Beijing Olympics, although the demonstrators vowed the march would go on.
    (AP, 3/13/08)

2008        Mar 14, In Tibet angry protesters set shops ablaze and gunfire in Lhasa as the largest demonstrations in two decades against Chinese rule turned violent months ahead of the Beijing Olympics. 18 people died in the conflagration or from physical assaults. The government later said losses amounted to 280 million yuan ($41 million).
    (AP, 3/14/08)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.43)

2008        Mar 15, China kept government workers confined to their offices and ordered tourists out of Tibet's capital while lines of soldiers sealed off streets where riots had erupted. A Tibetan exile group said at least 30 people were killed in protests a day earlier. Tibet's government-in-exile demanded the UN intervene to end what it called "urgent human rights violations" by China in the region following deadly protests.
    (AP, 3/15/08)

2008        Mar 16, The Dalai Lama called for an international investigation into China's crackdown against protesters in Tibet, which he said is facing a "cultural genocide" and where his exiled government said 80 people were killed in the violence. Internet users in China were blocked from seeing YouTube.com after dozens of videos about protests in Tibet appeared on the popular US video Web site.
    (AP, 3/16/08)

2008        Mar 17, China denounced attacks on its embassies by pro-Tibetan activists hours before a deadline for rioters in Lhasa to turn themselves in and said it would do all in its power to protect its territorial integrity.
    (Reuters, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 18, In India the Dalai Lama vowed he would resign as leader of Tibet's exiles if violence back home worsened, just hours before his aides said 19 people were killed in new demonstrations.
    (AP, 3/18/08)
2008        Mar 18, Protesters in Australia burned Chinese flags, demanding freedom for Tibet, following similar demonstrations in Europe and the US against Beijing's crackdown on anti-government riots in the Himalayan region.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 19, China called the Dalai Lama a "wolf in monk's robes" and said it was locked in a "life-and-death battle" with his supporters after protests marking the biggest challenge to Chinese rule in Tibet in almost two decades. Lhasa prosecutors announced the arrest of 24 suspects on charges of endangering state security.
    (AP, 3/19/08)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 20, China sent additional troops into restive areas and made more arrests in the Tibetan capital Lhasa in an effort to suppress anti-government protests even as the Dalai Lama offered face-to-face negotiations with Chinese leaders. Tibet authorities said they had arrested dozens of people involved in a wave of anti-Chinese violence. China forced the last remaining foreign journalists out of Tibet, and stepped up restrictions on Internet and radio reports from people within the country.
    (AP, 3/20/08)(Reuters, 3/20/08)(AP, 3/21/08)

2008        Mar 21, A regulator said China will shut down or punish dozens of video-sharing Web sites for carrying content deemed pornographic, violent or a threat to national security under rules that tighten Internet controls. China’s government stepped up its manhunt for protesters in last week's riots in the capital of Tibet, as thousands of troops converged on foot, trucks and helicopters to Tibetan areas of western China.
    (AP, 3/21/08)

2008        Mar 22, China said 19 people died in riots in the Tibetan capital last week and official media warned against the unrest spreading to the northwest region of Xinjiang, where Uighur Muslims bridle under Chinese control. Exiled Tibetans claim as many as 100 have died in the protests which spilled over this week into neighboring ethnic-Tibetan areas.
    (Reuters, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, China attacked House Speaker Nancy Pelosi for her recent meeting with the Dalai Lama, accusing her and other "human rights police" of double standards and ignoring the truth about the unrest in Tibet. Han residents said some 500 Uighurs protested in Khotan in the northwestern Xinjiang region. A bombing targeted a government building in the town of Gyanbe. Chinese authorities later arrested 9 monks for the bombing.
    (AP, 3/23/08)(SFC, 4/3/08, p.A8)(AFP, 4/13/08)

2008        Mar 24, An exiled Tibetan leader said 2 weeks of protests against China's rule of Tibet have left about 130 people dead.
    (AP, 3/24/08)

2008        Mar 25, In Nepal police armed with bamboo sticks stopped a protest by Tibetan refugees and monks in front of the Chinese Embassy and arrested about 100 participants.
    (AP, 3/25/08)

2008        Mar 26, China announced the surrender of hundreds of people over anti-government riots among Tibetans and allowed the first group of foreign journalists to visit the regional capital since the violence.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 27, A group of monks shouting there was no religious freedom disrupted a carefully orchestrated visit for foreign reporters to Tibet's capital, an embarrassment for China as it tried to show Lhasa was calm following deadly anti-government riots.
    (AP, 3/27/08)

2008        Mar 28, China allowed the first foreign diplomats to visit Tibet following deadly riots, as Germany joined some other European nations in announcing its leader would skip the Olympics opening. Police closed off Lhasa's Muslim quarter, two weeks after Tibetan rioters burned down the city's mosque during the largest anti-Chinese protests in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Mar 29, In Kathmandu, Nepal, around 80 Tibetan protesters shouting "stop the killing in Tibet" were hauled away in police vehicles and detained after demonstrating outside the Chinese embassy.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 31, Chinese authorities arrested suspects in four arson and murder cases stemming from anti-government riots that engulfed the Tibetan capital in mid-March.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 3, In Tibet Wang Xiangming, the deputy Communist Party secretary of Lhasa, said 800 had been arrested in local violence, while another 280 had surrendered to take advantage of a police offer of leniency. New violence broke out in a volatile Tibetan region of western China, leaving eight people dead. Chinese police opened fire during a "riot" in a Tibetan populated area of southwest China.
    (AP, 4/3/08)(AP, 4/4/08)(AFP, 4/4/08)
2008        Apr 3, Hu Jia, a Buddhist Chinese dissident outspoken on Tibet and other sensitive topics, was jailed for three-and-a-half years, a conviction likely to become a focus of rights campaigns ahead of the Beijing Olympics.
    (Reuters, 4/3/08)(WSJ, 4/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 6, Thousands of anti-China protesters draped in Tibetan flags disrupted the Olympic torch relay through London, billed as a journey of harmony and peace.
    (AP, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 7, Security officials extinguished the Olympic torch three times as protests against China's human rights record turned a relay through Paris into a chaotic series of stops and starts. France's former sports minister, Jean-Francois Lamour, said that though the torch had been put out, the Olympic flame itself still burned in the lantern where it is kept overnight and on airplane flights.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 8, The riot-damaged market in the Tibetan capital of Lhasa opened its doors amid plans to allow foreign tourists to enter the restive region by the end of the month.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

2008        Apr 12, Chinese President Hu Jintao defended the crackdown on protests in Tibet and denied the disturbances were linked to human rights in his first public comments on the incident.
    (AFP, 4/12/08)

2008        Apr 14, China’s state television said police found 30 firearms in a Tibetan monastery in Aba prefecture of Sichuan province last month.
    (Reuters, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 16, China’s state media reported that over the last 2 days police in northeastern Gansu province have found guns, dynamite, bullets and satellite receivers hidden in 11 Tibetan Buddhist monasteries.
    (Reuters, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 21, The Paris city council bestowed the title of "honorary citizen" on the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 4/21/08)

2008        Apr 25, China's government agreed to a meeting with an envoy of exiled Tibetan leader the Dalai Lama, a step that follows weeks of calls from world leaders for dialogue in the wake of anti-government protests in Tibet.
    (AP, 4/25/08)
2008        Apr 25, In Japan protesters waved the Tibetan flag and denounced China's rulers as the Beijing Olympic torch arrived for the latest leg of a worldwide relay marred by demonstrations.
    (AP, 4/25/08)

2008        Apr 28, In China a policeman and a Tibetan activist were killed following a raid against ethnic Tibetans in Qinghai province.
    (WSJ, 5/1/08, p.A11)

2008        May 4, China's Pres. Hu Jintao said he was hoping for positive results with envoys of the Dalai Lama, as talks opened, but state media kept up a barrage of attacks on Tibet's exiled spiritual leader. In Shenzhen envoys of the Dalai Lama and Chinese officials held a day of talks aimed at mending fences following a wave of unrest that pushed Tibet to centre stage ahead of the 2008 Olympics. They agreed to further contact.
    (Reuters, 5/4/08)(Reuters, 5/5/08)

2008        May 8, A Chinese mountaineering team took the Olympic flame to the top of Mount Everest, a feat dreamed up to underscore China's ambitions for the Beijing games.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 11, In Nepal police detained more than 600 female Tibetan protesters, including many Buddhist nuns, after breaking up several demonstrations against China's recent crackdown in Tibet.
    (AP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 20, The Dalai Lama began an 11-day visit to Britain, including talks with PM Gordon Brown who faces a delicate balancing act between supporting Tibetan rights while not offending China.
    (AP, 5/20/08)

2008        Jun 25, China re-opened Tibet to foreign tourists after claiming victory over the worst unrest there in decades -- which led Beijing to all but seal off the area from the outside world.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Aug 7, Critics of China's human rights record made sure they were not forgotten, a day before the grand opening of the Beijing Olympics, with protest actions the world over and in China itself. Thousands of Tibetan exiles demonstrated in Nepal and India.
    (AFP, 8/7/08)(AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 23, The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, left Paris on a flight bound for New Delhi after concluding a 12-day visit that fuelled tensions between Paris and Beijing.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Sep 11, Nepalese officials said Tibetan exiles living in Kathmandu illegally are to be deported in a bid to curb anti-China protests threatening Nepal's ties with its giant neighbor.
    (AFP, 9/11/08)

2008        Oct 6, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake killed at least 10 people in Yangyi, Tibet, the hardest hit village in Dangxiong County.
    (Reuters, 10/6/08)(AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 29, David Miliband, Britain’s foreign secretary, acknowledged China’s suzerainty over Tibet.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.54)

2008        Nov 14, In Tibet 18 people died after a bus overturned in Naqu district..
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 22, Nearly 600 Tibetan exiles gathered at Dharamsala, India, at the behest of the Dalai Lama ended a 6-day meeting. They reaffirmed their absolute “faith and allegiance" in the Dalai Lama’s leadership and agreeing to pursue for Tibet’s autonomy. They did not rule out a possible shift in policy to independence if current middle-way policy with China fails to yield any result in the near future.
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.52)(www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=23264)

2008        Dec 7, China protested strongly to France over President Nicolas Sarkozy's meeting with the Dalai Lama, calling it a "rude intervention" into Chinese affairs.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 25, Chinese state media reported that 59 people in Tibet have been detained on charges that they sought to foment unrest by spreading ethnic hatred and by downloading and selling banned songs from the Internet.
    (SFC, 12/26/08, p.A16)

2008        Tubten Khetsun authored “Memories of Life in Lhasa Under Chinese Rule."
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.93)

2009        Jan 18, China’s public security bureau of Lhasa, Tibet, launched a "strike hard" campaign against crime, with raids on residential areas, Internet cafes, bars, rented rooms, hotels and guesthouses.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 28, China’s state media said at least 81 people have been detained as the country launched a security sweep in Tibet ahead of one of the region's most sensitive anniversaries in years.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Feb 12, Local officials confirmed that swaths of western China that have large Tibetan populations have been declared off limits to foreign visitors, ahead of the politically sensitive 50th anniversary of a failed Tibetan uprising.
    (AP, 2/12/09)

2009        Feb 24, Tour agencies and other industry people reported that China has closed Tibet to foreign tourists ahead of next month's highly sensitive 50th anniversary of a failed uprising against Chinese rule.
    (AFP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 27, A Tibetan monk, in his late 20s, was shot after dousing himself with petrol and setting himself alight in the Tibetan-populated town of Aba in China's Sichuan province. Police put out the fire, and the man was taken to hospital with burn injuries to his neck and head.
    (AFP, 2/28/09)

2009        Mar 1, Scores of Tibetan monks in southwestern China marched in protest over the banning of a prayer service, the latest incident in an apparent increase in acts of defiance against Chinese rule ahead of sensitive anniversaries.
    (AP, 3/2/09)

2009        Mar 9, China's President Hu Jintao ordered a "Great Wall" against Tibetan separatism, as extra soldiers were deployed to the Himalayan region on the 50th anniversary of a failed anti-Chinese uprising. Homemade bombs damaged police vehicles in a Tibetan part of western China. Authorities expanded a security cordon across the restive region ahead of the 50th anniversary of a failed revolt that sent the Dalai Lama into exile.
    (AFP, 3/9/09)(AP, 3/9/09)

2009        Mar 10, Tibetans and their supporters rallied across the Asia-Pacific region demanding an end to Chinese rule in their homeland on the 50th anniversary of the Dalai Lama being forced into exile. Paramilitary police and soldiers swarmed cities and villages in Tibet and restive western China, on the alert for possible unrest. The Dalai Lama said Tibet had become "hell on earth" under Beijing's control.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 13, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said Beijing is willing to hold talks with the Dalai Lama if Tibet's exiled spiritual leader abandons his separatist cause, as he defended his government's hard-line policies toward the region.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 21, In northwestern China hundreds of Tibetans attacked a police station and government officials despite heightened security, prompting the arrests the next day of nearly 100 monks. The protest appeared to be in response to the disappearance of a Tibetan who escaped from police custody in Qinghai province.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 28, Tibetans rallied against the China’s new holiday, Serfs Liberation Day, on the 50th anniversary of Beijing’s crushing of a Tibetan uprising that led to the Dalai lama’s exile.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Apr 5, State media said China has reopened Tibet to foreign tourists almost two months after imposing a ban ahead of politically sensitive anniversaries.
    (AP, 4/5/09)

2009        Apr 8, China's state media said a court in Tibet has sentenced two people to death over riots in Lhasa last year, in what was the harshest sentence yet reported over the deadly unrest. Xinhua said the crimes committed by the five defendants resulted in seven deaths and the destruction of five shops in Lhasa.
    (AFP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 21, In China three people were sentenced to lengthy prison terms for deadly arson attacks during last year's rioting in the Tibetan capital.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Aug 27, Taiwan's president angered China with his surprise announcement that he has agreed to let the Dalai Lama visit the island to comfort survivors of a devastating typhoon.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

2009        Sep 4, The Dalai Lama’s visit to Taiwan ended following prayers for the souls of almost 700 dead from the recent ravages of Typhoon Morakot.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.46)

2009        Sep 9, The Dalai Lama received Slovakia's Jan Langos award for his promotion of human rights and his leadership in the nonviolent campaign by Tibetans seeking autonomy from China. The Jan Langos Foundation gives its award to "an outstanding figure of the local defiance against oppressed regimes and their security services" and to civil servants and politicians who "endeavor for human dignity and freedom."
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Oct 20, China executed 2 people for their roles in deadly protests last year in the Chinese-controlled region of Tibet, the first known executions for the violence. Lobsang Gyaltsen (28) and Loyak (30), who goes by one name, were sentenced to death in April on charges relating to "starting fatal fires."
    (AP, 10/27/09)

2009        Nov 8, In India joyous Buddhist pilgrims welcomed the Dalai Lama back to the Himalayan town he first set foot in five decades ago while fleeing Chinese rule in his native Tibet, a rare trip close to his homeland that has angered Beijing.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Dec 28, Dhondup Wangchen (35), a Tibetan filmmaker, was sentenced to six years in prison. He had made a documentary that was highly critical of the Chinese government's policies in Tibet. "Leaving Fear Behind" features ordinary Tibetans and the filmmaker himself saying that Beijing's policies in Tibet are threatening the remote region's traditional Buddhist culture. It was filmed in Tibet and other ethnically Tibetan areas of China in the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.
    (AP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 29, In China envoys of exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader the Dalai Lama arrived in Beijing for weekend talks amid subtle shifts in China's approach to its restive, riot-scarred western regions of Tibet and Xinjiang.
    (AP, 1/29/10)

2010        Feb 18, President Barack Obama met the Dalai Lama at the White House, brushing aside China's warning that talks with the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader could further damage strained Sino-US ties.
    (Reuters, 2/18/10)

2010        Mar 6, In Tibet a truck loaded with people heading to an ancient monastery in the Shannan prefecture crashed killing 26 people.
    (SSFC, 3/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Apr 14, In western China a series of strong earthquakes struck a mountainous area of Tibet, killing some 2,064 people and injuring more than 10,000, as houses made of mud and wood collapsed. 5 days later 3 people were pulled alive from the rubble. On May 31 the toll was raised to 2,698 with 270 still missing.
    (AP, 4/14/10)(AP, 4/15/10)(AP, 4/16/10)(AP, 4/19/10)(AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Apr 18, Chinese President Hu Jintao called on rescuers to keep searching for survivors as he visited victims of a powerful quake in Tibet that left some 2,064 dead.
    (AP, 4/18/10)(AP, 4/19/10)(AP, 4/21/10)

2010        Apr 23, Chinese police in Xining, the capital of Qinghai province, detained Tagyal, a prominent Tibetan intellectual. Tagyal had recently authored “The Line Between Earth and Sky," in which he praised the activism of monks during the Tibetan unrest of 2008. 
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.42)

2010        Jun 24, In China Karma Samdrup, a Tibetan environmentalist once praised as a model philanthropist, was sentenced to 15 years in prison on charges of grave robbing and dealing in looted antiquities. Supporters said the case was aimed at punishing his activism.
    (AP, 6/24/10)

2010        Jun 26, Chinese authorities sentenced Dorje Tashi, one of Tibet's richest businessmen, to life in prison in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, for helping exile groups.
    (AP, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 17, At least 4 Tibetans were fatally shot and 30 others wounded when Chinese police opened fire on demonstrators protesting the expansion of a gold mine they blamed for causing environmental damage in southwestern China's Sichuan province not far from the border with Tibet. On Aug 30 the official Xinhua News Agency reported that a 47-year-old Tibetan named Babo died after being hit "by a stray bullet when police fired warning shots with an anti-riot shotgun."
    (AP, 8/28/10)(AP, 8/30/10)

2010        Sep 26, Chinese authorities said five people have been sickened with pneumonic plague in Tibet and that the deadly disease has killed one of them.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Oct 19, Tibetan students in western China marched to protest unconfirmed plans to use the Chinese language exclusively in classes, an unusually bold challenge to authorities that reflects a deep unease over the marginalization of Tibetan culture.
    (AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Dec 5, In southwest China at least 22 people died and one person was severely burned when a spreading grassland fire swept through a mountainous Tibetan region.
    (Reuters, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 15, In China workers blasted through the last part of a tunnel that connects the Tibetan county of Metok to China's major thoroughfare.
    (AP, 12/15/10)

2010        Dec 16, Gene Smith (b.1936), librarian and Tibetologist, died in NYC. In 1999 he set up the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center in Boston and then in NYC.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Gene_Smith)

2011        Jan 27, Indian police raided the Gyuto monastery, home of Ugyen Thinley Dorje, the 17th Karmapa Llama, and seized about $777,000 in cash. The top Buddhist monk was seen as the possible next spiritual leader for Tibet. The next day India's NDTV news chain reported Indian security officials planned to question the Karmapa over alleged Chinese links, saying the monk was suspected to be planning to set up a string of pro-Chinese monasteries. On Feb 11 authorities cleared the Karmapa saying the money found during a raid had been donated by his followers.
    (AFP, 1/28/11)(SSFC, 1/30/11, p.A4)(AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Jan 29, Tibet's parliament-in-exile rallied behind a Buddhist monk seen as the possible next spiritual leader for Tibet after Indian police seized hundreds of thousands of dollars from his monastery.
    (AFP, 1/29/11)

2011        Mar 10, In India the Dalai Lama (76) said that he will give up his political role in the Tibetan government-in-exile and shift that power to an elected representative.
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 17, Rigzin Phuntsog (16), a Tibetan monk at the Kirti monastery in China’s Sichuan province, died one day after he set himself on fire in an anti-government protest. He was beaten and kicked by police, prompting hundreds of monks and others to rally. In August authorities said they will charge three Buddhist monks with murder over the death of Phuntsog.
    (SFC, 3/18/11, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/4nsxj9p)(AFP, 4/13/11)(AP, 8/26/11)

2011        Mar 20, Some 85,000 registered Tibetans across the world began voting for a new leader to take up the resistance against Chinese rule over their Himalayan homeland, as the Tibetan parliament-in-exile debated how to handle the Dalai Lama's resignation from politics.
    (AP, 3/20/11)(SFC, 3/21/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 12, In southwestern China clashes erupted between security forces and locals at the Kirti Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Sichuan province, under lockdown after a monk set himself on fire and died on March 17.
    (AFP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 21, Chinese police raided the Kirti monastery, a Tibetan Buddhist monastery where tensions have run high over the March 17 death of a monk named Phuntsog. Police took 300 monks to an unknown location and two villagers trying to block the monks' removal were killed.
    (AP, 4/23/11)

2011        Apr 27, Tibetan exiles elected Lobsang Sangay (43), international law expert and Harvard academic, as their new prime minister. He will face the daunting task of assuming the political duties of a global icon, the Dalai Lama.
    (AFP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 25, In India the Dalai Lama turned down pleas from the Tibetan community to accept a ceremonial role in the Tibetan government-in-exile after giving up his position as political leader.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 28, In India the Dalai Lama signed amendments to the constitution of the Tibetan government-in-exile giving up his position as political leader.
    (AP, 5/29/11)

2011        Jul 6, Nepalese authorities prevented exiled Tibetans from celebrating their spiritual leader the Dalai Lama's birthday over concerns that gatherings would turn anti-Chinese.
    (AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 16, Pres. Obama met with the Dalai Lama despite a warning from Beijing that the meeting would risk damaging relations.
    (SSFC, 7/17/11, p.A8)

2011        Aug 8, In India Lobsang Sangay, a Harvard-trained legal scholar, was sworn in as new head of the Tibetan government-in-exile, taking over from the Dalai Lama as the official leader of his people's fight for freedom.
    (AP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 11, Chinese designated lama Gyaltsen Norbu (21), the hand-picked 11th Panchen Lama, arrived at Xiahe, home of the Labrang Monastery. He left on Aug 16 following a cool welcome.
    (SFC, 8/12/11, p.A2)(Econ, 8/20/11, p.39)

2011        Aug 15, In western China Tsewang Norbu (29), a Buddhist monk, died after setting himself on fire in Sichuan province's Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture an ethnically Tibetan region.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 29, Chinese authorities jailed a Buddhist monk for 11 years over the March 17 self-immolation death of Rigzin Phuntsog. A court in the southern province of Sichuan handed long jail sentences to two more monks the next day over Phuntsog’s protest at their Kirti monastery.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 18, In India a magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit Sikkim state in the northeast near the border with Nepal. Some buildings collapsed in Sikkim's state capital of Gangtok. At least 108 people were killed with more than 100,000 homes damaged. The confirmed deaths included 6 in Nepal and 7 in Tibet.
    (AP, 9/19/11)(AP, 9/20/11)(AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 26, In China 2 Tibetan monks, Lobsang Kalsang and Lobsang Konchok (believed to be 18 or 19 years old), set themselves on fire at the Kirti Monastery in a protest over China's tight rein over Buddhist practices, as the Chinese government reiterated it will choose the next Dalai Lama. Both were rescued by police, suffered slight burns and were in stable condition.
    (AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Oct 1, In China angry Tibetans protested in Seda, a county seat in eastern Sichuan province, a tense area of southwestern China on the country's National Day after a Tibetan flag and a photo of the Dalai Lama were torn down.
    (AP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 6, Desmond Tutu's last-ditch appeal to South Africa to grant a visa to the Dalai Lama on the eve of his 80th birthday was rejected, marring the start of the celebrations. The Dalai Lama cancelled a planned trip to South Africa because of delays with his visa, provoking a furious response from Tutu who blasted President Jacob Zuma's government as worse than apartheid and accused him of kowtowing to China.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 7, In southwest China 2 teenagers set themselves on fire near a Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Aba town amid rumors that dozens of monks were ready to sacrifice their lives. Choepel and Khayang were former monks from Sichuan province's Kirti monastery.
    (AFP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 17, In western China Tenzin Wangmo (20), a Tibetan nun, committed self-immolation in a call for religious freedom and the return of the Dalai Lama. She was the 9th Tibetan to commit self-immolation and the first women to kill herself in this way.
    (SFC, 10/18/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 18, Tibetan monk Yonten Gyatso, a senior monk and human rights activist in the restive Aba county, southwestern Sichuan province, was arrested. He was sentenced on June 18 by Aba Intermediate People's Court, but his family and the news organization that he contributes to only heard about it on Aug 22. They said he was beaten, tortured and imprisoned after his arrest.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)

2011        Oct 25, In China another monk set himself ablaze outside a Tibetan monastery in southwestern Sichuan province's Ganzi prefecture. This was the 10th self-immolation this year protesting against Chinese rule over the Himalayan region. London-based Free Tibet group said it was unable to confirm the monk's age or name and was unsure of his condition.
    (AP, 10/26/11)

2011        Nov 1, Nepalese police detained more than 100 Tibetan exiles who had gathered to pray for nine Tibetans who set themselves on fire to protest against Chinese rule.
    (AP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 3, Chinese state media reported that a Buddhist nun, identified as Qiu Xiang (35), has died after setting herself on fire, in the 11th case of self-immolation among Tibetans in western China in recent months.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Dec 6, In Tibet 12 people were killed and five were missing after their bus plunged into a river.
    (AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Colin Thubrin, travel writer, authored “To A Mountain in Tibet," the story of his journey to Mount Kailas in southern Tibet.
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.81)

2012        Jan 6, In southwest China two Tibetan men set themselves on fire near the restive Kirti monastery, the 13th and 14th to hit Tibetan areas in less than a year. An 18-year-old died in a hotel room while another man, aged 22, was being treated in hospital.
    (AFP, 1/6/12)(AFP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 14, In southwest China a Tibetan set himself on fire and police fired on hundreds of locals, possibly killing one, as they attempted to rescue the burned body from officials near the restive Kirti monastery in Sichuan province's Aba county. This was the 16th self-immolation attempt in Tibetan areas inside a year and the fourth in nine days.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 23, In China Police opened fire on Tibetans protesting against religious repression, killing at least one person and injuring more than 30 others in Sichuan province's Luhuo county.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 24, In China two Tibetans were reportedly killed and several more were wounded when security forces opened fire on a crowd of protesters in Seda county in politically sensitive Ganzi prefecture in Sichuan province.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, Chinese security forces arrested a youth named Tarpa after he posted a leaflet in Sichuan's Aba prefecture "stating that the reason for the self-immolation protests was that Tibet must be free and the Dalai Lama must return, and until these demands were met, there was no way for the campaign to be stopped." Security forces fired at Tibetans trying to stop Tarpa’s arrest, killing one and wounding several others, in the third reported deadly clash in a politically sensitive Tibetan region in a week.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Feb 3, In China three Tibetans set themselves alight in remote Phuhu village in the southwestern province of Sichuan. One died and two others were seriously hurt.
    (AP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 8, In China a Tibetan (19) set himself on fire in Sichuan province's Aba prefecture. He was a former monk from the local Kirti monastery, which has been the scene of protests over recent months. The monk was taken to hospital. Radio Free Asia said Tibetan protests erupted in two counties in Qinghai province, with about 1,000 people marching in each.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 9, In China security forces shot dead two Tibetan brothers who were on the run after protesting against Chinese rule.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 10, Chinese PM Wen Jiabao pledged religious freedom and cultural protection in Tibet, just hours after security forces reportedly killed two Tibetans who protested China's rule.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 11, In China Tenzin Choedron (Choedon), an 18-year-old nun, set herself on fire in Sichuan province and later died, the latest in a spate of such incidents among ethnic Tibetans protesting Beijing's rule.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 16, Indian police detained 35 Tibetan students at a protest outside the Chinese embassy in New Delhi against Beijing's rule over Tibet.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 17, In western China Tibetan Buddhist monk Tamchoe Sangpo set himself on fire at Bongtak monastery in Qinghai province amid a wave of such protests against China's handling of the vast Tibetan areas it rules.
    (AP, 2/18/12)

2012        Mar 1, Chinese state press said Chen Quanguo, China’s top leader in Tibet, has ordered increased controls over the Internet and mobile phones, ahead of upcoming sensitive anniversaries in the restive region.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 3, In northwestern China a Tibetan teenager died after setting herself on fire. The girl, said to be aged between 16 and 19 years old, set herself alight at a vegetable market in Maqu county in Gansu province.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 4, In China a widowed mother of four died after setting herself on fire near the restive Kirti monastery in Aba county in Sichuan province, taking to at least 25 the number of such incidents in Tibetan-inhabited areas in the past year.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 10, In southwest China a Tibetan teenager set himself on fire and died on the sensitive anniversary of the Dalai Lama's flight into exile in 1959. The 18-year-old monk was from the restive Kirti Monastery and self-immolated in Aba town in Sichuan province.
    (AFP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 16, In southwestern China Lobsang Tsultrim (20), a Tibetan monk, set himself on fire before being beaten and dragged away by Chinese security forces by the Kirti monastery, Sichuan province.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 17, In China Tibetan farmer Sonam Thargyal (44) fastened cotton padding to his body and doused himself with kerosene before setting himself on fire in Tongren, a monastery town in western China's Qinghai province. He had been close friends with a monk who survived a self-immolation attempt on March 14, also in Tongren. The monk, Jamyang Palden, was believed to be alive but critically injured.
    (AP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 19, In China Lobsang Tsultrim (20), a Tibetan Buddhist monk, died in detention. He set himself on fire on March 16 in Aba town, a flashpoint for such protests.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 26, In India Tibetan exile Jamphel Yeshi lit himself on fire and ran shouting through a demonstration in New Delhi, just ahead of a visit by China's president. Yeshi sustained burns on 98 percent of his body and his condition was critical. Jamphel Yeshi died on March 28.
    (AP, 3/26/12)(AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 30, In China two Tibetan monks, identified as Tenpa Darjey and Chimey Palden, set themselves on fire in the western city of Maerkang in the latest in a wave of self-immolations protesting against Chinese rule.
    (AP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr, Chinese deputy party chief Zhi Haijie set up a new surveillance system in Lhasa, Tibet. Officials called it a “grid system of social management."
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.50)

2012        May 27, Two Tibetan men set themselves on fire outside a temple in Lhasa and one died. Xinhua named the dead man as Tobgye Tseten, from Gansu province. The incident marked the first significant protest in Lhasa since riots broke out there in 2008. Chinese security forces rounded up hundreds of residents and pilgrims in the wake of the incident.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)(AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        May 30, In China a woman, identified as Rechok (33), set herself on fire outside a Buddhist monastery in an ethnically Tibetan region of western Sichuan province.
    (AP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 5, Chinese authorities alerted foreign travel agencies that they would no longer be issuing entry permits to Tibet.
    (ABCNews, 6/7/12)

2012        Jun 20, Ngawang Norphel (21) set himself on fire along with another Tibetan youth, Tenzin Kaldrup, who died at the protest in Chendou county in the western province of Qinghai. Norphel died of his burns on Aug 1.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)

2012        Jul 8, China started work on a 30-billion-yuan ($4.8-billion) tourism project in Lhasa city, as it seeks to draw more travelers to the restive Tibet region.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Aug 7, In China Dolkar Kyi (26) immolated herself at Tso monastery in Kanlho prefecture (Gannan in Chinese), Gansu province, after chanting slogans calling for the return of the Dalai Lama.
    (AFP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 13, In far west China a Kirti monk named Lungtok and another man, identified as Tashi, set themselves alight in Sichuan province's Aba prefecture. Police beat a Tibetan man to death during a clash that broke out after the two Tibetans set themselves on fire.
    (AP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 27, In China Tibetans Lobsang Kalsang (18), a Buddhist monk, and former monk Damchoek (17) died in hospital after setting themselves on fire in Aba town.
    (AFP, 8/28/12)

2012        Oct 13, In northwestern China's Gansu province Tamdrin Dorjee (52) died at the scene near Tsoe Monastery after setting himself on fire in protest of Chinese rule. Free Tibet said the man is the grandfather of the 7th Gungthang Rinpoche.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 21, In northwest China Tibetan Lhamo Kyeb (27) called for the Dalai Lama’s return and died after setting himself on fire near the Bhora monastery in Gansu province.
    (SFC, 10/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 23, In China Dorje Rinchen (58), a Tibetan farmer, set himself on fire and died on the main street in Xiahe near the Labrang Monastery.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 25, In China Tibetan cousins Tsepo (20) and Tenzin (25) called for independence for Tibet as they set fire to themselves in front of a government building in their village in Biru county north of Lhasa.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Nov 4, In China a Tibetan artist died after setting himself on fire in Tongren, Qinghai province, in protest over Chinese rule.
    (SFC, 11/5/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 7, In China 4 self-immolations took place. Three Tibetan teenage monks, aged 15-16, set themselves on fire outside a police office in southwest Sichuan province. At least one died. A 23-year-old Tibetan nomadic woman, Tamdin Tso, died after self-immolating in western Qinghai province.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

2012        Nov 8, In China Jinpa Gyatso, a Tibetan nomad in western Qinghai, died after setting himself on fire.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

2012        Nov 10, In northwest China Gonpo Tsering, an 18-year-old Tibetan villager, died after setting himself on fire in front of a monastery in the city of Hezuo. This was the latest of a half-dozen such self-immolations reported during the past week as the country's communist leadership undergoes a once-a-decade transfer of power.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 12, In China a 24-year-old Tibetan man set himself on fire at a prayer ceremony in Tongren county in western Qinghai province, becoming the seventh person in six days to self-immolate in the region.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 20, China’s Xinhua News Agency reported that two Tibetan herdsmen had killed themselves by setting themselves on fire in two separate incidents.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 22, In northwest China Libong Tsering (19), a Tibetan man, set himself on fire in Qinghai province. The latest death brings to at least 78 the number of Tibetans who have self-immolated since 2009 in protest against China's strict control over Tibet's Buddhist culture.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 25, In China 4 more self-immolations by ethnic
Tibetans were reported over the last two days in Gansu, Sichuan and Qinghai provinces. At least 20 students were hospitalized after a protest turned violent in Qinghai province's Hainan prefectur.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2013        Jan 31, Chinese courts convicted eight Tibetans over accusations they incited others to self-immolate in the first such prosecutions to become publicly known, showing Beijing's resolve to stamp out the protests by criminalizing both the protesters and their supporters.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 8, A Chinese court sentenced a Tibetan man to 13 years in prison for goading a monk to self-immolate. The sentence by a court in Qinghai province followed a news report that the government has detained 70 people in the province's ethnic Tibetan areas.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 13, In Nepal a Tibetan protester doused himself with gasoline, set himself ablaze and chanted anti-China slogans as he ran down a street in Kathmandu. Police and residents were able to put out the flames and rush the man to a hospital. He died the next day.
    (AP, 2/13/13)(SFC, 2/15/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 25, In China a Tibetan monk set himself on fire in protest against Chinese    rule near dozens of pilgrims who had gathered for prayers to mark the end of the Tibetan New Year festival in Gansu province. Another had set himself ablaze a day earlier at a monastery in Qinghai province. Both died. A third monk was taken to a hospital after setting himself alight in a separate incident.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 27, China’s state news announced the arrests of 5 Tibetans accused of inciting a series of self-immolations late last year.
    {China, Tibet}
    (SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 7, Chinese officials castigated the Tibetan Kirti monastery, at the center of a wave of self-immolations, saying it has been inciting the fiery protests. They also indicated that authorities will not relax controls over the region.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 16, In China Lobsang Thokmey (28) became the 108th Tibetan to self-immolate in the last 4 years in protests against Chinese rule and religious restrictions. He set himself on fire in Kirti monastery, Sichuan province.
    (SFC, 3/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 18, Chinese police arrested the husband of a Tibetan woman who died last week after setting herself alight in protest.
    (SFC, 3/19/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 29, In China a large landslide trapped 83 workers, believed to have been asleep, at a state-owned gold mining company in Gyama village, Tibet. Chances for survivors were slim. 
    (AP, 3/29/13)(SFC, 3/30/13, p.A2)(SFC, 4/1/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 2, A Tibetan spokesman said Jigme Gyatso, a noted political prisoner, was released by Chinese authorities after 17 years in prison on charges of endangering national security and separatism.
    (SFC, 4/3/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 6, Chinese police opened fire on a crowd of Tibetans celebrating the birthday of the Dalai Lama in Sichuan province. 9 people were injured.
    (SFC, 7/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 6, In Nepal an unidentified Tibetan monk died after setting himself on fire in Kathmandu.
    (SFC, 8/7/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 6, In China about 60 people were injured when security forces fired into a crowd of Tibetan residents who were demanding the release of a fellow villager detained for protesting orders to display the national flag. Police also fired tear gas at those protesting in Biru county in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
    (AP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 8, In China Akong Tulku Rinpoche, a prominent monk who fled Tibet in 1959 and co-founded the West's first Tibetan monastery (Samye Ling in Scotland), was killed along with two other people in Chengdu. Police said three Tibetan men visited a house where the trio were staying and stabbed them to death in an argument over money. In 2016 a Chinese court sentenced two men to death for killing Rinpoche.
    (AFP, 10/9/13)(AP, 1/31/16)

2013        Oct 16, Chinese state media reported that an Australian tourist and 3 Tibetans died in an avalanche on Mt. Everest.
    (SFC, 10/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 31, Chinese state media said the last county in China to be accessible by modern land transport was finally linked up to the rest of the country with a new 117-km road that has taken decades to build. The 19,000 people of deeply isolated Medog in southeastern Tibet have until now had to depend on horses for land travel and trade.
    (AFP, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 19, Spain's National Court said it has issued arrest orders for former Chinese president Jiang Zemin and four other Chinese officials as part of a probe into alleged genocide by China against Tibet.
    (AP, 11/19/13)

2014        Feb 10, Spanish High Court Judge Ismael Moreno sought international arrest orders for former Chinese President Jiang Zemin, ex-PM Li Peng and others on allegations of genocide in Tibet.
    (Reuters, 2/10/14)

2014        Mar 30, In China Phuntso Wangye (b.1922), a veteran Tibetan Communist leader, died in Beijing. He had founded the Tibetan Communist Party and later become an outspoken critic of Beijing's hardline policies towards the Himalayan region. His book “A Long Way to Equality and Unity" was recently published in Hong Kong.
    (Reuters, 3/30/14)(SFC, 3/31/14, p.C3)

2014        Apr 1, Human Rights Watch said China has pressured Nepal to impose tough controls on thousands of Tibetan refugees, including arbitrary detention, excessive use of force and intrusive surveillance.
    (AP, 4/1/14)

2014        May 7, Tibet’s exiled Dalai Lama began a three-day stay in Norway. Unlike on his previous visits, no government officials will meet with him to avoid upsetting China.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        Jun 5, China freed Tibetan filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen (40), who made a 2008 documentary about Tibetan nomads expressing discontent over China's rule, after serving six years for separatism. Wangchen was freed in the western city of Xining, capital of Qinghai province.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Aug 9, In China a tour bus on a highway in Tibet fell off a 10-meter (30-foot) cliff after crashing into an SUV and a pickup, killing 44 people and injuring 11 others.
    (AP, 8/9/14)

2014        Aug 12, Chinese security forces opened fire on unarmed Tibetan protesters, wounding at least 10 people, before they detained the protesters and rounded up more male villagers in the southwestern province of Sichuan. One protester identified as Lo Palsang committed suicide while in custody while another unnamed person died from untreated wounds. 3 more protesters died later in jail after being denied medical treatment.
    (AP, 8/20/14)

2014        Sep 5, A representative of the Dalai Lama said South Africa has denied a visa to the Nobel peace Prize laureate. The Tibetan spiritual leader had hoped to attend a Nobel peace conference in Cape Town next month. This was South Africa’s 3rd denial in five years. Concerns about angering China have been cited.
    (SFC, 9/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 17, In China Lhamo Tashi burned himself to death in Hezuo city in the Tibetan prefecture of Gannan in the northwestern province of Gansu.
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Dec 5, Tashi Tsering (b.1929), Tibetan scholar, died in Lhasa. He was the founder of the corresponding education organization with headquarters in Lhasa, as well as the author of the trilingual dictionary (English, Chinese, Tibetan) “New Trilingual Dictionary" and an autobiography titled “The Struggle for Modern Tibet" (first published in 1999 by M.E. Sharpe).
    (http://tinyurl.com/mp2bjlz)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.138)

2014        Dec 23, In China Tsepe Kyi (20, a Tibetan woman, died after setting herself on fire in protest at China's rule of the Himalayan region.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 26, In China a monk was shot in the arm after police used teargas and opened fire during a clash with Tibetans outside a police station in the western province of Sichuan.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)

2015        Feb 5, President Barack Obama hailed the Dalai Lama as a "good friend" during a symbolic first public encounter between the two men at a high-profile Washington prayer breakfast.
    (AFP, 2/5/15)

2015        Mar 10, Indian police detained about a hundred Tibetans who were protesting outside the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi on the anniversary of a failed 1959 uprising against China's rule in Tibet.
    (AP, 3/10/15)

2015        Apr 8, In China a nun set herself on fire while crying out for the Dalai Lama to return to Tibet. Yeshi Khando (47) of Ngangang Nunnery circled Kardze Monastery in Sichuan province and then self-immolated near the police station.
    (AP, 4/11/15)

2015        Apr 27, In Nepal the death toll from the April 25 magnitude 7.9 earthquake climbed to more than 4,000. Reports trickling in from remote areas suggested it would rise significantly Another 66 were reported killed across the border in India and at least another 20 in Tibet.
    (Reuters, 4/27/15)(AP, 4/27/15)

2015        Jun 22, China inaugurated a new land crossing into Tibet for Indian pilgrims who wish to visit one of the holiest sites in both Hinduism and Buddhism.
    (Reuters, 6/22/15)

2015        Jul 12, In China Tibetan lama Tenzin Delek Rinpoche (65) died in prison 13 years into serving a sentence for what human rights groups say were false charges that he was involved in a bombing in a public park.
    (AP, 7/13/15)

2015        Oct 18, Tibetans around the world voted in the first round of elections to choose a new government-in-exile.
    (AP, 10/18/15)

2016        Feb 29, In China Kalsang Wangdu, a Tibetan Buddhist monk, died after he set himself on fire near the Retsokha monastery in Sichuan province in a protest against Chinese rule.
    (SFC, 3/3/16, p.A2)

2016        Mar 3, In India a Tibetan (16) died in a New Delhi hospital three days after he set himself on fire in a protest against Chinese rule. He set himself on fire on Feb 29 in the northern city of Dehradun and was brought to New Delhi for treatment.
    (AP, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 5, China said it will build a second railway line connecting restive and remote Tibet with others parts of China that will link Tibetan capital Lhasa with the southwestern city of Chengdu.
    (Reuters, 3/5/16)

2016        Mar 20, In India the prime minister of the Tibetan government-in-exile called for China to engage in dialogue on autonomy for his people's homeland, as tens of thousands of Tibetans around the world voted for new leaders of a government that Beijing does not recognize.
    (AP, 3/20/16)

2016        May 27, In Dharmsala, India, Lobsang Sangay was sworn in for his second term as prime minister of the Tibetan government-in-exile and said he will make maximum efforts to achieve regional autonomy for Tibet during his five-year term, but will prepare a strategy for the next 50 years if it's unsuccessful.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 15, Pres. Obama met with the Dalai Lama (80), the spiritual leader of Tibet, for the 4th time. China condemned the meeting, which was closed to news media coverage.
    (SFC, 6/16/16, p.A3)

2016        Dec 8, A Tibetan Buddhist monk set himself on fire in northwest China's Maqu region in what appeared to be the latest such radical protest against Beijing's rule. Tashi Rabten became the 145th Tibetan to self-immolate since 2009.
    (AP, 12/9/16)(AFP, 12/10/16)

2017        Apr 6, In northeastern India the Dalai Lama consecrated a Buddhist monastery in Arunachal Pradesh state, amid Chinese warnings that the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader's visit to a disputed border region would damage bilateral relations with India.
    (AP, 4/6/17)

2017        May 22, Spanish mountaineer Kilian Jornet set a record for the fastest ascent of Mount Everest without fixed ropes or supplementary oxygen, climbing the world's highest peak from the Tibet side in just 26 hours. On May 27 he made a 2nd ascent and reached the summit in 17 hours, just 15 minutes slower than the record set by Hans Kammerlander in 1996.
    (AFP, 5/23/17)(AP, 6/16/17)

2017        Jul 5, China’s official Xinhua News Agency reported that work has begun on a second $47 billion, 1,060 mile railway line to Tibet.
    (SFC, 7/6/17, p.A2)

2017        Nov 26, In China Tibetan monk Tenga (63) set himself alight in Sichuan province's Kardze county while shouting "We want freedom in Tibet." Security forces put out the flames and carried Tenga away.
    (AP, 11/30/17)

2017        Dec 26, Tibetan filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen (43), imprisoned for making a short documentary about Tibetan opposition to the 2008 Beijing Olympics, managed to flee China and arrived in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 12/29/17, p.D1)

2018        Jan, In China a regional court ruling upheld charges of "incitement to separatism" against Tashi Wangchuk (32), who has been held for more than two years. The rights activist has promoted the Tibetan language, and called for charges against him to be dropped.
    (AP, 2/21/18)

2018        Mar 31, In northern India Lobsang Sangay, the prime minister of the self-declared Tibetan government-in-exile, urged his compatriots to strengthen efforts to make the return of the Dalai Lama to his native land a reality.
    (AP, 3/31/18)

2018        Apr 12, Swedish authorities said they have charged Dorjee Gyantsan (49), a Tibetan man, with spying for China, on suspicion that he gathered information on Tibetans who had fled to Sweden.
    (AP, 4/12/18)

2018        May 22, China jailed Tibetan businessman Tashi Wangchuk for five years for "inciting separatism," after he advocated the use of Tibetan in schools and was featured in international media reports.
    (Reuters, 5/22/18)

2018        Jun 2, In Tibet an unidentified number of monks and nuns completed three days of training in Lhasa as part of a campaign to strengthen China's ruling Communist Party's grip on religion.
    (AP, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 15, A Swedish court found Dorjee Gyantsan (40), a Tibetan who worked for a pro-Tibetan radio station, guilty of spying for China by gathering information on Tibetans who had fled to Sweden, and sentenced him to 22 months in jail.
    (AP, 6/15/18)

2018        Jul 27, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang ended a 3-day visit to Tibet. He said the region is an inseparable part of China's "sacred" territory, and religious figures should promote national unity and ethnic harmony.
    (Reuters, 7/29/18)

2018        Sep 14, In the Netherlands four people who say Tibetan Buddhist teachers abused them physically or psychologically presented the Dalai Lama with written accounts from 12 alleged victims and appealed to him to address the problem.
    (AP, 9/14/18)

2018        Oct 17, A landslide in Tibet blocked the flow of one of the region's key rivers, creating a lake that could endanger downstream areas in India. Chinese emergency services evacuated about 6,000 people in the region.
    (AP, 10/18/18)

2018        Nov 4, In China a Tibetan man set himself on fire and died in a protest calling for the return of the region's exiled Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama. Dorbe (23) self-immolated in Ngaba county, a traditionally Tibetan region of Sichuan province.
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2019        Feb 9, China's state media reported that blizzards in Tibetan areas of western China have left thousands of head of livestock dead and roads covered in up to 45 centimeters (18 inches) of snow.
    (AP, 2/9/19)

2019        Mar 10, Tibetans and their supporters marked the 60-year anniversary of the Dalai Lama's flight into exile amid an abortive uprising against Chinese control.
    (AP, 3/10/19)

2019        Oct 12, Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in Nepal on a state visit for talks with Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli and both sides are expected to sign a deal expanding a railway link between the Himalayan nation and Tibet.
    (AP, 10/12/19)

2019        Oct 13, In Nepal Chinese President Xi Jinping wound up two days of meetings with separate deals for a rail link to Tibet and a tunnel.
    (Reuters, 10/13/19)

2020        May 1, China's "Regulations on the Establishment of a Model Area for Ethnic Unity and Progress in the Tibet Autonomous Region" came into effect. The law was passed by the regional assembly in January.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.34)

2020        Oct 14, The US State Department appointed Robert Destro to oversee US policy on Tibet, the latest sign of the Trump administration's growing outspokenness on Chinese human rights issues as relations between Washington and Beijing continue to deteriorate.
    (South China Morning Post, 10/15/20)

2020        Dec 20, Chinese adventurer and environmentalist Wang Xiangjun, nicknamed “Glacier Bro" by his fans, went missing and was presumed dead after falling into a glacial waterfall in Tibet.
    (The Telegraph, 12/31/20)

2021        Jan 3, In India hundreds of Tibetans in exile voted in Dharmsala for their new political leader and parliament. A 2nd round will take place in April.
    (SFC, 1/4/21, p.A6)

2021        Jan 19, In China Tenzin Nyima (19), a Tibetan monk, died from injuries apparently sustained while in custody in a Tibetan area of Sichuan province. He had been detained in August for spreading news about his earlier arrest for distributing leaflets and shouting slogan for Tibet's independence.
    (https://tinyurl.com/uvhtvmt4)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.43)

2021        Jun 9, Chinese President Xi Jinping ended a three-day tour of the northwestern province of Qinghai by stressing its importance for maintaining order in neighboring Xinjiang and Tibet.
    (South China Morning Post, 6/10/21)

2021        Jul 22, Chinese leader Xi Jinping made a rare visit to Tibet as authorities tighten controls over the Himalayan region’s traditional Buddhist culture, accompanied by an accelerated drive for economic development and modernized infrastructure.
    (AP, 7/22/21)

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