Timeline Turkey thru 2010

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  Cilicia was an ancient country and later a Roman province in Asia Minor.
 (WUD, 1994, p.266)
As of 2007 Turkey was composed of 81 provinces, including 7 mainly Kurdish ones.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.51)

30Mil BC    In what is now Cappadocia, Turkey, 3 volcanoes: Erciyes, Melendiz and Hasan, erupted. The ash and rock later eroded and left the harder rock in formations now called "fairy chimneys."
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)

10Mil BC    The Ankarapithecus skull, dating to about this time, was found in the Turkish desert in 1996. The remains show many similarities to Sivapithecus from South Asia, and have sometimes been included in that genus.
    (http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/apes/ankarapithecus/ankarapithecus_overview.html)

c7000BC    The site of Catalhoyuk in south-central Turkey was settled about this time and vanished after about 1,200 years. It marks the world’s first urban center.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.72)(SFC, 4/18/05, p.A6)

5500BC    People sweeping out from Turkey colonized Europe, likely as a part of the agricultural revolution, reaching Germany about 7,500 years ago.
    (Live Science, 4/23/13)

3,0000BC    Urartu existed in eastern Anatolia starting about his time until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes.
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)

2500BCE    Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)

2,000BCE    The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for "land of pretty horses."
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)

1300BCE    The oldest know shipwreck dates to about this time, the era of the fall of Troy and reign of King Tut. It was found off the southern coast of Turkey at Uluburun (Big Nose/Cape) by Dr. George Bass in 1984. [see 4431BCE]
    (MT, 3/96, p.2)

1295-1272BCE    The Hittite king Muwatalli II signed a treaty with Alaksandu, ruler of the Arzawa land known as Wilusa (northwest Turkey), which became Wilios in Bronze Age Greece and then slurred to Ilios for Homer’s Iliad.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1275-1240BCE    The Trojan War is usually dated to this period.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)

1267-1237    King Hattusili III ruled the Hittites. He wrote a letter to the king of Ahhiyawa (thought to be Mycenaean Greeks) and mentioned that Wilusa was once a bone of contention.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1250BCE    Some scholars believe that the Mycenaeans waged a successful war with the Trojans of western Asia Minor.
    (eawc, p.5)

1250-1000BCE    Troy VIIa, another discernible era on the site of the Trojan War. Evidence shows that Troy V was destroyed by fire and that Troy VI saw the establishment of an entirely new principality. An earthquake hit the thriving city of 5-6 thousand people, but after the crisis, the same people returned and repaired the city. The renovated Troy VIIa lasted some seventy years and was then destroyed by a conflagration.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)

1225-1175    Earthquakes during this period toppled some city-states and centers of trade and scholarship in the Middle East. Jericho, Jerusalem, Knossos and Troy were all hit.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A19)

1184 BCE    Jun 11, Greeks finally captured Troy. This corresponds to excavation levels VIi or VIIa at the site of Hisarlik, Turkey.  [see 1150BCE]
    (SC, 6/11/02)(Arch, 5/04, p.37)

1150BCE    Troy fell. Estimated date for the beginning of the Aeneid. [see 1275-1240BCE]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.60)

c1000BCE    Troy at Hissarlik in northwest Turkey was destroyed by fire and abandoned.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)

c1000-800BCE    The kingdom of Habushkia was likely centered on the headwaters of the Great Zap River in western Turkey.
    (AM, 7/00, p.50)

738-696    King Midas ruled Phrygia over this period according to Eusebios.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)

c700BCE    Nomadic Kimmerians attacked Phrygia. Strabo later reported that Midas committed suicide at the time of the Kimmerian invasion.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)
c700BCE    A Phrygian king, possibly Midas, ruled into his 60s and was buried in what came to be called the Tumulus Midas Mound at Gordion (later central Turkey). Midas was linked with the worship of the goddess Matar.
    (AM, 7/01, p.27)

c640BCE    The 1st coins were minted in Lydia (later part of Turkey), and featured face to face heads of a bull and lion.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, WB p.2)

600BC        Lazica dates back to at least the 6th century BC when the first South Caucasian state in the west was the Kingdom of Colchis which covered modern western Georgia and modern Turkish provinces of Trabzon and Rize. The Laz are a Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group native to the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laz_people)

585BCE    May 28, A solar eclipse, predicted by Thales of Miletus, interrupted a battle [a Persian-Lydian battle] outside of Sardis in western Turkey between the Medes and Lydians. The battle ended in a draw. [see May 25]
    (HN, 5/28/98)(HN, 5/28/99)

560-546BCE    The rule of Croesus. The first coins were produced in Lydia under the rule of Croesus. It was a kingdom in western Turkey. Croesus made a treaty with the Spartans and attacked Persia and was defeated.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.345)(WSJ, 11/11/99, p.A24)

540BCE    The population of Xanthos in Lycia (later Turkey) committed mass suicide rather than face slavery under invading armies.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, p.T5)

395BCE    Agesilaos of Sparta ravaged northwestern Turkey.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.8)

391BC-377BC        Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, ruled over Mylasa about this time. The Persian king Artaxerxes II Mnemon appointed Hecatomnus as satrap of this part of the Achaemenid Empire. A 2,800-year-old tomb and carved coffin, decorated with reliefs of a bearded reclining man, believed to be Hecatomnus, was discovered in 2010.
    (AP, 8/13/10)(www.livius.org/he-hg/hecatomnids/hecatomnus.html)

348-345BC    Aristotle lived and taught in Assos, (later Behramkale), Turkey, before he was summoned to teach Alexander in Macedonia.
    (SFC, 10/6/05, p.E8)

334BCE    Alexander at 22 left Pella, Greece with 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalry and proceeded to conquer western Asia including Miletus and Samos. His favorite horse was named Bucephalus. At Gordium, where King Midas is fabled to have held court, Alexander solved the puzzle of the Gordian knot by severing it with his sword.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.50)(NG, Jan, 1968 p.1,4,6)

c334        Seleukos I, a general under Alexander the Great, founded Antioch on the banks of the Orontes River.
    (AM, 11/00, p.69)

333BCE    Alexander’s forces overcame the Pisidians of Sagalassos.
    (AM, 11/04, p.38)

c333 BCE    Hittite lands and the village known as Ancyra (later Angora, Ankora) was conquered by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great.
    (HNQ, 4/15/02)

323BCE    The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, a Graeco-Roman seaport (later in Turkey), was completed after 125 years of construction. It was acclaimed the most beautiful structure in the world and considered one of the 7 architectural wonders of the ancient world. Its ruins were discovered in 1869 by archeologist John T. Wood.
    (ON, 11/00, p.3)

323BC-30BC    During the Hellenistic Age the Grand Theater of Ephesus was built into the side of Mt. Pion and could hold 24,000 spectators.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T7)

300BC        Seleucia was founded about this time in southeastern Turkey as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator one of Alexander’s generals. Seleucia was on the west bank and Apamea on the east bank of the Euphrates River. In 64 BC it was conquered and ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats." 
    (Arch, 9/02, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeugma_(city))

230BC        Celtic warriors were repelled at Pergamon. The king of Bithynia had invited some 20,000 Celts as mercenaries and after 50 years of pillaging they were repelled and settled in Galatia.
    (NGM, 5/77)

200BC-100BC     The excavation of Pergamon (now Bergama, turkey) in 1876 by German archeologist  uncovered a monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero Telephos.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

197BC-156BC        The Pergamon Altar, decorated with a marble frieze, was built between during the reign of Pergomene King Eumenes II. Pergamon later became known as the Turkish town of Bergama. In 1878 German engineer Carl Humann began official excavations on the acropolis of Pergamon. Frieze fragments following later negotiations, became the property of the Berlin museums.
    (AP, 2/18/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pergamon_Altar)

190BC        Hipparchus was born in what is now Turkey. He calculated the length of a year to within 6 1/2 minutes and was the first to explain the Earth's rotation on its axis. He also compiled the first comprehensive catalog of the stars. [see 160-125BCE]
    (LAT, 3/30/05)

180BC        The Great Altar of Pergamon was built at Pergamos in Asia Minor (later Turkey). It depicted the battle of the gods of Olympus against the giants.
    (WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W14)

160BC-125BC     Hipparchus, Greek mathematician and astronomer, often called the father of modern astronomy. He attempted to calculate the distance to the moon and the sun. His estimate for the distance to the moon was 67r vs. the modern value of 60.267r. He estimated the sun to be 37 times farther than the moon and at least 12 times greater in diameter than the Earth. His figures were accepted for 17 centuries until the invention of the telescope and precise astronomical instruments. Together with Ptolemy he graded the visible stars into six magnitudes. The first magnitude was comprised of about 20 of the brightest stars. He compiled a stellar catalogue in Alexandria which shows the position of 1080 stars. [see 190BCE]
    (SCTS, p.7-8,137,142)

64BC        The Greek settlement of Seleucia (in southeastern Turkey) was conquered and ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats."
    (Arch, 9/02, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeugma_(city))

0-100CE    In Ephesus the apostle St. John is said to be buried. The city is also said to be the final abode of the Virgin Mary.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T7)

40CE        St. Ignatius Theorphorus (d.107), Apostolic Father was, born. He later served as the bishop of Antioch.
    (WUD, 1994 p.708)

50AD-60AD    The Didache, the earliest catechism of the Catholic Church, was written about this time as teachings of the 12 Apostles to the gentiles. It was later discovered in a monastery in Constantinople and published by P. Bryennios in 1883.
    (SFC, 10/27/11, p.E1)(www.earlychristianwritings.com/didache.html)

52        St. Paul of Tarsus, Christian preacher, arrived in the port city of Ephesus (Turkey) about this time and spent 3 years there. Silt from the Kaistros River ended cargo shipping by the end of the first century. By 2007 the sea was 7 miles from the former port.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.E2)

256        The Anatolian city of Zeugma on the Euphrates was sacked by Persian King Shapur I. This was soon followed by a devastating fire and an earthquake and Zeugma was abandoned. In 2000 the area was submerged as part of the Southeast Anatolia Project of dams for power.
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A23)(Arch, 9/00, p.41)

275        The Goths launched a last major assault on Asia Minor, where piracy by Black Sea Goths was causing great trouble in Colchis, Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia and even Cilicia. They were defeated sometime in 276 by Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goths)

c300-400    Nicholas of Myra (later Demre) reported as bishop to the Byzantine church in Constantinople.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

330 AD    May 11, Constantine renamed the town of Byzantium to: "New Rome which is Constantine’s City." It became know as Constantinople.
    (ATC, p.31)(HN, 5/11/98)

330 AD    Constantine began the building of the Great Palace in Constantinople.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

330-379    Saint Basil of Caesarea. His followers erected monastic communities in Turkey.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.30)

c347-407    St. John Chrysostom. He was the ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
    (WUD, 1994 p.264)

397        In southeastern Turkey the Mor Gabriel monastery was founded by Syriac Christians. In 2009 it had just 3 monks and 14 nuns and faced the loss to the state of some 100 acres representing 60% of its core property.
    (WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A8)

407        Sep 14, Johannes Chrysostomus (b.c347), patriarch of Constantinople (398) and exiled in 404, died in Pontus (later northeast Turkey). He is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.
    (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08452b.htm)

431        The Council of Ephesus was held to deal with the heretics and heresies of the day such as Arianism and Apollinarianism. The council condemned Nestorianism, which taught that there were 2 person in Christ and that Mary was the mother of the human Christ but not of God. In 2009 Miri Rubin authored “Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary.”
    (Usenet, 3/4/97)(PTA, 1980, p.86)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.84)

500        Ancient Turks are believed to have originated in Mongolia about this time.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.17)

526        May 20, An earthquake killed 250,000 in Antioch, Turkey. This was the capital of Syria from 300-64BCE.  [see May 29]
    (MC, 5/20/02)

526        May 29, Antioch, Turkey, was struck by an earthquake and about 250,000 died. [see May 20]
    (AM, 11/00, p.69)(SC, 5/29/02)

532        Jan 18, The Nika uprising at Constantinople failed and 30-40,000 died. Justinian and his wife Theodora attend festivities at the Hippodrome, a stadium for athletic competition. Team support escalated from insults to mob riots and in the end Constantinople lay in ruins. Justinian proceeded to rebuild the city with extensive commissions for religious art and architecture, including the new Hagia Sophia.
    (ATC, p.33)(MC, 1/18/02)

537        Dec 27, The Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral in Constantinople was consecrated. St. Sophia (meaning "the holy wisdom" in Greek) was built by Emperor Justinian. It remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia)

541-543    Plague swept Asia Minor.
    (AM, 11/04, p.38)

550-730    Ancient Turkic people flourished in Mongolia during this period.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.19)

558        May 7, The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. Its immediate rebuilding was ordered by Justinian.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

0610        Oct 5, Heraclitus' fleet took Constantinople.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

626        Aug 7, Battle at Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp. Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
    (PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

700-800    Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)

787        Sep 24, The 2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opened in Asia Minor.
    (http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_672.asp)

787          Oct 23, Byzantine Empress Irene (c. 752-803) attended the final session of the 2nd church council at Nicaea, Bithynia [now Iznik, a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey)]. The council formally revived the adoration of icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome.
    (http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_672.asp)

c799-878    St. Ignatius Nicetas. He served as the Patriarch of Constantinople from 846-858 and 867-878.
    (WUD, 1994 p.708)

842        Feb 19, The Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ended as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_Orthodoxy)

921        In Turkey the Armenian Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived. Turkey restored the church in 2007.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

969        Oct 28, After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

989-1020    Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe  and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ani)

999        Turkish dynasties became the rulers of Transoxania, and area that covered much of what later became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.46-4)

1055AD    Baghdad was conquered by nomadic Turks from Central Asia who are descended from a warrior named Seljuk. The Seljuk Turks took control of the government and continue governing the empire in the tradition of Islamic law.
    (ATC, p.91)

1071        Aug 26, Seljuk Turks under King Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine army under Emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert (later Malazkirt), Eastern Turkey. Romanus was taken prisoner.
    (PCh, 1992, p.85)(Ot, 1993, p.4)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.51)

1087        At Myra (Demre), Turkey, merchants from the Italian port of Bari reportedly stole the bones of St. Nicholas.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1096        Aug 1, The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople. Anna Comnena, a 13 year-old Christian in Constantinople, watched as the crusaders marched into the city.
    (ATC, p.18)(HN, 8/1/98)

1096        Oct 21, Seljuk Turks under Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea slaughtered thousands of German crusaders at Chivitot.
    (HN, 10/21/99)(MC, 10/21/01)

1097        Jun 30, The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1097        Jul 1, The 1st Crusaders defeated Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1097        Oct 20, The 1st Crusaders arrived in Antioch.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1098        Feb 10, Crusaders defeated Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1098        Jun 3, Christian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1100-1200    Constantinople was devastated by fires in the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1101         Most of the inhabitants of Caesarea were massacred by the army of Flanders Count Baldwin I (1100–1118), king of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Baldwin was the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1205).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_I,_Latin_Emperor)(AFP, 12/3/18)

1147        Oct 25, At the Battle at Dorylaeum (Turkey) Arabs beat Konrad III's crusaders. Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France had assembled 500,000 men for the 2nd Crusade. Most of the men were lost to starvation, disease and battle wounds.
    (PCh, 1992, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dorylaeum_%281147%29)

1162        A man in Constantinople fashioned sail-like wings from fabric into pleats and folds. He plummeted from the top of a tower and died.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)

1182        In Constantinople a mob massacred the Latins who ruled as agents of the regent Maria of Antioch. They killed the city officials and proclaimed an uncle of Alexius II Comnenus co-emperor to rule as Andronicus I Comnenus together with his nephew.
    (PCh, 1992, p.98)

1204        Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.
    (www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/fathers/pears-constantinople-1204.asp)

1204        Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)

1204-1205    Georgia’s Queen Tamara marched with her men to the rousing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Basiani where she is hailed with the cry, "Our King Tamara."
    (www.undelete.org/woa/woa01-18.html)

1207-1273    Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi), Persian poet and mystic. He was born in Balkh, Afghanistan, and later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work "Mathwani" (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the "whirling dervishes." In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet’s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited "The Rumi Collection" with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the "Shams I-Tabriz" in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as "false distinctions." The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)(SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)

1216        Jul 11, Hendrik of Constantinople, emperor of Constantinople (1206-16), died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1243        Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1244        Aug 23, Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1244-1248    Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi met Shams of Tabriz, a wandering dervish, and the two became mystical companions for 4 years until Shams disappeared. Rumi called his own writings "The Works of Shams of Tabriz."
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1260        Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1260        Oct 24, Saif ad-Din Qutuz (aka Koetoez), Turkish sultan of Egypt, was murdered.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qutuz)

1261        Aug 15, Constantinople fell to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1271        The Mamelukes under Sultan Baibars captured The Crac des Chevaliers in Syria and converted the chapel into a mosque. It had been held by the Knights Hospitallers since 1144.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)(SSFC, 11/1/09, p.M5)

1281         Osman I came to power at the age of 23 and began a steady campaign against the Byzantines until his death in 1326. He managed to capture many Byzantine fortresses, most notably Bursa, consolidating Ottoman power in the region. Generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state, Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) led ongoing campaigns against the Byzantines in the 13th and early 14th centuries AD. Part of the migration of Turkic tribes into Anatolia, Osman was the son of Ertugrul, who had established a principality in present-day Sögüt, Turkey. In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire.”
    (HNQ, 2/19/01)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.88)
1281-1326    Osman Gazi (1258-1326) or Othman Ghazi, ruled as Sultan of the Ottomans.
    (www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1290        The Ottoman Empire began.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

1326        Osman I (1299-1326) captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege. Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)

1326-1359    Orhan Gazi (1226-1359) or Orchan Ghazi, ruled as Sultan of the Ottomans.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1328        Sep 26, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, died. He lived in Damascus during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur'an and the Sunnah. He had adopted the notion of takfir, denouncing as apostates Muslims whom he deemed wayward, a crime punishable by death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69) (http://tinyurl.com/pfxhrq3)

1348        In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
    (Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)

1355        Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1361        The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne in 1366.
    (Ot, 1993, p.5)(http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1385         Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1389        Jun 15, The Serbs were defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)

1389-1402    Bayezid I (1360-1403) ruled as the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Murad I and Gulcicek Hatun.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayezid_I)

1391        Ottoman Caliph Bayezid I sent boats to rescue Jews as they were being expelled from Spain.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1396        Sep 25, A Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajezid I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
    (HN, 9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)

1396        Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I beheaded several hundred crusaders.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1402        Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane "the Terrible," defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1403-1413    The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1421        May 26, Mohammed I, Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1422        Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1443        After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skanderbeg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444            Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
    (DoW, 1999, p.217)

1444        The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444        Murad II abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)

1446        Mehmet II was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)

1448        Oct 19, The Ottoman Sultan Murat II defeated Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1449         Albanians, under Skanderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1451        Feb 3, Murad II, Ottoman sultan (1421-51), died of apoplexy. Mehmet II (19) became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He ruled until 1481.
    (ON, 10/00, p.10)(Ot, 1993, p.7)(MC, 2/3/02)

1452        Mehmet II began construction of a new fortress called Rumeli Hisar on the Constantinople side of the Bosporus. He engaged Urban, a Hungarian engineer, to build a large canon and put him in charge of the canon foundries at Adrianople.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.10)

1453        Apr 6, Ottoman forces under Mehmet II opened fire on Constantinople.
    (ON, 10/00, p.11)

1453        Apr 22-23, The Ottomans hauled 76 warships out of the water and dragged them on wood rails to bypass the Greek blockade of the Constantinople harbor.
    (ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.13)

1453        May 29, Constantinople fell to Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The fall of the eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, to the Ottoman Turks was led by Mehmed II. Emperor Constantine XI Dragases (49), the 95th ruler to sit on the throne of Constantine, was killed. The city of Constantinople fell from Christian rule and was renamed Istanbul. The Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Spice prices soared in Europe. Nicolo Barbaro wrote his "Diary of the Siege of Constantinople." Manuel Chrysophes, court musician to Constantine XI, wrote a threnody for the fall of Constantinople. In 2005 Roger Crowley authored “1453 The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West.”
    (NH, 9/96, p.22)(Sky, 4/97, p.53)(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F4)

1455        The young Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II mobilized his army to march on Belgrade--and from there, possibly move on to the European heartland.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1456        Jul 14, Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1456        Jul 22, At the Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade), the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Murad II. The siege of Belgrade had fallen into stalemate when a spontaneous fight broke out between a rabble of Crusaders, led by the Benedictine monk John of Capistrano, and the city's Ottoman besiegers. The melee soon escalated into a major battle, during which the Hungarian commander, Janos Hunyadi, led a sudden assault that overran the Turkish camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat.
    (MC, 7/22/02)(PC, 1992, p.150)(HNPD, 7/23/98)

1461        Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Trabzon, a Greek port on the Black Sea. Trabzon had formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trabzon)

1463        The Ottomans conquered Bosnia.
    (www.bartleby.com/67/314.html)

1465        Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror moved to Topkapi.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1468        Skanderbeg of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
    (CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

1473        Aug, The Battle of Otlukbeli was fought near Erzincan (southern Turkey). Uzun Hassan's army of light cavalry was routed by Mehmed II's Ottoman forces. Uzun Hassan, head of the Turkmen Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, survived, but his son Zeynel Bey was killed in battle. In commemoration, the Mausoleum of Zeynel Bey was erected in Hasankeyf in about 1474 on the orders of either Uzun Hassan, or Zeynel's elder brother, Khalil.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasankeyf)

1478        Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1479         Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1479        Venice signed a peace treaty with Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) ending 16 years of war.
    (WSJ, 3/16/06, p.D8)(www.fsmitha.com/h3/h13zt.htm)

1480        In Italy 813 people were slain in Otranto for defying demands by Turkish invaders to renounce Christianity. In 2013 the "Martyrs of Otranto" were canonized as saints by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

1481        Sultan Mehmet II died at age 60. Kritovoulos authored "History of Mehmet the Conqueror" in the 15th century.
    (ON, 10/00, p.12)

1481-1512    Beyazid II followed Mehmed II in the House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1492        Sephardic Jews were welcomed by the Ottoman Empire after their expulsion from Spain.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T4)

1494        Nov 6, Suleiman I (d.1566), the Great, Ottoman sultan (1520-66), was born. Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was reported to have a harem of 2,000 women.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 11/6/01)

1499        Aug 25, Battle at Sapienza: An Ottoman fleet beat Venetians.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1500-1800    Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

1512-1520    Selim I followed Beyazid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1513        A manuscript map was drawn by Piri Reis (1470-1554) a Turkish captain who later became the Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Navy. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in Egypt in 1517.
    (http://turkeyinmaps.com/piri.html)(www.prep.mcneese.edu/engr/engr321/preis/afet/afet2.htm)

1514        Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514        Sep 15, Selim I entered Tabriz, Persia, and massacred much of the population.
    (PCh, 1992, p.168)

1516        Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
    (PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1516        The Ottomans made Aleppo their second city following its seizure.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.46)

1517        Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk_Sultanate)

1517        Apr 13, Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged as Osman’s army occupied Cairo.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1520        Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520        Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1520        Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1521        Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I's troops occupied Belgrade.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1521        Piri Reis, Ottoman cartographer, authored the Kitab-i Bahriye, or "Book of the Sea", one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The book gives seafarers information on the Mediterranean coast, islands, crossings, straits, and gulfs; where to take refuge in the event of a storm, how to approach the ports, and precise routes to the ports.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piri_Reis)
1521        Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1522        Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1523        The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1529        Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1529        Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and headed back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)    (HN, 10/15/98)

1532        Suleiman I, Sultan of the Ottoman empire, invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1532        Croat captain and diplomat Nikola Jurišić (1490-1549) defended the small border fort of Kőszeg (Kingdom of Hungary) with only 700–800 Croatian soldiers with no cannons and few guns, preventing the advance of the Turkish army of 120,000–140,000 toward Vienna.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Juri%C5%A1i%C4%87)

1533        Ottoman ruler Suleiman I concluded a treaty with Austria and got time to deal with dissident elements in Anatolia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534        Jul 13, Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1534        Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin "Barbarossa" occupied Tunis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1534        Dec 4, Turkish sultan Suleiman occupied Baghdad.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1534        The Ottoman Empire extended from Hungary to Baghdad.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1535        France became the first country to have a permanent embassy at the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1541-1686    The Turkish Ottomans occupied Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1543        Aug 22, French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city. Admiral Barbarossa led the Ottoman fleet in the campaign.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nice)

1544        The Turks invaded Hungary for the third time and seized the crown jewels.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1545        Hasan Pasha (c.1517-1572) became ruler of Algiers when his father, Barbarossa, was called to Istanbul.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasan_Pasha_(son_of_Barbarossa))

1546        The Turks occupied Moldavia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1546        Basra (Iraq) was captured by the Ottoman Empire.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.24)

1546        Barbarossa remained one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul until his death in 1546. Known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
    (HNQ, 2/10/99)

1552        The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1565        May 19-Sep 8, In Malta the Great Siege lasted over this period as Suleyman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry. In the initial attack 200 of 260 defenders lay dead at the end of the day but the garrison held out. The Turks continued their efforts for four months when reinforcements arrived and saved them. The arrival of a fleet from Spain, the “Gran Soccorso,” turned the tide. This halted the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean. St. Elmo was later transformed into Valletta, the capital of Malta. The Order of St. John continues to thrive to today.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A-6)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1566        Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)

1566-1574    Selim II followed Suleiman I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1568        The "Shahnameh" (Persian Book of Kings-1520-1530) by Firdawsi was given to the Ottoman Sultan. It was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text in it.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1570        Jul 3, The Turks began their attack on Nicosia, Cyprus, after Venice refused to surrender the island.
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1570        Apr 24, Spanish troops battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1570        Sep 23, The Turks began their attack on Famagusta, Cyprus, which was fortified by Venetian commander Marcantonio Bragadino (1523-1571).
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1571        Sep 1, Famagusta, Cyprus, surrendered to Mustafa Pasha commander of the Turkish forces after nearly a one year siege. The terms of surrender appeared agreeable to Venetian Gov. Marcantonio Bragadino (b.1523), but Mustafa Pasha turned on Bragadino and had him violently tortured and finally flayed alive. 
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571        Turks sacked the St. Sophia Cathedral in Old Nicosia, Cyprus, and turned it into the Selimiye Mosque.
    (CNT, 3/04, p.153)

1574        Dec 15, Ottoman Sultan Selim II (b.1524), a son of Suleiman the Magnificent, died in a drunken stupor after smashing his head on his Turkish bath. He had reigned since 1566. He was succeeded by his son, Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selim_II)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)(Ot, 1993, xvii)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.69)

1574        Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1586        The Turks attacked the Hungarian fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1574        Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died and was succeeded by his son, Murad III. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1579        In Istanbul the astronomical observatory of Takiyuddin Efendi, constructed from 1575-1577,  was deemed blasphemous and ordered destroyed by the Sultan. Takiyuddin Rasid (d. 1585), mathematician, physicist and mechanical scientist had united the schools of Maragha, Samarkand and Cairo-Damascus in himself and established the Istanbul Observatory.
    (www.phys.boun.edu.tr/~semiz/universe/near/04.html)(http://tinyurl.com/48rr4sq)

1590        Apr 18, Ahmed I, 14th sultan of Turkey (1603-17), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1595        Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Zsigmond Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1595-1603    Mehmed III succeeded Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1600-1650     In the early Seventeenth Century: Some Albanians who converted to Islam found careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1700    Shabettai Zvi, a Kabbalist from the Ottoman Empire, became the central figure in a widespread Messianic craze.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1601        Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III issued an order for the seizure of able youths aged 10-20 to be trained as janissaries, his special forces. "The infidel parents or anybody else who resists are to be hanged at once in front of their house gate, their blood being considered of no importance whatsoever."
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1603-1617    Ahmed I succeeded Mehmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Ahmet I had the Blue Mosque constructed to show that Muslim architects could rival the Byzantine glories of the Haghia Sophia. Construction was completed in 1616, a year before Ahmet I died at age 27.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(AP, 11/30/06)

1609         Sultan Ahmet commissioned the Blue Mosque to rival the other mosques of Istanbul, Turkey.
    (CAM, Nov.Dec. '95, p.29)

1617-1618    Mustafa I succeeded Ahmed I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618-1622    Osman II took rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1620        May 17, The 1st merry-go-round was seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1622-1623     Mustafa I took back the rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1623        Avedis Zildjian, alchemist, noted that a particular combination of tin and copper rang very nicely and began making musical cymbals in Constantinople. In 1929 the firm moved to Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B1)

1623-1640    Murad IV succeeded Mustafa I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1638        Dec 24, The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1640        Feb 9, Murad IV (27), sultan of Turkey (1623-40), died in Baghdad. Ibrahim (1640-1648) succeeded Murad IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(MC, 2/9/02)

1645        Turkish invaders of the Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a mosque.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1648        Aug 8, Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1648-1687    Mehmed IV succeeded Ibrahim in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1663        Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1664        Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1664        Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1669        Sep 27, The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea fell to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1681        Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1683        Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1683        Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna.”
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)   

1683        Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
    (WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1686        Jul 8, The Austrians took Budapest, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1687        Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1687        Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687        Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1687-1691    Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688        Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1689        The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
    (Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1690        Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1691-1695    Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695        Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695        Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1697        Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Eug%C3%A8ne_de_Cro%C3%BF)

1698        Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.
    (www.shaebia.org/wwwboard/contributedarticles/messages/58.html)

1699        Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1700        Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1703-1730    Ahmed III succeeded Mustafa II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1711        Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1711        Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1715        The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1717        Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1730-1754    Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1737        Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1739        Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty-Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1739        Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1739        Oct 3, Russia signed a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1750        Acre, a former stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town, which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under rubble.
    (AP, 6/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)

1754-1757    Osman III succeeded Mahmud I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1757-1774    Mustafa III succeeded Osman III in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1763        Russia annexed the Crimea peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.
    (SFC, 2/4/09, p.A5)

1768-1774    The Russian and Ottoman War.
    (HNQ, 5/6/02)

1770        Jul 7, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the 3-day battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Kapudan Pasha Mandalzade Hüsameddin, in the fourth ship from the front (north end) of the line, with Hasan Pasha (1713-1790) in the first ship, Real Mustafa, and Cafer Bey in the seventh.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chesma)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1773         Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.
    (HN, 9/14/99)

1774        Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1774-1789    Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1775        Catherine the Great of Russia received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the "Sultan Feather" from the Turkish Sultan Abdulhamid.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1779        Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1785        Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1787        Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1789        Sep 22, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
    (HN, 9/22/99)

1789        Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.91)

1789-1807    Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1792        Jan 9, The Ottomans signed a treaty with the Russians ending a five year war.
    (HN, 1/9/99)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1799        Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1799        Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful.
    (ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1800        Jan, Lord Elgin established his British embassy in Constantinople. His orders were to open the borders for trade, obtain entry for British ships to the Black Sea and to secure an alliance against French military expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1800        Mar 20, French army defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1800        Jul 6, The Sultan of Constantinople at the behest of Lord Elgin issued written orders to his officers in Athens for cooperation with Giovanni Lusieri and the removal of sculptures from the Parthenon.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1803        Jan, Lord Elgin concluded his diplomatic mission to Constantinople.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1807-1808    Mustafa IV succeeded Selim III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1808        Jul 28, Sultan Mustapha IV of the Ottoman Empire was deposed and his cousin Mahmud II gained the throne and ruled to 1839.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1810        May 3, Lord Byron swam the Hellespont.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)
1811        The Mamelukes remained a powerful influence in Egypt until they were massacred or dispersed by Mehemet Ali.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)

1817        Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), Irish-born hydrogapher, authored a best-selling travel book about the southern coast of Turkey.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1821        Mar 25, Greece gained independence from Turkey (National Day). [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1821        Mar 28, Greek Independence Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish domination. In 1844 Thomas Gordon authored a study of the Greek revolution. In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of Independence."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1821        Jun 19, The Ottomans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1821        Oct 5, Greek rebels captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnese area of Greece.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1822         The Greek town of Naoussa was razed by the Turks during Greece's war of independence.
    (AP, 3/14/19)
1822        There was a massacre of Greeks on the island of Chios. The event was later depicted in a painting by Delacroix.
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1826        Apr 22, Ibrahim, son of Mohammed Ali of Egypt, took Missolonghi (in West Greece) after a long siege. [see Apr 23]
    (CMW, 1968, p.154)
1826        Apr 23, Missolonghi (in west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1826        The Ottoman Sultan eliminated the Janissaries by slaughtering them. Originally they were Greek boys forcibly taken from their families by the occupying Turks and raised and trained to be elite troops at the service of the Ottoman Empire. From the mid-17th century, this abduction of boys stopped and Janissaries became a hereditary corps.
    (AP, 3/14/19)

1827        Jun 5, Athens fell to the Ottomans during Greek War of Independence.
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 6/5/02)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1828        Apr 26, Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1830         1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1831        Moniteur Ottoman, the first official gazette of the Ottoman State, appeared in Istanbul. It was issued irregularly until November 4, 1922. Laws and decrees of the sultan were published in it, as well as descriptions of court festivities.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Middle_Eastern_newspapers)

1835         The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1839        Jul 2, Abdul Meçid, aka Abdul Mejid I (1823-1861), succeeded his father, Mahmud II, in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_II)

1844         Feb 6, In Turkey Patriarch Photios founded the Theological School of Halki on Heybeliada, an island south of Istanbul.
    (AP, 2/6/19)

1844        Englishman Alexander Kinglake (25) authored his travel book “Eothen.” The name was from the Greek for “from the east.” It told of his adventures traveling across the Ottoman Empire from Belgrade to Cairo.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)

1853        Jul, Supported by Britain, the Turks took a firm stand against the Russians, who occupied the Danubian principalities (modern Romania) on the Russo-Turkish border. The Crimean War got under way in October. It was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war aligned Anglican England and Roman Catholic France with Islam’s sultan-caliphs against the tsars, who saw themselves as the world’s last truly Christian emperors.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1853        Nov 30, The Russian fleet attacked and burned the wooden Turkish ships at the port of Sinop on the Black Sea coast of northern Turkey. The guns of the Russian ships destroyed the port and its defensive installations. Of the 4,400 Turkish seamen, 3,000 were killed.
    (http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h38-br6.htm)

1853        The Sultan moved from Topkapi to Dolmabahce Palace in Constantinople.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.58)

1854        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) nursed wounded soldiers at Scutari Hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War.
    (HNQ, 4/29/01)

1855        Sep 9, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, fell to the Allies. France, England, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia (as Italy was then known) defeated the Russians at Sevastopol in the decisive battle of the Crimean War.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_War)(SFC, 7/27/13, p.C2)

1855        Nov 26, Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (b.1798) died in Constantinople. He was a poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. Mickiewicz is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania (Adomas Mickevičius) and Belarus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Mickiewicz)

1856        Feb 29, Hostilities in Russo-Turkish war ceased.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1856        Mar 30, Russia signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Crimean War. It guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Danube. The Black Sea was neutralized, and the Danube River was opened to the shipping of all nations. In 2010 Allen Lane authored “Crimea: The Last Crusade.”
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1856        A Turkish imperial edict lifted a ban on Christian bell-ringing in Jerusalem, whnich at this time was part of the Ottoman empire. The British were given the honor of erecting the city’s first outdoor bell since the crusades.
    (Econ, 1/5/13, p.35)

1861        Feb 2, Mohammed VI, last sultan of Ottoman Empire (1918-22), was born.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1861        Jun 25, Abdul Mejid, the 31st Ottoman sultan, died. He had dreamed of a tunnel under the Bosphorus Straits connecting Asia to Europe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_I)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.62)

1861-1876    Abdul Aziz succeeded Abdul Meçid in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1868        Bulgaria’s Buzludzha peak area was the place of the final battle between rebels led by Hadji Dimitar and Stefan Karadzha and the Ottoman Empire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzludzha)

1870        Apr 9, Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert (1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored “Finding the Wall of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik.”
    (www.lib.duke.edu/lilly/artlibry/dah/schliemannh.htm)(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)

1870        Apr 27, Heinrich Schliemann discovered Troy.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1870        Jun 5, A fire in Constantinople killed some 900 people.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1873             Apr 1,  M. Namik Kemal’s play " Vatan yahut Silistre " premiered in Constantinople.
    (OTD)

1873        German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann smuggled out treasures from the ancient city of Troy.
    (SSFC, 9/11/11, p.A4)

1875        Jul 29, Peasants in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans rebelled against the Ottoman army.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1875        The Ottoman Empire defaulted on its debt. This led to foreign lenders to set up the “Ottoman Public Debt Administration” in 1881.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.58)

1876        May 30, Murad V succeeded Abdul Aziz in the Ottoman House of Osman. His reign only lasted to August 31.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_V)

1876        Jul 2, Montenegro declared war on Turkey.
    (PC, 1992, p.537)

1876        Aug 31, Abdul Hamid II succeeded Murad V as the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman House of Osman. His ruled continued to April 27, 1909. During his reign Abdulhamid II appointed Pierre Desire Guillemet, a French painter, and his wife to establish the empire’s first arts school.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_V)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.66)

1876        Sep 1, The Ottomans inflicted a decisive defeat on the Serbs at Aleksinac.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1876        The excavation of Pergamon (later Bergama, Turkey) by German archeologist uncovered a monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero Telephos that dated to the 2nd century BC.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

1876        Russia under Alexander II invaded Ottoman-controlled Bulgaria with a mixture of humanitarian and imperialistic motives following reports that Turks were massacring Bulgarians.
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)

1877        Apr 24, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1877        Nov 17, Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1877        Dec 14, Serbia joined Russia in war on Turkey.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1877-1878    The Russo-Turkish War.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)
1878         Mar 3, The Treaty of San Stefano was signed after Russo-Turkish War. It assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain blocked the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano)

1878        Jun 4, The Ottoman Empire turned over control of Cyprus to the British. The Congress of Berlin leased Cyprus to Britain.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.10)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Abdul Hamid II revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on 3 March the same year. The Treaty of San Stefano had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. The Slavic converts to Islam in the Sandzak region of southwestern Serbia were separated from their ethnic cousins in Bosnia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Berlin_(1878))    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A20)

1878        Carl Humann led a German team in excavating an archeological site in Bergama, western Turkey. The team discovered an altar of Zeus, dating from the 2nd century BC. It was sent to Germany and became the centerpiece of the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1880        A tablet known as the Siloam inscription was found in a tunnel hewed to channel water from a spring outside Jerusalem's walls into the city and taken by the Holy Land's Ottoman rulers to Istanbul. It was later placed in the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. The tunnel was constructed around 700 BC, a project mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Chronicles. The tablet was installed to celebrate the moment the two construction teams of King Hezekiah met underground. In 2007 Jerusalem's mayor asked the Turkish government to return the tablet.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1881        May 19, Kemal Ataturk (d.1938), first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey, later set this as his birth date. He did not know the exact day, but favored May 19, tied to his start in 1919 of the war for independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Kemal_Atat%C3%BCrk)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N3)

1881        Hamdi Bey (1842-1910), Ottoman statesman painter and archeologist, founded the Archeological Museum of Istanbul. It opened in 1891.
    (NH, 6/03, p.44)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osman_Hamdi_Bey)
1881         Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1883        Oct 4, Orient Express made its 1st run linking Istanbul, Turkey, to  Paris by rail.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1884        Turkey passed a law stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country. The law was updated in 1906.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.90)

1887        A Lebanese villager discovered a well near Sidon that led to two underground chambers, which turned out to be a royal tomb containing 18 marble sarcophagi dating back the 5th century BC. The largest was believed to contain the remains of Alexander the Great. Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered them shipped to Istanbul.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1888        Dec 2, Mehmed N. Kemal Bey (47), Turkish writer and journalist (Vatan), died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1889        Jun 1, The first non-stop train to Istanbul left Paris (Gare de l'Est). The train's eastern terminus became Varna in Bulgaria, where passengers could take a ship to Constantinople.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1889        The young Ottoman army and navy officers who revolted against the despotic sultan Abdulhamid, known as the Young Turks, belonged to a secret society formed in 1889 called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Members of the committee worked for the union of all the various nationalities of the Ottoman Empire into a community of citizens with equal rights and duties and progress toward constitutional government along European lines.
    (HNQ, 5/28/99)

1892        In Turkey the Pera Palace was built in Istanbul by the Belgium-based Wagon-Lits company. It was acquired in 1919 by Greek wheeler dealer  Prodromos Bodosakis. In 1927 it was bought by an ethnic Arab named Muhayyes. In March, 1941, the interior was flattened by a bobm directed at British diplomats.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.91)

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1894        The Ottoman governor of Smyrna, later known as Ismir, banned baggy trousers worn by mountain zeybeks (militias), because he found them uncouth.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.66)

1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1895        May 25, Ahmed Djevdet Pasja (73), Turkish minister of Justice, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1895        Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1896        Nov 26, Russia disclosed a plan to seize Constantinople if Britain intervenes in Crete.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1897        Mar 9, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (b.1838), itinerant Islamic activist and British intelligence agent, died in Istanbul. He is considered as one of the founders of Islamic modernism and an advocate of pan-Islamic unity.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamal-al-Din_al-Afghani)

1897        The Greeks were defeated by Turkey at Velestino in their war over the independence of Crete.
    (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)

1898        Turkey withdrew from Crete.
    (AM, 11/00, p.53)
1898        In Turkey the Sveti Stefan Church, a cross-shaped Bulgarian church, was built on an iron skeleton on the banks of Istanbul's Golden Horn. 500 tons of prefabricated iron components were shipped from Austria. In 2018 a 7-year restoration project was completed at an estimated cost of $3.5 million.
    (AP, 1/7/18)
1898        Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany visited Constantinople.
    (Econ, 9/2/17, p.43)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1903        Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1903        The Prinkipo orphanage on Turkey's island of Buyukada became home for about 5,800 minority Greek children and continued operating until 1964 when it was forced to shut down. It was built in 1899 for the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, the company which also ran the famed Orient Express, but Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II withheld his permission for it to operate as a hotel and casino. The wife of a Greek banker later purchased it and donated it to the Istanbul-based Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, which then ran it as an orphanage. The building later became the subject of a drawn-out legal battle between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Turkish government, which confiscated it in 1997. It was returned to the Patriarchate following a European Court of Human Rights ruling in 2010.
    (AP, 9/9/18)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1906        The Ottoman register listed 194 eunuchs and 500 women in the imperial harem. Two years later they were gone.
    (Econ, 8/22/15, p.51)

1908        Jul 23, In Turkey Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) capitulated to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)m which led a rebellion against the authoritarian his regime. The revolutionary organization was popularly known as the Young Turks. Since then, the term has been applied to other insurgent groups within organizations or political parties.
    (HNQ, 11/4/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1908        Sep 22, Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1908        Dec 14, The first truly representative Turkish Parliament opened.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1909        Apr 13, In Turkey a counter-coup, led by a certain Dervish Vahdeti, began Istanbul and continued for a few days. It was put down by Hareket Ordusu (The Army of Action) constituted with troops stationed in the Balkans, which rapidly departed from Salonika. Among the officers who entered the capital was a young captain named Mustafa Kemal. 74 soldiers were killed in the incident. The “March 31” incidents actually started on 13 April 1909, a day corresponding to 31 March 1325 in the Rumi calendar in use at the time in Turkey for official timekeeping.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/31_March_Incident)

1909        Apr 27, In Turkey April 27 Reshad Efendi, the brother of Sultan Abdulhamid II, was proclaimed Sultan Mehmed V.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1909        Sep 7, Elia Kazan (d.2003) was born as Alia Kazanjoglous in Constantinople to Anatolian Greek parents. Kazan became a producer, screenwriter and director who won directing Oscars for "Gentleman’s Agreement" and "On the Waterfront."
    (HN, 9/7/98)(AP, 9/29/03)(SFC, 9/29/03, p.A18)

1909        The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire. A religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in Adana Province resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adana_massacre)
1909        Istanbul’s Haydarpasa railway station, designed by two German architects, was inaugurated.
    (AFP, 2/15/18)

1909-1918    Mehmed V succeeded Abdul Hamid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1911        Aug 3, Airplanes were used for the first time in a military capacity when Italian planes reconnoitered Turkish lines near Tripoli. Italy declared war on the Ottoman Turks and became the first country to drop bombs on an enemy from an airplane.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B3)(HN, 8/3/98)

1911        Sep 25, Italy declared war on Turkey. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1911        Sep 30, Italy declared war on Turkey over control of Tripoli. [see Sep 25]
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1912        Feb 24, Italy bombed Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1912        Mar 5, The Italians became the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later [see Oct 18].
    (http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/balkan1912.htm)

1912        Oct 17, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 18]
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Nov 5, Bulgarian troops in Constantinople blockaded drinking water.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1912        Dec 3, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria signed a weapons pact.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1912        Dec 4, An armistice was signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1912-1913    During the Balkan Wars the Kingdom of Greece acquired Macedonia from the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)

1913        Jan 22, Turkey consented to the Balkan peace terms and gave up Adrianople.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1913        Jan 23, The "Young Turks" revolted because they were angered by the concessions made at the London peace talks.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1913        Feb 7, Turks lost 5,000 men in a battle with the Bulgarian army in Gallipoli.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1913        Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Aug 10, The Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. It was concluded by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. The entire "disputed zone" was taken by Serbia, Greece secured its position in Thessaloniki and southeastern Macedonia, the Ottomans regained all the territories lost in the First Balkan War to Bulgaria with the exception of eastern (Pirin) Macedonia, and the Romanians seized Southern Dobruja. 
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Sep 29, The Treaty of Constantinople was signed. Turkey obtained not only Adrianople, but also Kirk Kilissé and Demotica. The Bulgarians were not even left masters of the one railway leading to Dedeagatch, their sole port on the Aegean Sea.
    (www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos151.htm)

1914        Aug 3, German Admiral Souchon, commander of the battle cruisers Goeben and Breslau, received an unexpected change in his orders. After attacking the Algerian coast he was no longer to sail west to the Atlantic Ocean. Instead, he was now ordered to turn around and sail east to Turkey. His new mission was to persuade the neutral Turkish government to enter the war on the side of Germany. The 2 ships were sold to Turkey and Souchon was made commander of the Turkish navy. He took the ships into the Black Sea, where he bombarded the Russian cities of Odessa, Sebastopol and Novorossiysk without the knowledge or consent of the Turkish government.
    (http://www.worldwar1.com/sfgb.htm)(ON, Dec, 1995)

1914        Oct 29, A Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed the Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol and Theodosia. [see Aug 3] This marked Turkey’s full entry into WWI
    (PC, 1992, p.706)(ON, Dec, 1995)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.85)

1914        Oct 31, Great Britain and France declared war on Turkey. [see Nov 5]
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1914        Fall, Armenian volunteer bands organized themselves and fought against the Turks. "The Protestant missionaries distributed... propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy under British protection."
    (History of Armenia, Horen Ashikian)

1914        Nov 2, Russia declared war with Turkey. [see Oct 29]
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1914        Nov 5, The French and British declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 31]
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1914        Dec 17, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1915        Feb 19, British and French warships began their attacks on the Turkish forts at the mouth of the Dardenelles, in an abortive expedition to force the straits of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill was the architect of the disastrous campaign. Allied forces were evacuated at the end of the year after both sides had suffered appalling hardships and losses. In 2011 Peter Hart authored “Gallipoli.”
    (HN, 2/19/99)(NW, 12/24/01, p.64)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.103)

1915        Mar 2, British Vice Admiral Carden began bombing of Dardanelles forts.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1915        Mar 16, British battle cruisers Inflexible and Irresistible hit mines in Dardanelle (Turkey).
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1915        Apr 11, The Armenians of Van began a general revolt, massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its quick and easy conquest by the Russians.
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)

1915        Apr 20, The Turks fired the first shot at Van; the first Armenians were deported from Zeitoun on the 8th April, and there is a record of their arrival in Syria as early as the l9th.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)

1915        Apr 24, Istanbul’s Haydarpasa railway station was used as the start point for the deportation of the first convoy of Armenians rounded up in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 2/15/18)
1915        Apr 24-May 14, Turkey said Armenians had sided with Russia and issued a deportation order for the mass deportation of Armenians. Armenian organizations in Istanbul were closed and 235 members were arrested for treason. Turkish police arrested some 800 of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through "Turkish Armenia" spearheaded by the "Special Organization" of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. In 2006 Taner Akcam authored “A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility.”
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)(AP, 4/24/10)

1915        Apr 25, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in hopes of attacking the Central Powers from below. Allied soldiers, ANZAC, invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey in an unsuccessful attempt to take the Ottoman Turkish Empire out of the war. The allies were defeated in one of the deadliest battles of the war. In 1965 Sir Robert Rhodes James authored "Gallipoli," a definitive account of the Allied expedition.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(HN, 4/25/99)

1915        Jun-Jul, Aleppo and Ourfa [were] the assemblage-places for the convoys of exiles. There were about 5,000 of them in Aleppo, while during the whole period from April to July many more than 50,000 must have passed through the city. The girls were abducted almost without exception by the soldiers and their Arab hangers-on.
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)

1915        Jun 1, A forced exodus [of Armenians] from Baibourt [Turkey] took place. All the villages, as well as three-fourths of the town, had already been evacuated. A 3rd convoy included from 4,000 to 5,000 people. Within six or seven days from the start, all males down to below fifteen years of age had been murdered.
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)

1915        Aug 7, In the assault up Russell's Top at Gallipoli 232 Australians died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1915        Aug 21, Italy declared war on Turkey.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1915        Aug 29, Syriac Catholic bishop Flavien Michel Melki (b.1858) and his Chaldean counterpart, Monsignor Philippe-Jacques Abraham, were murdered in Cizre by Ottoman forces for refusing to renounce Christianity. In 2015 Melki was officially recognized as a "martyr" of the Catholic church and beatified by Pope Francis.
    (https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavien_Michel_Melki)(AP, 8/30/15)

1915        Sep 28, At the Battle of Kut-el-Amara the British defeated the Turks in Mesopotamia.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1915        Nov 6, An order from Constantinople reached the local authorities, at any rate in the Cilician plain, directing them to refrain from further [Armenian] deportations.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)

1915        Nov 22, The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacked a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but was repulsed.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1915        Dec 18, In a single night, about 20,000 Australian and New Zealand troops slipped away from Gallipoli, undetected by the Turks defending the peninsula.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1915        In 2003 Peter Balakian, Prof. at Colgate Univ., authored "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response," a one-sided account of the 1915 Armenian genocide and the Turkish massacres of Armenians in the 1890s.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.M4)
1915        Kurdish tribes took part in the mass slaughter by the Ottomans of around 1 million Armenians. Tens of thousands of Syriacs fell with them.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.52)

1915-1917    Of the 1.75 million Armenians in Turkey at the outset of World War I, 250,000 fled into Russia. Some 600,000 starved to death in the Mesopotamian desert. Henry Morgenthau, US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, alerted Pres. Wilson of a massacre of Armenians by the Turks. Evidence and photographs of the camps were provided to Morgenthau by Armin Wegner, German Red Cross official and Johannes Lepsius, a German missionary. British diplomat Lord Bryce hired Arnold Toynbee to document the slaughter. In 2004 Turkey's Culture Ministry allowed the film "Ararat" by Atom Egoyan, which recalled the plight of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey during this time, to be shown in Turkey with one rape scene cut. In 2004 Armenian descendants of some of the dead, who held 2,400 insurance policies, reached a $20 million settlement with New York Life Insurance Co.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(PC, 1992, p.711)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D15)(SFC, 1/29/04, p.A3)

1916        Jan 18, The Russians forced the Turkish 3rd Army back to Erzurum.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1916        Apr 29, The British 6th Indian Division under General Townshend surrendered to Ottoman Forces at the Siege of Kut after a siege of 147 days. Around 13,000 Allied soldiers survived to be made prisoners.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Kut)

1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement, a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France, defined their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. It was signed on 16 May 1916. Italian claims were added in 1917. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal. As of 2016 the boundaries of the agreement remained in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes%E2%80%93Picot_Agreement)(WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.5)

1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(HN, 6/10/98)

1916        Aug 5, The British navy defeated the Ottomans at the naval battle off Port Said, Egypt.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1916        Ottoman troops led by Fakhreddin Pasha occupied Medina. They were later accused of stealing money and manuscripts from the city.
    (Reuters, 12/21/17)
1916        Tahsin Yazici served as a division commander fighting the British at Gallipoli.
    (HNQ, 7//00)
1916        C.F. Dixon-Johnson authored "The Armenians," with the aim of "presenting the public an opportunity of judging whether or not 'the Armenian Question' has another side than that which has been recently so assiduously promulgated throughout the Western World."
    (www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh08/06.htm)
1916        Arnold Toynbee edited a document titled: "The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: 1915-1916."
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)
1916        Britain appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the calamitous attack on the Dardanelles.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.67)
1916        The Hashemites of Jordan with British help raised the flag of revolt against Turkish rule.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.7)

1917        Mar 28, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1917        May 20, Turkish government authorized Jews to return to Tel Aviv and Jaffa.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

1917        Oct 31, Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) defeated Ottoman troops to gain control of a strategic crossroads at Beersheba that helped clear the way to Jerusalem during World War I.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yaqsor8k)(AFP, 10/31/17)

1917        Nov 7, British General Sir Edmond Allenby broke the Turkish defensive line in the Third Battle of Gaza.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1917        Dec 9, British forces under General Allenby captured Jerusalem. He liberated the city from Turkish control.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-12)(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(MC, 12/9/01)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Jun, The Ottomans became the first to recognize the first and short-lived Republic of Armenia.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)

1918        Jul 3, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet Resad died and Vahdettin (1861-1926) became the new Sultan.
    (www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1918        Sep 22, General Allenby led the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1918        Oct 1, Damascus (Syria) fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the city.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)

1918        Oct 30, Turkey signed the Mondros Armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon October 31.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1918        Dec 2, Armenia proclaimed independence from Turkey.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1918        The Yazidis of Sinjar (Iraq) saved hundreds of Armenians and Assyrian Christians as they were being slaughtered by Ottoman Turks and their Kurdish proxies.  The Ottomans retaliated by sending a small army to Sinjar and capturing the revered Yazidi leader, Hamo Sharro, who was sentenced to five years of har labor.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.38)

1918-1922    Mehmed VI succeeded Mehmed V in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1919        May 19, Mustafa Kemal arrived in Samsun, Anatolia, to start the National Struggle.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1919        Jun 19, Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish National Congress at Angora (later Ankara) and denounced the Treaty of Versailles.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1919-1922    The Greco-Turkish war. After the war ethnic Greeks were forced to leave Turkey and ethnic Turks were forced to leave Greece.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.28)

1920        Mar 20, Britain and its allies formally occupied Istanbul.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)

1920        Apr 23, The Turkish Grand National Assembly held its first meeting in Ankara.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1920        Jun 25, The Greeks took 8,000 Turkish prisoners in Smyrna.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1920        Aug 10, The Ottoman sultanate at Constantinople signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Allies and associated powers. It promised a homeland for the Kurds, but the nationalist government in Ankara did not sign the treaty. It set the borders of Turkey recognized Armenia as an independent state. France and Britain backed the treaty and a Kurdish state, but refused to allow Kurds in Iraq and Syria to join it.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A10)(www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/versa/sevres1.html) (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)
1920        Aug 10, Turkish government renounced its claim to Israel and recognized the British mandate.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1920s        A census in Turkey in the early 1920s counted the Alevi as about 35% of the 13 million population. Alevi claimed to be a purely Anatolian faith based on Shaman and Zoroastrian beliefs going back 6,000 years with Christian, Jewish and Islamic influences. By this time the Shiite Islamic influence was the strongest.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.11)

1920-1990    Turkey virtually outlawed the Kurdish language.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A1)

1921        Feb 8, The Turkish Parliament gave the city of Antep the title Gazi (”victorious warrior” – “warrior of the faith”), a day before the city surrendered to the French, in recognition of the valor of its inhabitants during the Turkish War of Independence. Gaziantep, amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world, had withstood a 10-month siege by French forces.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaziantep)

1921        Jun 19, Turks and Christians of Palestine signed a friendship treaty against Jews.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1921        Jul 10, Greek forces launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya, Turkey.
    (www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm)

1921        Aug 23, In the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, Turkey defeated the Greek Army.
    (www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm)

1921        Oct 13, In the Treaty of Kars Turkey formally recognized the Armenian Soviet Republic.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)
1921        Oct 13, The Daily Colonist in Victoria BC mentioned the term "cold turkey" in reference to quitting an addiction. This was the first know use of the term in print.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1921        Kemal Ataturk, a Muslim general, called for sustained military action to "chase the enemy out of our land." He referred to British, French and Italian forces that had helped defeat the Ottoman Empire and were stationed in Istanbul.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)
1921        The Turkish town of Gaziantep withstood a 10-month siege by French forces.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.14)

1921-1922    Following the Greco-Turkish war Turkey lost some 1.5 million Greeks in a population exchange that brought half a million ethnic Turks home from Greece.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, SR p.10)

1922        Jul 21, Djemal Pasha, dictator of Turkey, was murdered.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1922        Sep 9, Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal conquered Smyrna, Greece. This effectively ended in the field the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) more than three years after the Greek army had landed on Smyrna on 15 May, 1919.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)
1922        Sep 13, A major fire began to ravage Smyrna, Greece, shortly following occupation by Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal. The fire lasted 4 days.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)

1922        Nov 1, The Ottoman Empire ended as Turkey’s Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate. In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire)(WSJ, 4/11/06, p.D8)

1922        Nov 17, Mahmet VI (1861-1926), the last Ottoman Sultan (aka Sultan Vahdettin), left the Dolmabahce Palace on board the British gunship Malaya and went to Malta. He spent just 37 days on this island and went to Mecca upon the invitation of a local leader. His subsequent attempts to restore himself as Caliph in Hejaz proved a failure. He died in San Remo, Italy.
    (AP, 4/3/12)(www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1922        Nov 18, Abdulmecid II (1868-1944) was elected Caliph by the Turkish National Assembly at Ankara. He established himself in Constantinople on Nov 24, 1922 and continued to 1924. He was nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_II)

1923        Mar 6, The Turkish National Assembly rejected the Lausanne Treaty in Angora.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey.”
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

1923        Aug 13, The Turkish National Congress selected Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Ataturk) as president.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1923        Oct 13, Angora (Ankara) became Turkey's capital.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1923        Oct 29, The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Turkey established secular government under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He introduced the policy known as Kemalism, which bars any mixing of religious and public life. The country was predominantly Sunni Muslim.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)(AP, 10/29/97)
1923        Oct 29, Kemal Ataturk (b.1881) was the founder and first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey. Ataturk grew up to become a soldier, coming to international prominence for his defense of the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I. The Allied powers, eager to claim Ottoman territory, began to occupy territory before the official peace treaty--actions which hardened Ataturk's resolve. Beginning in 1919, Kemal--having resigned his commission--gained military support for a Turkish nationalist movement. He also established a government in Ankara, some 300 miles from the Sultan in Istanbul. Nationalist forces eventually found victory with the Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923. As president, Ataturk instituted a number of legal and educational reforms, expanded women’s rights and encouraged adoption of some European customs (such as the use of the Latin alphabet). He died in 1938 of cirrhosis of the liver.
    (HNQ, 3/11/01)

1923        In Turkey Mustafa Kemal Ataturk formed the pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP).
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)
1923        Homosexuality was made legal in Turkey. It was also legalized in the Ottoman Empire from the mid-nineteenth century.
    (AFP, 8/4/16)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)
1924        Mar 3, German and Turkish friendship and trade treaty was signed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1924        Sep 6, Forty teenagers from Armenia, who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Turkey, arrived in Addis Ababa. They along with their bandleader Kevork Nalbandian became the first official orchestra of Ethiopia. Nalbandian composed the music for Ethiopia’s Imperial National Anthem, Marsh Teferi (words by Yoftahé Negusé), official from 1930 to 1974.
    (www.armeniapedia.org/index.php?title=Arba_Lijoch)

1924        In Turkey the Presidency of Religious Affairs, normally referred as Diyanet, was founded by the Grand National Assembly as a successor to Sheikh ul-Islam. Its duties were to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship, and ethics of Islam. Its budget in 2014 was $2.3 billion.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidency_of_Religious_Affairs)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.52)
c1924        Vehbi Koç (d.1996) started what later became the Koc Group in Ankara, Turkey. In 2004 it had grown to employ 54,000 people.
    (WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)

1925        Jan 30, Turkish government threw out Constantine VI, the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1925        Feb 26, Jihad-Saint war against Turkish government.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1925        Apr 28, Kurd rebels surrendered to Turkish army.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1925        Nov, In Turkey Ataturk outlawed the tasseled fez headwear for men. He also outlawed the wearing of veils by women but the tradition continued.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.B1)(EWH, 4th ed, p.1087)

1925        Turkey’s Pres. Kemal Ataturk divorced his wife, Latife Ussaki, following a 2-year marriage. In 2006 Ipek Calislar authored a biography of Ussaki.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.60)

1926        Ataturk introduced a civil code in Turkey that ended the Muslim law allowing husbands to divorce their wives unilaterally.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.10)
1926        A Turkish state code designated the husband as head of the family. The wife had no legal say in decisions concerning the home or children. Equal status was attained in 2001 and made effective Jan 1, 2002.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A21)

1928        Nov 1, Under Pres. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk the Turkish Republic's law number 1353, the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, was passed. It replaced Arabic script with Latin script and went into effect on Jan 1, 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_alphabet)

1928        Frederick Bruce Thomas (b.1872), an American-born black businessman, died in Constantinople. Thomas had made Moscow his home in 1899 where he renamed himself Fyodor Fyodorovich Tomas and became one of the city’s richest owners of variety theaters and restaurants. The Bolshevik Revolution ruined him. He escaped with his family to Constantinople in 1919. He made a second fortune by opening nightclubs that introduced jazz to Turkey. The long arm of American racism, the xenophobia of the new Turkish Republic, and Frederick’s own extravagance landed him in debtor’s prison. In 2012 Vladimir Alexandrov authored “The Black Russian,” a biography of Thomas.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.F2)

1929        Jan 31, Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia to Turkey.
    (WSJ, 2/29/96, p. A-14)(MC, 1/31/02)

1929        Dec 6, Turkey introduced female suffrage.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1929        A group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin, which showed continents people had never seen before! The map accurately depicts longitude, something the Europeans were only capable. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. It was discovered in 1929 while Topkapi Palace was being converted into a museum.
    (http://turkeyinmaps.com/piri.html)

1930        Mar 28, The names of the Turkish cities of Constantinople and Angora were changed to Istanbul and Ankara.
    (AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)

1930-1937    Kurdish revolts in Turkey were harshly suppressed.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

1933        Nov 22, Mahmud Tarzi (b.1865), Afghan intellectual, died in Turkey at the age of 68. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_Tarzi)

1933         Franz Werfel (1890-1945), Czech-born Austrian writer, authored "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," an account of the 1915 Armenian resistance to Turkey. The author's friend, Rabbi Albert Amateau, testified in 1989 that Werfel was ashamed for having written the book, learning that he had extensively relied on the forgeries of Aram Andonian, which provides the only "evidence" of extermination orders.
    (http://www.tallarmeniantale.com/musa-dagh.htm)

1934        Turkey passed legislation that allowed the government to deny citizenship to gypsies. Turkey was home to one of the largest Roma populations.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.48)
1934        Women in Turkey were given the right to vote and banned the wearing of the Islamic veil.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.49)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.52)
1934         Greece’s PM Elevtherios Venizelos nominated Kemal Ataturk for a Nobel Prize. Ataturk had proposed that the Turkish mainland should be Turk (Muslim) and that the islands should be Greek (Christian).
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11)

1935        Feb 6, Turkey held its 1st election that allowed women to vote.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1935        In Istanbul, Turkey, the Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral was turned into a museum. Also called the Church of Holy Wisdom, it was built in 537 and remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

1936        Jul 20, Turkey signed a treaty, the Montreux Convention, by which it agreed not to interfere with transit through the Bosporus. It granted ships unrestricted passage except in times of war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/6lyog2)

1936-1939    Turkish forces used a bombing and strafing campaign to crush a Kurdish rebellion. Some 13,806 people were killed in the southeastern town of Dersim, now known as Tunceli. The military's campaign in Dersim was followed by forced migrations and massacres as well as policies of assimilation.
    (AP, 11/23/11)   

1938        Jul 4, France-Turkish friendship treaty.
    (Maggio, 98)

1938        Nov 10, Kemal Ataturk (57), [Mustafa Kemal], marshal and president Turkey, died of cirrhosis of the liver. He was succeeded by Ismet Inonu (d.1973).
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.B1)(EWH, 4th ed, p.1088)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.4)

1938        Turkey’s army crushed a rebellion in the southeastern province of Tunceli and villagers were burned alive of gassed. The government later admitted that some 15,000 Alevi Kurds died. Survivors spoke of least twice as many dead. In 2010 documentary titled ‘Two Locks of Hair: The Missing Girls of Dersim,’ which sheds light on the painful incidents of the 1938 Dersim Operation, four 80-year-old women tell of the trauma they experienced during the tragedy. 
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.55)(www.kurdishcinema.com/DersimsLostGirls.html)

1939        Dec 26-27, In Turkey a series of vicious earthquakes in Erzincan province, magnitude 7.9, took some 33,000 lives in Turkey.
    (HN, 12/27/98)(MC, 12/27/01)(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A17)(AP, 6/22/02)

1940-1945    Turkey supplied Germany and the Allies with chromite ore, an essential metal for stainless steel.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A13)
1940-1945    Turkey placed a wealth tax on all non-Muslims during WW II; those who could not pay were sent to labor camps.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.46)

1941-1944    Necdet Kent (d.2002), Turkish diplomat, was posted to Marseilles, France, and gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers to save them from deportation to the Nazi gas chambers.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

1941        Jun 18, Turkey signed a peace treaty with Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1941        Aug 10, Great Britain and the Soviet Union promised aid to Turkey if it was attacked by the Axis.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1942        Feb 24, The SS Struma was sunk in the Black Sea by a Soviet torpedo. The ship with over 750 Jewish passengers fleeing Romania, had docked in Istanbul, but was denied entry to Palestinian territory by colonial power Britain. On Feb 23 Turkey towed the vessel to the Black Sea and set it adrift. Only one person survived.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1947        Mar 12, Pres. Truman outlined the Truman Doctrine of economic and military aid to nations threatened by Communism. He specifically requested aid for Greece and Turkey to resist Communism.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207) (AP, 3/12/98)

1947        May 22, The Truman Doctrine was enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)(AP, 5/22/97)

1950        May 14, In Turkey the Democratic Party won 52% of the votes in its first free elections and Adnan Menderes (b.1899) became prime minister.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1950        Nov, Inexperienced but well trained and eager to show their mettle, the first Turkish troops arrived in Korea just in time to face the Chinese onslaught.
    (HN, 6/27/98)
1950        Nov, The 1st Turkish Brigade was commanded by Brig. Gen. Tahsin Yazici.  He was highly regarded in the Turkish military establishment and willingly stepped down a rank in order to command the first contingent of Turks in Korea. He had only one drawback—no real command of English—yet he was attached to an American division. Later, that lack of language proficiency would prove to be a major hindrance to his understanding of orders and troop deployments.
    (HNQ, 7/27/00)

1950        In Turkey PM Adnan Menderes was warned of an impending coup and sacked 15 generals and 150 colonels.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.43)

1952        Jun 7, Orhan Pamuk, Turkish novelist, was born in Istanbul. In 2003 he won the IMPACV Dublin Literary Award for his book "My Name Is Red." In 2004 he authored the highly acclaimed “Snow.”
    (WSJ, 8/13/03, p.D4)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.E1)

1952        Turkey and Greece joined NATO.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO)

1953        Feb 28, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia signed a 5-year defense pact in Ankara.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1955        Sep 6-1955 Sep 7, Well-orchestrated mobs ran amok in the Greek sections of Istanbul. Churches, shops and cemeteries were looted and desecrated and some people were killed. Provocation, believed to have been orchestrated by the Tactical Mobilization Group of the Special Forces command, led to a mass exodus of ethnic Greeks from Istanbul. In 2005 Speros Vryonis Jr. authored  “The Mechanisms of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6-7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.67)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.38)

1955        Turkey built the Incirlik air base near Adana.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A1)

1955        Iraq joined with Britain, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan in the Baghdad Pact, a loose alliance intended to check soviet influence in the region. The Baghdad Pact was formed at the prompting of the U.S. in an effort to block Soviet pressures on the northern tier of Middle Eastern states. The U.S. provided military and economic aid to the pact members.
    (HNQ, 7/28/98)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)

1958        Jun 15, Greece severed military ties to Turkey because of the Cypress issue.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1958        Israeli Premier David Ben-Gurion made a secret visit to Ankara, Turkey.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)

1959        Feb 19, An agreement was signed by Britain, Turkey and Greece granting Cyprus its independence.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

1959        Turkey applied to join the European Economic community.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.54)

1960        May 27, In Turkey a military coup organized by 37 "young officers" deposed the government PM Menderes, who was arrested along with all the leading party members.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1960        Aug 16, Britain granted independence to the crown colony of Cyprus. Archbishop Makarios began serving as the 1st post-independence president. He chose Spyros Kyprianou (28) as foreign minister. Under the provisions of the independence settlement, Turkey, along with Greece and Britain, maintained a right to military intervention if the island’s constitutional order is threatened.
    (AP, 8/16/97)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A26)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.47)

1961        Sep 17, In Turkey PM Adnan Menderes (b.1899) was hanged following the 1960 military coup.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1961        Oct 30, West Germany signed a guest-worker treaty with Turkey.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yakh2moo)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.43)

1962        Oct 27, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey.
    (HN, 10/27/98)
   
1963        Sep 1, Turkey moved politically closer to Europe with the Treaty of Ankara. It reduced duties and implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
    (http://tinyurl.com/tgab2)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

1963        Dec 21, The Turk minority rioted in Cyprus to protest anti-Turkish revisions in the constitution.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1963        Dec 24, Greeks and Turks rioted in Cyprus.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1963        Nazim Hikmet (b.1902), Salonika-born Turkish poet, died in Moscow.
    (www.poets.org/poets/poets.cfm?prmID=291)

1964        Aug 7, Turkey began an air attack on Greek-Cypriots.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1966        Aug 19, An earthquake struck Varko, Turkey, and some 2,400 were killed.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1967        Dec 29, A Turkish-Cypriot government formed in Cyprus.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1968        Oct 28, Pres. Johnson named Robert Komer (d.2000 at 78) as ambassador to Turkey. Komer had served Johnson as head of the "pacification" program in Vietnam, which used information and propaganda to gain political and social control of south Vietnam.
    (http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/komer-robert-william)(SFC, 4/14/00, p.D5)

1970        Jan 26, In Turkey the Islamic-oriented National Order Party was formed under the leadership of Necmettin Erbakan.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Order_Party)

1970        Mar 28, 1,086 died when 7.4 quake destroyed 254 villages in Gediz, Turkey.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1970s        In Ephesus the Library of Celsus was restored by architect Friedmund Hueber.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.7)

1971        Mar 4, Five Turkish militants (the Turkish Revolutionay Army) kidnapped 4 US military men in Ankara. The kidnappers released the four airmen unharmed on March 8, and were subsequently arrested, tried and convicted. Three were hanged, one was imprisoned, and one was killed in a gunfight with Turkish authorities.
    (www.prophetofdoom.net/Islamic_Terrorism_Timeline_1971.Islam)(Econ, 8/13/16, p.21)

1971        Mar 12, A Turkish coup d'état took place amid worsening domestic strife. It was the second to take place since 1960. Known as the "coup by memorandum," which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done previously.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)

1971        May 12, A 6.3 earthquakes in western Turkey killed about 100 people.
    (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/events/1971_05_turkey.php)

1971        May 20, In Turkey the National Order Party was shut down by Constitutional Court for being anti-secular. Erbakan went to Switzerland in self-exile.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://tinyurl.com/5vabve)

1971        May 22, A 6.9 earthquake in eastern Turkey killed about a thousand people.
    (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/events/1971_05_turkey.php)

1971        Aug, Turkey passed a poppy licensing law. In return Turkey later accepted a US offer of $35 million, over 3 years, for farmers who agreed to stop growing opium poppies.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(http://tinyurl.com/6ov8tk)

1971        Turkey closed down the Halki Theological School on Heybeliada Island, near Istanbul, to new students under a law that put religious and military training under state control. The school closed its doors in 1985, when the last five students graduated.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.50)(AP, 8/28/11)
1971        Milli Gorus, an Islamic Turkish community organization, was founded in Germany as Turkische Union Deutschland.
    (http://flagspot.net/flags/eu%7Digmg.html)

1972        Jul 7, Athenagoras (b.1886), 268th patriarch of Constantinople, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarch_Athenagoras)

1972        Oct 11, In Turkey the National Salvation Party formed as the successor of the banned National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi, MNP). Necmettin Erbakan returned home to take leadership.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Salvation_Party)

1972        Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006) succeeded Ismet Inonu (1884-1973) as head of the Republican People’s Party. In 1974 he became prime minister of Turkey.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%BClent_Ecevit)
1972        In Turkey the leftist Turkish Revolutionary Army abducted three NATO engineers.
    (Econ, 8/13/16, p.21)

1973        Oct 14, In Turkey the CHP replaced the AP as the most popular party, although it did not achieve a parliamentary majority. The CHP and MSP formed a coalition government under Bulent Ecevit. The National Salvation won 11.8% of votes in general elections, winning 48 seats in the 450-member Parliament.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4hkxfc)(AP, 11/4/02)

1974        Jan 25, Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006) became prime minister of Turkey.
    (www.terra.es/personal2/monolith/turkey.htm)

1974        Mar 3, A Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashed shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport in Paris and 346 people were killed. It was the worst air disaster to date.
    (AP, 3/3/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Airlines_Flight_981)

1974        Jul 15, Greek troops and the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a military coup on Cyprus and archbishop-president Makarios fled. Nikos Giorgiades Sampson (d.2001 at 66) served as president for 8 days following the military coup that overthrew Archbishop Makarios. PM Bulent Ecevit ordered Turkish troops to invade Cyprus following the Greek Cypriot coup.
    (www.cyprus-conflict.net/Greek%20v%20Turk%20narr%20-%201974.htm)

1974        Jul 20, Turkey invaded Cyprus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_invasion_of_Cyprus)

1974        Jul 23, Greece's military rulers announced they would turn the nation back to civilian rule. Constantine Karamanlis returned from 11 years of self-imposed exile and was sworn in as premier. Karamanlis later won a landslide election and served as prime minister until 1980. The Ioannides regime collapsed after plotting an aborted military takeover of Cyprus. The coup provoked a Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)

1974        Jul 30, The prime ministers of Greece and Turkey and the British Foreign Secretary signed a peace agreement to settle the Cyprus crisis.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/low/dates/stories/july/30/newsid_2492000/2492515.stm)

1974        Aug 14, The Turkish army mounted a second full-scale offensive in Cyprus, despite the fact that talks were still being held in Geneva and just as agreement was about to be reached. 37% of the area of Cyprus came under Turkish military occupation.
    (www.cyprus-conflict.net/Greek%20v%20Turk%20narr%20-%201974.htm)
1974        Aug 14, Greek Cypriots began a 2-day massacre that killed 83 Turkish Cypriot men in Taskent.
    (www.cyprus-conflict.net/www.cyprus-conflict.net/birgin%20-%2074%20narratives.html)

1974        Cyprus was divided into Greek and Turkish sectors with a UN no-man’s land in between. Turkish troops had invaded the island after an Athens-based coup by Greek Cypriots. 1,619 Greek Cypriots were said to be missing following the July, 1974, Turkish invasion. 160,000 Greeks and 40,000 Turkish Cypriots were forced to abandon their homes.  
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A11)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.64)(Econ, 4/23/15, p.41)

1975        Sep 6, A 6.8 quake along the Anatolian Fault kills over 2,000 in Lice, Turkey.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1977        Jun 8, The final run of the Paris to Istanbul Orient Express, begun in 1883, took place.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orient_Express)

1978        Dec 19, In Turkey rioting erupted after a bomb was thrown into a cinema attended mostly by right-wingers in Kahramanmaras. Over the next week more than 100 Alevis were left dead by mobs of nationalists and Islamists.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mara%C5%9F_massacre)(Econ 7/1/17, p.43)

1978        The film “Midnight Express” was about an American drug runner abused by Turkish jailers. It was based on the real-life story of Billy Hayes (23), an American who spent five long, agonizing years in a Turkish prison for attempting to smuggle two kilos of hashish on his way home to the USA in 1970.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)(www.filmreference.com/Films-Mi-My/Midnight-Express.html)
1978        In Turkey Abdullah Ocalan and some fellow Turkish university students founded the Kurdistan Worker’s Party, PKK. It was based on a Marxist, separatist platform that targeted Kurdish landlords as well as Turkish agents.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)
1978        Seven leftist students were killed in Ankara. Abdullah Catli, a heroin smuggler and terror suspect, was linked to the massacre.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)

1979        Jul 13, A 45-hour siege began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey, as four Palestinian guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1979        Nov 30, John Paul II, while on a pilgrimage to Turkey, became the first pope in 1,000 years to attend an Orthodox mass.
    (www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/travels/sub_index1979/trav_turkey.htm)

1979        Mehmet Ali Agca made a jailbreak in Istanbul. He was being tried for the killing of Abdi Ipekci, a leading left-wing columnist. In 1981 he shot Pope John Paul in Rome. In 2006 Agca was wrongfully released from prison in Turkey due to miscalculations in his term. He was re-imprisoned 8 days later. Agca was finally released on Jan 18, 2010.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)(AP, 1/12/06)(AP, 1/18/10)

1980        Sep 12, Turkish military took over in coup after factional fighting. All political parties were abolished. Gen. Kenan Evren led a bloodless coup in response to years of street battles between left and right-wing radical groups that left some 5,000 dead. Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006), PM of Turkey, was sent to prison following the coup and banned from active politics for a decade.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.97)

1980        Oct, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan (b.1926) and 21 National Salvation officials were imprisoned on charges of acting against secularism. They were released one year later and acquitted by court.
    (AP, 11/4/02)


1980        In Turkey some 50 people were executed following a military coup. 500,000 people were arrested and many hundreds died in jail.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.41)
1980        In Turkey military leaders established the Higher Education Board.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.48)
1980        In Turkey the wearing of headscarves was first banned in universities shortly after a military coup carried out by officers who viewed Islamists as a serious threat. But the implementation of the rule varied during the law's early years.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
1980        Abdullah Ocalan (b.1948), leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) crossed the border to Syria just before the September 12 Turkish military coup.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1980-1991    Publications in Kurdish were banned.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1981        The US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) instituted the 80/20 rule for opium/poppy imports. 80% of the US need for opium was set to be imported from India and Turkey. Turkish farmers provided poppy heads while Indian farmers produced gum opium.
    (WSJ, 4/3/00, p.A1,6)

1982        Jan 28, In southern California Hampig Sassounian (19) and a companion shot and killed Kemal Arikan, Turkey’s consul general in Los Angeles. Sassounian was later convicted and sentenced to life in prison. His companion was not caught.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Sassounian)(SFC, 5/18/17, p.D1)

1982        Mar 22, The US submarine Jacksonville collided with a Turkish freighter near Virginia.
    (http://navysite.de/ssn/ssn699.htm)

1982        Nov 7, Gen. Kenan Evren (1917-2015) was elected president of Turkey and continued to 1989.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenan_Evren)(AP, 1/3/12)
1982        Nov 7, Turkey ratified a new constitution. It replaced the earlier Constitution of 1961.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Turkey)

1982        Dec 6, Turkey began celebrating St. Nicholas day.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1983        Jul, In Turkey the Welfare Party was founded by close aides of Necmettin Erbakan while he remained banned from politics. In April 1997 a coalition government led by Erbakan fell apart under pressure by the military and the party was banned in January 1998 by the Constitutional Court. Leaders of Refah immediately created a new party : "Fazilet," the Virtue Party.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(www.medea.be/index.html?page=2&lang=en&doc=285)

1983        Nov 15, Turkish Cypriots declared the northern third Cyprus a separate republic, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. It was only recognized by Turkey.
    (SFC, 3/13/02, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus)

1983        Turkey legalized abortions for up to 10 weeks after conception.
    (SFC, 5/30/12, p.A2)

1984        Abdullah Ocalan, founder of the PKK, turned the group toward armed struggle against the Turkish government.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10) (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1984        Bilkent Univ. was founded just outside Ankara, Turkey.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.16)

1984-1996     Turkey was grappling with an 12-year old Kurdish insurgency. More than 21,000 people have died since fighting began.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1986        Sep 6, An attack on the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul killed 22 people. The Palestinian Abu Nidal group was blamed.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1987        Apr 14, The Turkish Government formally applied to join the European Communities.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1987/index_en.htm)

1987        Oct, In Turkey a ban on former political leaders was lifted. Erbakan took over Welfare leadership.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

1987        The Int’l. Istanbul Biennial was founded. It is organized by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul_Biennial)
1987        The NATO sec.-gen’l. negotiated a Turkish-Greek dispute.
    (WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A14)

1988        Jun 18, Turkey’s PM Turgut Ozal survived an attempted assassination. He had worked to eliminate the black market in cigarettes and suspected the cigarette smuggling mafia.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turgut_%C3%96zal)

1988        At Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, Prime Ministers Papandreou of Greece and Ozal of Turkey embarked on a peace initiative, setting up a hot-line and vowing to avoid war.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1989        Oct 1, Turkey’s PM Turgut Ozal threatened Syria to turn off the flow of the Euphrates River if Syria failed to live up to a 1987 security protocol.
    (www.danielpipes.org/article/262)

1989        Nov 9, Turgut Ozal became the 8th president of Turkey elected by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turgut_%C3%96zal)

1989        Nov, Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (1927-1993) alarmed Syria and Iraq when he announced that the flow of the Euphrates River would be held back for a month to fill the Ataturk dam. Flow was increased for 2 months before the cutback to offset the loss.
    (NG, 5/93, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/2mmycb)

1989        Dec 20, The European Commission advised against Turkey’s membership in the EEC.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.8)(http://tinyurl.com/29sr46p)

1989        To avoid assimilation 300,000 Turks left Bulgaria. The communist government of Bulgaria deported 340,000 ethnic Turks.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A11)(Econ, 2/11/17, p.70)

1991        Apr 15, Turkey began moving thousands of Iraqi Kurds from a border settlement to camps farther inside Turkey, in a major policy shift for President Turgut Ozal’s government, which had previously kept the refugees in the mountains.
    (AP, 4/15/01)

1991        Jul 20,    President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people in Ankara.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1991        Turkey abolished the price controls that propped up its state-owned tobacco company.
    (WSJ, 9/11/98, p.A1)

1991        Death-squad style killings of ethnic Kurds began. By 1998 1,500 Kurdish nationalists, journalists, politicians and businesspeople were killed.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A15)

1991        A ban on the use of the Kurdish language in unofficial settings was lifted.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A10)

1992        Mar 3, In Turkey a gas explosion in underground coal mine in Kozlu, near the Black Sea port of Zonguldak, claimed 263 lives.
    (AP, 3/3/02)(AP, 5/17/10)

1992        Mar 7, An Israeli security chief was killed in a car bomb attack in Ankara, Turkey. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1992        Mar 13, Some 498 died in an earthquake at Erzincan, Turkey.
    (www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geosciences/qketour/qkexampl/qk990817.html)

1992        Oct 7, The Ubykh language of the north-eastern Caucasus died out when Tevfik Esenc (b.1904), a Circassian exile in Turkey, died.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.137)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubykh_language)

1992        Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (d.1993) envisioned the Black Sea as a zone of peace and cooperation. This led to the formation of the Istanbul-based organization for Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.54)

1992        Turkey organized a regional alphabet congress and academics agreed to a 34-character Latin alphabet based on Turkish script.
    (WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1992        Yusuf Kulca founded Istanbul's 1st privately run home for children.
    (Econ, 9/27/03, p.50)

1993        Jan 27, Mumcu, a reporter for the secular daily Cumhuriyet, was killed by a car bomb while he was in his vehicle outside his home in Ankara, Turkey. Among groups that have claimed responsibility are the Islamic Liberation Organization, the Raiders of Islamic Great East, and Islamic Jihad.
    (www.cpj.org/killed/killed_archives/1993_list.html)

1993        Apr 17, Turkish President Turgut Ozal died at age 66. In 2012 authorities investigating Ozal's death found traces of toxic material in samples from his exhumed body but could not conclude he died of poisoning.
    (AP, 4/17/98)(AP, 12/12/12)

1993        May 24, Separatist Kurdish rebels fatally shot 33 Turkish soldiers and two civilians after forcing them and about two dozen other persons off a bus in the southeastern province of Bingol. This ended a unilateral cease-fire and led the military to intensify a campaign to annihilate the PKK. Testimony in 1999 by Abdullah Ocalan said a regional PKK commander carried out the slaying.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-948140.html)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1993        May, Suleyman Demirel was elected president by the parliament for a 7-year term.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.C16)

1993        Jul 2, In Turkey writers and artists, along with two hotel staff, were killed when an angry mob set fire to the Madimak hotel in the Anatolian city of Sivas, where they had been holding a conference as part of an Alevi cultural festival. Islamist protesters had been angered by the presence of the writer Aziz Nesin (d.1995) who had questioned the authenticity of the Koran and also sought to translate Salman Rushdie's controversial novel "The Satanic Verses". Two protesters were also killed, bringing the total death toll to 37.
    (AFP, 7/2/18)

1993        Jul 5, Kurd guerrillas murdered 32 villagers in East Turkey.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1993        Andrew Wheatcroft authored "The Ottomans."
    (Ot, 1993)
1993        Tansu Ciller, a US trained economist, was elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-1)
1993        Turkey sealed its land frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was still allowed.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)
1993        In the Anatolian city of Sivas, a fire, set by a mob shouting Islamic slogans, killed 37 secular writers. In 1997 33 people sere sentenced to death for their roles in the mob attack.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1993-1996    In 1996 Turkey’s former PM Tansu Ciller was accused of enriching herself by $50 million through links with criminal gangs over this time.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A10)

1993-1996    Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in Europe.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1994        Mar 13, The oil tanker Nassia collided with an empty cargo ship at the entrance of the Bosporus. 27-29 people lost their lives. 9,000 tons of petroleum spilled and 20,000 tons burned for four days long affecting the marine environment.
    (www.bosphorusstrait.com/the-bosporus-strait/incidents/)(AP, 4/27/11)

1994        Mar, In Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan was elected mayor of Istanbul as candidate from Erbakan's Welfare party.
    (AP, 11/4/02)
1994        Mar, In Turkey 33 Kurdish villagers killed in an air strike in two villages in the province of Sirnak near the Iraqi border. Turkish prosecutors later determined that the attack was carried out by PKK militants. An investigation in the attack was re-opened in 2013.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)

1994        Jul 26, The Turkish air force bombed Kurds in Iraq and 79 people were killed.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1994/turkey2/)

1994        Dec 29, In East Turkey a B737-400 flew into a mountain at Edremit and 55 people were killed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/98ytm)

1994        In Turkey Ali Erol set up KAOS-GL as a support group for gays and lesbians. In 2005 the groups sought recognition as an association.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.51)

1994        The $32 billion GAP hydroelectric project opened its Ataturk Dam. The project planned 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric plants on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A6)

1994        Inflation reached 120%.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1995        Jan 11, Onat Kutlar (b.1936), Turkish pro-secular poet and writer, was killed. The militant group Great Islamic Raiders of the East Front were implicated.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onat_Kutlar)(SFC, 10/22/99, p.B6)

1995        Mar 13, Istanbul police killed at least 15 Alawi (Alevi) demonstrators.
    (http://tinyurl.com/byu4j)

1995         Dec, Prime Minister Tansu Ciller, head of the True Path Party, quit after the Welfare Party, which pledged to impose Islamic principles, drew the largest number of votes in parliamentary elections (21%). The leader of the Welfare Party was Necmettin  Erbakan. The Motherland leader was Mesut Yilmaz.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)
1995         Dec, Turkey grappled with an 11-year old Kurdish insurgency under President was Suleyman Demirel.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)

1995        Philip Mansel authored “Constantinople: City of the World’s Desire, 1453-1924.”
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.66)

1996         Jan 1, A Custom's Union with the European Union was set take effect.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)

1996         Jan 9, In Turkey Ozdemir Sabanci (b.1941) was killed along with his secretary and another colleague in an attack on the Istanbul headquarters of Sabanci Holding. The Marxist DHKP-C claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 2/4/16)

1996        Jan 16, Chechens hijacked a ferry with 165 passengers and crew from the Turkish port of Trabzon bound for the Russian city of Sochi. Gunmen in Trabzon, Turkey, hijacked a Black Sea ferry with more than 200 people on board, and demanded that Russian troops stop fighting Chechen rebels in Pervomayskaya. The hostages were released three days later after the Russian troops stormed Pervomaiskoye.
    (WSJ, 1/17/96, p.A-1)(AP, 1/16/01)

1996        Jan, Police clubbed people with wooden batons until they broke in a sports complex. Reporter Metin Goktepe was killed. 11 officers were charged in the reporter’s murder but none were in custody. A court ordered 5 policemen to be taken into custody in 1997. The 5 failed to appear in court. In 1998 5 policemen were jailed for 7 1/2 years for the killing.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A12)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/25/97, p.A11)(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A16)

1996        Feb 6, A Turkish-owned Boeing 757 jetliner crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Puerto Plata shortly after takeoff from the Dominican Republic, killing 189 people, mostly German tourists.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(AP, 2/6/01)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1996        Feb, Inflation in Turkey was down to 80% a year. It had reached 120% in 1994.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1996        Feb, A military cooperation agreement was signed between Israel and Turkey. The agreement allows for joint military training, exchanges between military academies and participation of observers in each other’s exercises.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-10)

1996        Apr 9, Turkish troops killed 90 Kurdish rebels in a 3-day offensive. 27 of its own soldiers died. Rebels had declared a cease-fire in Nov., but the government refused to abide.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 13, In Turkey torture rehabilitation centers set up by the country’s Human Rights Foundation were declared illegal by the government.
    (SFC, 5/14/96, A-10)

1996        May 24, In Turkey Prime Minister Tansu Ciller said that her True Path Party was pulling out of the ruling coalition. This gave the pro-Islamic Welfare Party another shot at power.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 7, Turkey’s Pres. Suleyman Demirel again asked Islamist leader Necmettin Erbakan to form a new coalition government.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 27, In Turkey thousands of troops poured into northern Iraq and killed dozens of separatist Kurds.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A14)

1996        Jun 28, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan became the country's 1st Islamic prime minister. His conservative Islamic Welfare Party would have to put together a new coalition government. Erbakan formed a coalition government and served as prime minister until resigning a year later after mounting pressure by secularist military.
    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/02)

1996        Jun 30, In Turkey a young Kurdish rebel disguised as a pregnant woman blew herself up in the midst of a military ceremony and killed 9 soldiers.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1996        Jul 9, Turkey announced a 50% raise for its 1.5 million civil servants.
    (SFC, 7/10/96, p.A8)

1996        Jul 24, it was reported that 3 prisoners in Turkey have died during a hunger strike by 1,900 inmates in 33 prisons. The protests were for government transfers of prisoners to remote locations and cancellation of visiting rights for political prisoners.
    (WSJ, 7/25/96, p.A1)

1996        Jul 28, Turkey reached an agreement with prisoners to end a hunger strike after 12 inmates died. Elsewhere soldiers clashed with Kurds and 16 died along with 28 Kurdish rebels.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

1996        Aug 11, In Turkey the prime minister approved an agreement to buy $20 billion of natural gas from Iran over 22 years.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A1)

1996        Aug 12, Iran and Turkey agreed to connect their power networks.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A7)

1996        Aug 27, The 450,000 strong army was the largest in NATO and the only one that was exclusively Muslim.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 5, Turkey declared a new security zone inside northern Iraq and air attacks were staged on suspected Kurdish rebel bases.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1996        Sep 25, Turkey said its troops killed 47 Kurdish rebels in the eastern provinces.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Oct 29, A Kurdish separatist suicide team of 2 killed themselves, 3 policemen and a civilian in the town of Sivas.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 3, In Turkey Abdulah Catli, a convicted heroin smuggler and terror suspect; Husseyin Kocadag, a security official and deputy police chief in Istanbul; and Gonca Us, a gangster mistress, were killed in a car crash in Susurluk. Sedat Bucak, member of parliament and head of a Kurdish clan that received funds for providing guards to fight separatist Kurds, was injured in the same vehicle. The event came to be known as the Susurluk scandal.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)

1996        Nov 5, Government officials announced that a gas pipeline would begin to be built in March to carry gas from Iran to Turkey.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A25)

1996        Nov 21, Yasar Kemal, author, sought asylum in Sweden. He had been convicted by a Turkish court of defending Kurd’s rights.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A22)

1996        Nov 27, Troops killed 27 Kurdish rebels and lost 6 soldiers in fighting over the past 2 days.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)

1996        Dec 10, The military purged 70 officers and non-commissioned in a continuing effort to purge Muslim fundamentalists from its ranks.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec 30, A raid by 5,000 troops into Iraq left 72 Kurdish guerrillas and 2 Turkish soldiers dead.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)

1996        The Ankarapithecus skull was found in the Turkish desert. It dated to about 10 million years ago. The remains show many similarities to Sivapithecus from South Asia, and have sometimes been included in that genus.
    (http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/apes/ankarapithecus/ankarapithecus_overview.html)

1997        Feb 1, A movement began demanding an investigation in the car accident that linked government officials and gangster groups. People in cities began making noise outside their windows at 9 PM every night.
    (WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A1)

1997        cMar 2, The military submitted a 20-measure package to Prime Minister Erbakan that called for some new laws and stricter application of existing laws to protect secular principles.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 6, Prime Minister Erbakan signed on to the list of 18 measures submitted by the military to curb ultra religious schools, publications and organizations.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)

1997        Apr 13, A military modernization program for $31 billion was announced to reduce dependence on Western suppliers. Turkey’s standing army numbered 639,000 men, 4,000 tanks, and 400 combat aircraft.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 26, Two cabinet ministers resigned over Prime Minister Erbakan’s reluctance to curb his Islamist policies.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A17)

1997        May 5, It was reported that Sefa Taskin, mayor of Bergama, Turkey, led a campaign to stop the mining of gold using cyanide for extraction. He recently published "The Issue of Gold in Bergama" and used "The Gulliver File: Mines, People, Land: A Global Battleground," to support his cause.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A13D)

1997        May 18, In the 5th day of a military offensive, the military reported 1,081 guerillas killed as 25-50 thousand Turkish troops crossed the Iraqi border to attack rebels of the Kurdistan workers Party (PKK).
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A14)

1997        May 21, The UN approved an agreement for equitable use of waters that flow through more than one country. Only China and Turkey refused to sign the key UN convention on transnational rivers.
    (SFC, 5/22/97, p.C2)(AP, 4/16/11)

1997        May, Turkish commando units took control of the Bikhayr mountains used by Kurdish rebels as an escape route into Syria.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Jun 5, It was reported that the military ordered the boycott of companies that give money to the governing Muslim party and other Islamic organizations.
    (SFC, 6/7/97, p.A8)

1997        Jun 13, Under pressure it was announced that Turkey’s PM Erbakan, leader of the Welfare Party, would turn his post over to Tansu Ciller, who would lead until elections Jun 18. Turkey’s first Islamist-led government was ejected after it began investigating links between the army and organized crime.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.61)

1997        Jun 20, Pres. Demirel asked Mesut Yilmaz, leader of the Motherland Party, to form a new government. Yilmaz formed a coalition with Bulent Ecevit, head of the Democratic Left Party.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)

1997        Jun 26, Turkey announced the end of the 10-week Operation Hammer, its cross-border operation against the Kurds. The Turks reported to have lost 113 men and it was estimated that 3,000 guerrillas of the PKK were killed.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A13)

1997        Jul 20, Turkish troops killed 50 Kurdish guerrillas in the southeast. That raised the weekly total to 84.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A9)

1997        Jul 29, Some 15,000 people protested government plans to curb Muslim schools. At least 13 protestors were injured and 3 officers were suspended by Prime Minister Yilmaz.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 4, Some 76 military officers and nco’s were dismissed in a continuing effort to root out Islamic activism in the ranks.
    (WSJ, 8/5/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 14, The parliament approved an amnesty program for some 89 journalists imprisoned for their news coverage. Pres. Demirel signed the measure.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A15)

1997        Sep 4, In Turkey 33 people were killed when 2 buses collided near Ankara. Turkey has the highest incidence of road traffic deaths with 2,713 killed in the first 7 months of this year.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A12)

1997        Sep 25, Iraq demanded that Turkey pull back some 15,000 troops who crossed its border in pursuit of Kurdistan Workers Party guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 9/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 29, Turkish planes attacked Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and drove the guerrillas toward the Iran border.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep, There a was a renewed ban on wearing head scarves at Turkish universities. Over the next 15 months some 2,000 women were expelled for choosing to wear scarves.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A20)

1997        Oct 3, Turkish jets bombed escape routes used by Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq. Over the last 13 days the army reported 415 rebels dead vs. 6 of its own soldiers.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 19, In Germany Gunter Grass presented the peace prize of the German book-publishing industry to Yasar Kemal, a Turkish author. Grass criticized his compatriots as "closet racists."
    (SFC,10/21/97, p.A12)

1997        Dec 2, In Istanbul 33 people were sentenced to death for their roles in a 1993 mob attack that left 37 intellectuals dead.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C4)

1997        Dec 5, Turkish troops began an offensive against Turkish Kurds in northern Iraq. The 20,000 man force was to be assisted by 8,000 men of the Kurdistan Democratic party, an Iraqi group.
    (SFC,12/6/97, p.A9)

1997        Dec 5, Mayor Tayyip Erdogan of Istanbul made statements in Siirt that were later called inflammatory. He was charged with inciting hatred based on religious differences. Erdogan had quoted Ziya Gokalp, a poet who had written the verse to inspire the troops of Ataturk.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.D5)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A21)

1997        Dec 17, The US and 33 other countries signed a convention in Paris aimed at eradicating bribery in international business. Turkey was one of 34 signatories of the OECD’s anti-corruption convention. By 2008 38 countries had signed on.
    (AP, 12/17/98)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.73)

1997        Dec 27, In Italy Some 825 illegal immigrants, mostly Kurds, were rescued by Italian tugboats from the Turkish ship Ararat. They were attempting to smuggle into Italy from Turkey.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A19)
1997        Dec 27, Lower level talks between Turkish and Greek Cypriot officials were suspended by the Turkish Cypriots to protest the inclusion of the Greek side in EU membership.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A22)

1997        The book "The History of the Armenia Genocide" appeared in Turkey, but copies were confiscated and the publisher Aysenur Zarakolu was arrested and fined.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

1997        The film "Eskiya" (Bandit) was selected by the culture ministry as Turkey’s nomination for the Academy Awards. The ministry overrules the initial selection of Hamam by the independent film board.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.60)

1997        The film "Hamam" (Turkish Bath) was produced. It was a tale of 2 men who fall in love in a Turkish bath.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.60)

1997        The film "The Heavy Novel" was directed by Mustafa Altioklar. It was about ordinary people on the back streets of Istanbul and contained scenes depicting police torture.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A10)

1997        Turkey increased compulsory education from 5 years to 8.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.15)

1997        Alparslan Turkes, leader of the Nationalist Action Party, died. The party held an ideology of pan-Turkism symbolized by the legendary gray wolf that led Turkic tribes westward from their ancestral homeland in Central Asia.
    (SFC, 4/20/99, p.A8)

1998        Jan 12, It was reported that Turkish police rounded up 1,374 people, mostly Kurds, around Istanbul in an effort to stem illegal emigration.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A1)
   
1998        Jan 15, The parliament passed legislation allowing husbands to be indicted for domestic abuse even if their wives refuse to press charges.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1998        Jan 16, In Turkey the Islamist Welfare Party was banned by the Constitutional Court for "activities against the secular regime." Former Welfare deputies created the Virtue Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/02)

1998        Jan 24, From Turkey it was reported that an estimated 50,000 illegal immigrants move from Turkey to Greece each year across a sparsely populated 80 mile border.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 25, Prime Minister Yilmaz disclosed that the Ciller government’s security forces used death squads against Kurds and engaged in drug trafficking.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 16, The government banned Muslim headwear by female students and teachers at religious schools. Separately the leadership of the main Kurdish political party was imprisoned on charges of links to separatist rebels.
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 17, A UN refugee agency reported that 6,800 Kurds have fled their homes in northern Iraq following reported Turkish air raids on rebel positions.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.C3)

1998        Feb 24, The former Welfare Party changed its name to the Virtue Party and elected Recai Kutan as leader. Separately university students protested a  ban on Islamic dress.
    (WSJ, 2/25/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 13, Turkish army forces captured Semdin Sakik, a field commanded of the PKK, Kurdistan Workers Party, in a secret raid in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.C12)

1998        Apr 15, Turkish troop clashed with Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border and claimed to have killed 64 with a loss of 11.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 21, A special court sentenced Recep Erdogan, the mayor of Istanbul, to 10 months in prison for a 1997 speech that the military said incited hatred of the secularist army.
    (WSJ, 4/22/98, p.A1)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.33)

1998        May 12, Akin Birdal, head of the independent Human Rights Association, was shot and injured in an attack by the Turkish Revenge Brigade, an ultranationalist group. Five ultranationalists were arrested May 22.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A13)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A14)

1998        May 21, In northwest Turkey rains caused floods and left at least 10 people dead.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.D4)

1998        Jun 8, It was reported that Turkish soldiers had killed 37 Kurdish insurgents in the southeast provinces of Sirnak, Siirt, and Diyarbakir.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A14)

1998        Jun 24, The constitutional court ruled that adultery was no longer a crime for women. Adultery, legal for men for a long time, had been punishable for women with up to 3 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 27, In southern Turkey a 6.3 earthquake around Adana and Ceyhan killed at least 144 people and injured about a 1,000.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 6/29/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/4/98, p.A7)

1998        Jul 4, Aftershocks hit southern Turkey and some 1000 people were reportedly injured.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A14)

1998        Jul 9, An explosion in Istanbul left 7 people dead and many injured at a spice bazaar. Pinar Selek was arrested by police two days after the explosion. Four expert reports said the explosion was caused by a gas leak and there was no evidence of a bomb. Selek was tortured and spent 2.5 years in prison, but was later acquitted when a Court for Serious Crimes in Istanbul determined there was no evidence linking her to the blast. In a separate trial, however, the court found her guilty under Article 169, which covers the aiding and abetting of a crime ring, on charges of carrying explosive material used to make a bomb and keeping a bomb in her workshop. The court later dropped the charge because of the length of the trial. In 2011 Selek (40) was acquitted for a 3rd time. Selek was sentenced to life in prison in January, 2013, despite three previous acquittals. On June 11, 2014, a top Turkish court overturned the life sentence.
    (www.pinarselek.com/public/page_item.aspx?id=520)(AP, 2/9/11)(Reuters, 6/11/14)

1998        Jul 16, Some 2000 soldiers were flown into northern Iraq to hunt Kurdish rebels who fled there after killing 22 Turkish troops in a raid.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.A16)

1998        Sep 23, The Turkey high court jailed Istanbul Mayor Tayyip Erdogan.
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A13)

1998        Oct 3, Turkey sent some 10,000 troops into northern Iraq to attack Kurdish rebels.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 14, The draft budget was unveiled and it was admitted that IMF targets would not be reached. Inflation for 1999 was targeted to 35% after reaching 100% in early 1998. 1998 growth was measured at 4.5%.
    (WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)

1998        Oct 21, The European Commission approved a $180 million aid package for Turkey.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 21, Turkey and Syria signed an accord whereby Syria agreed to brand the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 23, In Turkey 5 Kurdish rebels burned themselves to death in loyalty to their leader Abdullah Ocalan, who was expelled from Syria.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 29, Five nations endorsed the oil pipeline from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakstan and Uzbekistan committed to the 1,080 mile conduit with a push from the US.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 30, Anti-terrorist squads shot an airline hijacker to death and freed 38 passengers.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A18)

1998        Nov 11, A businessman linked to organized crime said that Prime Minister Yilmaz rigged the privatization of a state-run bank in his favor. This led to a no-confidence motion by the Republican People’s Party of the ruling coalition.
    (SFC, 11/13/98, p.A16)

1998        Nov 12, The mayor of Ankara was arrested on graft charges as secularist authorities continued a campaign against his pro-Islamic party.
    (WSJ, 11/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 12, In Italy Abdullah Ocalan, head of the Kurd PKK, was arrested in Rome.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1998        Nov 17, A Kurdish guerrilla killed herself and wounded 6 others in a suicide bombing in Yuksekova.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 19, Turkey arrested the head of the main legal Kurdish party.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 25, The government of Mesut Yilmaz lost a vote of confidence 314-214. Pres. Demirel was expected to ask Yilmaz to stay on until an interim government is formed.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B2)

1998        Dec 2, Bulent Ecevit was asked to form a new government.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 16, In Italy Abdullah Ocalan, leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party, was freed by an appeals court in Rome. Turkish officials were outraged and renewed threats of economic retaliation.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C4)

1998        Dec 21, Prime Minister-designate Bulent Ecevit abandoned efforts to form a new government.
    (SFC, 12/22/98, p.C4)

1998        Dec 23, Pres. Demirel asked Yalim Erez, the acting trade minister of Kurdish origin, to form a new government.
    (SFC, 12/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 29, In Cyprus Pres. Glafcos Clerides decided not to import Russian-made anti-aircraft missiles in order to reduce tensions with Turkey.
    (SFC, 12/30/98, p.A8)

1998        Turkish archeologists discovered what appeared to be the ruins of the Great Palace built by Constantine in 330 AD.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1999        Jan 6, The Justice Ministry said authorities will no longer be allowed to force women and girls to undergo virginity tests.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 11, A new Turkish government under Bulent Ecevit looked ready to serve until the April 18 elections.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 17, The parliament voted in a new minority government under Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit.
    (WSJ, 1/18/99, p.A15)

1999        Feb 15, Abdullah Ocalan was captured in Kenya while being transferred from the Greek embassy to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, in an operation by the Turkey’s Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı reportedly with the help of CIA. George Costoulas, the Greek consul who protected him, said that his life was in danger after the operation. By 2015 Ocalan authored some 40 books including “To Kill a Man,” which became something of a feminist bible.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_%D6calan)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.53)

1999        Feb 16, Turkish commandoes reported the capture of Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya. Kurds seized Greek missions around Europe and took hostages. It was later reported that US data helped the Turks capture Ocalan.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Turkey formally arrested Abdullah Ocalan on treason charges.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 3, Turkey called US raids on Iraq that cut off oil flow to Turkey unacceptable. The US planes were based in Turkey.
    (WSJ, 3/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 4, A female suicide bomber killed herself and wounded 3 civilians in the town of Batman.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 5, In Cankiri, Turkey, a car bomb attack killed 3 people and wounded provincial governor Ayhan Cevik. The Maoist guerrillas of the Turkish Workers and Peasants Liberation Army (TIKKO) claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 13, Thirteen people were killed in a bomb attack on a shopping center in the Goztepe section of Istanbul.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A24)

1999        Mar 14, A bombing in Ankara killed one person.
    (WSJ, 3/15/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 16, Two people were killed in a car explosion in Hatay.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 21, The Kurdish New Year began with unrest and police arrested 1,500 people across the country with the southeast under a virtual state of siege. A pipeline explosion halted the flow of oil from Iraq.
    (SFC, 3/22/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 27, A young woman set off grenades strapped to her body in a suicide that wounded 10 others in Istanbul.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A25)

1999        Mar, In Turkey the Virtue Party member Erdogan was imprisoned for four months for reading pro-Islamic poem at rally.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

1999        Apr 5, A suicide bomber killed himself and a teenage girl in an apparent attempt on the life of Gov. Suleyman Kamci.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb, Nicole and Hugh Pope published "Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey."
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)

1999        Apr 18, Parliamentary elections were scheduled.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 18, In Turkey national election were held. Voters in early results gave 22% of the vote to Democratic Left Party of Bulent Ecevit, 15.4% to the Islamic Virtue Party and 18% to the Nationalist Action Party (MHP) led by Devlet Bahceli. The Motherland Party won 13% and the True Path won 12%. The People's Republican Party (CHP) received less than 9% and for the 1st time failed to win any seats.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A9)(SFC, 4/20/99, p.A8)(AP, 11/4/02)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)
1999        Apr 18, In Turkey 7 provincial capitals in the Kurdish region elected leaders of the Kurdish nationalist party as mayors.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A18)

1999        May 3, Pres. Demirel appointed Bulent Ecevit as prime minister and asked him to form a new government. At the same time legislator Merve Kavakci incited a turmoil by wearing a forbidden scarf.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.A14)

1999        May 6, A Turkish court sentenced 6 policemen to over 7 years in prison for beating a journalist to death while in their custody.
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)

1999        May 14, Prime Minister Ecevit announced that Merve Kavakci would be stripped of citizenship because she accepted US citizenship before her election to Parliament without informing Turkish authorities.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A18)

1999        May 20, Semdik Sakik, a Kurdish guerrilla commander was sentenced to death along with his brother Arif Sakik.
    (SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)

1999        May 31, In Turkey the treason trial of Abdullah Ocalan was scheduled to begin on a prison island. Ocalan offered to urge the PKK to stop its armed struggle against Turkey and to pursue a legal process. Ocalan was later convicted and sentenced to death, but the death sentence was commuted to life in prison in 2002.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A8)(SFC, 6/1/99, p.A6)(AP, 5/31/04)

1999        Jun 4, Police killed 2 members of a radical group believed to be planning a rocket attack on the US Consulate in Istanbul.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 14, A parliamentary committee voted to dismiss military judges from security courts.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C5)

1999        Jun 29, The court on Imrali Island sentenced Abdullah Ocalan to death on charges of treason.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 30, In Germany Turkish businesses in at least 9 cities were hit by firebombs following the conviction of Kurdish leader Ocalan.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 1, Kurdish rebels killed 3 people in a coffeehouse in Elazig. One of the attackers was killed by security forces.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

1999        Jul 4, PKK guerrillas planted a bomb in an Istanbul park that killed one person and injured 25.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 5, Rusen Tabanci (19), a PKK suicide bomber, killed herself and injured 17 others in Adana. There were over 30 bombings in the last 2 days.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 11, A bomb exploded in Van and 16 people were injured.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 3, Abdulah Ocalan called on the PKK to abandon its armed struggle and pull forces out of Turkey by Sept. 1.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 5, Kurdish separatist rebels agreed to accept a cease-fire call by Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 13, Iran agreed under pressure to join Turkey for simultaneous military operations against the PKK.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 13, The parliament made constitutional changes to overhaul the economy and bring in foreign investment.
    (WSJ, 8/16/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 17, A 7.4 earthquake hit western Turkey with many killed and thousands injured. Over 17,000 were later reported killed. The quake was centered under the Sea of Armara on the North Anatolian fault. It was later reported to have pushed Turkey 4 feet closer to Europe.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/99, p.A1,13)(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/20/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A17)(AP, 8/17/03)

1999        Aug 18, The Tupras oil refinery near Ismit burned out of control as the death toll passed 4,000 from the 7.4 earthquake centered on Izmit. A day after a deadly earthquake struck western Turkey, survivors denounced the rescue effort as sluggish and disorganized. The death toll eventually topped 17,000.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.A1,15)(AP, 8/18/00)

1999        Aug 20, Officials reported that over 10,000 bodies had been recovered from the quake and the injured list had risen to 34,000. Prime Minister Ecevit ordered that the dead be buried as soon as found.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 21, The death toll from the Aug 17 earthquake reached 12,000. Governors in 3 of 9 stricken provinces called off searches for survivors.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 24, The death toll in Turkey’s August 17 earthquake was raised to near 18,000.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, p.A14)

1999        Aug 25, Lawmakers approved new taxes to help pay for earthquake damages, which included a 25% surcharge on cellular telephones.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A14)

1999        Aug 26, The Turkey quake death toll was lowered to 13,040 with 26,630 injured. The parliament passed a law to give amnesty to Kurdish rebels with no criminal record. The death toll was later raised to over 17,000.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A14)    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A19)

1999        Aug 31, A 5.2 aftershock earthquake hit Izmit and killed one man and injured 166.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 13, A 5.8 aftershock at Golcuk left at least 7 people dead and over 420 injured.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 26, 11 leftist inmates were killed and a simmering prison uprising erupted as dozens of guards were seized across the country.
    (WSJ, 9/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 21, Ahmet Taner Kislali (60), a columnist for the pro-secular newspaper Cumhuriyet, died from a bomb placed on his car windshield.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B6)

1999        Oct 25, Israeli Pres. Barak visited Turkey to boost military cooperation and economic ties.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p. B2)

1999        Nov 12, In Turkey a 7.2 [7.1] earthquake was centered at Duzce. At least 834 people were killed and 3000 injured. Damage from the last 2 quakes was later estimated at $10-25 billion.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/28/00, p.D6)(AP, 11/12/00)

1999        Nov 15, Pres. Clinton addressed the Turkish parliament and stressed his support for candidate membership status to the EU.
    (SFC, 11/16/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov 17, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey agreed to a US-backed plan for a Caspian oil pipeline from Baku to Ceyhan to be completed in 2004. The 1st shipment was made in 2006.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.C6)(AFP, 6/4/06)

1999        Nov 18, Pres. Clinton at a conference in Turkey of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe urged Pres. Yeltsin to stop the bombing and rocket attacks in Chechnya.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.A1)

1999        Nov 19, The 54-nation summit of the OSCE closed with a treaty that restricted the number of tanks, planes and artillery of every army across Europe.
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Nov 28, Turkey reported that some 70 Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq had been killed over the last 5 days by Turkish forces in 15 operations.
    (SFC, 11/29/99, p.A16)

1999        Dec 10, The EU accepted Turkey as a candidate for membership.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)

1999        Jason Goodwin authored "Lords of the Horizon," a history of the Ottoman Empire.
    (WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)
1999        The IMF put $4 billion into Turkey.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)
1999        In Turkey Guler Sabanci launched Sabanci University.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.64)
1999        In Turkey Guler Sabanci launched her wine label “G.”
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.64)
1999        Fethullah Gulen, a Turkish Muslim preacher, left Turkey for America. Soon thereafter he was charged in absentia with subverting Turkey’s secular order.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.42)

2000        Jan 12, Turkish leaders postponed the execution of Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 1/13/00, p.A12)

2000        Jan 17, Huseyin Velioglu, founder and leader of Turkish Hezbollah, was killed in a shootout with Turkish Police during a raid in the Istanbul suburb of Beykoz.
    (www.tkb.org/KeyLeader.jsp?memID=5922)

2000        Jan 20, Authorities unearthed 3 bodies from a coal shed in Ankara a day after 10 bodies were found strangled and left in a coal bin of an Istanbul house. Hezbollah militants were blamed.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D3)

2000        Jan 20, Greece and Turkey signed a series of accords to regulate commerce, provide for cooperation in fighting organized crime, preventing illegal immigration, promoting tourism and protecting the Aegean Sea environment.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D2)

2000        Jan 22, The body of Konca Kuris, described as a Muslim feminist, was exhumed in Konya, 220 miles northwest of Mersin. Her body was one of 33 found at properties used by Hezbollah, a radical group dedicated to overthrowing the Turkish state and establishing an Islamic republic.
    (SFC, 1/26/00, p.A9)

2000        Jan 28, Police uncovered 7 more bodies at a Hezbollah hideout and the government ordered clerics to read a sermon denouncing violence. Captured militants in Batman led police to a cache of small arms that included 26 AK-47 assault rifles.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.A9)

2000        Feb 1, Three more bodies were found in Diyarbakir and one in Barman attributed to the militant Hezbollah. The total reached 51.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.B8)

2000        Feb 2, The bodies of 5 more Hezbollah victims were found in Diyarbakir and Gaziantep and raised the total to 55.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A14)

2000        Feb 9, Kurdish rebels of the PKK announced that they had given up their war and would press their cause "within the framework of peace and democracy."
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 14, Eight people were killed in 2 clashes between Hezbollah and police.
    (SFC, 2/15/00, p.A16)

2000        Feb 28, Three Kurdish mayors were released from prison pending trial on charges that they aided Kurdish rebels.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 10, Former prime minister Necmettin Erbakan was sentenced to one year in prison for a 1994 speech in which he criticized the secular government for drifting from its Islamic roots.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A8)

2000        Apr 3, Turkish warplanes struck Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 25, Prime Minister Ecevit rallied opposition parties behind Ahmet Necdet Sezer, chief justice of the top court and candidate for the presidency. Sezer needed 367 of 550 parliamentary votes.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A14)

2000        May 5, Turkey’s parliament elected judge Ahmet Necdet Sezer (b.1941) as the country’s 10th president. Sezer served until Aug 28, 2007.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmet_Necdet_Sezer)

2000        May 26, A 6 volume report by a parliamentary human rights panel was obtained by the Associated Press. It documented cases of torture in police stations across the country.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.C1)

2000        May, The government banned 12 Kurdish language journals.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2000        Jun 2, Delegates in Istanbul from over 150 nations concluded the latest World Radiocommunication Conference. They agreed to reserve 3 blocks of airwaves for advanced services such as wireless Internet access.
    (SFC, 6/3/00, p.B1)

2000        Jun 13, In Italy the government pardoned Mehmet Ali Agca (42), the man who wounded Pope John Paul II in 1981. Agca was flown to Turkey to finish serving 8 years for the 1979 murder of a newspaper editor.
    (SFC, 6/14/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 21, Iraq threatened to retaliate against Turkey over airstrikes that left some 40 civilians dead.
    (WSJ, 8/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 7, Turkey announced the move of some 2000 residents of Tuzkoy and Karain due to cancerous fibrous zeolite, a mineral fiber in volcanic ash.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 20, Some 800-1000 inmates began a hunger strike to protest their possible transfer to new prisons.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

2000        Nov, Imprisoned gang leaders Nuri and Vedat Ergin allegedly forced some 200 inmates at Usak prison to stage a 3-day riot. The brothers allegedly ordered the death of 5 inmates from a rival gang. Turkey planned a broad amnesty that could release as many as 25,000 inmates, but excluded some 12,000 political prisoners. A prison hunger strike entered its 5th week.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

2000        Nov, Metin Kaplan was sentenced in Germany for operating a terrorist organization. His group had planned to bomb Ataturk’s mausoleum in Ankara with an airplane packed with explosives on Turkey’s 75th  anniversary. Kaplan, known as the “caliph of Cologne,” was extradited to Turkey in 2004.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A9)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.53)

2000        Dec 4, The Turkey stock market fell 8% and marked a 2-week drop of 40% as interest rates soared to 1,200%. Officials began talks with the IMF for a $5 billion loan.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A15)

2000        Dec 6, The IMF agreed to grant Turkey $7.5 billion in emergency loans.
    (SFC, 12/7/00, p.C12)

2000        Dec 15, A central Turkey earthquake killed 6 people including 5 men praying at the mosque of Yasarlar village.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.11)

2000        Dec 19, At least 17 people were killed when security forces stormed 20 prisons to end a 2-month hunger strike.
    (SFC, 12/20/00, p.A20)

2000        Dec 20, The fight to gain control of the prisons entered a 2nd day. The DHKP-C, a splinter group of Dev-Sol, led the hunger strike.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A20)

2000        Dec 22, Government prison raids ended after 430 inmates surrendered at Umraniye. The 4-day siege left 28 people dead including 16 burned alive. Government forces had not been able to enter the leftist controlled wards of Bayrampasa prison in Istanbul for a decade.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B4)

2000        Hugh and Nicole Pope authored “Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey.”
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.85)

2001        Jan 3, In Turkey suicide bomber Gultekin Koc (23) killed himself a 2 others in a police station in Istanbul. At least 7 people were injured. Koc was a member of the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party-Front, a Marxist group
    (SFC, 1/4/01, p.A9)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B3)

2001        Jan 7, Iraqi Kurdish officials reported that at least 500 Turkish troops had pushed 100 miles into northern Iraq in response to a call for help from the PUK. The PUK was fighting the PKK and had lost 200 soldiers in recent weeks. Some 10,000 Turkish troops had entered northern Iraq since Dec 20.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)

2001        Jan 30, Mehmet Fevzi Sihanlioglu (55), member of parliament, was beaten by fellow lawmakers in the Grand National Assembly and died of a heart attack. The attack followed a debate on whether time for speeches should be extended.
    (SFC, 2/14/01, p.D18)

2001        Feb 16, Matild Manokyan, Turkey’s best known legal brothel madam, died at age 84. She had been Istanbul’s top tax payer for several years.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A19)

2001        Feb 22, A financial crises in Turkey forced the government to let the lira float and it dropped 40% to 960,000 to the US dollar. By the end of the year the economy sank 9.4%.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 2/23/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)

2001        Mar 19, The Cabinet approved a detailed program of political, economic and legal reforms to secure entry to the EU.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 22, Sabiha Gokcen, Turkey's 1st woman pilot and the adopted daughter of Ataturk, died. Armenians held that she was Armenian by birth.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.52)

2001        Mar 31, Thousands rallied in major cities to protest a government economic recovery plan backed by the IMF.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C10)

2001        Apr 11, As many as 130,000 protesters in several cities fought with police and called for the resignation of PM Ecevit due to the economic crises.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C2)

2001        Apr 22, In Istanbul pro-Chechen gunmen seized at least 30 hostages at the Swissotel luxury hotel.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.A8)

2001        Apr 23, In Istanbul 13 pro-Chechen rebels released 120 hostages and were arrested.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A9)

2001        May 3, It was reported that 20 people in Turkey had starved themselves to death in the past 5 weeks in protest of the prison system. Some 200-400 inmates still engaged in the "death fast."
    (SFC, 5/3/01, p.B2)

2001        May 15, The IMF approved $8 billion in loans to Turkey.
    (WSJ, 5/16/01, p.A1)

2001        May 16, A Casa CN-235 military transport plane crashed and killed 34 people, mostly special-forces soldiers returning from a Kurdish region.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)

2001        Jun 22, Turkey's top court banned the Virtue Party for violating secular laws.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

2001        Jul 4, In Izmir Mahmut Gokhan Ozocak (41) became the 27th person to die from a hunger strike protesting prisoner transfers.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.D6)

2001        Jul 18, It was reported that Osman Durmus, the Health Minister in Turkey, had introduced regulations for state schools to expel non-virgin girls training as health workers.
    (SFC, 7/19/01, p.A11)

2001        Aug, In Turkey Erdogan formed the Justice and Development Party with former Virtue members.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

2001        Sep 10, In Turkey a Marxist militant suicide bomber, Ugur Bulbul, killed killing himself and three others, including an Australian woman and 2 policemen near Istanbul’s historic Taksim Square. 21 were injured. Bulbul was released from prison 6 months earlier for membership in the banned Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party-Front, a Marxist group, that later claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 9/11/01, p.A1)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B3)(SFC, 9/12/01, p.C4)(AP, 9/10/02)

2001        Sep 26, Turkey approved constitutional reforms that eased restrictions on broadcasting and publishing in the Kurdish language.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A11)

2001        Sep 27, Two more prisoners died from a hunger strike against the new high-security prisons. This raised the total to 38.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D6)

2001        Oct 10, Turkey granted the government the authority to send troops overseas and to allow foreign troops to be stationed on its soil.
    (SFC, 10/11/01, p.A7)

2001        Nov 6, In Istanbul 4 leftist militants, participants in a hunger strike, died during a police raid. The militants had threatened self-immolation.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A16)

2001        Nov 22, The Turkey Parliament formally recognized men and women as equals effective Jan 1. this updated a 1926 code that designated the husband as head of the family.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A21)

2001        In Turkey Ahmet Davutoglu (b.1959) authored “Strategic Depth,” in which he set out a new policy of engagement in the region. In 2009 he was named Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmet_Davuto%C4%9Flu)
2001        Stephen Kinzer, NY Times correspondent, authored "Crescent & Star," a journalist’s view of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A18)

2001        Turkey’s police knocked out the home-grown Hizbullah, an Islamic terrorist group.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.36)

2002        Jan 14, PM Bulent Ecevit began a 5-day visit to Washington.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A12)

2002        Feb 3, A 6.0-6.2 earthquake hit Turkey and as least 45 people were killed. The epicenter was about 135 miles southwest of Ankara.
    (SFC, 2/4/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 21, In Diyarbakir, Turkey, thousands of Kurdish youths battled Turkish police after authorities banned the celebration of Nowruz, the Zoroastrian New Year.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr 19, The top court barred Recep Tayyip Erdogan, a leading Islamist politician, from holding a seat in parliament.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A13)

2002        Apr 29, Turkey officially agreed to take command of the peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A15)

2002        May 30, Police near Caldiran found the bodies of 19 suspected illegal immigrants who had apparently attempted to enter during the winter from Iran.
    (SFC, 5/31/02, p.A12)

2002        May, Amateur treasure hunters stumbled upon a site in central Turkey believed to be the lost city of Sobesos.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.82)

2002        Jun 4, Turkish peacekeepers arrived in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 6/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 20, Turkey took over control of the 19-member peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 6/21/02, p.A10)

2002        Jul 3, Turkey's jittery stock market fell again following reports that officials discussed a moratorium on the nation's $30 billion foreign debt.
    (AP, 7/3/02)

2002        Jul 5, In Turkey 3 police officers and a suspected Islamic militant were killed in a shootout during a raid on an apartment in the southeastern Turkish city of Elazig.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2002        Jul 8, In Turkey 3 ministers resigned in a growing push for early elections.
    (WSJ, 7/9/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 11, Turkey's foreign minister resigned, dealing a harsh blow to Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, who was struggling to stay in power despite ill health and mass resignations from his party.
    (AP, 7/11/02)

2002        Jul 12, Ismail Cem, Turkey's former foreign minister, launched a new political party to topple Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, who is fighting to stay in power despite poor health and a mutiny within his Cabinet.
    (AP, 7/12/02)

2002        Aug 3, Turkey's parliament approved a reform package aimed at boosting its chances of joining the European Union by abolishing the death penalty and granting greater rights to the nation's Kurds.
    (AP, 8/3/02)

2002        Aug 6, Israel agreed to buy about 1.75 billion cubic feet of water from Turkey annually for the next 20 years to alleviate the nation's growing water shortage and ensure the success of an arms deal with Ankara.
    (AP, 8/602)

2002        Aug 10, Kemal Dervis, Turkey's economy minister and the architect of a $16 billion, foreign-backed recovery program, to run for parliament and called on bickering politicians to join forces for a strong government.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Sep 19, German police stormed homes and froze bank accounts across the country after outlawing 16 more groups linked to a jailed Islamic militant accused of plotting an airplane attack in Turkey.
    (AP, 9/19/02)

2002        Sep 20, Necdet Kent (91), Turkish diplomat in France (1941-1944), died in Istanbul. He gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers to save them from deportation to the Nazi gas chambers.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

2002        Sep 28, In Turkey paramilitary police reported the seizure of 35 pounds of uranium near the Syrian border and arrested two Turks who they said planned to sell the weapons-grade substance. The amount was later changed to 3 ounces and then found to be inert.
    (AP, 9/29/02)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.A12)(AP, 9/30/02)

2002        Oct 3, Turkey formally commuted Kurdish guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's death sentence to life in prison after parliament abolished capital punishment two months ago in a bid to join the European Union.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Oct 23, Turkey’s chief prosecutor moved to outlaw the Justice and Development Party for ignoring court order that Erdogan step down as leader. The moderate Islamic party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, was also Turkey’s most popular party.
    (SFC, 10/24/02, p.A11)(AP, 11/4/02)

2002        Oct 26, In southeastern Turkey 3 teenagers were killed after they accidentally set off a mortar shell, where Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels battled for years.
    (AP, 10/26/02)

2002        Oct 27, Kurdish rebels clashed with Turkish soldiers in the mainly Kurdish southeast, leaving an insurgent dead and five soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2002        Oct, Turkey’s ISE stock index began to rise and increased 400% by February 2006.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.74)

2002        Nov 3, In Turkey the Islamic-rooted Justice and Development Party (AK) won a parliamentary majority in elections (34.2%), the first time in 15 years that any party has been in a position to govern alone. The party pledged to wipe out corruption. It also pledged to maintain the nation's pro-Western stance, quickly moving to soothe worries that this crucial U.S. ally would undergo a radical shift toward Islam; Republican People's Party (social democrats): 19.4%; True Path Party (center-rightist): 9.5%; National Action Party (nationalists): 8.3%. About 90% of incumbent members of parliament lost.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(SFC, 11/4/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/02, p.J6)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.44)

2002        Nov 16, Abdullah Gul, a moderate politician from a party with Islamic roots, was chosen to be Turkey's next prime minister, but he was widely regarded as a stand-in for the party's real leader, Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 23, Turkey's new prime minister presented his program to parliament, saying his top priorities are joining the European Union and revitalizing the slumping economy.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

2002        Nov 30, Turkey lifted curfews and restrictions on gatherings in two predominantly Kurdish provinces, ending 15 years of emergency rule in southeastern Turkey and fulfilling a requirement toward joining the European Union.
    (AP, 11/30/02)

2002        Nov, In south-eastern Turkey Semse Allak, a pregnant woman, and Halil, her illicit love (or rapist), were stoned to death for shaming their families in the province of Mardin.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.53)

2002        Dec 1, In Istanbul, Turkey, some 10,000 people took part in a protest against a U.S.-led war in neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 12/1/02)

2002        Dec 7, In London Azra Akin, Miss Turkey, won the Miss World Pageant bringing to a close the pageant that had incited deadly rioting in Nigeria, the original site of the event.
    (AP, 12/7/02)

2002        In Turkey Abdurrahman Dilipak, an Islamist, and Sanar Yurdatapan, an atheist, authored "Red and Green," or "Green and Red," on current questions of faith and social issues such as the role of women.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.K4)

2002        The World Bank committed $3.5 billion to Turkey in this year.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)

2003        Jan 8, In Turkey the pilot of the British Aerospace RJ-100 missed the runway because of heavy fog in the southeastern city of Diayarbakir. 75 people were killed with 5 survivors.
    (AP, 1/9/03)(WSJ, 1/9/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 11, Another Turkish prisoner died on a hunger strike, raising the death toll in the protest against Turkey's maximum security prisons to 64 people.
    (AP, 1/12/03)

2003        Jan 17, Turkish troops killed 12 Kurdish rebels in the southeast over the past two days.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003        Jan 19, Syria and Iran support Turkey's proposal for a regional summit to seek a peaceful way out of the Iraq standoff. Turkey has offered to hold the summit where Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Syria would discuss the standoff over Iraq.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Feb 6, Turkey's parliament voted to allow U.S. troops to renovate Turkish bases for use in a possible war with Iraq.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003          Feb 18, Turkey asked the US to nearly double its multibillion dollar aid package as a condition for allowing U.S. troops on its soil in a war against neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 2/18/03)

2003          Feb 19, NATO approved the deployment of defense equipment to Turkey in the event of a war in Iraq. Turkey and the US failed again to agree on the size of an economic aid package.
    (AP, 2/19/03)

2003          Feb 24, Turkey’s Cabinet agreed to the deployment of tens of thousands of U.S. combat troops ahead of a possible war in Iraq. The measure is expected to face a vote in Turkey’s parliament Feb 25.
    (AP, 2/24/03)

2003          Mar 1, Turkey's parliament failed to approve a bill allowing in American combat troops to open a northern front against Iraq. Lawmakers voted 264-250 in favor of stationing US troops but that was 3 votes shy of a constitutionally mandated simple majority.
    (AP, 3/2/03)(AP, 3/1/08)

2003          Mar 9, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the leader of Turkey’s ruling party, won a by-election. He was soon confirmed as PM replacing Abdullah Gul.
    (AP, 3/9/03)(WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 11, In Turkey Recep Erdogan was confirmed as the prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 19, PM Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey was preparing to open its airspace to US warplanes but would not allow them access to airbases.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

2003        Mar 20, Turkey’s parliament approved a motion allowing over-flights for US warplanes. Turkey announced plans to send thousands of troops into Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/03)

2003        Mar 29, A Turkish man who had hijacked a Turkish Airlines flight the day before was persuaded by Turkey's prime minister to release his 204 hostages after the plane landed in Athens, Greece.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2003        Mar, In Turkey villagers from the southeastern town of Sanliurfa hurled eggs and stones at a group of about a dozen US soldiers going to retrieve pieces of Navy-fired Tomahawk missile, which was intended for Iraq but crashed into an empty field. In 2006 charges 13 villagers were acquitted of attacking the US troops.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2003        Apr 18, The IMF approved the release of $701 million in loans to Turkey, part of an $18 billion package approved in Feb 2002.
    (SFC, 4/19/03, p.A12)

2003        May 1, A 6.4 magnitude earthquake rumbled through southeastern Turkey. 177 people were killed and 390 injured including 80 students were trapped in the debris of their school dormitory in Bingol.
    (AP, 5/1/03)(SFC, 5/1/03, A16)(SFC, 5/2/03, p.A3)(AP, 5/4/08)

2003        May 17, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey will open its doors next week to Greek Cypriot tourists, signaling an end to a decades-long travel ban.
    (AP, 5/18/03)

2003        May 24, The 48th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest and took place in Riga, Latvia. Turkey's pop divas Sertab Erener, came first in the contest and the 2004 edition was then held in Istanbul.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurovision_Song_Contest_2003)(AFP, 8/4/18)

2003        May 26, An airplane carrying 62 Spanish peacekeepers crashed into a mountain in northeastern Turkey while making its third attempt to land in thick fog. All 75 people aboard were killed. The Yak-42 was chartered from a Ukrainian company. On Jan 11, 2016, Spain's defense ministry took political responsibility for the crash.
    (AP, 5/26/03)(WSJ, 5/27/03, p.A1)(AFP, 1/11/17)

2003        Jun 7, In eastern Turkey a passenger bus slammed into a wall at the entrance of a tunnel, killing 27 people and injuring 33.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Jun 20, In central Turkey a student dormitory at an Islamic school exploded and collapsed, killing 10 students.
    (AP, 6/20/03)

2003        Jul 4, US forces raided a Turkish special forces office in northern Iraq and detained 11 soldiers on reports that Turks were plotting to kill the governor of the oil-rich city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 7/5/03)

2003        Jul 10, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels raided a village, killing four villagers and injuring another.
    (AP, 7/11/03)

2003        Aug 22, Turkish troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in Batman province. 7 Kurds and 2 Turkish soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 8/23/03, p.A3)

2003        Aug 24, In northern Turkey a bus in a wedding convoy veered off the road and slammed into a retaining wall, killing 19 people and injuring several others.
    (AP, 8/24/03)

2003        Oct 7, Turkey's parliament voted overwhelmingly to allow Turkish troops to be sent to Iraq.
    (AP, 10/7/04)

2003        Nov 15, In Turkey twin car bombs exploded outside Istanbul synagogues filled with worshippers during Sabbath prayers, killing at least 23 people and wounding more than 300. In all 14 Muslims were killed. 6 Jews were killed at Beth Israel.
    (AP, 11/16/03)(SSFC, 11/16/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 19, Turkish authorities arrested six people in connection with the suicide bombings of two Istanbul synagogues.
    (AP, 11/19/03)

2003        Nov 20, In Turkey trucks packed with explosives blew up at the HSBC London-based bank and the British consulate. The 32 people killed included London's consul-general Roger Short. Some 450 people were wounded.
    (AP, 11/20/03)(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A1)(SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Nov 22, A methane explosion in a Turkish coal mine killed at least three miners and trapped another seven in the collapsed mine.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

2003        Nov 30, Syria handed over 22 suspects to Turkey in connection with the Nov 16 suicide bombings in Istanbul.
    (SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Dec 14, Elections in northern Cyprus ended in a deadlock with the pro-EU opposition and pro-government parties splitting the 50 parliamentary seats. EU members have said that Turkey must help reunite the island before it can realize its own membership aspirations.
    (AP, 12/15/03)(WSJ, 12/15/03, p.A13)

2003        Dec 21, A vessel, carrying some 60 migrants from Jordan, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, left the Turkish Mediterranean resort of Marmaris late Dec 20 and was heading to the Greek island of Rhodes when it sank.
    (AP, 12/22/03)

2003        An American court awarded Motorola and Nokia $5 billion in damages, compensation and interest for money defrauded them by Turkey’s Uzan family. Turkey claimed another $6 billion from the Uzans.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)

2004        Jan 6, President Bashar Assad began the first-ever visit to Turkey by a Syrian head of state, hoping to further improve ties forge a joint position on growing Kurdish autonomy.
    (AP, 1/6/04)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 8, Turkey and the US agreed to reopen the Incirlik air base for Iraq operations.
    (WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 2, In central Turkey an 11-story apartment building collapsed in Konya, killing at least 63 people. 12 people were found alive in the rubble the next day.
    (AP, 2/3/04)(AP, 2/6/04)(AP, 2/7/04)

2004        Feb 8, Cem Karaca (58), Armenian-Turkish rock musician, died. He put together some 20 albums that mixed Turkish themes and western rock music.
    (SFC, 2/17/04, p.A18)

2004        Feb 13, Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders agreed to resume full negotiations next week to end the 30-year division of Cyprus before it joins the European Union on May 1.
    (AP, 2/13/04)
2004        Feb 13, A Cambodian-flagged vessel that sank near the entrance of the Bosporus. A snowstorm sweeping out of the Balkans disrupted travel across Turkey and Greece, forcing rescuers to call off the search for the 20 crew members of the cargo ship.
    (AP, 2/13/04)

2004        Mar 10, In Turkey 2 suicide attackers stormed a Masonic lodge in Istanbul opening fire with automatic weapons and setting off explosions that killed one person and wounded five.
    (AP, 3/10/04)

2004        Mar 25, In eastern Turkey a 5.1 earthquake centered at Cat left at least 9 people dead.
    (AP, 3/26/04)

2004        Mar 28, Premier Recep Tayyip Erdogan's Islamic-rooted party appeared headed for a resounding victory in Turkey's local elections.
    (AP, 3/28/04)

2004        Apr 10, Sakip Sabanci (71), Turkey’s richest man and head of Sabanci Holding, died. He left his niece Guler Sabanci in charge of his business.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/turkey/story/0,12700,1193172,00.html)

2004        Jun 1, In Turkey Kurdish rebels, Kongra-Gel, announced a resumption of battle saying the government had not met their terms.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.51)

2004        Jun 2, In southeast Turkey Kurdish guerrillas fired on troops a day after announcing an end to a 5-year cease fire.
    (WSJ, 6/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 9, State-run Turkish TV aired its 1st ever broadcast in the Kurdish dialect of Kurmandji. Hours later Leyla Zana and 3 colleagues were released after spending 10 years in jail for belonging to the PKK rebel group.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.50)

2004        Jun 24, In Istanbul, Turkey, bombs shattered a bus and exploded outside a hotel where President Bush was to stay the following weekend, in back-to-back attacks that killed four people and wounded 17.
    (AP, 6/25/04)

2004        Jun 27, Turkey rejected the demands of Islamic militants who are threatening to behead three of its kidnapped citizens during a visit by President Bush to Turkey.
    (AP, 6/27/04)
2004        Jun 27, Over 40 thousand Turks chanting anti-Bush slogans demonstrated against the president's visit to their country and a NATO summit. NATO leaders closed ranks on a pledge to take a bigger military role in Iraq; Pres. Bush declared that the alliance was poised to "meet the threats of the 21st century." Pres. Bush called on the EU to admit Turkey as a member.
    (AP, 6/27/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.50)(AP, 6/27/05)

2004        Jul 2, In eastern Turkey a car bomb exploded near a governor's convoy, killing 6 people, including a 12-year-old boy, and injuring 23 others.
    (AFP, 7/2/04)(SFC, 7/3/04, p.A10)
2004        Jul 2, In an eastern Turkey a 5.0 earthquake leveled stone and mud houses, killing 18 people and injuring 27.
    (AP, 7/2/04)(SFC, 7/3/04, p.A3)

2004        Jul 22, In northwestern Turkey a new high-speed passenger train derailed killing 37 people and injuring 81 others.
    (AP, 7/23/04)(AP, 7/22/05)

2004        Jul 30, Turkish authorities seized 200 pounds of plastic explosives hidden in a truck as it crossed into Turkey from Iraq.
    (AP, 7/30/04)

2004        Aug 2, Masked gunmen killed a Turkish hostage with three gunshots to the head, according to a video posted on the Internet, and the Turkish truckers' union said it would stop bringing supplies to U.S. forces in Iraq.
    (AP, 8/2/04)

2004        Aug 11, In northwestern Turkey 2 trains collided head on, killing 8 people, injuring 55 others.
    (AP, 8/11/04)(AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Aug 31, An official said Turkish troops had killed 11 Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey during the past three days.
    (AP, 8/31/04)

2004        Sep 5, A Turkish company said it was withdrawing from Iraq a day after Iraqi militants threatened to behead its employee unless it ceased operations there.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 8, In Turkey rescue workers started to evacuate dozens of workers trapped inside a copper mine engulfed in fire. Eight miners were rescued so far. Between 25 and 30 miners were trapped inside the mine in the town of Kure in Kastamonu province, some 185 miles north of the capital, Ankara.
    (AP, 9/8/04)

2004        Sep 21, A Turkish construction company announced that it was halting operations in neighboring Iraq in a bid to save the lives of 10 employees kidnapped by militants.
    (AP, 9/21/04)

2004        Sep 26, Turkey’s Parliament voted overwhelmingly to approve penal code reforms aimed at boosting its chances of starting membership talks with the European Union.
    (AP, 9/26/04)

2004        Oct 2, Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels clashed in southeastern Turkey in fighting that killed two soldiers and a guerrilla.
    (AP, 10/3/04)

2004        Oct 6, The EU recommended Turkey be put on the path to full membership.
    (AP, 10/7/04)

2004        Oct 11, An Arabic language television station broadcast video showing three hooded gunmen threatening to behead a Turkish hostage within three days unless the Americans release all Iraqi prisoners and all Turks leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 14, Video that appeared on an Islamic Web site showed militants in Iraq beheading a man identified as a kidnapped Turkish driver.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        Nov 20, Ugur Kaymaz (12) and his father Ahmet Kaymaz (30), a Kurdish truck driver from Kiziltepe, Turkey, were reportedly shot dead by police officers in front of their house. In 2007 all 4 members of the special forces implicated in the killings were exonerated.
    (www.extrajudicialexecutions.org/communications/turkey.html)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2004        Dec 5, President Vladimir Putin made the first official visit by a Russian leader to Turkey, seeking to boost trade and counterterrorism cooperation between the two countries.
    (AP, 12/5/04)

2004        Dec 14, In northeastern Turkey an avalanche roared down on a town, killing six people, including a 10-month-old baby.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 15, In eastern Afghanistan the body of a kidnapped Turkish engineer was found, a day after he was snatched with his driver and interpreter by a band of armed men.
    (AP, 12/15/04)

2004        Dec 17, European Union leaders and Turkey agreed on a compromise formula to overcome differences over Turkish recognition of Cyprus' government as a condition for opening EU membership talks.
    (AP, 12/17/04)

2004        Dec 22, Turkey and Syria signed a free-trade accord.
    (WSJ, 12/23/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 25, Video footage aired on Turkish television showed a Turkish ship owner saying he and a ship captain were being held hostage in Iraq and that kidnappers demanded a $25 million ransom.
    (AP, 12/25/04)

2004        Dec 26, A woman doused her body with gasoline and set herself ablaze in a busy Istanbul square to protest Turkey's maximum security prison system.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2004        Dec 31, Bulgarian authorities picked up Suleyman Demirel, one-time owner of Egebank and nephew of former pres. Demirel, and returned him to Turkey for trial. Egebank’s collapse had caused financial losses of $1.2 billion.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)

2004        Dec, Turkey signed a $10 billion 3-year economic agreement with the IMF.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.12)

2004        Police in Malatya province arrested Hamit Bayram for attempting the sale of a car-load of heroin. He was taken to Van where his father, Mustafa Bayram, operated as a local kingpin. Clansmen with Kalashnikovs soon forced Hamit’s release.
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.48)

2005        Jan 1, The New (yeni) Turkish Lira (YTL), will begin circulating, wiping out six zeroes from the current money. The old lira will keep circulating until Dec 31.
    (AP, 9/23/04)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.67)(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F2)
2005        Jan 1, Turkey was forecast for 4.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 73.3 million and GDP per head at $4,150.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.90)

2005        Jan 22, Turkey’s large debt was reported to amount to about 74% of its GDP.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.47)

2005        Feb 16, Former Turkish PM Mesut Yilmaz rejected charges of corruption as he went on trial over a banking scandal with alleged mafia involvement, becoming the first head of government to be tried by the Supreme Court.
    (AFP, 2/16/05)

2005        Feb 23, Turkey's parliament approved legislation allowing thousands of students thrown out of universities to return, including women who violated the staunchly secular country's ban on Islamic-style head scarves.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2005        Mar 6, In Turkey riot police kicked and beat women and young people who had gathered for an unauthorized demonstration in Istanbul marking International Women's Day.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 7, A Turkish alcohol company ordered the recall of millions of bottles of Turkish liquor as the death toll from a bootleg version of the drink rose to at least 17.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 11, Turkey’s state institution over religious life issued a sermon to be preached at some 75,000 officially registered mosques on the dangers posed to national unity by Christian missionaries.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.49)

2005        Mar 12, Turkish authorities closed the Bosporus Strait to maritime traffic after a roll-on-roll-off (ro-ro) vessel carrying 7 tanker trucks loaded with 138 tons of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sank in the narrow waterway, which separates the European and Asian sides of Istanbul.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Apr 15, Turkish troops backed by attack helicopters killed 21 Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border overnight in the biggest clash since the rebels declared a unilateral truce more than five years ago. 3 Turkish soldiers and a village guardsman also were killed in the clash 25 miles from the Iraq border between the town of Pervari in Siirt province and Eruh in Sirnak province.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 21, In western Turkey a gas explosion caused a coal mine to collapse, killing at least 17 workers deep underground.
    (AP, 4/22/05)

2005        Apr 30, In western Turkey a police officer was killed and four others were injured when a parcel bomb exploded in the hands of a bomb disposal expert in a seaside resort town.
    (AP, 4/30/05)

2005        May 1, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan arrived in Israel for a visit seeking to mend relations with the Jewish state and join in a new wave of Middle East peace efforts.
    (AP, 5/1/05)

2005        May 13, Turkish soldiers killed 9 Kurdish rebels in Turkey's predominantly Kurdish southeast. Automatic weapons, plastic explosives, grenades, and a rocket-propelled grenade launcher were seized in the operation. A Syrian citizen was among those killed.
    (AP, 5/14/05)

2005        May 16, In Turkey 2 Kurdish guerillas trying to attack the home of a Turkish governor were killed after police fired on them as they approached the building.
    (AP, 5/16/05)

2005        May 24, World Orthodox leaders gathered in Istanbul, the ancient seat of Orthodoxy. They decided to stop recognizing the beleaguered patriarch of Jerusalem, Irineos I, for allegedly leasing sites in the Palestinian side of the city to Jewish investors. They asserted a rare unified position on the crisis facing the church in the Holy Land.
    (AP, 5/24/05)(WSJ, 5/25/05, p.A1)

2005        May 25, In Azerbaijan officials opened the first section of a $3.6 billion, 1,100-mile pipeline that will carry Caspian Sea oil to Western markets. The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Turkey were on hand for the ceremony at the Sangachal oil terminal.
    (AP, 5/25/05)(WSJ, 5/25/05, p.B2)

2005        Jun 5, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels ambushed a Turkish commando unit overnight, killing four soldiers and wounding one near Tunceli.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        Jun 27, A meeting in Istanbul of the World Tribunal on Iraq, the culmination of 20 meetings around the world over the last 2 years, called the invasion and occupation of Iraq illegal. The symbolic tribunal sought the immediate withdrawal of coalition forces from Iraq and payment of reparations for the damage caused during the conflict.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun, Article 301/1 of the Turkish Penal Code, the “insulting Turkishness” law, took effect. The law states “A person who explicitly insults being a Turk, the Republic or Turkish Grand National Assembly, shall be imposed to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months to three years.”
    (www.pen.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/694/prmID/172)

2005        Jul 6, Hikmet Fidan, prominent Kurdish politician and critic of Abdullah Ocalan, was killed in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Police said he was killed by the PKK.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.48)

2005        Jul 9, In southeastern Turkey a land mine believed to have been planted by Kurdish rebels killed 3 soldiers. Two other land mines injured seven people in separate explosions.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 10, On Turkey's Aegean coast a bomb exploded in a popular resort town of Cesme, wounding about 20 people, including two foreign tourists.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 11, Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped a Turkish soldier after stopping dozens of cars at a makeshift roadblock in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 16, In Turkey a bomb blast destroyed a minibus near Kusadasi, a popular Aegean Sea beach, killing 5 people, including at least 2 foreigners. Initial reports implicating a female suicide bomber were soon changed to a remote controlled or timer bomb as the cause.
    (Reuters, 7/16/05)(AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 18, In Turkey 4 soldiers were killed when the PKK detonated a bomb in Hakkari.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.48)

2005        Jul 19, A top Turkish general said the US had given direct orders for the capture of rebel Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leaders in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 21, Turkish forces killed 5 Kurdish rebels, including a woman, in a gunbattle in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 23, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul cafe frequented by tourists, injuring at least two people.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 29, Turkey signed an accord extending its customs union with the EU to Cyprus and other new EU members, a key step toward opening membership talks with the bloc.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Aug 1, The directors of Turkey's eight privately owned Kurdish language schools announced they were closing them due to bureaucratic hurdles and Kurdish demands for the language to be part of the regular school curriculum.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Aug 4, In Turkey an explosion in a trash can in an Istanbul suburb killed a mother and daughter and injured five others as they left a wedding party.
    (AP, 8/4/05)

2005        Aug 5, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels killed 5 Turkish soldiers in a rocket attack.
    (AP, 8/5/05)

2005        Aug 6, In Turkey Lu'ai Sakra, a Syrian with links to al-Qaida, was arrested for plotting to slam speedboats packed with explosives into cruise ships filled with Israeli tourists.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Aug 12, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan pledged to give more rights to the Kurdish minority in a speech in Diyarbakir.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.40)(http://tinyurl.com/cmzxz)

2005        Aug 16, Several new computer worms hit systems running MS Windows 2000. On Aug 25 authorities in Morocco arrested Farid Essebar (18) for writing the Zotob worm. Atilla Ekici (21) was arrested in Turkey for paying Essebar to write the worm. In 2006 Morocco sentenced Farid Essebar (19) to 2 years in prison and Achraf Bahlouo (21) to one year for their role in unleashing the Zotob worm. Ekici’s trial continued in Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/27/05, p.A2)(WSJ, 9/14/06, p.B3)(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.A1)

2005        Aug 19, A Kurdish rebel group fighting for autonomy in Turkey's southeast announced a one-month cease-fire and said it planned to pursue indirect negotiations with the government.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2005        Aug 31, Orhan Pamuk, a Turkish novelist, was charged with insulting his country's national character and could face prison. In February Pamuk was quoted as saying in an interview with a Swiss newspaper magazine: "Thirty-thousand Kurds and one million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it."
    (AP, 8/31/05)

2005        Aug, Turkey sold a 55% share in Turk Telecom to Saudi Oger and Telecom Italia for $6.55 billion.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.64}

2005        Sep 1, Turkey insisted that it has fulfilled conditions for EU membership, as foreign ministers of the 25-nation group started meeting in Wales to assess the predominantly Muslim nation's efforts to join the bloc.
    (AP, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 4, In Turkey a group of nationalist Turks attacked dozens of buses carrying pro-Kurdish demonstrators with stones, following violent clashes between Kurdish demonstrators and police in Istanbul.
    (AP, 9/4/05)

2005        Sep 5, A nuclear-powered US Navy submarine collided with a Turkish cargo ship in the Persian Gulf. Nobody was injured and both ships appeared to suffer only superficial damage.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 12, Turkey sold a 51% stake in Tupras, an oil refinery, for $4.1 billion to a consortium of Koc Holding and Royal Dutch/Shell.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.64)

2005        Sep 21, EU nations agreed that Turkey must recognize EU member Cyprus during its membership talks, warning that non-recognition could lead to paralysis in the negotiations.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 24, Turkish scholars at a twice-canceled conference on the massacre of Armenians in the early 20th century cautiously discussed the politically charged topic, avoiding inflammatory language as protesters denounced the gathering as traitorous.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Oct 3, EU nations reached a tentative agreement on pursuing full membership talks with Turkey, diplomats said. A spokesman for the Turkish prime minister denied reports that Ankara had agreed to the deal.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, French President Jacques Chirac said that Turkey would need to undergo a "major cultural revolution" before entering the EU, and he reiterated that France would hold a referendum on admitting Ankara to the bloc.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 9, The slaughter of thousands of domestic fowl in Romania and Turkey began as a precaution against the spread of bird flu after both countries confirmed their first cases of the disease over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 10, The Anatolia news agency said a suspect in a bombing plot against Israeli ships in Turkey earlier gave $50,000 to people accused of carrying out a series of bombings in Istanbul that killed 60 people in 2003, according to testimony from Burhan Kus, a suspect submitted by prosecutors to a court.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 11, A Turkish company signed an agreement to build a $360 million power station in southern Israel. An Israeli Cabinet minister praised such deals as examples of strengthening ties between the Muslim and Jewish countries.
    (AP, 10/11/05)

2005        Oct 13, The EU said the bird flu virus found in Turkish poultry was the H5N1 strain that scientists worry might mutate into a human virus and spark a pandemic. Turkey's health minister said the outbreak had been contained.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 14, A Turkish court convicted two brothers for the "honor killing" of their sister and sentenced one to life in prison and the other to more than 11 years behind bars.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2005        Nov 9, In Semdinli, Turkey, 2 government intelligence officers and a PKK informant were caught trying to blow up a bookshop owned by a PKK sympathizer. The affair was said to have been organized by the “deep state,” a shadowy coalition of rogue officers and bureaucrats whose powers were being sapped by EU-inspired laws.
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.54)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.52)

2005        Nov 14, It was reported that a consortium led by Saudi Arabia's Oger Telecom has signed a deal to take a majority stake in state-owned telecommunications company Turk Telekom, sealing Turkey's largest privatization worth 6.55 billion dollars. Oger Telecom, part of the Oger group owned by the family of slain former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri, had won the tender for the 55% stake in July, in partnership with Italian operator Telecom Italia.
    (AFP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 18, Turkey’s energy minister said oil from a U.S.-backed Caspian pipeline has crossed the Turkish border from Georgia on its way to a Mediterranean port for where it will be exported to the West.
    (AP, 11/18/05)
2005        Nov 18, In Turkey a bomb placed in a trash can exploded near a fairground in Istanbul, killing one person and injuring 12.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Nov 20, In Turkey 12 people were detained after Kurdish demonstrators hurled Molotov cocktails and stones at the police during a protest in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 21, Turkey's prime minister rushed to the overwhelmingly Kurdish southeast and urged calm after weeks of rioting, vowing that his government would investigate charges that security forces, and not Kurdish guerrillas, were behind a recent fatal bombing.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 22, A gunman opened fire with a Kalashnikov assault rifle at a primary school in Turkey's troubled southeast, killing one male teacher and wounding four other people.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        Dec 8, In the first visit to Australia by a Turkish leader, PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan criticized military solutions to the so-called "war on terror", saying the US-led invasion of Iraq had transformed the country into a training ground for extremists.
    (AFP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 13, Britain's Vodafone Group PLC offered the highest bid, $4.55 billion, in an auction to buy Telsim, Turkey's 2nd-largest cell-phone company, from the Turkish government.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Dec 16, In Turkey a trial against novelist Orhan Pamuk opened in Istanbul. It was then adjourned to February. Charges were dropped on Jan 23.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.71)

2005        Dec 17, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan accused the EU of trying to pressure Turkish courts in the trial of the country's best-known novelist. Orhan Pamuk is being tried for telling a Swiss newspaper in February that "30,000 Kurds and 1 million Armenians were killed in these lands, and nobody but me dares to talk about it."
    (AP, 12/17/05)

2005        Dec 22, An Istanbul court fined an author and a journalist for insulting the Turkish state, the latest convictions under a law that European officials say limits freedom of expression and must be changed.
    (AP, 12/22/05)
2005        Dec 22, The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ordered Turkey to put in place within three months an effective reparations mechanism for Greek Cypriots who were stripped of their possessions in the 1970s.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 27, Turkey reported an outbreak of avian influenza in chickens in the eastern area of Igdir, less than a month after declaring its territory free of the virus, and said it had culled 359 birds as a precautionary measure.
    (Reuters, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 28, The head of Turkey’s broadcasting board said Turkish TV stations will be allowed to broadcast programs in Kurdish and other minority languages beginning next month.
    (SFC, 12/29/05, p.A3)

2005        Orhan Pamuk authored “Istanbul,” a personal memoir and cultural history of the city.
    (Econ, 4/9/05, p.71)
2005        In Turkey PM Erdogan successfully sued the opposition daily Cumhuriyet after its cartoonist depicted him as a kitty caught up in a ball of wool.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.53)
2005        Bilateral trade between Russia and Turkey reached $15 billion, making Russia Turkey’s second-largest trade partner.   
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.48)
2005        At least 68 people, including 9 children, were killed this year in landmine blasts in Turkey’s Kurdish areas bordering Iran and Iraq.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.52)
2005         Turkey’s population numbered about 69.6 million.
    (www.airninja.com/worldfacts/countries/Turkey/population.htm)

2006        Jan 5, A Turkish teenager whose brother died of bird flu also succumbed to the disease. Fatma Kocyigit (15) died in a hospital in the eastern city of Van, four days after the death of her brother, Mehmet Ali Kocyigit (14). The children helped raise poultry on a small farm in the eastern town of Dogubeyazit, close to Iranian border, and were in close contact with sick birds. Their 11-year-old sister died the next day.
    (AP, 1/5/06)(AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 8, In Turkey Anatolia news reported that a court has approved the release of Mehmet Ali Agca (46), the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, saying he completed his prison term.
    (AP, 1/8/06)
2006        Jan 8, Three Turks were reported to be infected with a deadly strain of bird flu in the capital Ankara.
    (AP, 1/8/06)

2006        Jan 9, In Turkey a Health Ministry official said preliminary tests showed five more people have been infected with the deadly H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus.
    (AP, 1/9/06)

2006        Jan 10, Preliminary tests showed another person in Turkey has tested positive for a deadly strain of bird flu, raising the number in the country to 15. The number of people hospitalized with symptoms climbed to about 70.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 12, Mehmet Ali Agca (48), the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, was released from prison after serving more than 25 years in Italy and Turkey for the plot against the pontiff and the slaying of a Turkish journalist.
    (AP, 1/12/06)
2006        Jan 12, Turkey’s government said 2 more Turks tested positive for the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu in preliminary tests, bringing the total number of human infections to 18.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 15, A Turkish girl died from suspected bird flu, while her brother was critically ill in hospital after testing positive for the virus.
    (Reuters, 1/15/06)

2006        Jan 16, Turkish health officials said preliminary tests have confirmed that a girl (12) who died was infected with the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu, raising Turkey's death toll to four.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 20, Mehmet Ali Agca, the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, returned to prison, after an appeals court ruled that he should serve more time for the killing of a Turkish journalist and other crimes.
    (AP, 1/20/06)

2006        Jan 23, A Turkish court dropped charges against Orhan Pamuk, the country's best-known novelist, for insulting "Turkishness," ending a high-profile trial that outraged Western observers and cast doubt on Turkey's commitment to free speech. He had been charged under articles 301 and 305 of the penal code.
    (AP, 1/23/06)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.50)

2006        Jan 30, In Adana, Turkey, a bomb exploded at a Turkish-American friendship association in a southern city that hosts a US air base, wounding five Turks.
    (AP, 1/30/06)

2006        Feb 3, The $10 million Turkish film "Valley of the Wolves Iraq" opened in Turkey. It fed off the increasingly negative feelings many Turks harbored toward Americans. In the most expensive Turkish movie ever made, American soldiers in Iraq crash a wedding and pump a little boy full of lead in front of his mother.
    (AP, 2/2/06)

2006        Feb 5, Andrea Santoro (60), an Italian Roman Catholic priest, was shot dead in his Santa Maria church by a 16-year-old boy in the Turkish Black Sea city of Trabzon. In 2007 the teen was sentenced to more than 18 years in prison, but was expected to serve only 10.
    (AP, 2/5/06)(AP, 10/4/07)

2006        Feb 6, In Rome, Italy, a bus loaded with Turkish tourists veered off a road in the Italian capital and slid about 50 feet down a ravine, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 9, In Turkey a bomb attack wounded at least 17 people at an Internet cafe in Istanbul. A hardline Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 10, In Turkey a Syrian was charged with masterminding suicide bombings that killed 58 people in Istanbul, and Turkish prosecutors claimed that Osama bin Laden personally ordered him to carry out terror attacks in this pro-Western country. Loa'i Mohammad Haj Bakr al-Saqa (32) was accused of serving as a point man between al-Qaida and homegrown militants behind the series of suicide bombings in Istanbul in 2003, said the indictment. It said al-Saqa gave the Turkish militants about $170,000. He was captured in Turkey in August after an alleged failed plot to attack Israeli cruise ships in the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 13, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul supermarket during the afternoon rush, injuring 15 people. A Kurdish news agency reported that a Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 15, Kurdish protesters armed with firebombs and stones battled with Turkish police to mark the seventh anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb, In Turkey the bullet-riddled body of Hikmet Oncel was found in a cave in Sanliurfa. In 2007 it was reported that Oncel was murdered on the orders of a phony, 25-year-old Islamic sheikh. In 2007 the film “Takva,” which satirized mercenary sheikhs, became a hit.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.46)

2006        Mar 5, Tens of thousands of people massed in Pakistan and Turkey to protest cartoons of Islam's Prophet, Muhammad, that have fired anger throughout the Muslim world.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 9, In Turkey a bomb set off by suspected Kurdish guerrillas killed three people and injured 18 in the Kurdish-dominated southeast.
    (AP, 3/9/06)
2006        Mar 9, In Turkey a bus carrying about 40 people drove off a road and plunged into a river before dawn, killing at least 16 passengers and injuring 11.
    (AP, 3/9/06)

2006        Mar 11, Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals gathered under tight security for a major 2-day conference in Istanbul to discuss a peaceful resolution to the 22-year-old Kurdish conflict.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar 16, In eastern Turkey a helicopter carrying military officers crashed, killing five officers, and seriously injuring another.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2006        Mar 18, Anti-war protesters marched in Australia, Asia, Turkey and Europe in demonstrations that marked the third anniversary of the US-led invasion of Iraq with a demand that coalition troops pull out.
    (AP, 3/18/06)

2006        Mar 21, More than 100,000 Turkish Kurds celebrated the ancient spring festival of Newroz with dancing, singing and calls for political reform and the release of jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 24-2006 Mar 25, In southeastern Turkey government troops killed 14 Kurdish guerrillas near the hamlet of Senyayla.
    (AP, 3/26/06)

2006        Mar 28, Thousands of Kurdish protesters rampaged after funerals for 4 Kurdish PKK guerrillas killed by Turkish troops. They hurled firebombs at armored police vehicles and smashed windows at a police station. 2 Kurds were killed and 40 people injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.54)

2006        Mar 29, In southeastern Turkey riot police fired water cannons and used pepper spray to disperse stone-throwing Kurdish rioters in a second day of violence that an official said left at least three people dead and 250 injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Mar 30, In southeast Turkey violent protests by thousands of Kurdish demonstrators left at least 20 hurt as protesters hurled firebombs and police opened fire to disperse the crowds.
    (AP, 3/3006)

2006        Mar 31, In Turkey a bomb hidden in a garbage can exploded near an Istanbul bus stop, killing a street vendor and injuring 13 people. Fighting between Turkish soldiers and Kurdish guerrillas killed a 3-year-old boy and brought to 7 the number of fatalities in the 4th day of clashes.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(SFC, 4/1/06, p.A5)

2006        Apr 1, Fresh clashes between Kurdish protesters and police in southeast Turkey killed one protester and injured 10.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)

2006        Apr 2, In southeastern Turkey one protester died after police opened fire to disperse Kurdish demonstrators, raising the death toll in six days of street violence to nine. A group of men stopped a passenger bus and tossed gasoline bombs at it, sending the vehicle careening into pedestrians and killing 3 in Istanbul as pro-Kurdish riots continued to spread. The countrywide death toll from nearly a week of unrest climbed to 15.
    (AP, 4/2/06)(AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 3, The National Bank of Greece paid $2.8 billion for 46% of Finansbank, Turkey’s 3rd largest bank. It planned a public offer for a controlling stake.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.74)

2006        Apr 7, In Turkey a suicide bomber blew herself up injuring 2 people, including a suspected accomplice. Turkish forces killed 6 Kurdish rebels in Sirnak.
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.A1)(AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 8, Turkish forces killed a Kurdish rebel outside Batman and arrested a Kurdish suspect in a deadly bombing at a seaside resort last year. 2 soldiers were killed by a land mine blast in Elazig.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 27, Turkey said it has deployed more than 30,000 additional troops in its predominantly Kurdish southeast and along its rugged border with Iraq and Iran to fight Kurdish guerrillas and stop them from coming across the frontier.
    (AP, 4/27/06)

2006        May 1, In Turkey, police fired pepper spray and tear gas to disperse demonstrators denouncing the IMF and the United States.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 13, A bomb exploded outside a garage in eastern Turkey, killing three children.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 17, In Turkey Alparslan Arslan (29), a lawyer, stormed into a meeting at Ankara’s highest administrative court and opened fire. One pro-secular judge was killed and 4 wounded. Arslan picked on the judges because they supported a ban on the Islamic headscarf in public places, schools and universities.
    (AP, 5/17/06)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.49)(WSJ, 3/30/07, p.A1)

2006        May 19, In southern Turkey a truck carrying illegal immigrants from Afghanistan and Bangladesh crashed into a parked transport truck, killing at least 40 people.
    (AP, 5/19/06)

2006        May 23, Warplanes from Greece and Turkey collided over the Aegean Sea island of Karpathos as they shadowed each other. Officials said the Turkish pilot was rescued unhurt, and a search was launched for the Greek pilot.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 24, A huge fire engulfed the cargo section of Istanbul's Ataturk International Airport, temporarily disrupting air traffic and causing thousands to flee nearby terminals.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 28, Turkey’s culture and tourism minister said two pieces from the treasure of King Croesus that were returned to Turkey from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York after a long legal battle have been stolen and replaced with fakes.
    (AP, 5/29/06)
2006        May 28, A new $4 billion pipeline from Baku, via Georgia to Ceyhan, Turkey, began pumping oil.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.48)

2006        Jun 1, In western Turkey a methane gas explosion ripped through a coal mine, killing 17 miners in the village of Odakoy in western Balikesir province.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 3, The long-awaited first shipment of Caspian oil from the new Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline got on its way from a Turkish port.
    (AFP, 6/4/06)

2006        Jun 12, EU foreign ministers reached agreement with Cyprus on a formula to enable Turkey to take its first step in detailed accession talks with the 25-nation bloc.
    (AP, 6/12/06)

2006        Jun 18, In eastern Turkey a bomb explosion on a railway track destroyed eight carriages of a cargo train.
    (AP, 6/18/06)

2006        Jun 20, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced plans to build three nuclear power plants by 2015 to meet the country's growing energy needs.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 23, Turkey's top court indefinitely suspended the corruption trial of former PM Mesut Yilmaz on technical grounds, a move that amounts to the case being dropped.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 25, An explosion in the popular Turkish Mediterranean resort town of Antalya killed three people and injured about 25 others.
    (AP, 6/25/06)

2006        Jul 13, The presidents of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia formally opened a pipeline designed to bypass Russia and bring Caspian oil to Europe, a route that President Bush said would bolster global energy security.
    (AP, 7/13/06)

2006        Jul 16, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan signaled that his government was planning a tough response to mounting violence by Kurdish rebels after 13 members of the security forces were killed in the southeast over the past week.
    (AFP, 7/16/06)

2006        Jul 21, Turkey killed 4 Kurdish rebels after a soldier died in an attack.
    (WSJ, 7/22/06, p.A1)

2006        Jul 22, President Bush in Texas conferred with PM Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey about how to help the Lebanese people caught up in the conflict between Israel and Hizbollah.
    (AP, 7/22/06)

2006        Jul 30, Duygu Asena (60), a best-selling writer and crusader for women's rights in Turkey, died after a two-year battle with a brain tumor. In 1978 she founded the first women's magazine in Turkey. Asena was the first Turkish writer to explore such topics as women's rights, sexuality and wife-beating. Her 1987 book “Woman Has No Name" broke sales records when it was printed, but was soon banned by the government which found it to be too lewd and obscene. The ban was lifted after a two-year court battle. A film adaptation of the book broke box office records in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Jul 31, Turkey named Gen. Yasar Buyukanit as the new military chief. He favored a tougher line against Kurdish rebels and negotiations on joining the EU.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Jul, Istanbul’s seventh high court reopened prosecution against Elif Shafak (b.1971), Turkish writer, for “denigrating Turkishness” in her latest novel “The Bastard of Istanbul.” Her trial was set for Sep 21, 4 days she was due to give birth.
    (http://books.guardian.co.uk/news/articles/0,,1815420,00.html)

2006        Aug 4, In Turkey 2 explosives detonated within minutes of each other in a southern city of Adana, seriously wounding one person and injuring 16 others.
    (AP, 8/4/06)

2006        Aug 8, Turkey battled the largest recorded outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, which has killed at least 20 people this year, and experts said more cases of the Ebola-like disease are inevitable in coming months.
    (AP, 8/8/06)

2006        Aug 13, In Turkey the PKK killed 2 policemen in a bomb attack near Tunceli.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.48)

2006        Aug 18, A bus carrying Iranian tourists crashed into a truck in eastern Turkey, killing 18 and injuring 29.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 19, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said that it had forced two Syria-bound Iranian planes to land and be searched for rockets and other military equipment, one on Jul 27 and the other on Aug 8, during the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, A suspected Kurdish rebel attack caused an explosion and huge fire on a natural gas pipeline in eastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 23, A leader of Kurdish rebels battling Turkey's government said in a rare interview that his guerrillas will not give in to US pressure to disarm without a "political project" that fulfills their calls for autonomy. PKK party officials met with a group of journalists in the rugged, isolated Qandil Mountain in Iraq's northeast corner where the group is based.
    (AP, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 27, In Turkey a bomb on a minibus injured 21 people including 10 British tourists. The explosion was in the popular Mediterranean resort town of Marmaris. 2 other bomb blasts hit at the same time in garbage cans on the main boulevard.
    (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14546503/)

2006        Aug 28, In Turkey a bomb in the resort city of Antalya killed 3 people and injured 18. A group calling itself the Kurdistan Freedom Falcons claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 8/28/06)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.6)

2006        Aug 29, An extremist Kurdish militant group warned that "the fear of death will reign everywhere in Turkey" and it urged tourists to avoid travel to the country.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Aug, In Turkey a parliamentary report found that 1,091 honor-related crimes had been committed over the last 5 years. Blame for many honor of the killings was placed on the patriarchal and feudal system entrenched in the Kurdish provinces.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.62)

2006        Sep 1-2006 Sep 2, Separatist Kurdish guerrillas killed 7 Turkish soldiers and wounded two in stepped-up attacks against the military in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 9/3/06)

2006        Sep 3, In southeastern Turkey a remote-controlled bomb exploded in a tea garden, killing two people and wounding seven.
    (AP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 5, Turkey became the first Muslim country with diplomatic ties to Israel to pledge troops to an expanding international peacekeeping force that will monitor a fragile cease-fire between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 9/6/06)

2006        Sep 12, In Turkey a bomb exploded near a park in a primarily residential area of Diyarbakir and 10 people were killed. 7 children were among the dead. The bomb was made by hand, placed in a thermos and went off as it was being transported.
    (AP, 9/13/06)

2006        Sep 14, Turkey's top Islamic cleric asked Pope Benedict XVI to take back recent remarks he made about Islam on Sep 12. He unleashed a string of counteraccusations against Christianity, raising tensions before the pontiff's November visit.
    (AP, 9/14/06)(SFC, 9/15/06, p.A17)

2006        Sep 18, The 184-nation IMF approved reforms to increase the voice of China, South Korea, Turkey, and Mexico to reflect their growing economic sway.
    (SFC, 9/19/06, p.D2)

2006        Sep 21, Elif Shafak, one of Turkey's leading authors, was acquitted of "insulting Turkishness" in her novel "The Bastard of Istanbul," that touched on the mass killings of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire. The University of Arizona assistant professor gave birth to a daughter on Sep 16 and did not attend her trial.
    (AP, 9/21/06)

2006        Sep 23, In eastern Turkey suspected Kurdish guerrillas set off an explosive-laden minibus across from a police guest house, injuring 17 people.
    (AP, 9/23/06)

2006        Sep 26, In Turkey 56 Kurdish mayors stood trial, accused in a freedom-of-speech case on charges of helping terrorists by arguing to keep a Kurdish TV station on the air.
    (AP, 9/26/06)

2006        Sep 28, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan has appealed to his Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to call a ceasefire in its separatist campaign against the Turkish government.
    (AFP, 9/28/06)
2006        Sep 28, An explosion on a natural gas pipeline outside Bazargan, an Iranian border city, shut down the flow of gas to Turkey. Officials believed the explosion was an act of sabotage by separatist Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Oct 2, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan began his latest push to keep EU membership hopes on track with a visit to Washington, where he received a key endorsement from the Bush administration. Turkey was the largest supplier of non-combat equipment to American forces in Iraq.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gvg4s)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.62)

2006        Oct 3, A Turkish Airlines plane carrying 113 people from Albania to Istanbul landed in Italy where a Turkish man surrendered and released all the passengers unharmed. The Turkish army deserter who hijacked the airliner sought asylum because he feared persecution in his Muslim homeland after his conversion to Christianity and wanted Pope Benedict XVI's protection.
    (AP, 10/4/06)(AP, 10/3/07)

2006        Oct 9, Turkey called on the EU to oppose French legislation that would outlaw denials that World War I-era killings of Armenians amounted to genocide.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

2006        Oct 12, Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk won the Nobel literature prize for his works dealing with the symbols of clashing cultures. His uncommon lyrical gifts and uncompromising politics have brought him acclaim worldwide and prosecution at home.
    (AP, 10/12/06)
2006        Oct 12, French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny that the 1915-1919 mass killings of Armenians in Turkey amounted to genocide. It was thought unlikely that Jacques Chirac’s government would forward the bill to the Senate.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(SFC, 10/13/06, p.A21)

2006        Oct 14, French leader Jacques Chirac told Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan he is sorry French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny Armenians were victims of genocide at the hands of Ottoman Turks.
    (Reuters, 10/15/06)

2006        Oct 31, Flooding from torrential rains killed 22 people across Turkey, including 14 who died when a minibus carrying wedding guests was swept away.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Oct, Adnan Oktar (b.1956), a Turkish preacher who writes under the name of Harun Yahya, published his “Atlas of Creation.” The book offers over 770 pages of images comparing fossils with present-day animals to argue that Allah created all life as it is and evolution never took place. In 2009 Oktar continued work on a the 5th volume of his planned 14-part masterwork.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.23)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Oktar)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.A1)

2006        Nov 1, In Turkey a court acquitted a 92-year-old retired archaeologist who was put on trial for writing in a book that Islamic-style head scarves date back more than 5,000 years, several millennia before the birth of Islam, and were worn by priestesses who initiated young men into sex.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 4, Thousands of nationalist Turks marched in Ankara, vowing to defend the secular regime against radical Islamic influences and urging the government not to make too many concessions in order to gain EU membership.
    (AP, 11/4/06)

2006        Nov 5, Bulent Ecevit (81) former 4-time Prime Minister of Turkey (1973-2002), died. Ecevit was a political force in Turkey for almost half a century. He had ordered the invasion of Cyprus and later pushed his country toward the West.
    (AP, 11/5/06)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.97)

2006        Nov 8, The European Commission set Turkey a mid-December deadline to open its ports to shipping from Cyprus or face consequences for its troubled EU membership bid.
    (Reuters, 11/8/06)

2006        Nov 10, Asian nations reached their first international agreement to implement what has been dubbed the "Iron Silk Road." Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and seven other nations agreed to meet at least every two years to identify vital rail routes, coordinate standards and financing and plan upgrades and expansions, among other measures. The UN first conceived the Trans-Asian Railway Network in 1960.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 15, Turkey suspended military relations with France in a dispute over whether the mass killings of Armenians early in the last century amounted to genocide.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 16, Turkey's PM Erdogan offered training for the Iraqi police and army, and he urged power-sharing among ethnic groups in the Iraqi oil center of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 20, In Turkey police arrested 29 leftist activists who broke into The Associated Press office in Ankara to protest alleged mistreatment of prisoners.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 26, More than 20,000 Muslims in Istanbul held the biggest protest so far against Pope Benedict's controversial visit to Turkey this week.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

2006        Nov 28, Pope Benedict XVI began his first visit to a Muslim country with a message of dialogue and brotherhood between Christians and Muslims in an attempt to ease anger over his perceived criticism of Islam. In Turkey Benedict urged all religious leaders to "utterly refuse" to support any violence in the name of faith.
    (AP, 11/28/06)(AP, 11/28/07)

2006        Nov 30, Pope Benedict XVI visited Istanbul's famous Blue Mosque in a dramatic gesture of outreach to Muslims.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2006        Dec 4, Turkish security forces clashed with an angry crowd trying to lynch a man accused of raping several girls and killing two of them in southeastern Turkey. One person was killed in the violence, and at least 22 were injured.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 5, The EU presidency backed a proposal to partially suspend EU membership talks with Turkey because of Ankara's refusal to open up to trade with Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 7, Turkey offered to open a major seaport and an airport to longtime foe Cyprus to try to keep its EU entry talks on track. The EU called the step positive but insufficient.
    (AP, 12/7/06)
2006        Dec 7, Ali Reza Asgari, a retired general who served in Iran's Revolutionary Guard, arrived in Turkey on a private visit from Damascus, Syria. He had become involved in the olive business after retirement. Iranian officials later said that he disappeared on Dec 9. In March, 2009, a former German Defense Ministry official said Asgari had defected and was providing information to the West on Iran's nuclear program. Asgari allegedly told the West that Iran was financing North Korean steps to transform Syria into a nuclear weapons power, leading to an Israeli airstrike that targeted a site in Syria on Sept. 6, 2007. In November Iranian news Web sites reported that Asgari had been abducted by Israeli agents and is now being held in Israel.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2006        Dec 9, In Turkey the state-run Anatolia news agency reported that police had detained 10 suspected al-Qaida militants, including a lawyer who identified himself as the group's leader.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

2006        Dec 11, In Turkey a boiler explosion knocked down part of a five-story building housing military families in Diyarbakir, killing at least four people and trapping about four others.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, European Union foreign ministers decided to suspend 8 out of 35  parts of entry talks with Turkey over Ankara's refusal to open its ports to trade with EU member Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.53)

2006        Dec 19, A Turkish court acquitted Ipek Calislar, a writer of insulting the country's founder, amid calls from the EU to change repressive laws curbing freedom of expression. The book was the first comprehensive biography of Latife Ussaki, who was married to Ataturk for about two years until he divorced her in 1925.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2006        Dec 31, Over a thousand Turks spent the first day of the Muslim feast of Eid al-Adha in emergency wards after stabbing themselves or suffering other injuries while sacrificing startled animals.
    (AP, 12/31/06)

2006        In Turkey Fethullah Gulen, a Muslim preacher, was cleared in absentia on charges of undermining secularism. Gulen had emigrated some years earlier and set up residence in Pennsylvania, from where he led a network of followers active in education.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.67)

2007        Jan 9, Iraqi and US soldiers, backed by American warplanes, battled suspected insurgents for hours in central Baghdad, and 50 militant fighters were killed. A cargo plane carrying Turkish construction workers crashed during landing at an airport near Baghdad, killing 32 people and injuring two.
    (AP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 19, Hrant Dink (53), a Turkish citizen of Armenian descent, was shot to death at the entrance to his newspaper's offices. The journalist had faced constant threats and legal proceedings as one of the most prominent voices of Turkey's shrinking Armenian community. Dink had called the 1915 massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turks a genocide. In 2012 Yasin Hayal was sentenced to life in prison for masterminding the killing, while another 19 were acquitted of charges of acting under a terrorist organization's orders.
    (AP, 1/19/07)(AP, 1/19/12)(Econ, 1/21/12, p.58)

2007        Jan 20, Istanbul police arrested Ogun Samast, a teenage boy (16-17) and nationalist hardliner, for the Jan 19 fatal shooting of Hrant Dink, an ethnic Armenian journalist. Samast confessed to the murder. In July, 2011, a juvenile court sentenced Samast to nearly 23 years in prison for killing Dink. A prosecutor demanded life imprisonment for 7 other men accused of involvement in the killing. 19 other people were on trial, accused of instigating the killing.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(AP, 9/19/11)

2007        Jan 22, In Turkey police said Yasin Hayal, a nationalist militant convicted of bombing a McDonald's restaurant in 2004, had confessed to inciting the killing of an ethnic Armenian journalist last week. Hayal said he provided a gun and money to the teenager who is suspected of carrying out the Jan 19 shooting.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 29, Turkish police arrested 46 suspected Islamic militants in operations in five provinces across the country.
    (AP, 1/29/07)

2007        Jan 31, A special committee, invited by IMF managing director Rodrigo de Rato, proposed new ways for the IMF to fund itself. A loan to Turkey at this time accounted for two-thirds of the IMF’s outstanding credit.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.75)

2007        Feb 16, A Turkish court sentenced seven suspected al-Qaida militants to life in prison for a pair of 2003 suicide bombings in Istanbul that killed 58 people, attacks prosecutors said were ordered by Osama bin Laden.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 21, A 5.7 magnitude earthquake shook southeastern Turkey. A five-story apartment building collapsed in Istanbul, killing at least two people and injuring more than two dozen others.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 23, In Turkey Hilmi Aydogdu, leader of the Democratic Society Party's branch in the mainly Kurdish city of Diyarbakir, was charged with inciting hatred and threatening public safety after suggesting that fellow Kurds would rise against the state and fight if Turkey ever attacked their Kurdish brethren in neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Mar 5, In central Turkey a rock fall caused the roof of a hillside nightclub to collapse in the Cappadocia area, killing three people.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 7, Turk Telekom blocked access to Google's YouTube video-sharing site after a court ruling over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 9, Turkey lifted its ban on YouTube two days after a court ordered the Web site blocked because of videos that allegedly insulted the founder of modern Turkey.
    (AP, 3/9/07)
2007        Mar 9, A prominent Turkish politician was convicted of breaching Swiss anti-racism laws by saying that the early 20th-century killing of Armenians could not be described as genocide. Perincek was charged with breaking Swiss law by denying during a visit to Switzerland in 2005 that the World War I-era killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians amounted to genocide. He was ordered to pay a fine of $2,450 and was given a suspended penalty of $7,360.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Apr 4, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad freed the 15 detained British sailors and marines as an Easter holiday "gift" to the British people. Syria said it played a key role in resolving the standoff over the 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran. Turkey brokered the release of the British sailors.
    (AP, 4/4/07)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.42)

2007        Apr 6, In southern Nigeria gunmen kidnapped two Turkish engineers from their car in Port Harcourt.
    (Reuters, 4/7/07)

2007        Apr 12, Turkey's army chief said the military had launched several "large scale" offensives against rebels in the predominantly Kurdish southeast, and he asked the government for approval to launch an incursion into neighboring northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 14, More than 200,000 Turks protested against Turkey's Islamic-rooted PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan, demonstrating the intense opposition he could face from Turkey's secular establishment if he decides to run for president next month. A bus full of second-graders crashed into a truck in central Turkey, killing at least 32 people, most of them children.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 18, In central Turkey assailants in Malatya tied up three people at a publishing house that distributes Bibles and then slit their throats. Tilmann Geske (46), a German missionary, and two Turkish Christians were killed. Five young men were detained and charged with murder; they allegedly said they killed to protect Islam.
    (AP, 4/18/07)(AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 24, Turkey's foreign minister Abdullah Gul was named as the ruling party's candidate for the presidency, a decision that will maintain continuity in EU reforms but fails to resolve a fight between the country's secular and Islamist camps.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 26, In Turkey an eight-story apartment building collapsed in Istanbul, and some people were reportedly buried under the debris.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 28, Turkey's Islamist-rooted government called the army to order, saying it is answerable to the civilian authority, after the military threatened action to defend the country's secular system.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        Apr 29, Some 700,000 Turks waving the red national flag flooded central Istanbul to demand the resignation of the government, saying the Islamic roots of Turkey's leaders threatened to destroy the country's modern foundations.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

2007        Apr 30, The Turkish stock market plunged, reacting sharply to political tensions as the Islamic-rooted government comes under strong pressure from secular circles to call parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, The presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan, a meeting arranged by Turkish leaders, agreed to share intelligence on extremist groups to bolster efforts to deny sanctuary, training and financing to terrorists in both countries. Hundreds of British troops swept into the lush poppy fields of southern Afghanistan, drawing hostile fire at the start of a NATO operation to expel the Taliban from a valley stronghold.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        May 1, Turkish police charged into crowds of leftist protesters marking the anniversary of a deadly May Day rally in Istanbul, spraying tear gas and kicking and clubbing demonstrators as they fled.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 2, The US and EU warned Turkey's military to stay out of the country's political showdown between the Islamic-rooted government and those in the secular establishment who fear the country will shift toward Islamic rule.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, Turkish lawmakers moved up elections to July 22, after the Islamic-rooted ruling party and its secular opposition agreed that an early ballot was the only way out of their standoff over political Islam.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 5, Tens of thousands of secularist flag-waving Turks rallied for the third big anti-government protest in a month as conflict rages over the role of religion in the Muslim country's politics.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 6, Turkey’s Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul withdrew his candidacy for presidential elections after Parliament failed for the second time to vote him into office.
    (AP, 5/6/07)

2007        May 7, Turkey's Islamic-rooted government, whose presidential candidate dropped his bid in the face of protests from pro-secular lawmakers, pushed for a constitutional amendment that allows the president to be elected in a popular vote rather than in a parliamentary poll.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 10, Turkey's parliament approved a major constitutional amendment to allow the president to be elected directly by voters, a move that could fan fresh tensions between the Islamist-rooted government and secularists.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 12, In the Turkish port city of Izmir a bicycle bomb exploded in a market, killing one and injuring 14 people on the eve of a planned mass anti-government rally.
    (Reuters, 5/12/07)

2007        May 13, Hundreds of thousands of Turks streamed into this port city of Izmir in an enormous show of opposition to the pro-Islamic ruling party, saying it threatened to destroy the country's modern foundations.
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 20, Thousands of flag-waving Turks demonstrated in the Black Sea port city of Samsun against the Islamic-rooted government, which they fear is undermining Turkey's secular system.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 22, Guven Akkus (28), a suicide bomber, carried out an attack that killed six people and injured dozens in Ankara, using methods similar to those of a Kurdish rebel group. Akkus had spent two years in prison for hanging illegal posters and resisting police.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 25, Turkey's president vetoed a newly passed constitutional amendment that would have allowed the people, and not Parliament, to elect the new president.
    (AP, 5/26/07)
2007        May 25, Kurdish guerrillas bombed and derailed a Syria-bound train from Iran near the town of Genc in Turkey’s southeastern Bingol province. Turkish authorities later seized weapons hidden among construction materials found on the train following the attack.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        May 26, In Turkey thousands of flag-waving protesters filled streets in Denizli, accusing the government of trying to impose Islamic values on the country's Western way of life.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 27, Floods in eastern Turkey killed 10 people including six children aged between 18 months and 12.
    (AFP, 5/28/07)

2007        May 28, Officials said heavy storms, landslides, flash floods and lightning have killed at least 23 people in Europe and Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/28/07)

2007        May 30, Turkish police captured 11 suspected al-Qaida militants who allegedly were planning to stage terrorist attacks in Istanbul.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        May 31, Turkish lawmakers approved again a constitutional amendment that would see the president elected by popular vote, a change vetoed last week by the outgoing head of state. Turkey's top general said the military was ready to stage a cross-border offensive to fight Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq and that he already had sought government approval to mount military action.
    (AFP, 5/31/07)(AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 1, In southeast Turkey soldiers killed two Kurdish militants overnight in Tunceli, where troops massed along the border threatened an incursion into Iraq.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 3, Turkish troops shelled a border area in northern Iraq in an attack on Kurdish rebels based there.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, Seven Turkish paramilitary police were killed when Kurdish militants attacked their headquarters in eastern Tunceli province.
    (AP, 6/4/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 6, A premature report said several thousand Turkish troops had crossed into northern Iraq to chase Kurdish guerrillas who operate from bases there. Turkey declared several areas near the border with Iraq to be "temporary security zones" in a sign of increasing activity by the military in its campaign against Kurdish rebels. Turkey's foreign minister denied there was a cross-border operation.
    (AP, 6/6/07)(AP, 6/7/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 7, The roadside bomb targeted a Turkish military vehicle near Siirt, a city 45 miles north of the Iraq border. It killed four soldiers and wounded five other security personnel, including pro-government village guards.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 10, A small bomb exploded outside a clothing shop in Istanbul, injuring 14 people and shattering nearby windows.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 11, In Ankara, Turkey, funerals for three soldiers killed in a roadside bombing by Kurdish rebels turned into anti-government protests as thousands of mourners called on leaders to resign over their failure to rein in the violence.
    (AP, 6/11/07)

2007        Jun 12, Kurdish separatist rebels declared a "unilateral cease-fire" in attacks against Turkey and said they were ready for peace negotiations, but the group maintained the right to defend itself.
    (AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 13, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish guerrillas killed a Turkish army major and injured two other soldiers in a roadside bomb attack.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 23, In Turkey a separatist Kurdish rebel and a civilian were killed in a botched suicide attack in the eastern province of Tunceli. Paramilitary troops opened fire on the truck as it was approaching a military outpost at which point the vehicle exploded. Fighting elsewhere left five rebels and a government militia member dead.
    (AFP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun 27, Gen. Yasar Buyukanit, Turkey's military chief, asked his government to set political guidelines for an incursion into northern Iraq to fight Kurdish guerrillas.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 6, Turkey's foreign minister said his government and military have agreed on plans for a possible cross-border operation against Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 11, Turkey's ambassador to Washington said that US weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2007        Jul 22, Turks voted for a new Parliament in a contest viewed as pivotal in determining the balance between Islam and secularism in this nation of more than 70 million. The Islamic-rooted ruling party won parliamentary elections by a wide margin. The Justice and Development (AK) party won 47% of the vote. AK secured 341 of 550 seats in the parliament. Deniz Baykal’s  pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP) won 21%. Sebahat Tuncel (32) walked out of jail after she was elected to parliament along with 18 fellow members of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.51)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.45)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.60)

2007        Jul 26, Turkish police arrested Maksym Yastremskiy (24), a Ukrainian data-theft suspect. The US Secret Service had been investigating him since 2004. Losses to US individuals from identity theft thieves, online and offline, totaled $49 billion in 2006.
    (WSJ, 8/10/07, p.A6)

2007        Aug 5, An official said Turkey's secular military expelled 10 officers for being "reactionary," a euphemism for Islamist activities, along with 13 others accused of lack of discipline.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

2007        Aug 7, Kurdish guerrillas killed a Turkish lieutenant in the southeast, as the Iraqi prime minister arrived for a visit. Turkey and Iraq agreed to try to root out a Kurdish rebel group from northern Iraq, but Iraq's prime minister said his parliament would have the final say on efforts to halt the guerrillas' cross-border attacks into Turkey. Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdish government approved a regional oil law, paving the way for foreign investment in their northern oil and gas fields even as similar US-backed legislation for the entire country remained stalled. Two US Marines died west of Baghdad, one in fighting and the other in a non-combat incident that was under investigation.
    (AP, 8/7/07)(AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 12, In southeast Turkey 12 were injured, three of them seriously, when Kurdish guerrillas detonated a roadside bomb.
    (AP, 8/12/07)

2007        Aug 14, Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul, a former Islamist, filed his candidacy for president, risking a fresh government showdown with army-backed secularist forces.
    (AP, 8/14/07)

2007        Aug 18, Two men hijacked a Turkish passenger plane from Cyprus bound for Istanbul, holding several people hostage for more than four hours before surrendering.
    (AP, 8/18/07)

2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul won most votes in the first round of a presidential election, but did not secure the two-thirds majority needed in parliament for an outright win.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Festus Okey (21), a Nigerian immigrant, was shot and killed while in police custody.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(http://www.hyd.org.tr/?pid=515)

2007        Aug 24, Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul failed to win enough votes in the second round of a presidential election, but is expected to clinch the post next week. A clash between troops and Kurdish rebels near Turkey's southeast border with Iraq left 10 rebels and two soldiers dead.
    (Reuters, 8/24/07)(AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 28, Turkey’s Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul (56), a devout Muslim with a background in political Islam, won the presidency, in a major triumph for the Islamic-rooted government after months of confrontation with the secular establishment.
    (AP, 8/28/07)

2007        Aug 30, Turkish legislators said that American weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/31/07, p.A17)

2007        Aug 31, Turkey's PM Erdogan laid out a policy vision for the next five years that focuses on pursuing EU membership and defending the state's secular and democratic principles.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Aug, Iran and Turkey concluded a number of energy deals including the establishment of a joint company to carry Iranian natural gas via Turkey to Europe and the construction of three thermal power plants by Turkish companies in Iran.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.49)

2007        Sep 11, Turkish authorities thwarted a bombing, possibly timed to coincide with the sixth anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, as police found and defused more than 600 pounds of explosives in a minibus parked near an Ankara market.
    (AP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 12, Turkish troops killed 4 Kurdish guerrillas in the southeastern province of Siirt.
    (AP, 9/12/07)   

2007        Sep 19, Turkey's devout Muslim PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that the constitution should be changed to remove a ban at universities on head scarves, the most potent symbol of the national divide over the role of religion in politics.
    (AP, 9/19/07)

2007        Sep 26, Officials said Turkey and Iraq have agreed to sign a counterterrorism deal cracking down on separatist Kurdish rebels holed up in bases in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 28, Turkey and Iraq signed a counterterrorism pact aimed at cracking down on separatist Kurdish rebels who have been attacking Turkey from bases in Iraq.
    (AP, 9/28/07)

2007        Sep 29, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels ambushed a minibus carrying pro-government village guards and civilians and killed 12 people.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

2007        Oct 7, Kurdish rebels killed 13 Turkish soldiers in a clash in the country's southeast, and troops responded by shelling an area near Iraq to try to stop the rebels from escaping across the border.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 9, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan gave the green light for a possible military incursion into northern Iraq to crush Kurdish rebels hiding there after several deadly attacks on Turkish security forces.
    (Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 10, It was reported that Turkey had begun shelling suspected Kurdish rebel camps across the border in northern Iraq. The government appeared unlikely to move toward sending ground troops until next week.
    (AP, 10/10/07)
2007        Oct 10, The US House Foreign Affairs Committee voted 27-21 to label as genocide the deaths of Armenians a century ago at the end of the Ottoman Empire. The Bush administration planned to pressure Democratic leaders not to schedule a vote, though it is expected to pass.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 11, Turkey swiftly condemned a US House panel's approval of a bill describing the World War I-era mass killings of Armenians as genocide, and newspapers blasted the measure on their front pages. Turkey also recalled its ambassador to Washington and warned of serious repercussions if Congress labels the killing of Armenians by Turks a century ago as genocide.
    (AP, 10/11/07)(AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Oct 17, Turkey’s Parliament gave the government a one-year window in which to launch cross-border offensives against Turkish Kurd rebels who've been conducting raids into Turkey. The vote removed the last legal obstacle to an offensive.
    (AP, 10/18/07)(AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 17,     Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, on a visit to Turkey, said that Damascus would back a possible Turkish incursion into northern Iraq to crack down "against terrorist activities" there.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 18, Thousands of Kurds and supporters took to the streets in northern Iraq to protest the Turkish parliament's decision to authorize the government to send troops across the border to root out Kurdish rebels who have been conducting raids into Turkey.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21, Kurdish rebels ambushed a Turkish military convoy less than three miles from the Iraqi border, killing 12 soldiers with 8 missing. The rebels said they are holding them hostage. Turkey shelled the border region in response to the attack, and Iraqi President Jalal Talabani, himself a Kurd, ordered the rebels to lay down their arms or leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/21/07)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 23,     Turkey's foreign minister rejected any cease-fire by Kurdish rebels as he met with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad to press them to crack down on the guerrillas. Turkish forces massed on the border and tensions rose over a threatened military incursion.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24, Turkish warplanes and helicopter gunships reportedly attacked positions of Kurdish rebels just inside Turkey along the border with Iraq, as Turkey's military stepped up its anti-rebel operations. Masoud Barzani, president of Iraq’s Kurdish region, called on the PKK to end its violence in Turkey.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.61)
2007        Oct 24, Al-Sadr renewed his appeal to his followers to uphold the six-month cease-fire announced in August and threatened to expel those who do not. Nearly simultaneous bombs struck commuters in a predominantly Shiite area on the southeastern edge of Baghdad, killing at least nine people and wounding about two dozen.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(AP, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 26, A high-level Iraqi delegation held talks with Turkish officials to try to defuse tensions over Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq. Turkish helicopters and fighter jets pounded Kurdish rebel positions as diplomatic efforts began in Ankara.
    (AP, 10/26/07)(Reuters, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 28, Turkish troops killed some 20 Kurdish guerrillas in fighting in eastern Tunceli province. Turkey's PM Erdogan called for unity between Turks and Kurds against the rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/28/07)(AP, 10/29/07)(WSJ, 10/29/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 29, Turkey's state-run news said soldiers battled separatist Kurdish rebels across southeast Turkey, trapping about 100 in caves near the Iraqi border after blocking escape routes across the frontier. Helicopter gunships bombed Kurdish rebel positions in southeast Turkey and the government flexed its military muscle with big national day parades and flypasts in major cities.
    (AP, 10/29/07)(Reuters, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 30, Turkish Cobra attack helicopters blasted suspected Kurdish rebel targets near the southeastern border with Iraq in a second day of fighting in the area. PM Erdogan said an escalation of military action was unavoidable.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, The Turkish army said it killed 15 Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border, as ministers discussed possible economic sanctions against Iraq's autonomous Kurdish government.
    (AFP, 10/31/07)
2007        Oct 31,     The US acknowledged that it had undertaken military moves against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, including spy planes and providing Turkey with more intelligence.
    (WSJ, 11/1/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov 2, Iraqi police found only six bodies dumped in three Iraqi cities, and no reports of shootings or bombings. The prime minister of Iraq's northern Kurdish region condemned attacks by Kurdish rebel fighters inside Turkey and said he hopes a weekend summit in Istanbul will reduce the threat of Turkish military strikes inside Iraq.
    (AP, 11/2/07)(AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 3, Some 5,000 Turkish Kurds protested against a military incursion into Iraq, saying such a move would enflame ethnic tensions in the region and plunge the local economy into ruin. Iraq said it was ready to hunt down and arrest Kurdish guerrilla leaders responsible for cross-border raids into Turkey in an effort to avert a major incursion by the Turkish military.
    (AFP, 11/3/07)(Reuters, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Two carloads of gunman ambushed a top aide to Iraq's Finance Ministry in Baghdad, killing him and his driver. The two were among 15 people killed or found dead in Iraq. Kurdish rebels released eight Turkish soldiers in northern Iraq two weeks after they were captured in a deadly ambush that intensified pressure on the Turkish government to attack the guerrillas in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 9, Turkey's parliament approved a bill allowing for the construction of nuclear power plants in the country, despite opposition from environmental groups.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 13, Turkish helicopter gunships attacked abandoned villages inside Iraq, the first such airstrike since border tensions have escalated in recent months. Kurdish guerrillas killed four Turkish soldiers in a clash in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 11/13/07)
2007        Nov 13, Shimon Peres became the 1st Israeli president to address the parliament of a Muslim government when he spoke to Turkish deputies.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.60)

2007        Nov 16, Turkish authorities took steps to ban the country's leading pro-Kurdish political party and expel several of its lawmakers from parliament on charges of separatism.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 21, The presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey launched the construction of a railroad that will link ex-Soviet republics in the Caucasus and Central Asia with Europe, bypassing Russia.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 30, Turkey’s government authorized the military to launch a cross-border offensive against Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq at any time.
    (AP, 12/1/07)
2007        Nov 30, In southwest Turkey an Atlasjet plane crashed on a rocky mountain shortly before it was due to land, killing all 57 people on board.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 1, The Turkish military said it fired on 50 to 60 Kurdish rebels inside Iraqi territory, inflicting "significant losses." Turkish troops killed four Kurdish rebels in fighting near its border with Iraq.
    (AP, 12/1/07)(AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Dec 4, Greece and Turkey agreed to joint military measures aimed at easing tensions and improving ties.
    (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 5, Turkish soldiers killed eight Kurdish rebels, increasing the rebel death toll to 14 in a two-day clash near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 8, An overcrowded boat carrying at least some 85 illegal migrants sank off Turkey's Aegean coast and at least 43 died. The migrants were mostly Palestinians, Somalis and Iraqis.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 16, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets, marking an escalation of force against the outlawed separatist group. An Iraqi official said the planes attacked several villages, killing one woman. Turkey’s military later said up to 175 rebels were killed on this day. A Kurdish leader said the figure was exaggerated.
    (AP, 12/16/07)(AP, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 18, The Turkish army sent soldiers about 1.5 miles into northern Iraq in an overnight operation. A Turkish official said the troops seeking Kurdish rebels were still in Iraq by midmorning.
    (AP, 12/18/07)

2007        Dec 22, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the third confirmed cross-border offensive by Turkish forces in less than a week.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

2007        Dec 23, Turkish fighter jets bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 26, Turkish warplanes hit eight suspected Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq, the third cross-border air assault in 10 days. Troops killed 6 rebels near the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 12/26/07)(WSJ, 12/27/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 30, Turkmenistan turned off gas supplies to Iran, citing technical problems, after Iran balked at a price increase to $140 per thousand cubic meters, almost double the contracted rate. The move had a domino effect causing Iran to halt gas shipments to Turkey, which in turn cut off gas to Greece.
    (WSJ, 2/4/08, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/3xmzam)

2007        Graham Fuller authored “The New Turkish Republic: Turkey As a Pivotal State in the Muslim World.”
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.6)
2007         The Kurdish population in Turkey numbered about 14 million.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2008        Jan 3, Turkey’s Parliament approved a law extending a smoking ban in this tobacco-growing nation to all bars, restaurants and coffeehouses by mid-2009.
    (AP, 1/3/08)
2008        Jan 3, In Turkey a car bomb exploded in the Kurdish-dominated southeastern city of Diyarbakir, killing 6 people, including 5 students. 67 people were wounded, including military personnel.
    (AP, 1/3/08)(Reuters, 1/4/08)(AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 7, In Turkey an accused Kurdish rebel suspected of detonating a deadly car bomb last week in Diyarbakir was captured. Six other suspects also were detained.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 8, Pres. Bush met with Turkey’s Pres. Abdullah Gul to discuss US policy on Turkey's fight against Kurdish rebels. Bush prepared to leave later in the day on his first major trip to the Mideast to try to build momentum for peace.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 15, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the latest in a series of cross-border air strikes.
    (AFP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 16, Turkey's PM Erdogan challenged a ban on women wearing head scarves in universities and public offices, saying there is no need to wait for a constitutional change to remove the ban.
    (AP, 1/16/08)

2008        Jan 23, PM Costas Karamanlis became the first Greek premier to pay an official visit to Turkey in nearly 50 years, reflecting warmer ties between two countries that have come close to war several times.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Jan 24, Turkey's Islamist-rooted ruling AK Party and a key opposition party agreed to cooperate to lift a ban on the wearing of the Islamic headscarf in universities, a move sure to anger the secular elite.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 27, In central Turkey a passenger train derailed, killing at least nine people and injuring dozens of others, possibly due to ice on the tracks.
    (AP, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 31, In Turkey an explosion ripped through an unlicensed fireworks factory in an industrial section of Istanbul, killing 20 people and injuring 117.
    (AP, 1/31/08)

2008        Feb 2, In Turkey tens of thousands of secular Turks rallied against a plan by the government to allow women students to wear the Muslim headscarf at university, a move they say will usher in a stricter form of Islam.
    (Reuters, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 4, Turkey’s warplanes bombed some 70 Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 7, Turkey’s lawmakers voted to approve a constitutional amendment allowing female students to enter universities wearing Islamic head scarves, a move that many secular Turks view as an attempt to impose religion on their daily lives.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 9, Turkey’s parliament voted to amend the constitution to lift a decades-old ban on Islamic head scarves at Turkey's universities, despite fierce opposition from the secular establishment.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 15, In southeast Turkey hundreds of Kurdish protesters battled police, leaving a young demonstrator dead and dozens injured on the ninth anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Feb 21, Turkish troops launched a ground incursion across the border into Iraq in pursuit of separatist Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 2/22/08)

2008        Feb 23, Turkish troops pressed their offensive against Kurdish PKK guerrillas in northern Iraq, two days after crossing the mountainous border.
    (AP, 2/23/08)

2008        Feb 24, Turkey's military said that eight more soldiers were killed in combat during its cross-border ground operation in northern Iraq, raising the death toll to 15. Turkish troops and Kurdish PKK rebels fought close battles in northern Iraq that left scores dead on the fourth day of a major ground offensive Baghdad and Washington fear could further destabilize Iraq.
    (AP, 2/24/08)(Reuters, 2/24/08)

2008        Feb 25, Turkey's military said it had killed 41 more separatist Kurdish rebels in clashes in northern Iraq, raising the reported guerrilla death toll in a cross-border operation to 153.
    (AP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 26, The Iraqi government demanded for the first time that Turkey immediately withdraw from northern Iraq, warning it feared the ongoing incursion could lead to clashes with the official forces of the semiautonomous Kurdish region.
    (AP, 2/26/08)

2008        Feb 27, Turkey said the death toll for rebels reached 230 during the operation in northern Iraq that began last week. The death toll for soldiers stood at 24. Troops killed 77 Kurdish rebels in night-long clashes with 5 Turkish soldiers killed.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 29, Turkey's military said it has ended a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, but said that foreign influence did not play a role in its decision.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Feb, Turkey and Pakistan signed agreements to produce cluster bomb munitions.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)

2008        Mar 4, Officials said Turkey is ready to take part in a planned Mediterranean Union after winning assurances that it is not meant as a substitute for Ankara's eventual EU membership.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 6, A Kurdish demonstrator wounded a day earlier in clashes with police in eastern Turkey died of his injuries.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 6, About 700 Turkish school children were hospitalized for apparent food poisoning.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, Suspected Kurdish rebels killed a civilian and took another hostage in a southern Turkish province near the border with Syria.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 8, In Turkey Iraq's Pres. Jalal Talabani, on the 2nd day of his visit, said he wants a "strategic" partnership with Turkey, including getting the neighboring nation's businesses to invest in his oil-rich but war-torn country.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 12, Turkish troops killed 11 Kurdish rebels during clashes near the border with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 3/13/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 20, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Turkey unrest erupted when celebrations marking Newroz day, or the Kurdish new year, degenerated into demonstrations in favor of the armed separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which Ankara lists as a terrorist group.
    (AFP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 22, In Turkey dozens of people were injured and scores detained as police used truncheons and tear gas to break up violent Kurdish protests in several eastern cities.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, In southeast Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police for a 4th day. Two people have been killed In the clashes and dozens injured.
     (WSJ, 3/24/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 27, Turkey's armed forces killed 15 members of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in northern Iraq using long-range land weapons.
    (Reuters, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 28, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 31, Turkey's top court decided to put the Islamist-rooted ruling party on trial for alleged anti-secular activity, in a case that could threaten national stability and Ankara's bid to join the EU. Clashes between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels left nine rebels and three soldiers dead in Turkey's southeast.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 3, A group of about 200 Uighur Muslims demonstrated against China before the Olympic torch ceremony near Istanbul's Blue Mosque, one of Turkey's most famous tourist destinations.
    (AP, 4/3/08)

2008        Apr 12, Thousands of secularist Turks rallied in Ankara against the ruling AK Party, which is facing a high court challenge by a prosecutor who wants it shut down for alleged Islamist activities.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 12, Investigators in Turkey found the body of Giuseppina Pasqualino di Marineo (33), an Italian artist known as Pippa Bacca. She was last seen on March 31 hitchhiking in a wedding gown. She was on her way to Israel in a plea for peace. Police detained a man suspected of killing her. In June, 2009, Murat Karatas was sentenced to life in prison for her rape and murder.
    (AP, 4/12/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A4)

2008        Apr 16, Turkish warplanes hit a group of Kurdish rebels reportedly trying to infiltrate Turkey from the Avasin-Basyan region of northern Iraq. A clash between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels near Turkey's southeastern border with Iraq left a Turkish soldier dead.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 25, Turkish warplanes and artillery units struck Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq who were preparing to cross the border to carry out attacks. The strikes continued the next day.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        Apr 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan was in Syria in a bid to restart peace negotiations between Damascus and its Mideast foe, Israel.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        May 2, A rebel spokesman said Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel bases deep inside Iraq for three hours overnight. The Turkish military said the raid in northern Iraq killed more than 150 Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 5/2/08)(AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 9, In southeast Turkey a land mine explosion killed 3 people and injured 3 others. Air strikes launched in retaliation for a rebel raid killed 19 Kurdish fighters. Six soldiers died in the violence. The PKK denied the military's claims of 19 rebel deaths saying "not a single guerrilla was killed."
    (AP, 5/9/08)(AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 10, Turkish warplanes and artillery units destroyed key Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq, including a communications center, in a second day of raids on rebel positions.
    (AP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 12, Iraqi Kurdish officials said Turkish jets overnight struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets close to the border in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

2008        May 17, In eastern Turkey a clash between soldiers and Kurdish rebels left 6 rebels dead in Van province.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 19, In Turkey a law extending a smoking ban to most enclosed areas — including taxis, ferries and shopping malls — came into effect in the nicotine-addicted nation.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 22, Two Turkish soldiers were killed in an overnight clash with Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey. Troops killed two Kurdish rebels near the southeastern city of Sirnak.
    (AP, 5/22/08)(AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 23, In Turkey one rebel and one village guard were killed in a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 28, Turkey's state-run media said soldiers killed two Kurdish rebels during a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/28/08)

2008        May 29, Turkish warplanes attacked several Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq. No casualties were immediately reported. Air raids destroyed 16 Kurdish rebel facilities.
    (AP, 5/29/08)(AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 5, A Turkish TV station quoted a senior military commander as saying that Turkey and Iran have carried out coordinated strikes against Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 6, Turkey's ruling AK Party held an emergency meeting after the top court overturned a government-led reform which lifted a ban on Muslim headscarves at universities.
    (Reuters, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 15, Israeli officials said that indirect peace talks between Israel and Syria have resumed, with Turkish mediation.
    (AP, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 16, The Turkish military opened fire on 21 Kurdish PKK fighters trying to enter Turkey from northern Iraq. Most of them were "neutralized."
    (Reuters, 6/17/08)
2008        Jun 16, Officials said 2 days of peace talks in Turkey involving Israel and Syria had concluded and more talks were planned.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun, Turkey’s police arrested some 50 people said to be involved in Ergenekon, an ultra-nationalist gang bent on overthrowing the AKP government. Veli Kucuk, a retired general arrested last January, was alleged to be one of the ringleaders.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.34)(WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)

2008        Jul 8, In eastern Turkey Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped three German tourists on a climbing expedition. The Germans were released on July 20.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 9, In Istanbul, Turkey, men armed with pistols and shotguns attacked a police guard post outside the US consulate, sparking a gunbattle that left 3 attackers and 3 officers dead.
    (AP, 7/9/08)(Reuters, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 10, In Turkey authorities detained four suspects in connection with the July 9 attack on the US consulate in Istanbul which left 3 policemen and 3 assailants dead.
    (AP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, Iraq's Oil Ministry said that it is close to signing contracts to build two new oil refineries in southern Iraq. Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan became the first Turkish leader to visit Iraq in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 11, A Turkish news agency reported that army troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in the southeast and that 10 of the rebels were killed.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 14, In Turkey prosecutors indicted 86 secular Turks, including high-ranking ex-military officials, on terrorism charges for their alleged involvement in plots to topple the Islamic-rooted government. They were suspected of being part of Ergenekon, an ultra-nationalist gang bent on overthrowing the AKP government.
    (AP, 7/14/08)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.34)

2008        Jul 15, Turkey’s military said aircraft and artillery units had shelled rebel positions in Sirnak province, killing 22 rebels.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 16, Turkey’s military said 11 Kurdish rebels were killed in an ongoing operation in Hakkari province, near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 7/16/08)
2008        Jul 16, In Turkey Ahmet Yildiz, a gay Kurd, was allegedly killed by his father for besmirching the family honor. In 2011 the film “Zenne Dancer,” based on his story, won 5 awards at the Golden Orange Film Festival.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.64)(http://ahmetyildizismyfamily.blogspot.com/)

2008        Jul 18, In southeastern Turkey 10 members of the separatist Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) were killed in clashes with Turkish military forces.
    (Reuters, 7/19/08)

2008        Jul 23, Turkish warplanes bombed 13 Kurdish rebel targets in the Zab region of northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 27, In Istanbul, Turkey, bomb blasts killed 17 people in a crowded square in the residential neighborhood of Gungoren. 5 of the dead were children. Turkish warplanes bombed 12 Kurdish rebel targets on Mount Qandil in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/28/08)(AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Jul 29, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in Iraq's north, killing a group of guerrillas gathered at a mountain cave.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

2008        Jul 30, Turkey’s high court narrowly voted against disbanding the ruling Justice and Development Party, but cut off millions of dollars in state aid to the Islamic-oriented party.
    (SFC, 7/31/08, p.A12)

2008        Jul 31, Turkey’s Deputy PM Cemil Cicek signaled the government would not push for a fresh round of legislation to lift the head scarf ban.
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 1, In central Turkey a three-story girls dormitory collapsed, killing at least 18 students and setting off a search for a half dozen people believed to be under the rubble in Balcilar. A gas leak from kitchen pipes caused the powerful explosion, leaving another 27 people injured. 3 dormitory administrators were charged on August 3 with "causing death through negligence."
    (AP, 8/1/08)(AP, 8/2/08)(AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 5, In Turkey an oil pipeline that has allowed the West to tap the rich fields of Azerbaijan, bypassing Iran and Russia, was set on fire. A Kurdish rebel organization later admitted sabotaging the pipeline.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 7, In Turkey a series of explosions at a municipal government building in Istanbul slightly injured three people. Shells from a mortar-like mechanism were fired from a cemetery near a municipal government building.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 8, In Turkey Mehmet Dursun Uygurturkoglu (35) doused himself with gasoline and set himself alight during a protest by ethnic Uighurs outside the Chinese Embassy. Other demonstrators jumped on the man and quickly extinguished the flames with a blanket.
    (AP, 8/8/08)

2008        Aug 11, A roadside bomb exploded in eastern Turkey, killing nine soldiers who were on their way back from an operation against Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 18, Heads of state and other dignitaries from African countries and Turkey started an economic cooperation summit in Istanbul.
    (AP, 8/18/08)

2008        Aug 19, Turkey's President Abdullah Gul urged Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir, during talks at a summit of African leaders, to act responsibly and to end the suffering in the devastated Darfur region. A suicide bombing wounded 13 policemen outside the southern city of Mersin.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Aug 20, In Turkey Sudan's indicted president denied that his regime is orchestrating genocide in the troubled western region of Darfur, and offered hope for an end to the violence and the dawn of reconciliation by promising free and fair elections next year.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Sep 4, Syrian President Bashar Assad announced that his country has handed over proposals for peace with Israel to Turkish mediators and would wait for Israel's response before holding any face-to-face negotiations.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 6, Thousands of Armenians lined the streets of the Yerevan to protest the first-ever visit by a Turkish leader and to demand that Turkey acknowledge the World War I massacres of Armenian civilians as genocide.
    (www.interfax.com/3/425662/news.aspx)

2008        Sep 10, Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat said he accepts a reduction of Turkey's military contingent but that his side will still need security guarantees from Ankara as part of a deal to unite the divided island.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 14, A Turkish ferry carrying some 100 people sank in the Sea of Marmara, killing at least one person. At least 23 more were missing.
    (AP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 17, A German court convicted 3 Turkish men of siphoning $25 million from the Deniz Feneri charity, which raised fund to ostensibly help needy Muslims.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.69)

2008        Sep 21, In western Turkey 13 newborn, premature babies died over the weekend at Izmir's Tepecik hospital. In August, investigators looking into the deaths of 27 newborns at an Ankara hospital concluded that a staff shortage had increased the risk of infection. Tainted IV treatment was later suspected.
    (AP, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/27/08)

2008        Sep 25, Turkish warplanes bombarded Kurdish rebel territory in northern Iraq, damaging a school and wounding three people.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Oct 3, Fighting between Kurdish rebels and Turkey's army and air force in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq killed 15 soldiers and at least 23 insurgents, in the deadliest battle between the longtime enemies this year.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

2008        Oct 5, In western Turkey a truck packed with illegal immigrants from Afghanistan and Myanmar overturned, killing 18 people and injuring 23.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 6, Turkish warplanes bombed a Kurdish rebel hideout in northern Iraq, the third air strike in retaliation for an attack that killed 15 soldiers three days ago.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and southeast Turkey, in new air strikes responding to an attack that killed 17 soldiers at a military outpost four days ago.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, In Turkey rebels ambushed a police bus, killing four policemen and the driver in the Kurdish-dominated city of Diyarbakir, further escalating tensions.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 11, Turkish warplanes and artillery bombed dozens of Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq following an escalation in rebel attacks. Engin Ceber (29), a left-wing activist, was tortured and beaten to death in an Istanbul prison.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.61)(http://erkansaka.net/blog2/2008/10/engin_ceber.html)

2008        Oct 15, Turkish media reported that a hijacker attempted to commandeer a Turkish Airlines plane over Belarus but that he was overpowered by passengers.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Turkish military clashed with Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border in battles in which four soldiers and five rebels were killed. A Turkish helicopter crashed during the clash. A soldier was killed and 15 security personnel were slightly injured in the crash.
    (AP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 17, Turkish warplanes carried out successful airstrikes inside Iraq on the main bases used by Kurdish rebels. The air strikes on Qandil Mountain killed 25 Kurdish rebels and wounded many more. Earlier in the day, the military said it intercepted Kurdish rebel radio chatter indicating that up to 35 guerrillas had been killed in clashes with troops earlier this week in southeastern Sirnak province.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 17, The UN added Japan, Austria, Turkey, Mexico and Uganda as members to the 10 non-permanent seats of the Security Council, replacing Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Oct 19, Turkish warplanes again bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts across the border in northern Iraq. The bombings targeted four towns near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 20, A Kurdish demonstrator died after a clash with police in eastern Turkey. Kurdish protesters staged demonstrations in many parts of Turkey over the weekend following allegations that Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan was mistreated in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 21, Turkish soldiers killed two Kurdish guerrillas during a clash near the village of Dallitepe in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 28, Turkey's warplanes and artillery struck Kurdish rebel targets inside northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Oct 29, Pirates hijacked the Turkish freighter MV Yasa Neslihan with a crew of 20 off the coast of Somalia. Pirates freed the Yasa Neslihan freighter on Dec 6 after paying a ransom.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/09)

2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden. The Karagol was released on Jan 12, 2009. 
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 1/13/09)

2008        Nov 19, Turkey’s central bank cuts its core overnight borrowing rate by .5% to 16.25%.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A15)

2008        Dec 5, The leaders of Pakistan and Afghanistan met for Turkish-sponsored talks aimed at reducing tensions over militant attacks along the countries' lawless border.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 7, A Kurdish rebel group declared a nine-day holiday cease-fire in their fight against Turkey, calling it a "first step toward peace."
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 15, A group of about 200 Turkish intellectuals issued an apology on the Internet for the World War I-era massacres of Armenians in Turkey.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 24, The prime ministers of Turkey and Iraq vowed to step up their cooperation in the fight against Turkish Kurdish rebels whose presence in northern Iraq has cast a shadow over relations.
    (AP, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 27, Turkey's parliament reduced the budget allocations of most ministries by up to 16 percent to cut overall spending as the country seeks a loan deal with the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 12/27/08)

2008        In Turkey working women were able to retire at age 43, and men at age 47. A newly adopted retirement age of 65 was set to become effective in 2048.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.50)
2008        Turkish hacker Ercan Findikoglu was taken into custody by the police after a four-year chase by the Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Bureau.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ndtypsf)

2009        Jan 4, Russia asked the EU to provide monitoring of Ukraine's gas transit system and charged Ukraine was stealing gas bound for Europe, as Kiev leveled its own charges. Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller said that the state-controlled company wanted $450 per 1,000 cubic meters, up from its last offer of $418. The reductions in gas supplies spread to the Czech Republic and Turkey.
    (AP, 1/4/09)(Reuters, 1/4/09)

2009        Jan 5, Turkey restored the citizenship of its most famous poet Monday in a symbolic step meant to show it was addressing criticism of its human rights record in hopes of joining the European Union. Turkey had stripped Nazim Hikmet of his nationality in 1951 at the height of the Cold War because of his communist views, branded him a traitor and imprisoned him for more than a decade. He died in exile in Moscow in 1963.
    (AP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 6, Turkey held a shipment bound for Venezuela from Iran saying it contains equipment that can make explosives.
    (WSJ, 1/7/09, p.A1)
2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, Turkey’s state news said police had detained about 40 people, including 3 retired generals, in a probe of an alleged plot to overthrow the Islamist-rooted AK Party government.
    (WSJ, 1/8/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 11, A Turkish court formally arrested 12 more people for ties to an alleged secularist plot by ultranationalists to bring down the Islamic-rooted government, bringing the total of people implicated in the case to more than 100.
    (AP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 19, In Turkey Abdulkarim Kirca committed suicide. He was found shot in the head in his apartment in Ankara, following allegations in the Turkish press that he had been involved in extra-judicial killings of Kurds.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)(www.journalistinturkey.com/date/2009/01/)

2009        Jan 22, Turkey’s police detained 39 more suspects in a new wave of arrests connected with Ergenekon, an alleged secularist plot to bring down the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 1/22/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)

2009        Jan 23, Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshiyar Zebari said Turkey, Iraq and the United States have agreed to set up a joint command center in northern Iraq to gather intelligence to fight Kurdish PKK rebels in the region.
    (Reuters, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 25, An avalanche slammed into a group of Turkish hikers on a trip to a remote mountain plateau, dragging them more than (1640 feet) 500 meters into a valley and fatally burying 10 of them.
    (AP, 1/25/09)

2009        Jan 29, At the economic forum in Davos, Switzerland, Israel’s Pres. Peres (85) traded accusations with Turkey’s PM Erdogan, who declared: “You kill people,” and criticized Israel’s blockade of Gaza. Erdogan stalked off stage after being cut short during the exchange.
    (SFC, 1/30/09, p.A4)(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 5, Turkey's parliament approved the Kyoto Protocol on cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The parliament voted 243-3 after the Cabinet signed the protocol.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 15, In Turkey police clashed with stone-throwing demonstrators across the country's predominantly Kurdish southeast during protests marking the 10th anniversary of a separatist rebel leader's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/09)

2009        Feb 22, In Turkey Aydin Dogan (72), chairman of Dogan Sirketler Grubu Holdings AS, a conglomerate that controls 7 newspapers, 28 magazines and 3 Turkish television channels as well as energy interests, accused PM Erdogan of seeking to muzzle criticism. Dogan was recently hit with a corporate tax bill of around $500 million. Most of the bill centered on the 2007 sale of a stake in Dogan to Germany’s Axel Springer AG. Dogan was forced to shrink his empire and dump some critics of pres. Erdogan before pressure on him ceased.
    (WSJ, 2/23/09, p.A9)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.62)

2009        Feb 24, A Kurdish politician spoke to lawmakers in Turkey's parliament in the Kurdish language, openly defying the law, to celebrate UNESCO world languages week. State-run television immediately cut off the live broadcast.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 25, A Turkish Airlines plane with 135 people aboard slammed into a muddy field while attempting to land at Amsterdam's main airport. Nine people were killed and more than 50 were injured, many in serious condition.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 5, The Israeli and Turkish foreign ministers met secretly on the sidelines of a NATO conference, the first high-level contact between the countries since friction erupted over Israel's recent offensive in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 10, Turkey indicted 56 more people on charges of plotting to topple the Islamic-rooted AK Party government. The 56 suspects, including 2 retired four-star generals, were formally indicted on March 25.
    (WSJ, 3/11/09, p.A11)(WSJ, 3/26/09, p.A8)

2009        Mar 12, Turkish warplanes carried out new bombing raids against Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq. The strike targeted hideouts of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in the Zap-Avashin region of the Kurdish-held autonomous north of Iraq.
    (AFP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 16, In Turkey a UN global forum on water opened in Istanbul. The UN said global demand for water is rising as access to safe drinking water remains inadequate in much of the developing world.
    (SFC, 3/17/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 19, Pirates off the coast of Somalia seized the St. Vincent-flagged Titan, with 24 crew members on board, including a Greek captain and 3 Greek crew members. A Turkish warship foiled a pirate attack on a Turkish commercial ship in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 23, Turkey's president began the first visit to Iraq by a Turkish head of state in more than 30 years, seeking to press Iraqi leaders to stop Kurdish rebels from launching cross-border attacks on Turkey. In northern Iraq a suicide bombing against a Kurdish funeral in Jalula killed 27 people. 8 people were killed in a bombing at a bus stop west of Baghdad. A suicide blast in Tel Afar killed police officer and wounded 8 people.
    (AP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/24/09)(SFC, 3/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 24, Kurdish rebels rejected calls by Iraq's president to stop fighting against Turkey and leave Iraqi territory as the visiting Turkish president stepped up pressure on the Baghdad government to act against the group.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Mar 25, In Turkey a helicopter crashed in the snow-covered mountains of southern Turkey. Muhsin Yazicioglu, leader of the small conservative Great Unity Party, was one of six people on board. Authorities the next day released a recording of an emergency call made after the crash by journalist Ismail Gunes, who said he thought he was the only survivor. Rescue workers found the wreckage on March 27. All 6 people aboard were found dead.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 29, Turks voted in local elections. PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's Islamic-oriented party emerged as the leading party in local elections, but saw a slide in its support compared with a landslide victory two years ago.
    (AP, 3/29/09)(AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 4, In Turkey several thousand leftists staged anti-U.S. and anti-NATO protests, with shouts of "Yankee Go Home!" the day before President Barack Obama's visit.
    (AP, 4/4/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Turkey Pres. Obama, making his first visit to a Muslim nation as president, declared that the United States "is not and will never be at war with Islam."
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 7, In Turkey Pres. Obama wrapped up his first European trip as president with a request of the world: Look past his nation's stereotypes and flaws. "You will find a partner and a supporter and a friend in the United States of America."
    (AP, 4/7/09)

2009        Apr 11, Turkey’s agriculture ministry said 11 people have died in Turkey over the past three weeks, including three young Germans, after drinking bootleg spirits.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 16, Turkey’s central bank cut is interest rate to 9.75% from 10.5% in a bid to combat a record surge in unemployment.
    (WSJ, 4/17/09, p.A8)

2009        Apr 18, In Turkey thousands of people marched to the mausoleum of the country’s secular founder to protest the arrests of university professors and other secularists accused of involvement in an alleged plot to topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 4/18/09)
2009        Apr 18, About 140 migrants remained stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship for a third day as Malta and Italy argued about which country should accept them.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 19, Italy agreed to accept 140 migrants stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship that rescued them in the Mediterranean, ending a four-day standoff with Malta about who would take them in.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, Turkish anti-terror police detained 37 suspects accused of links to the al-Qaida terror network.
    (AP, 4/21/09)(WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A10)

2009        Apr 22, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said Turkey and Armenia have agreed on a roadmap for normalizing relations and reaching reconciliation, but it wasn't immediately clear how they would tackle their bitter dispute over Ottoman-era killings of ethnic Armenians.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 27, In Turkey a five-hour police shootout with a leftist militant in Istanbul left three people dead, including the militant described as a top member of a group tied to the Kurdish separatist PKK. The militant was identified as Orhan Yilmazkaya, one of three top members of the Revolutionary Headquarters.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 29, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels detonated a roadside bomb that killed nine soldiers in a US-made armored personnel carrier.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, Turkey's military said its warplanes struck Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 1, May Day protesters clashed with riot police in Germany, Turkey and Greece, while thousands angry at the government's responses to the global financial crisis took to the streets in France. Riot police battled 700 stone-throwing left-wing militants in Berlin for more than five hours in May Day clashes that stretched into early pre-dawn hours.
    (Reuters, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 4, In Turkey masked assailants with automatic weapons attacked an engagement celebration in the village of Bilge, near the city of Mardin, fatally shooting 44 people.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 5, Turkish security forces detained 8 gunmen suspected of fatally shooting 44 people at an engagement ceremony in the southeastern village of Bilge. PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said "the result of a feud between two families" had led to the deaths of six children, 17 women and 21 men.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 18, A Turkish court ruled that President Abdullah Gul should stand trial for a fraud case dating back to the late 1990s, when the Welfare Party, a predecessor to the AK Party, was accused of misappropriating funds from the Treasury. A court of appeals will have the final say on the case.
    (Reuters, 5/18/09)

2009        May 26, A fire at a western Turkish hospital killed eight patients in an intensive care unit.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq, hours after a land mine blast on the Turkish side of the border killed six soldiers.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 12, In Turkey the liberal Taraf newspaper published a copy of “Plan to Combat Islamic Fundamentalism,” an alleged military plan hatched last April to overthrow the AK party and to incriminate Turkey’s largest Islamist brotherhood, led by Fetullah Gulen. It was signed by Dursun Cicek, a colonel serving in the army’s psychological warfare unit.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.56)

2009        Jun 13, A Turkish soldier and a Kurdish rebel were killed in fighting in the southeast of Turkey near the border with Iraq.
    (AFP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 26, Turkey's parliament passed legislation aimed at meeting European Union membership criteria to ensure military personnel are tried in civilian courts during peacetime rather than in military courts.
    (Reuters, 6/27/09)

2009        Jun 30, In Turkey a civilian prosecutor charged and briefly arrested Col. Dursun Cicek for his alleged involvement in a plan to overthrow the AK party. The army ordered an investigation but declared the colonel innocent.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.49)

2009        Jul 8, Somali pirates seized a Turkish ship with 23 crew and were being shadowed by a Turkish warship in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates first surrounded the Horizon-1 in speed boats and then boarded the ship, which was carrying sulfate from Saudi Arabia to Jordan.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Jul 19, In Turkey patrons of a usually smoke-filled hookah bar stepped outside to light up as a ban on indoor public smoking extended to bars, restaurants and coffeehouses.
    (AP, 7/19/09)

2009        Jul 21, In Turkey a father and two sons allegedly opened fire in the eastern village in Elazig province, killing six people and wounding seven others. They were soon captured.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 24, Turkish commandos captured five pirates in the Gulf of Aden as part of an international mission to curb piracy off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 29, Turkey's government said it is prepared to grant more rights to the nation's Kurds in an effort to end the 25-year insurgency by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 31, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast. Turkish commandos had captured five other pirates in a similar operation in the Gulf of Aden a week ago.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 6, Russia’s PM Putin and his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, signed an agreements in Ankara that included the construction of part of the South Stream gas pipeline through the Black Sea.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 25, Turkey's military indicated that it would back government efforts to grant more rights to Kurds and improve the economy of their region. The military, however, drew the line at moves that would involve negotiating with Kurdish rebels, harm Turkey's unity or make Kurdish an official language.
    (AP, 8/25/09)
2009        Aug 25, An international forum in Turkey sought to boost aid and investment in Pakistan as a way to support its democratic institutions and curb violence there.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 27, A Turkish train collided with a construction vehicle during a journey from Ankara to Istanbul, derailing several carriages and leaving many people injured.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

2009        Aug 28, NATO’s Sec. Gen. Fogh Rasmussen ended a 2-day visit to Turkey where he got a commitment for more Turkish troops to work on reconstruction projects in Afghanistan.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.57)(www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=107181)
2009        Aug 28, Mehdi-Muhammed Ghezali, a Swedish national and former Guantanamo detainee, was arrested on the outskirts of Dera Ghazi Khan in southern Pakistani town along with a group of foreigners, including 7 Turks and 3 other Swedes, who lacked proper immigration stamps. They were allegedly trying to join al-Qaida in the lawless tribal areas.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Aug 31, A Georgian court sentenced a Turkish cargo ship captain to 24 years in prison for smuggling and border violations.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 3, A water rights battle over the historic Tigris and Euphrates rivers simmered, as Iraq and Syria appealed for increased water flows to cope with severe drought but Turkey said it was already too overstretched.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 7, Turkish military police stormed an Istanbul villa to rescue nine captive women whose scantily clad images were posted online after they were recruited for a television reality show. The women had been held captive for about two months. About 14 people had been working on the show for the Istanbul Grup Bilisim Electronic, Trade, Communication and Advertisement company.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 8, The Turkish conglomerate, Dogan Yayin, was slapped with a 3.75 lira ($2.5 billion) fine for allegedly evading taxes in the transfer of assets from one of its companies to another. This followed a $609 million fine levied in February against Aydin Dogan’s conglomerate.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mkkebw)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.72)
2009        Sep 8, In northwestern Turkey flash floods triggered by torrential rains killed six people and left swaths of lands awash. At least three people were reported missing.
    (AP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 9, In Turkey flash floods roared across a major highway and a commercial district in Istanbul, killing at least 32 people and forcing dozens to scramble onto the roofs of cars and trucks. Some of the dead drowned inside their vehicles.
    (Reuters, 9/9/09)(AFP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 15, In Turkey security talks failed over Syria's refusal to extradite some suspects accused of deadly bombings in Baghdad. Senior Iraqi and Syrian diplomats attended the talks.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 16, Syrian President Bashar Assad met with Turkey's PM Erdogan in Istanbul to discuss ways to revive the stalled peace process between Syria and Israel, a day after security talks with Iraq collapsed.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 18, Turkey's military said it was planning to spend close to $1 billion (euro680 million) for its first long-range missile defense system.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 23, In Turkey heavy rains in the northeast triggered floods and a landslide that killed 4 people. One person was reported missing.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 26, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 9/26/09)

2009        Sep, Turkey banned MySpace, an Internet-based social networking site.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.67)

2009        Oct 6, Turkish police used water cannons, tear gas and pepper spray to disperse hundreds of demonstrators protesting against the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank held in Istanbul.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2009        Oct 7, In Turkey protesters hurled firebombs at banks and police and smashed shop windows in a second day of protests against the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 10, Armenia and Turkey signed a deal in Switzerland to establish diplomatic ties ending a century of enmity. To take effect, the agreements must be ratified by the Turkish and Armenian parliaments, but it faced stiff opposition in both countries.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 11, Turkish PM Erdogan called on Armenia to withdraw from the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, saying that a deal to establish diplomatic ties, signed a day earlier, cannot come into force until that happens.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 14, Armenian President Serzh Sarkisian arrived in Turkey to attend a World Cup football game as the two nations pressed ahead with painstaking efforts to overcome a bloody history.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 14, Israel's foreign minister has ordered ministry officials to summon Turkey's ambassador in Israel and protest to him over a Turkish TV series that reportedly portrays Israeli soldiers murdering children.
    (AP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 15, Turkish police detained over 30 suspects allegedly linked to Al-Qaida, saying they were planning to stage attacks on NATO facilities as well as US and Israeli missions.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.A2)
2009        Oct 15, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki warned Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to stop conducting military operations across Iraq's northern border targeting Kurdish rebels and stressed that Iraq's sovereignty can not be violated. The two met in Baghdad and were to sign agreements boosting economic ties between their countries. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi army patrol in Baghdad, killing one Iraqi soldier.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 19, In Turkey tens of thousands of Kurds flocked to the Iraqi border to greet 34 PKK fighters and their sympathizers, who gave themselves up following a call by PM Erdogan to return home.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct 20, Turkish prosecutors sought charges against 5 Kurdish rebels who surrendered in a peace gesture, raising questions about whether thousands of other guerrillas can be persuaded to end their decades-long fight. The 5 were later released on the orders of a judge.
    (AP, 10/20/09)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct, Turkish ministers traveled to Baghdad and Damascus to sign a package of 48 co-operation deals with Iraq and 40 with Syria, covering everything from tourism to counter-terrorism and joint military exercises.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.57)

2009        Nov 6, Turkey rebuffed an EU call to reconsider its decision to allow Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir, who is accused of war crimes in Darfur, to attend a summit in Istanbul. Turkey has not signed the Rome Statute which set up the ICC and has said previously the ICC arrest warrant for Beshir could hurt moves to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 8, Turkey said that Sudan's internationally indicted leader, President Omar al-Bashir, will not attend the Nov 9 Istanbul summit of the 57-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference.
    (AP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 13, Turkey's government announced new measures aimed at reconciling with minority Kurds and ending a 25-year-old insurgency, but there was no mention of the sweeping amnesty sought by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 11/13/09)

2009        Dec 1, Turkey's government approved a plan to open the country's first Kurdish-language department at a university as part of its efforts to reconcile with the Kurdish minority. Small scale violence continued for the third day in a row as stone-throwing Kurdish militants clashed with police across the nation in the wake of last week's anniversary of the 1978 founding of the PKK rebel group.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 2, Turkish diplomat Ahmet Uzumcu was elected to be director of the 188-nation Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, based in The Hague. He takes over next July. He said that he will pursue the last seven holdouts (Angola, Egypt, Israel, North Korean, Myanmar, Somalia and Syria) to get them to sign a disarmament treaty and submit weapons stockpiles for inspection.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 7, In Turkey a Kurdish rebel group, acting on its own initiative, carried out an assault in the central city of Tokat killing 7 Turkish soldiers. 3 soldiers were also wounded in the rebel ambush on a military vehicle.
    (AP, 12/10/09)
2009        Dec 7, Pres. Obama met with Turkey’s PM Recep Erdogan, who stressed the role of diplomacy in persuading Iran to give up its nuclear ambitions. Erdogan made clear his unwillingness to back new coercion and said he was willing to mediate negotiations.
    (SFC, 12/8/09, p.A9)

2009        Dec 10, In Turkey an explosion caused the collapse of an underground chamber of a coal mine, killing 19 workers in western Bursa province.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 12, In Turkey angry Kurds battled Turkish police with rocks and firebombs to protest a decision by the country's top court to shut down a pro-Kurdish political party on charges of ties to militants.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 13, Turkish nationalists and Kurdish activists clashed in Istanbul, leaving at least one person injured from a gunshot during street battles.
    (AFP, 12/13/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Turkey two Kurds were killed in Bulanik after a shop-keeper fired on protesters.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.91)

2009        Dec 24, Turkish police detained 31 people, including eight Kurdish mayors, in a sweeping dawn operation targeting Kurdish separatists.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Dec 26, Turkey's military arrested eight of its officers in connection with an alleged plot to assassinate Bulent Arinc, the country's deputy prime minister.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yhgzlkp)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.38)

2009        Dilip Hiro authored “Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Iran.”
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.98)
2009        Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk, 2006 Nobel literature prize winner, authored his 8th novel: “The Museum of Innocence.
    (AP, 10/12/06)
2009        The Turkish lira replaced the New Turkish lira, in use since 2005. The exchange of New Turkish lira for Turkish lira would continue at the Central Bank thru 2019.
    (SSFC, 3/27/11, p.M3)

2010        Jan 3, In northwestern Turkey a passenger train crashed head-on into another train, killing one of the engine drivers and injuring 14 other people.
    (AP, 1/3/10)

2010        Jan 17, Israel's Defence Minister Ehud Barak began a one-day visit to Turkey. Israel and Turkey said they had smoothed over differences following a diplomatic spat and were working to develop relations and further military projects.
    (AFP, 1/17/10)(AP, 1/17/10)

2010        Jan 18, Mehmet Ali Agca (52), the Turk who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, was released from prison after more than 29 years behind bars. Doctors at military hospital concluded that he was unfit for compulsory military service because of "severe anti-social personality disorder as Agca proclaimed that he was a messenger of God and that the world will end in this century.
    (AP, 1/18/10)
2010        Jan 18, The OSCE, Europe's main security and human rights watchdog, said that Turkey was blocking some 3,700 Internet sites for "arbitrary and political reasons" and urged reforms to show its commitment to freedom of expression.
    (Reuters, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 20, In Turkey the independent Taraf newspaper exposed an alleged military plan, codenamed “Sledgehammer,” which sought to create chaos and panic to justify a military takeover of the government.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/yhwj9sb)

2010        Jan 21, In Turkey a July, 2009, constitutional amendment paving the way for military officers to be tried in civilian courts was struck down by the constitutional court.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/ybprno6)

2010        Jan 22, Turkish police launched a nationwide crackdown on suspected militants linked to the al-Qaida terror network, rounding up 120 people in simultaneous pre-dawn raids.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Feb 4, Turkey’s government scrapped its controversial security and public order “Emsya”) protocol, which allowed the army to take charge in the provinces when law and order breaks down.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.56)

2010        Feb 22, Turkish police detained more than 40 high-ranking military commanders for allegedly plotting to overthrow the Islamic-rooted government. The detentions followed the gathering of wiretap evidence and the discovery of secret weapons caches, revelations that dealt a blow to the military's credibility.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 23, In Turkey prosecutors interrogated 51 Turkish military commanders over alleged plans to destabilize the country by blowing up mosques to trigger a coup and topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Turkey 13 workers were killed after a methane gas explosion caused a coal mine collapse near Dursunbey, in  northwest Balikesir province.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 24, A Turkish court formally charged and jailed seven senior Turkish military officers for allegedly plotting years ago to overthrow the country's Islamic-leaning government.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan vowed to put everyone who conspired against the country's democracy on trial, as the number of military officers charged and jailed for allegedly plotting a 2003 coup against his Islamic-based government rose to 31.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 4, A US congressional panel voted to label as "genocide" the World War One-era massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turkish forces, prompting Turkey to recall its ambassador from Washington.
    (Reuters, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 8, In Turkey a 5.9 magnitude, pre-dawn earthquake struck near the village of Basyurt in the remote, sparsely populated area of eastern Elazig province. 51 people were killed as it knocked down stone and mud-brick houses and minarets in at least six villages.
    (AP, 3/8/10)(SFC, 3/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 11, Sweden's parliament narrowly approved a resolution recognizing the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey as genocide, prompting the Turkish government to recall its ambassador in protest.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 16, Pakistan and Iran signed a $7.6 billion deal in Turkey paving the way for the construction of a much-delayed pipeline pumping Iranian natural gas to the energy-starved South Asian country.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 19, Turkish authorities indicted 33 people in an alleged secularist plot to destabilize Turkey and overthrow the government. The suspects included three retired or active-duty admirals and dozens of other military officers.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 27, Iran used an ancient new year celebration to reach out to Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Turkey at a summit meeting that projected Iranian leadership in the strategic region straddling the Middle East and Central Asia.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 5, Turkish police detained 19 officers, including four generals, as part of an investigation into an alleged plot by elements of the fiercely secular military seeking to topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 8, Greece and Turkey agreed to strengthen contacts between their militaries to reduce the chance of conflict between two countries that almost went to war in the mid-1990s.
    (Reuters, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 18, Turkey's navy commandos aboard the TCG Gelibolu frigate captured 13 Somali-based pirates in the Indian Ocean. They destroyed two skiffs and confiscated other pirate material.
    (AP, 4/18/10)

2010        Apr 22, Armenia suspended ratification of peace accords with Turkey, setting back to square one US-backed efforts to bury a century of hostility between the neighbors.
    (Reuters, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 30, Kurdish rebels killed four Turkish soldiers and wounded seven others in eastern Turkey in the largest attack on troops in several months.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 7, The Turkish parliament narrowly approved a series of constitutional amendments that opposition parties say are designed to give the Islamic-rooted government leverage over the largely secular judiciary.
    (AP, 5/7/10)
2010        May 7, The Turkish air force struck Kurdish rebel hideouts in neighboring northern Iraq after an attack inside Turkey left two soldiers dead.
    (AFP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 8, Iran voiced optimism about Turkish and Brazilian mediation efforts in its nuclear dispute with the West, welcoming in principle ideas aimed at reviving a stalled fuel deal with major powers.
    (Reuters, 5/8/10)

2010        May 11, Volcanic ash from Iceland wound its way down to North Africa and curled over to Turkey, forcing authorities to shut down Casablanca airport in Morocco as well as airports in Spain and airspace over Turkey.
    (AP, 5/11/10)

2010        May 12, Turkey and Russia signed agreements for the construction of Turkey's first nuclear power plant and the development of a pipeline project to carry Russian oil from the Black Sea, through Turkey to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, Greece and Turkey held a joint cabinet meeting in Athens in a new effort to overcome old grudges and economic cooperation amidst the Greek debt crises. A powerful bomb exploded inside a courthouse in the northern city of Thessaloniki, sending smoke billowing in the building and wounding one person.
    (AP, 5/14/10)(SFC, 5/15/10, p.A2)

2010        May 17, In northern Turkey rescue teams strived to reach workers trapped hundreds of meters underground after a powerful methane gas explosion in the Karadon state-run coal mine near the northern Black Sea port of Zonguldak. On May 20 rescuers found the bodies of 28 miners. 2 miners remained missing.
    (AFP, 5/17/10)(AP, 5/20/10)
2010        May 17, Iran agreed to ship most of its low-enriched uranium to Turkey in a surprise nuclear fuel swap deal that could ease the international standoff over the country's disputed atomic program and deflate a US-led push for tougher sanctions. The deal was reached in talks between Brazils’ Pres. Silva, Turkey’s PM Erdogan and Iran’s Pres. Ahmadinejad.
    (AP, 5/17/10)(SFC, 5/17/10, p.A2)

2010        May 20, Twenty Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebels in northwestern Iraq.
    (SFC, 5/21/10, p.A2)

2010        May 22, Dozens of nations, meeting in Istanbul at a UN-sponsored conference for Somalia, pledged to help Somalia build a strong police and military, achieve peace and stability and eradicate piracy that has plagued international maritime trade.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 25, In southern Turkey a bus carrying Russian tourists skidded off a highway and fell off a bridge, killing 16 people and injuring 25 others.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 26, In Turkey four rebels were killed in a clash in eastern Tunceli province, bringing the overall rebel death toll to 23 since last week's air assault on rebel camps in northern Iraq's Hakurk, Zap and Qandil Mountain regions.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 27, In Turkey one soldier was killed and four others were wounded in a clash near the town of Uludere, close to the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 29, Turkey’s military said 3 security forces members were killed and two soldiers were wounded in clashes with Kurdish rebels in southeast Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)
2010        May 29, A Kurdish newspaper said imprisoned Kurdish rebel chief Abdullah Ocalan has accused Turkey of ignoring his calls to establish dialogue with his rebels and that he would withdraw from the process, leaving his rebel command in charge.
    (AP, 5/29/10)

2010        May 31, Israeli naval commandos stormed a flotilla of ships carrying aid and hundreds of pro-Palestinian activists to the blockaded Gaza Strip, killing 9 passengers on the Mavi Marmara in a predawn raid that set off worldwide condemnation and a diplomatic crisis. At least 4 of the 9 dead were Turkish. A massive protest broke out in Turkey, Israel's longtime Muslim ally, which unofficially supported the mission. Ankara announced it would recall its ambassador and call off military exercises with the Jewish state. The flotilla of three cargo ships and three passenger ships carrying 10,000 tons of aid and 700 activists was carrying items that Israel bars from reaching Gaza, like cement and other building materials. Israeli police said 16 pro-Palestinian activists from the flotilla were sent to jail following the deadly confrontation. Turkey sent three planes to bring back some 20 Turks wounded during clashes that broke out when Israeli commandos raided the Turkish vessel.
    (AP, 5/31/10)(AP, 6/1/10)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.54)
2010        May 31, Kurdish rebels launched a rocket attack on a military vehicle near naval base in southern Turkey, killing six soldiers and wounding seven.
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 1, Turkey's prime minister declared that Israel had carried out a "bloody massacre" by killing nine people on a Gaza-bound Turkish aid ship and said the two countries had reached a turning point in their long-standing alliance.
    (AP, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 2, France's former top anti-terrorism judge said the Turkish Islamic charity behind the flotilla of aid ships that was raided by Israeli forces on its way to Gaza had ties to terrorism networks, including a 1999 al-Qaida plot to bomb Los Angeles International Airport.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 3, In Turkey Luigi Padovese, the pope's apostolic vicar in Anatolia, was stabbed to death in his home in the Mediterranean port of Iskenderun. Police detained suspect Murat A, the bishop's driver who worked for him for the past four and a half years.
    (AP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 4, Turkey’s Deputy PM Bulent Arinc said Turkey will reduce economic and defense ties with Israel, but bilateral cooperation will not be entirely frozen after the Gaza ship raid.
    (AP, 6/4/10)
2010        Jun 4, Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq announced they had ended their unilateral ceasefire with Turkey a day after Iraqi Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani met Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and pledged "all efforts" to stop rising rebel violence.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 7, Turkey and Azerbaijan signed a long-awaited deal on the transit of gas to Europe seen as crucial to plans to reduce the continent's dependence on Russian gas.
    (AFP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 10, Turkey called the imposition of UN sanctions on Iran a "mistake" and said that it and Brazil would continue to seek a diplomatic solution to remove concerns over Iran's nuclear program.
    (Reuters, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 18, Turkey's military said it killed as many as 120 Kurdish rebels in an air raid on rebel hideouts in northern Iraq last month and a daylong incursion by elite commandos into Iraq this week. Maj. Gen. Fahri Kir said another 30 Kurdish rebels were killed inside Turkey since March in anti-rebel operations. He said the Turkish losses were 43 in the same period.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 19, Turkish warplanes launched air raids at suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq after a rebel attack on a military outpost in Turkey touched off clashes in which eight soldiers and 12 PKK rebel fighters died.
    (AP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 20, Turkish forces pushed into northern Iraq, killing 4 people, including a girl (15), as they hit back against hideouts of Kurdish rebels who killed 12 soldiers over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 6/20/10)

2010        Jun 21, Turkish commando units rappelled down from helicopters and mechanized infantry units blocked escape routes of Kurdish rebels in a major operation along the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In Turkey Kurdish rebels detonated a remote-controlled bomb in Istanbul, killing 5 people and wounding 12 on a bus carrying military personnel and their families.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jul 1, The Turkish military said fighting near the border with Iraq killed 12 Kurdish guerrillas, 2 government soldiers and 3 government-paid village guards. Clashes erupted after rebels fired long range weapons and rockets at a military unit in Slirt province.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A10)

2010        Jul 13, Turkey extradited a man identified only as Salih S. to Germany to face charges of supporting a terrorist organization and membership in a terrorist organization. The German citizen, a member of the radical Islamic Jihad Union, had trained at a terrorist camp in Pakistan. He was accused of procuring GPS devices, night vision goggles and other items for Adem Yilmaz, who was convicted with 3 others earlier this year of plotting a thwarted attack that a judge said could have killed large numbers of US soldiers and civilians in Germany.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 16, Turkey unveiled its first drone airplane, a surveillance craft able to fly for 24-hour stretches over the rugged mountains where Kurdish rebels are waging a deadly insurgency.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 19, A Turkish court indicted 196 people, including four retired military commanders, of conspiring in 2003 to overthrow the Islamic-oriented government in an alleged plot that highlights tension between Turkey's pious leadership and its secular opponents.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 20, Kurdish rebels killed six Turkish soldiers and wounded 15 in an overnight raid on a military outpost along the border with Iraq. Another soldier died in a separate attack.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Israel canceled a warning to its people to avoid traveling to Turkey, citing an end to stormy protests over Israel's deadly raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, The leaders of Egypt and Turkey met in Cairo to discuss stuttering international efforts to coax Israeli and Palestinian leaders back to the negotiating table.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 25, In Turkey foreign ministers of Turkey and Brazil urged Iran to be flexible and open in dealings with the West over its atomic program as Iran renewed its readiness to resume frozen nuclear talks. Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said Iran has expressed willingness to have talks with the European Union on its nuclear program after the month of Ramadan ends in early September.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)

2010        Jul 27, British PM David Cameron visited Turkey, saying the world needs Turkey's help in pushing Iran to address concerns about its nuclear program and harshly criticizing Israel's raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla that killed nine Turkish activists.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 28, A Turkish tour boat caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean. 18 tourists and five crew jumped into the water after flames engulfed the Kayhan-9 on its way from the Turkish resort of Marmaris to Fethiye. One Spanish tourist was missing.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 1, Turkish media reported that 4 civilians died when their vehicle hit a landmine that Kurdish rebels are suspected of planting in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 2, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced a four-member panel, including an Israeli and a Turk, to probe Israel's deadly raid in May on a Gaza-bound aid flotilla.
    (AP, 8/2/10)

2010        Aug 10, In Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels blew up part of an Iraqi-Kurdish pipeline killing 2 people and cutting the flow of oil in Sirnak province.
    (SFC, 8/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 11, Turkey said it will support petrol sales by Turkish companies to Iran, despite US sanctions that aim to squeeze the Islamic Republic's fuel imports.
    (Reuters, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 13, Turkish officials said police have raided a house used by people suspected of digging illegally for antiquities and discovered two tunnels leading to an underground tomb that housed an ancient marble coffin and frescoes. The tomb was believed to be that of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria (391BC-377BC).
    (AP, 8/13/10)(www.livius.org/he-hg/hecatomnids/hecatomnus.html)

2010        Aug 27, In northern Turkey overnight torrential rains triggered landslides and floods in Gundogdu, killing at least 12 people.
    (AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Sep 12, Turks voted on whether to amend a military-era constitution in what the government says is a key step in Turkey's path to full democracy, despite opposition claims that the proposed reforms would shackle the independence of the courts. Some 58 percent of voters approved a package of 26 amendments to the constitution crafted after a 1980 military coup, making the military more accountable to civilian courts, backing gender equality and other citizens' rights and lifting immunity from prosecution of the coup leaders.
    (AP, 9/12/10)(AP, 9/13/10)

2010        Sep 16, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said his country was seeking closer commercial ties with Iran and aims to triple trade volumes in the next five years while still respecting the limits set by UN sanctions.
    (AP, 9/16/10) 
2010        Sep 16, In Turkey a roadside bomb attack killed 10 people traveling on a minibus near the village of Gecitli in the rugged Hakkari province, where Kurdish guerrillas have been fighting for autonomy for decades.
    (AP, 9/16/10)

2010        Sep 19, Iraq signed a deal with Turkey to extend for 15 years the use of the main pipeline linking its northern oilfields to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. 3 car bombs tore through Baghdad and the former insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing at least 36 people. Al-Qaida's front group in Iraq later claimed responsibility for the two Baghdad bombings that killed at least 31 people at a government security agency and what it called an "evil" mobile phone provider.
    (AFP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 21, In Turkey a gang of several dozen men with sticks and pepper spray moved methodically from one art gallery to the next, assaulting overflow crowds that had spilled into the streets during the joint opening of several exhibitions in the center of Istanbul. Half a dozen suspects were detained.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 30, The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) rebel group extended a ceasefire with Turkey by one month in a move it said is aimed at giving a chance to efforts to end a war that has killed 40,000 people.
    (Reuters, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 20, In Turkey police detained five people, including three university students, suspected of providing financial and technical support to the al-Qaida network in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 30, Turkey said it was lifting a ban on YouTube more than two years after it blocked the site because of videos deemed insulting to the country’s founder.
    (SSFC, 10/31/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 31, In Turkey a suspected suicide bomber wounded 15 officers and 17 civilians in Istanbul's main square, as an extended unilateral ceasefire by the separatist PKK came to an end. The radical Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK) later claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)(AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 1, Turkey's main Kurdish rebel group extended a truce until elections next summer, denying responsibility for a suicide attack in Istanbul thought to have been the work of its own hardliners.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 9, Turkey’s Pres. Abdullah Gul received this year’s Chatham House prize from Britain’s queen.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.60)

2010        Nov 10, In an extensive interview with the Die Presse daily, Ambassador Kadri Ecved Tezcan said Austria was pushing people of Turkish origin to the fringes of society instead of learning to live with them and benefiting from their skills.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 28, More than 250,000 classified US State Department documents were released by online whistleblower WikiLeaks. Among the leaked memos was information that Iranian Red Crescent ambulances were used to smuggle weapons to Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group during its 2006 war with Israel. Memos said the "IRC shipments of medical supplies served also to facilitate weapons shipments." Documents also detailed concerns by US officials in Baghdad about Iran’s influence on Iraq. Memos also said King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia had repeatedly urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear program to stop Tehran from developing a nuclear weapon. One cable revealed that the US kept nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.35)

2010        Nov 29, Turkey complied with a European Court of Human Rights ruling and returned a 19th-century orphanage to the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Istanbul, the center of Orthodox Christianity around the world. Turkey took control of the building in 1997, many years after it was abandoned, on the grounds that it belonged to another foundation and had fallen into disuse. The Patriarchate said the government had refused to issue necessary permits for the maintenance and repair of the structure, one of the largest wooden buildings in the world.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov, In Turkey a devastating fire destroyed the roof of Istanbul’s Haydarpasa railway station. Train traffic was expected to restart in 2019.
    (AFP, 2/15/18)

2010        Dec 1, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said a US diplomat who reported claims in a State Department memo that he has Swiss bank accounts should be punished for making a false allegation. A classified cable, released this week by WikiLeaks and dated Dec. 30, 2004, from then-U.S. Ambassador Eric Edelman said: "We have heard from two contacts that Erdogan has eight accounts in Swiss banks; his explanations that his wealth comes from the wedding presents guests gave his son and that a Turkish businessman is paying the educational expenses of all four Erdogan children in the U.S. purely altruistically are lame."
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 8, A top Israeli official said his government is holding talks with Turkey aimed at mending relations, seven months after a deadly Israeli raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla sent ties into a chill.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 23, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad joined regional leaders for a summit on economic cooperation in Istanbul, just a month ahead of nuclear talks with world powers.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, The leaders of Afghanistan and Pakistan met in Istanbul for a new round of talks aimed at building trust between the two neighbors. Turkey’s Pres. Gul said a railroad between Turkey and Pakistan should be extended to Afghanistan and flights between the three countries should be expanded for better cooperation.
    (AP, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 30, Turkey’s the state-run Anatolia news agency said police have detained 10 people suspected of links to the al-Qaida terror network and accused of preparing to stage an attack before New Year's Eve.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Stephen Kinzer authored “Reset: Iran, Turkey and America’s Future.”
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)

2010        Mehmet Emin Karamehmet (b.1944), founder of Turkcell and Turkey’s 2nd richest man, was sentenced to almost 12 years in jail for having used Pamukbank as a cash cow for Cukurova Holding, his family owned group. The sentence was suspended pending retrial.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmet_Emin_Karamehmet)

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