Timeline Vietnam A: thru 1973

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History: http://www.vwam.com/vets/hisintro.html
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The Hmong are one of 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam. Others include the Dao, Khmer, Nung, and Tay. Vietnam has 57 provinces. The Vietnamese word for America is "Hoa Ky."
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)(SFC, 12/10/98, p.C7)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.C8)

600BC-700BC    The Dragon Lord of the Lac, from whom all Vietnamese are said to be descended, served as protector of the Hung kingdom.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, p.T5)

380BC-700    The site at Tra Kieu, Vietnam, is believed to be Simhapura, the former capital of an Indianized Cham kingdom.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

110BC    The Han Dynasty subsumed northern Vietnam into imperial China about this time.
    (Econ, 7/23/16, p.67)

100BC-1500    In Vietnam the city of Hoi An was the principal port of the seafaring Champa kingdom, that embraced Indian culture. The kingdom withstood attacks from the Chinese, Vietnamese, Khmers and Mongols. Archaeological study in Hoi An in the 1990s proved that more than 2000 years ago Hoi An was an embryonic port town of the Sa Huynh people. From the 2nd to the 15th centuries, Hoi An was the main port of the Champa Kingdom. In these centuries, Hoi An became a prosperous commercial port town, very well developed and famous in Asia.
    (www.hoianworldheritage.org/ehoian/cultural/lichsu_vh_chinh.htm)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

600-700    Hoi An was a port site of the Cham kingdoms of central Vietnam.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

939        Vietnam King Ngo Quyen (897-944) routed the Chinese in northern Vietnam and renamed the territory Dai Viet (Greater Viet).
    (Econ, 7/23/16, p.67)

1010        King Ly Thai To decided to move Vietnam's capital 62 miles (100 km) north to Hanoi, then called Thang Long.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

1075        The Jiaozhi (Vietnam) launched a war against China, with a force of some 100,000 surrounding Yongzhou (the southern region of Nanning). It was captured after a siege of 42 days.

1167-1227    Genghis Khan was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk. [see 1167]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/vexhibit/genghis/biog.htm)

1400-1500    The Vietnamese from the north pushed the Chams south and opened the port of Hoi An to foreign traders.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1400-1500    Porcelain from this period was recovered from a sunken ship in the South China Sea in 1999. 10% of the 150,000 pieces were kept by the Vietnamese government and the rest was scheduled for auction on eBay.
    (WSJ, 6/22/00, p.W10)

1400-1600    Hoi An, Vietnam, flourished at the end of the 2nd Cham (Vijaya) Empire of this time. It attracted Japanese, then Portuguese, Dutch and Chinese merchants.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1426        Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.
    (NG, May, 04, p.94)

c1450         Legend has it that in the mid-15th century Vietnam, King Le Loi defeated Chinese invaders with a magic sword given to him by the gods. After the victory, the king was said to be boating on the lake when a giant golden turtle rose to the surface and grabbed the sword in its mouth before plunging deep into the water to return it to its divine owners. The lake was later renamed "Ho Hoan Kiem," which means "Lake of the Returned Sword."
    (AP, 11/3/03)

c1598        A party of Iberian conquistadors overthrew the Cambodian king and set themselves up as governors in the Mekong delta.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1644        Many Chinese mandarins fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1787        Nguyen Khan (b.1734), Annamese official and poet, died in Vietnam.

1788        Jul 20, The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1800-1900    The main river channel at Hoi An, Vietnam, shifted toward Danang and made navigation by deep-draft ships difficult, and thus lost its commercial importance. A new port was built on the Han River at Da Nang.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1802        Emperor Gia Long, born as Nguyen Phuc An, took over Hue and established it as the capital of Vietnam. Its palaces, tombs and monuments are located along the banks of the Perfume River.
    (SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F4)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1813-1820    The classic Vietnamese love poem "The Tale of Kieu" was written by Nguyen Du (1766-1820). It was based on an earlier Chinese novel entitled "The story of Kim-Van-Kieu ", written by an author under the pen-name of "Thanh-Tam Tai-Nhan" in the 16th or the early 17th century.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.E7)(www.geocities.com/SoHo/Den/5908/literature/kieu.html)

1820        Nguyen Du (b.1766), author of “The Tale of Kieu," died. His Vietnamese epic tells the story of woman who sells herself into prostitution to pay off her father’s debt.
    (SSFC, 8/21/05, p.B1)

1844        Bishop Dominique Lefevre, a Catholic missionary and French citizen, engaged in a plot with other priests to overthrow  Thieu Tri, the emperor of Cochin China (later Vietnam). Lefevre was imprisoned and condemned to death.
    (AH, 12/02, p.25)

1845        May 10, During a celebrated round-the-world tour in 1844-46, the USS Constitution dropped anchor in the bay outside of Tourane, Cochin China (later part of Vietnam). While there, Bishop Dominique Lefevre, an imprisoned French missionary, requested the assistance of the ship's captain, "Mad Jack" Percival. The Americans attempted to negotiate with the Cochin Chinese, to no avail. Frustrated, they set sail from Cochin and continued on their course on May 26 without further word about or from the missionary, who was eventually retrieved by his own countrymen.
    (HNQ, 10/18/02)(AH, 12/02, p.25)

1859-1954    The colonial period of Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.T1)

1860        The 1st French gendarmes arrived in Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1862        The French established their first colonial base of Cochin-China, a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochinchina)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.68)

1866        French colonial officials sent an expedition to explore the Mekong River and check its commercial potential.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1873        A French expeditionary force in Vietnam sacked Hanoi's citadel.
    (NG, May, 04, p.87)

1882        Apr 25, French commander Henri Riviere seized the citadel of Hanoi. Capt. Henri Reviere  was later beheaded after he attempted to seize the coal deposits at Ha long Bay. The outraged French proceeded to colonize Vietnam.
    (HN, 4/25/98)(SFEC, 7/18/99, p.T4)

1882        Sep 3, The French, Vietnamese and Chinese battled at Hanoi; hundreds died.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1884        Jun 23, A Chinese Army defeated the French at Bacle, Indochina.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1885        In Vietnam the Dong Ba market of Hue, located outside the Citadel’s Chanh Dong gate, burned down. It reopened two years later and in 1889 was moved to a new location.
    (SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F4)

1890        May 19, Ho Chi Minh, revolutionist and leader of North Vietnam (1946-1969), was born. He fought the Japanese, French and United States to gain independence for his country.
    (HN, 5/19/99)(MC, 5/19/02)

1893        French colonialists seized control of Laos and tried to turn the Mekong River into a thoroughfare linking their Indochina colonies.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1893        Vietnam’s highland town of Dalat was founded as a retreat from the tropical coast.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)

1894        Prince Henri d’Orleans (1822-1897) published a book of his journey through France’s empire. His account soured over the northern coastline of Vietnam, where red tape interfered with exploitation of the area’s coal reserves.  In 1897 Emile Roux authored “Searching for the Sources of the Irrawaddy: With Prince Henri D'Orleans from Hanoi to Calcutta Overland (1895-1896)."
    (www.dco.co.th/product_info.php?products_id=1130)(Econ, 8/31/13, p.34)

1901         Jan 3, Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnamese president (1955-63), was born.
    (HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1909-1993    Nguyen Gia Tri, Vietnamese artist, worked using the laborious lacquer on wood technique.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.E1)

1910        The French built a railroad line to link Haiphong, Vietnam, to Kunming, the capital of China's Yunnan province.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.42)

1911        Oct 14, Le Duc Tho (d.1990), North Vietnamese representative at Paris peace talk (1970-72), was born. He declined the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973.
    (AP, 10/16/98)(MC, 10/14/01)

1911        The Hanoi Opera House in Vietnam was designed by the French.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.T6)

1912-1913    Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969), later revolutionary head of Vietnam, lived in the US and worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel in Boston.
    (SSFC, 6/15/08, p.E5)

1913        Oct 22, Bo Dai, last emperor of Vietnam, was born.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1919        Jun, A petition by Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot) was circulated among delegates to the peace conference at Versailles titled: "Demands of the Annamite People." It claimed to speak for the inhabitants of the part of French Indochina, later recognized as the heart of Vietnam. Nguyen Ai Quoc was later identified as Ho Chi Minh.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.75)

1919        The Dalat Palace was built in Dalat, Vietnam. Restoration of the hotel began in 1991 under Larry Hillblom (d.1995), co-founder of DHL, an express-delivery company.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)

1920        Dec 30, Ho Chi Minh helped found the Communist Party of France on December 30, 1920, while a student there. Known then as Nguyen Ai Quoc, Ho went on to Moscow in 1923 for training in revolutionary strategy by the Communist International. After several years in the Soviet Union and China, Ho returned to Vietnam to lead his nation's revolutionary movement.
    (HNQ, 4/13/99)

1922        Vo Van Kiet, Vietnamese prime minister, was born.
    (AP, 11/23/02)
1923        Apr 5, Nguyen Van Thieu, president of South Vietnam (1965-75), selected this date as his birth date on the grounds that it was luckier than his Nov 1924 birthday.
    (HN, 5/5/97)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)(MC, 4/5/02)

1923        In Nha Trang a retreat was built for Bao Dai, the last Vietnamese king. It later became the Bao Dai Villas Hotel.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T5)

1924        Nov, Nguyen Van Thieu (d.2001 at 78), head of South Vietnam (1965-1975), was born. He later picked Apr 5, 1923, as a luckier birthday.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)

1925        Nov, Khai Dinh, emperor of Annam, died. Annam was a kingdom of what is now Vietnam that was incorporated into French Indochina. His son Vinh Thuy assumed the throne in January under the title Bao Dai
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)

1925        An unsuccessful student strike took place in Hanoi, Vietnam.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1926        Jan 8, Bao Dai (1913-1997) began serving as king of Annam under French ‘protection’. During this period, Annam was a protectorate within French Indochina, covering the central two-thirds of the present-day Vietnam. His rule ended on Aug 25, 1945.

1926        In Vietnam Ngo Van Chieu, a government official, founded Cao Dai, a religion that mixed elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam and other religions. It was repressed by the communists after 1975. By 2008 restrictions were eased.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, SR p.5)

1931        Jun 17, British authorities in China arrested Indochinese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1939        Feb 10, Japan occupied the Chinese island of Hainan located off the coast of French Indochina (modern day Vietnam).
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1939        Nguyen Ton Hoan (1917-2001) founded the Dai Viet (Greater Vietnam Party) and worked to establish a democratic Vietnam.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.C2)

1939        A Communist uprising took place and failed in French Indochina (Vietnam).
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1940        Sep 26, Japanese troops attacked French Indochina (Vietnam).
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1941        Jul 21, France accepted Japan's demand for military control of Indochina.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1941        Jul 24, The U.S. government denounced Japanese actions in Indochina.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1941        Jul 27, Japanese forces landed in Indo-China.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1941        Jul 28, A Japanese army landed in Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1941        Aug, The US placed an embargo on oil shipments to Japan in response to Japan’s occupation of French Indochina (later Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam).
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1941        The Viet Minh, a nationalist movement led by Communists, was founded in Vietnam. Pham Van Dong was a founding member.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1942        After capturing and imprisoning Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh in 1942, the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was pressured into releasing him by America's Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OSS was formed during WWII to engage in intelligence operations and was the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Ho Chi Minh was leading Vietnamese resistance against the Japanese and was captured while in China setting up his Communist-inspired Viet Minh movement. The OSS sought his release so he could continue his fight against the Japanese. The Viet Minh also benefited from U.S. arms and equipment.
    (HNQ, 1/25/00)

1943-1945    Ho Chi Minh worked for American intelligence during this time rescuing downed American pilots and reporting on Japanese troop movements in Vietnam. His story was later told in the 1998 book: "Our Ho: Fact and Fiction" by Alan Trustman.
    (A.Com, 1/25/98)

1944-1945    In Vietnam 1-2 million people starved to death during this period in large part due to policies imposed by Japan.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.97)

1945        Aug 22, Conflict in Vietnam began when a group of Free French parachuted into southern Indochina, in response to a successful coup by communist guerilla Ho Chi Minh.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(HN, 8/22/00)

1945         Sep 2, Ho Chi Minh (55) promulgated the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence and unity from the north to the south. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters went unanswered.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(AP, 9/2/97)

1945        Sep 9, The Japanese in S. Korea, Taiwan, China and Indochina surrendered to Allies.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1945        Sep 12, French troops landed in Indochina.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1945        Sep 23, The first American died in Vietnam during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1945        In Vietnam Bao Dai abdicated his throne in the city of Hue with the approach of the Viet Minh guerrillas. He moved to China and then became an advisor to Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi until 1949 when the French set him up as chief of state of Vietnam.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)

1945        The Viet Minh in Vietnam formed a provisional government in a bid for independence and Pham Van Dong served as finance minister.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1945        The Soviet Army adopted the SKS-45, a semi-automatic rifle adopted. It fired the same 7.62x39mm round as the AK-47, which was a shortened, lighter round that was the standard Soviet cartridge of World War II. This meant the rifle firing the round could be lighter, and the soldier could carry more ammunition. Although Viet Cong (VC) and North Vietnamese Army (NVA) soldiers in Vietnam preferred the fully-automatic AK-47, the SKS was an effective weapon that many of them carried during the Vietnam war.
    (HNQ, 6/3/02)

1945-1946    Ho Chi Minh repeatedly tried to enlist American support for an independent Vietnam.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)

1946        Jan 6, Ho Chi Minh won North Vietnamese elections.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1946        Mar 2, Ho Chi Minh was elected president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1946        Mar 6, France recognized Vietnam statehood within the Indo-Chinese federation.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1946        Jun 25, Ho Chi Minh traveled to France for talks on Vietnamese independence.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1946        Nov 23, French Navy fire in Haiphong, Vietnam, killed 6,000.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1946        Dec 15, Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh sent a note to the new French Premier, Leon Blum, asking for peace talks.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1946        Dec 19, War broke out in Indochina as troops under Ho Chi Minh launched widespread attacks against the French. The French retook Hoa Binh with a drop by airborne forces. They abandoned it in October 1950 in the panic following Viet Minh victories on Colonial Route 4.
    (AP, 12/19/06)(http://maoist.wikia.com/wiki/Vo_Nguyen_Giap)(www.historynet.com/the-hoa-binh-campaign.htm)

1946        Dec 20, Viet Minh and French forces fought fiercely in the Annamite section of Hanoi in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1946        Dec 28, The French declared martial law in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1947        Jan 9,  French General Leclerc broke off all talks with Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1947        Jan 19, The French opened a drive on Hue, Indochina (Vietnam).
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1947        Mar 5, Communist leader Maurice Thorez declared support for the French sovereignty over Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1947        Oct 7, French troops in Indochina launched Operation Lea, to capture Viet Minh positions near the Chinese border.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1948        Nov 22, Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam requested admittance to the UN.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1949        Jun 13, Vietnam state was established at Saigon with Bao Dai as chief of state. Installed by the French, Bao Dai entered Saigon to rule Vietnam.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)(HN, 6/13/98)

1949        Jun 14, The State of Vietnam was formed.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1949        Dec 10, 150,000 French troops massed at the border in Vietnam to prevent a Chinese invasion.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1949        In southern Vietnam 17 communist fighters were killed by French colonial occupiers during a failed prison escape. In 2008 their mass grave was found in Luong Hoa Lac village, Tien Giang province, the site of the former prison.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

1950        Jan 14, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV).

1950        Jan 19, Communist Chinese leader Mao recognized the Republic of Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1950        Jan 29, The French National Assembly approved legislation granting autonomy to Bao Dai's State of Vietnam.

1950        Jan 31, Paris protested the Soviet recognition of Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1950        Feb 7, The United States recognized Vietnam under the leadership of Emperor Bao Dai, not Ho Chi Minh who was recognized by the Soviets.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1950        Feb 13, Albania recognized Ho Chi Minh's Vietnamese government, becoming the sixth Eastern bloc country to do so.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1950        Feb, The Viet Minh began an offensive against French troops in Indo China.

1950        May 8, The US Government convinced that neither national independence nor democratic evolution exist in any area dominated by Soviet imperialism, considers the situation to be such as to warrant its according economic aid and military equipment to the Associated State of Indochina and to France in order to assist them in restoring stability and permitting these states to pursue their peaceful and democratic development.

1950        May 21, French sources reported that Viet Minh guerrillas had infiltrated Cambodia and opened an arms-smuggling corridor to Thailand.

1950        Jun 27, US sent 35 military advisers to South Vietnam.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1950        Jul 26, United States military involvement in Vietnam began as President Harry Truman authorized $15 million in military aid to the French.

1950        Aug 3, A US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) of 35 men arrives in Saigon. By the end of the year, the US was bearing half of the cost of France's war effort in Vietnam. Pres. Truman gave military aid to the Vietnamese regime of Bao-Dai.

1950        Oct, The Hoa Binh Campaign proved to be a watershed event during the First Indochina War, as the Viet Minh succeeded in bottling up the French in the Red River Delta. Hoa Binh (the name means "peace" in Vietnamese) was the capital of the Muong tribal minority. Sited some 62 kilometers west southwest of Hanoi, Hoa Binh sits on the west bank of the Black River, where it bends north to join the Red River above Son Tay.
    (HNQ, 8/16/01)

1950        Dec 17, French named Marshal de Lattre de Tassigny to command their troops in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1950        Dec 30, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia became independent states in a French Union.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1950        US Pres. Harry Truman sent military personnel to Vietnam to aid French forces.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1951        Jan 16, French forces repulsed a Viet Minh offensive near Hanoi.

1951        Mar 15, General de Lattre demanded that Paris send him more troops for the fight in Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1951        Jun 9, After several unsuccessful attacks on French colonial troops, North Vietnam's General Giap ordered Viet Minh to withdraw from the Red River Delta.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1951        Nov 14, French paratroopers captured Hoa Binh, Vietnam.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1952        Jan 4, The French Army in Indochina launched Operation Nenuphar in hopes of ejecting a Viet Minh division from the Ba Tai forest.
    (HN, 1/4/00)

1952        Jan 7, French forces in Indochina launch Operation Violette in an effort to push Viet Minh forces away from the town of Ba Vi.
    (HN, 1/7/00)

1952        Jan 12, The Viet Minh cut the supply lines to the French forces in Hoa Bihn, Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1952        Feb 19, There was a French offensive at Hanoi.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1952        Feb 22, French forces evacuated Hoa Binh in Indochina.
    (HN, 2/22/99)

1952        Feb 24, The French evacuated Hoa Binh in Vietnam in order to mass for the Tonkin Delta drive.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1952        Feb 25, French colonial forces evacuated Hoa Binh in Indochina.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1952        Oct 29, French forces launched Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina.

1952-1991    Howard Simpson (d.1999), foreign service officer, served in Vietnam and later wrote: "Tiger in the Barbed Wire: An American in Vietnam, 1952-1991."
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.C4)

1953        Feb 9, The French destroyed six Viet Minh war factories hidden in the jungles of Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1953        Mar 26, Eisenhower offered increased aid in Vietnam to France.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1953        Apr 14, Viet Minh invaded Laos with 40,000 troops in their war against French colonial forces.
    (HN, 4/14/01)

1953        Nov 19, US VP Richard Nixon visited Hanoi in Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1953        Nov 30, French parachutists under Col. De Castries attacked Dien Bien Phu. The French expeditionary force was under the direction of Gen. Henri Navarre. In 2004 martin windrow authored “The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam."
    (Econ, 4/3/04, p.86)

1953        Nguyen Huu Tho (1910-1996), Communist lawyer, was imprisoned in South Vietnam but escaped in 1960.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)

1954        Feb 10, Eisenhower warned against US intervention in Vietnam.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1954        Mar 13, Viet Minh General Giap opened an assault on French forces at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam. In 2010 Ted Morgan (aka Sanche Armand Gabriel de Gramont) authored “Valley of Death: The Tragedy at Dien Bien Phu That Led America into the Vietnam War."
    (HN, 3/14/98)(Econ, 4/3/04, p.86)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.80)

1954        Mar 31, The siege of Dien Bien Phu, the last French outpost in Vietnam, began after the Viet Minh realized it could not be taken by direct assault.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1954        Apr 21, USAF flew a French battalion to Vietnam.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1954        May 7, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam ended after 55 days with Vietnamese insurgents overrunning French forces and the US began to get involved. French Gen. Marcel Bigeard (1916-2010) and some 12,000 defenders were captured. Vietnamese insurgents expelled the French but the country was divided into a communist north and a pro-US south. In the 8 years of the French Indochina War some 52,000 French soldiers were killed. Vietnam was soon partitioned between a regime in Hanoi led by Ho Chi Minh and an anti-communist regime in Saigon under Ngo Dinh Diem. Howard Simpson later wrote: "Dien Bien Phu: The Epic Battle America Forgot." In 2004 Martin Windrow authored “The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam."
    (TL, 1988, p.114)(SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)(SFC, 2/22/96, p.B3)(AP, 5/7/97)(SFC, 5/24/99, p.C4)(Econ, 11/27/04, p.86)(AP, 6/18/10)

1954        May 25, Robert Capa (40), war photographer for Life Mag., was accidentally killed in Vietnam when he stepped on a land mine. Capa authored a memoir in 1947: "Slightly Out of Focus." A collection of his work was published in 1997: "Robert Capa, Photographs," with an introduction by Richard Whelan. Capa was born Endre Friedman in Budapest. In 2003 Alex Kershaw authored "Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa."
    (SFEM, 1/12/97, BR p.9)(SFEM,12/21/97, p.7)(WSJ, 4/20/98, p.A20)

1954        Jun 4, French Premier Joseph Laniel and Vietnamese Premier Buu Loc initialed treaties in Paris according "complete independence" to Vietnam.
    (AP, 6/4/97)

1954        Jun 28, French troops began to pull out of Vietnam's Tonkin Province.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1954        Jul 13, In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain and France reached an accord on Indochina, dividing Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.
    (HN, 7/13/99)

1954        Jul 20, An armistice for Indo-China was signed and Vietnam separated into North & South. [see Jul 21]
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1954        Jul 21, France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists at Geneva. The French signed an armistice, the Geneva Accords, with the Viet Minh that ended the war but divided Vietnam into two countries. This led to almost a million anti-Communists in the north to flee to the south.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)(OGA, 11/24/98)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1954        Jul 23, The Indochina settlement was approved by France's National Assembly.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1954        Aug 1, The Geneva Accords divided Vietnam into two countries at the 17th parallel. U.S. complicity in the overthrow of South Vietnam's president made it impossible to stay uninvolved in the war. The Geneva Accords called for elections by July, 1956, and put a limit on the presence of foreign advisors. US military advisors were limited to 685. While the Geneva Agreements ended the war and established the 17th parallel as a temporary military demarcation between the Vietminh-administered North and the Bao Dai government in the South, the reunification elections were never held and within a few years there was a large-scale infusion of foreign assistance in men and arms. The signatories were France, the Vietminh, China, Great Britain, Cambodia, Laos and the Soviet Union. The United States and the government of Bao Dai in the South did not sign the agreement.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(HN, 8/1/98)(HNQ, 2/23/00)

1954        Sep 8, SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), a sister organization to NATO, was created under the Manila Pact by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, to stop communist spread in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos). The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand signed the mutual defense treaty. SEATO dissolved in 1977.
    (HNQ, 4/2/01)(http://tinyurl.com/hpawj)

1954        Oct 10, Ho Chi Minh entered Hanoi in Vietnam after French troops withdraw.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1954        Oct 22, As a result of the Geneva accords granting Communist control over North Vietnam, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized a crash program to train the South Vietnamese Army.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1954        Oct 27, Pres. Eisenhower offered aid to S. Vietnam Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1954        Pham Van Dong became the prime minister of North Vietnam following independence.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1954-1965    This period of the Vietnam War was covered by Mark Moyar in his book “Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War 1954-1865" (2006).
    (WSJ, 9/28/06, p.D8)   

1955        Feb 12, President Eisenhower sent 1st US "advisors" to South Vietnam to aid the government under Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(MC, 2/12/02)

1955        Apr 30, Bao Dai (1913-1997), Vietnam’s former emperor (1926-1945), ended his term as chief of state (1949-1955). He went into exile in France where he died.

1955        May 19, In Vietnam Maj. Vo Bam, a defense supply specialist, was instructed to find a supply route south. Bam's route became the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    (SFC, 8/18/00, p.D2)

1955        Oct 26, Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963) began serving as president of Vietnam.

1955-1963    Vu Van Mau served as the foreign minister in South Vietnam under Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.C3)

1956        Apr 28, Last French troops left Vietnam.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1956        Jun 8, The first American of record to die in Vietnam was Air Force Tech Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon Jr. His son, Richard B. Fitzgibbon III, died in Vietnam Sep 7, 1965.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.B4)

1956-1963     The US installed and supported the regime of South Vietnam under Pres. Diem.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)

1957        The Vietnam Writers’ Association (VWA) was founded on the lines of cultural association  in the Soviet bloc. In 2014 the alternative League of Independent Vietnamese Writers was founded.
    (Econ, 7/18/15, p.34)
1957        Pres. Eisenhower named Elbridge Durbrow (d.1997 at 93) as ambassador to South Vietnam, the newly divided southern portion of Indochina. He served there until 1961.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.A20)

1959        May 19, The Peoples' Army of Vietnam's Military Transportation Group 559 formed on the 69th birthday of Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. It ultimately resulted in the creation of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The trail was intended to facilitate the infiltrating of troops and transporting supplies from North Vietnam to support the revolution in South Vietnam.
    (HNQ, 6/1/99)

1959        The US sent advisors to Vietnam.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1959         The first American advisors were killed in Vietnam during a communist attack near Bien Hoa Air Base. That triggered the transition that by 1968 led to more than 500,000 American combatants in Southeast Asia.
    (HNQ, 8/12/02)

1959-1969    In 1998 the Library of Congress issued a 2-volume collection of American journalism from the Vietnam War, "Reporting Vietnam." This period was covered in Vol. 1. The 2nd volume covered the war to 1975.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.1)

1960        Jul 30, Over 60,000 Buddhists marched in protest against the Diem government in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1960        Nov 12, A coup against South Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem failed.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1960        Dec 20, National Liberation Front was formed by guerrillas fighting the Diem regime in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1960        Nguyen Huu Tho escaped from jail in South Vietnam and joined the National Liberation Front, the political arm of the Viet Cong, the South Vietnam based guerrilla group.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)

1961        May 11, Pres. Kennedy authorized American advisors to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1961        Oct 18, An emergency crisis was proclaimed in South Vietnam due to a communist attack.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1961        Nov 18, JFK sent 18,000 military "advisors" to South Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1961        Dec 11, A U.S. aircraft carrier carrying Army helicopters arrived in Saigon. This was the first direct American military support for South Vietnam's battle against Communist guerrillas. JFK provided 425 US military helicopter crewmen to South Vietnam to provide training and support for South  Vietnamese forces.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(MC, 12/11/01)

1961        In Vietnam government decree 216 formulated a family planning program that got sidetracked due to the war.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A19)

1961-1969    Every American agent sent into North Vietnam was captured and most became double agents serving Ho Chi Minh. In 2000 Kenneth Conboy and Dale Andrade authored "Spies and Commandos," Richard H. Shultz Jr. authored "The Secret War Against Hanoi."
    (WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A32)

1961-1973    The CIA backed a secret army in Laos to help fight the communist Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese. An estimated 50,000 Hmong civilians died over this period. CIA director William Colby acknowledged the US and Hmong alliance in 1994.
    (SFC, 6/14/04, p.A1)

1962        Jan 18, The U.S. sprayed foliage with pesticide in South Vietnam, in order to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1962        Feb 8, The U.S. Defense Department reported the creation of the Military Assistance Command in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1962        Feb 18, Robert F. Kennedy said that U.S. troops would stay in Vietnam until Communism was defeated.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1962        Feb 27, South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem was unharmed as two planes bombed the presidential palace in Saigon. The 1st US national was killed. Although Diem had shortcomings as a leader, he had led South Vietnam for eight years and at the time of his death was attempting to deal with Buddhist factionalism.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(MC, 2/27/02)

1962        Mar 9, US "advisors" in South-Vietnam joined the fight.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1962        Jul 23, The Geneva Conference on Laos forbade the United States to invade eastern Laos, site of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1962-1971    US military tanker planes and helicopters sprayed 20 million gallons of Agent Orange and other defoliants in Operation Ranch Hand to deny cover to communist forces in Vietnam. The defoliants were contaminated with TCDD, the most dangerous form of dioxin. In 2004 Philip Jones Griffith, photojournalist, authored "Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam."
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)(Econ, 1/31/04, p.82)

1962-1972    In Vietnam giant US tanker planes sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange on the once lush DMZ in order to eradicate the enemy's jungle cover. Some 12 million gallons of Agent Orange were sprayed over parts of southern and central Vietnam from 1961-1971. The total included some 375 pounds of dioxin. In 1998 a nationwide survey was planned to count the victims. American involvement in the Vietnam War was analyzed by H.R. McMaster In his 1997 book: "Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam." Agent Orange used dioxins as the active ingredient in the herbicide. Anti-war activist Jane Fonda at one point laid nude in a rice field near Sacramento and California Republican Assembly leader Charles J. Conrad (d.1998) suggested spraying defoliants on her.
    (WSJ,2/12/97, p.A1)(SFC, 10/13/97, p.A23)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.E4)(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A10)
1962-1972    The Ontos was 1st conceived in the aftermath of World War II when the U.S. Army perceived the need for a new reconnaissance vehicle. It evolved into an Army tank destroyer for use on the nuclear battlefields of Europe. Its actual deployment was in Marine Corps anti-tank battalions. The Ontos most significant contribution was in the Vietnam War, but in a role much different than the role for which it was designed. The official name of the weapon was "Rifle, Multiple, 106mm, Self-Propelled M-50." This hybrid light armored vehicle was armed with six externally mounted antitank guns.
    (HNQ, 10/8/02)

1963        Jan 2, Viet Cong downed five U.S. helicopters in the Mekong Delta; 30 were reported to be dead.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1963        Mar 16, Phung Vuong, murderer (FBI Most Wanted List), was born in Saigon, Vietnam.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1963        May 8, Problems with the Buddhists began in Hue, Vietnam. The Diem Government decided to demonstrate its strength by enforcing a law against the display of flags other than the national flag. In defiance, the Buddhists lined the streets flying their flags regardless of the new law; this defiance turned bloody when troops fired into the crowd, killing nine. Diem now claimed that the Buddhists were affiliates of the Communists and tightened security around the more active pagodas.

1963        Jun 11, Buddhist monk Quang Duc immolated himself on a Saigon street to protest the government of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(www.buddhistinformation.com/self_immolation.htm)

1963        Jun 27, Henry Cabot Lodge was appointed U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1963        Aug 13, A 17 year-old Buddhist monk burned himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1963        Aug 19, Newsweek quoted Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu (1924-2011), official hostess of the South Vietnamese government, offering to light the match of the next Buddhist monk suicide.
    (http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Madame_Ngo_Dinh_Nhu)(NW 8/19/63)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A1) (AP, 4/27/11)

1963        Aug 21, Martial law was declared in South Vietnam as police and army troops began a crackdown on Buddhist anti-government protesters.
    (AP, 8/21/08)

1963        Aug 24, Pres. Kennedy allowed a cable to be sent to Ambassador Lodge in Vietnam that backed a military coup against Pres. Diem. Pres. Kennedy gave tacit approval for a coup against Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam. Diem was killed Nov 2.
    (SFC, 11/25/98, p.A2)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)

1963        Aug 26, Orders came from Washington to destroy all cables sent to Saigon, South Vietnam, back to Aug 24.
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)

1963        Aug 27, Cambodia severed ties with South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1963        Oct 2, US Defense Sec. Robert McNamara told Pres. Kennedy in a cabinet meeting that: "We need a way to get out of Vietnam." McNamara proposed to replace the 16,000 US advisors with Canadian personnel.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)

1963        Oct 11, A National Security Action memorandum that recommended plans to withdraw 1,000 US Military personnel by the end of the year was approved. The memo followed McNamara's return from a trip to South Vietnam.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)

1963        Nov 1-1963 Nov 2, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother were assassinated in a military coup. Coup leader Duong Van Minh explained that "They had to be killed… Pres. Diem was too much respected among simple, gullible people in the countryside." A 3rd brother was later tricked into surrendering to US forces and was turned over to coup leaders and killed by firing squad. Col. Nguyen Van Thieu helped organize the coup that killed Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)

1963        In Vietnam the Battle of Ap Bac was fought.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

1964        Jan 10, Pres. Johnson held a meeting with Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara after which he approved covert operations against North Vietnam [see Jan 16].
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.9)

1964            Jan 16, Pres. Johnson approved OPLAN 34A-64, calling for stepped up infiltration and covert operations against North Vietnam to be transferred from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to the military."

1964        Feb 1, President Lyndon B. Johnson rejected Charles de Gaulle's plan for a neutral Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1964        Feb 9, The U.S. embassy in Moscow was stoned by Chinese and Vietnamese students.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1964        Mar 29, The U.S. planned to add $50 million a year for aid to South Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1964        Jun 20, General William Westmoreland succeeded General Paul Harkins as head of the U.S. forces in Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/20/98)

1964        Jun 23, Henry Cabot Lodge resigned as the U.S. envoy to Vietnam and was succeeded by Maxwell Taylor.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1964        Jul 14, The United States sent 600 more troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1964        Jul 27, President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1964        Jul 30, US Naval fired on Hon Ngu and Hon Mo in North Vietnam.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1964        Aug 2, The Pentagon reported the first of two attacks on U.S. destroyers by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. U.S. destroyer Maddox was reportedly attacked by North Vietnamese patrol boats. Later evidence supported claims that the Tonkin Gulf incident was deliberately provoked or was in reaction to American covert operations.
    (AP, 8/2/97)(www.usni.org/navalhistory/articles99/nhandrade.htm#tx17)

1964        Aug 4, Pres. Johnson ordered an immediate retaliation for the Aug 2 attack on the US destroyer Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin off North Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1964        Aug 4, The destroyers U.S.S. Maddox and Turner Joy allegedly exchanged fire with supposed North Vietnamese patrol boats. At the time it was taken as evidence that Hanoi was raising the stakes against the United States. The destroyers were in effect shooting at false radar contacts. In 2005 it was reported that a secret 2001 report had concluded that the NSA officers deliberately distorted the Aug 4 data to support the belief that North Vietnamese ships attacked American destroyers 2 days after a previous clash.
    (www.usni.org/navalhistory/articles99/nhandrade.htm#tx17)(SFC, 10/31/05, p.A3)

1964        Aug 5, US began bombing North Vietnam. Lt. Everett Alvarez Jr. was shot down and captured at Ha Long Bay in Vietnam. Alvarez became the first naval aviator captured by the North Vietnamese and spent eight-and-one-half years in captivity. Alvarez later co-authored two books, writing of his prisoner of war experiences in “Chained Eagle" and “Code Of Conduct."

1964        Aug 7, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, giving President Johnson broad powers in dealing with reported North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. forces. It allowed the president to use unlimited military force to prevent attacks on U.S. forces. U.S. Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska share the distinction of casting the only votes against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964. The resolution supported President Lyndon Johnson's military actions against North Vietnam in retaliation for its attack on a U.S. spy ship in the Tonkin Gulf. The resolution passed in the House 414-0 and the Senate 88-2. The resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war, was repealed by Congress on January 13, 1971.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(HNQ, 6/24/98)(HN, 8/7/98)

1964        Sep 18, U.S. destroyers fired on hostile targets in Vietnam.
    (HN, 9/18/98)

1964        Sep, The US Joint Chiefs of Staff organized a war game called SIGMA II which attempted to predict how Hanoi and the Viet Cong would react to the Johnson policy of "graduated pressure." It predicted that escalation would erode public support in the US.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.9)

1964        Nov 1, The Vietcong assaulted the Bien Hoa airport at Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1964        Nov 14, The U.S. First Cavalry Division battled with the North Vietnamese Army in the Ia Drang Valley, the first ground combat for American troops.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1964        Dec 12, Three Buddhist leaders began a hunger strike to protest the government in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1964        Dec 24, The U.S. headquarters in Saigon, South Vietnam, was hit by a bomb. Two officers were killed.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1964        In South Vietnam pro Dai Viet officers overthrew Maj. Gen. Duong Van Minh. Maj. Gen. Nguyen Khanh assumed the role of premier with the backing of the US. Nguyen Ton Hoan returned to Saigon and became 1st deputy premier overseeing pacification efforts in the countryside.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.C2)

1964        Col. Nguyen Van Thieu joined Air Marshal Ky to oust the military government and became a member of the new ruling Armed Forces Council in South Vietnam.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)

1964        Howard Simpson served as the US advisor to Prime Minister Nguyen Khanh in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.C4)

1964        During the Vietnam War, Douglas AC-47 gunships were known as "Spookies." Originally nicknamed "Gooney Birds", the World War II-era plane was refitted into a side-firing gunship in 1964. Though it was dubbed "Puff the Magic Dragon" for its amazing firepower delivered to troops in trouble, the AC-47 later became known as a "Spooky" which was its call sign in-country.
    (HNQ, 8/14/00)

1964        A major in Vietnam flood killed 10,000 people.
    (SFC, 11/8/99, p.A12)

1964-1968    The US military Studies and Observations Group ran a secret operation whereby fishermen were kidnapped and taken to a phony North Vietnamese village, so that they could report on a liberated area of North Vietnam.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.D4)
1964-1973    South Korea deployed more than 300,000 military personnel to help the US effort in South Vietnam against the communists.
    (AP, 2/19/19)

1965        Jan 27, Military leaders ousted the civilian government of Tran Van Huong in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1965        Feb 6, A Viet Cong raid on a base in Pleiku, South Vietnam, killed 7-8 US GIs.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)

1965        Feb 7, U.S. jets hit Don Hoi guerrilla base in reprisal for the Viet Cong raids. Pres. Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam following the deaths of 9 US soldiers near Pleiku.
    (HN, 2/7/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1965        Feb 8, South Vietnamese bombed the North Vietnamese communications center at Vinh Linh.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1965        Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign intensified. In 2006 Rick Newman and Don Shepperd authored “Bury Us Upside Down: The Misty Pilots and the Secret Battle for the Ho Chi Minh Trail," an account of the pilots who flew low scouting for targets that threatened US bombers.
    (HN, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 3/2/06, p.D8)

1965        Mar 2, More than 150 U.S. and South Vietnamese planes bombed two bases in North Vietnam in the first of the "Rolling Thunder" raids.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1965        Mar 6, The U.S. announced that it would send 3,500 troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1965        Mar 8, The United States landed its 1st combat troops, about 3,500 Marines in South Vietnam. More than 4,000 Marines landed. They joined some 23,000 Americans who had been serving as military advisors to South Vietnam for several years. Gen. Frederick Karch (d.2009 at 92) landed with the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade on Red Beach at Da Nang. Prior to their arrival all military personnel in Vietnam were there as advisors.
    (AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(SFC, 8/18/00, p.D2)(SFC, 5/27/09, p.B9)

1965        Mar 11, The American navy began inspecting Vietnamese junks in hopes of ending arms smuggling to  South Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1965        Mar 22, US confirmed its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong in South Vietnam.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1965        Apr 29, Australian government announced it would send troops to Vietnam.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1965        May 5, 1st large-scale US Army ground units arrived in South Vietnam.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1965        May 30, Viet Cong offensive began against US base at Da Nang, South Vietnam.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1965        Jun 8, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground forces to combat.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1965        Jun 14, A military triumvirate took control in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1965        Jun 17, Twenty-seven B-52's hit Viet Cong outposts but lost two planes in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1965        Jun 19, Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky became South Vietnam's youngest premier at age 34.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1965        Jul 18, US Adm. Jeremiah Denton (1924-2014) was shot down over North Vietnam as he flew in on the Thanh Hoa Bridge on the Ma River. He spent the next seven years and seven months in prison camps. In 1976 he wrote a memoir with Ed Brandt “When Hell Was in Session" of his ordeal. It was made into a 1979 TV movie.
    (SFC, 3/29/14, p.C6)

1965        Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 "almost immediately."
    (HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)

1965        Aug 2, Newsman Morley Safer filmed the destruction of the Vietnamese village of Cam Ne by US Marines. Safer sent the 1st Vietnam report indicating we are losing. Safer’s report was broadcast by CBS on August 5 and led Pres. Johnson to call CBS demanding that Safer be fired. CBS president Frank Stanton refused to fire Safer.
    (HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.A8)

1965        Aug 18, Operation Starlite marked the beginning of major U.S. ground combat operations in Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1965        Aug 19, U.S. forces destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuong, in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1965        Aug 28, The Viet Cong were routed in the Mekong Delta by U.S. forces, with more than 50 killed.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1965        Aug, In Vietnam Soviet supplied SAM missiles shot down at least two US jets.

1965        Sep 9, US Navy pilot James Stockdale (d.2005) was shot down in Vietnam. He was beaten, tortured and taken to Hoa Lo prison (Hanoi Hilton) and released in 1973. In 1992 he ran as VP candidate with Ross Perot.
    (SFC, 7/6/05, p.B7)

1965        Sep 11, The US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), arrived in South Vietnam and was stationed at An Khe.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1965        Sep 20, Seven U.S. planes were downed in one day over Vietnam.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1965        Oct 5, U.S. forces in Saigon, South Vietnam, received permission to use tear gas.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1965        Oct 10, Ronald Reagan spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official declaration of war in Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1965        Nov 14, US government sent 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/14/01)
1965        Nov 14, Bruce Crandall (32) flew through a gantlet of enemy fire, taking ammunition in and wounded Americans out of the Battle at Ia Drang Valley, one of the fiercest battles of the Vietnam War. Crandall's actions were depicted in the Hollywood movie "We Were Soldiers," adapted from the book "We Were Soldiers Once ... And Young." In 2007 he was awarded a Medal of Honor.
    (AP, 2/26/07)

1965        Nov 15, In the second day of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia Drang Valley, South Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(HN, 11/15/99)

1965        Nov 16, In the last day of the fighting at Landing Zone X-Ray, regiments of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division repulsed NVA forces in the Ia Drang Valley. Joe Galloway served at LZ X-ray. He later received the Bronze Star for his actions during the epic battle. Based on that and his subsequent actions in Vietnam, Galloway came to be regarded by the military leadership and the GIs alike as a journalist who was fair, objective, and who could be trusted to get the story right. He co-authored with Lt. Gen. Hal More "We Were Soldiers Once," which was made into a film with Mel Gibson
    (HN, 11/16/99)(HNQ, 10/2/02)

1965        Nov 17, The NVA ambushed American troops of the 7th Cavalry at Landing Zone Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, almost wiping them out. Some 500 US troops from Landing Zone X-Ray encountered some 500 North Vietnamese troops at L-Z Albany and more soldiers were killed than in the previous 3 days of fighting. Among the wounded was Jack Smith (d.2004), son of TV commentator Howard K. Smith. Jack smith went on to become an ABC New correspondent.
    (HN, 11/17/00)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E1)

1965        Nov 27, 15-25,000 demonstrated in Wash DC against the war in Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1965        Nov,  The 1st major American battle of the Vietnam war using armored vehicles was at Ap Bau Bang. The 1st Infantry Division engaged in its first major battle near the village of Ap Bau Bang, along National Route 13--known as "Thunder Road." General William E. DePuy later called it "one of the most gallant stands of the Vietnam War."
    (HNQ, 8/2/02)

1965        Nov, British-born Rick Rescorla served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry when they made their fateful air assault into LZ Albany in the Ia Drang Valley. He features prominently in Hal Moore's and Joe Gallway's acclaimed book, "We Were Soldiers Once…And Young." He later helped save thousands of people and died a hero's death at the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001. As the security director for a major American corporation, Rescorla was a hero of both attacks on the World Trade Center. On 9-11 he managed to get all but a few of his company's thousands of employees out of the tower. He was last seen heading back into the building with FDNY rescue crews when it collapsed.
    (HNQ, 6/10/02)

1965        Dec 18, U.S. Marines attacked VC units in the Que Son Valley, South Vietnam, during Operation Harvest Moon.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1965        Dec 22, The EF-105F Wild Weasel made its first kill over Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1965        Dec 24, US troops in Vietnam reached 184,300. Gen. Westmoreland wanted 210,000 by the end of the year.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.88)

1965        Dec 29, A Christmas truce was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1965        Marcus Raskin co-edited “The Vietnam Reader," an influential historical anthology about Vietnam.
    (SFC, 12/28/17, p.D5)
1965        Nguyen Van Thieu, the South Vietnam ruling junta's chairman of the National Directorate, became chief of state.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)
1965        The Thuan Thanh center was established for wounded soldiers. In 1997 it was but one of 57 veteran's centers across the country.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)
1965        The US sustained bombing mission known as "Rolling Thunder" was begun in Vietnam.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)
1965        John Paul Vann (d.972), American military adviser, returned to Vietnam as a civilian adviser. He had achieved outstanding tactical results in the field, but retired from the Army. In 1963 Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann was the adviser to the ARVN 7th Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Huynh Van Cao. Despite Vann's success in the field, he alienated Cao and the military-political rulers in Saigon. Reassigned to the Pentagon after his advisory tour, Vann decided that his experience in Vietnam would cost him further promotion, and he retired from the Army. After a stint in the private sector, Vann returned to Vietnam in 1965 as a pacification representative for the Agency of International Development (AID). Vann eventually rose to the level of senior adviser for the Central Highlands, a position that gave him authority over all U.S. military forces in the region. The authority was equivalent to that of a major general. As principal adviser for an ARVN general who commanded 158,000 troops in the region, he was one of the most influential Americans in Vietnam, after the ambassador and the commanding general of MACV.
    (HNQ, 9/27/01)
1965        William Pitsenbarger was an Air Force Pararescueman who volunteered to descend from a helicopter to the jungle floor to help a company of the 1st Infantry Division that was pinned down and fighting for its life. He rescued many wounded soldiers, and he refused evacuation himself after he was wounded several times, finally fatally. He was awarded a posthumous Air Force Cross, but the men of the company he went to help fought for many years to get the award upgraded to the Medal of Honor. Pitsenbarger was one of only two Air Force enlisted men to earn the Medal of Honor in Vietnam, and the first since the end of World War II.
    (HNQ, 6/18/02)
1965        US Army Captain Larry Thorne was killed when his helicopter was downed during a special forces mission. This was portrayed in the 1968 film "The Green Berets" with John Wayne as Thorne. Thorne was born in Finland as Lauri Torni and a group of Finns planned to exhume his remains from Vietnam in 1999 for return to Finland.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A14)

1965-1973    Some 300,000 South Korean troops fought alongside US forces in Vietnam. In 1998 South Korea expressed to Hanoi its regret for its participation in the war.
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)
1965-1973    General Bob Worley was the only U.S. Air Force general officer to die in actual combat during the Vietnam War. He was a tactical fighter pilot whose RF-4C Phantom caught fire while on a patrol over North Vietnam.
    (HNQ, 12/18/02)

1966        Jan 1, The 173rd Airborne Brigade became the first American unit in the Mekong Delta of South Vietnam.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1966        Jan 12, US President Johnson said in his State of the Union address that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there was ended.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1966        Jan 31, U.S. planes resumed bombing of North Vietnam after a 37-day pause.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1966        Feb 12, The South Vietnamese won two big battles in the Mekong Delta. In Vietnam's Mekong Delta, Navy SEALs were the military's eyes and ears, providing vital intelligence on enemy operations.
    (HN, 2/12/97)

1966        Feb 16, The World Council of Churches being held in Geneva, urged immediate peace in Vietnam. Vietnam was the war that five presidents "owned"--and yet no president "owned."
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1966        Feb 19, Robert F. Kennedy suggested the U.S. offer the Vietcong a role in governing South Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1966        Mar 2, There were some 215,000 US soldiers in Vietnam. Gen. Westmoreland called for 325,000 by July and 410,000 by December.
    (SC, 3/2/02)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.88)

1966        Mar 9, In Vietnam Bennie Adkins (32) was among a handful of Americans working with troops of the South Vietnamese Civilian Irregular Defense Group at Camp A Shau when the camp was attacked by a large North Vietnamese and Viet Cong force. In 2014 Adkins was awarded the Medal of Honor for as many as 175 enemy troops killed, 18 wounds from enemy fire, 38 hours of battle, 48 hours evading the North Vietnamese troops in the bush.
    (http://tinyurl.com/myqsyue)(SFC, 9/16/14, p.A7)

1966        Mar 10, The North Vietnamese captured a Green Beret camp at Ashau Valley.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1966        Mar 16, Col. Paul Underwood flew a bombing mission over Lai Chau Province in Vietnam and crashed after releasing bombs from his F-105 Thunderchief. His remains were returned to the US in 1998.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A14)
1966        Mar 16, Alfred Rascon, a US Army medic in South Vietnam, saved the lives of a number of his platoon members using his own wounded body to cover wounded men while treating their wounds under fire. He received the Medal of Honor in 2000.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A2)

1966        Mar 27, Anti-Vietnam war demonstrations took place in US, Europe and Australia.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1966        Mar 28, Navy corpsman Robert R. Ingram was shot while with his platoon of marines on a ridge in Quang Ngai province, South Vietnam. He continued providing medical attention to his comrades with multiple wounds to himself. He was awarded a belated Medal of Honor in 1998 due to lost paperwork.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A3)

1966        Apr 3, Three-thousand South Vietnamese Army troops led a protest against the Ky regime in Saigon.
    (HN, 4/3/98)

1966        Apr 12, 1st B-52 bombing on North Vietnam took place.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1966        Apr 19, Lt. Lee Aaron Adams of Willits, Ca., was killed when his F-105D Thunderchief fighter plane was shot down in North Vietnam. His remains were returned home in 2005. During 1966 the US Air Force lost 126 Thunderchiefs.
    (SFC, 6/2/05, p.A1)

1966        May 15, South Vietnamese army battled Buddhists and about 80 died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1966        May 17, A North Vietnamese interview with US Adm. Jeremiah Denton (1924-2014) was broadcast on US TV. He had been shot down over North Vietnam in 1965. Denton used his eyes to blink out T-O-R-T-U-R-E in Morse code. This was the first confirmation that American POWs were being tortured.
    (SFC, 3/29/14, p.C6)

1966        May 26, A Buddhist monk set himself on fire at US consulate in Hu, South-Vietnam.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1966        Jun 29, The U.S. Air Force bombed fuel storage facilities near Hanoi and Haiphong, North Vietnam. Republic Aircraft's F-105 Thunderchief, better known as the 'Thud,' was the Air Force's warhorse in Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(AP, 6/29/97)

1966        Jul 1, The U.S. Marines launched Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1966        Jul 7, The U.S. Marine Corps launched Operation Hasting to drive the North Vietnamese Army back across the Demilitarized Zone in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1966        Jul 17, Ho Chi Minh ordered a partial mobilization of North Vietnam to defend against American airstrikes.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1966        Jul 22, B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1966        Jul 30, US airplanes bombed the demilitarized zone in Vietnam.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1966        Aug 7, The United States lost seven planes over North Vietnam, the most in the war up to this point.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1966        Aug 18, Australians bloodily repulsed a Viet Cong attack at Long Tan, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1966        Aug, The commander of 5th Special Forces established an ad hoc Mobile Force that he carved out of his resources. Initially the element was called Task Force 777, later renamed Blackjack 21. The "2" was for the II Corps area that included the Central Highlands, home to several Montagnard tribes. The "1" meant it was the first of its kind in II Corps--and in Vietnam. The formal mission statement was: "To infiltrate into the area of operations and conduct border surveillance, interdict infiltration routes, and conduct guerrilla-type operations against known VC installations. Infiltration, reconnaissance, operations, and exfiltration will be executed clandestinely."
    (HNQ, 10/16/02)

1966        Sep 4, US pilot Ron Bliss was shot down over North Vietnam and spent 6 1/2 years in prison at the "Hanoi Hilton."
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.50)

1966        Sep 14, Operation Attleboro, designed as a training exercise for American troops in South Vietnam, became a month-long struggle against the Viet Cong.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1966        Oct 6, Hanoi insisted the United States must end its bombing in Vietnam before peace talks could begin.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1966        Oct 10, U.S. Forces launched Operation Robin, in Hoa Province south of Saigon in South Vietnam, to provide road security between villages.
    (HN, 10/10/98)

1966        Oct 13, 173 US airplanes bombed North-Vietnam.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1966        Oct 14, 175 US airplanes bombed North Vietnam.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1966        Dec 5, Comedian and political activist Dick Gregory headed for Hanoi, North Vietnam despite federal warnings against it.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1966        Dec 13, The 1st US bombing of Hanoi, North Vietnam, took place.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1966        Douglas Eugene Pike, US State Dept. officer, authored "Viet Cong." In 1986 he authored "PAVN: People's Army of Vietnam."
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A22)

1966        In Vietnam Thich Nhat Hanh founded the Order of Interbeing and embarked on a first trip to the US.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, Z1 p.3)
1966        North Vietnam accepted an offer by North Korea to send three companies of pilots who would form a regiment equipped with 30 aircraft in total. They were to wear North Vietnamese uniforms and Vietnam would provide the aircraft, facilities and equipment. Only in 2000-2001 was the participation of the North Korean pilots officially acknowledged by Hanoi and Pyongyang.
    (AP, 2/19/19)

1967        Jan 6, Some 16,000 US and 14,000 South Vietnamese troops started their biggest attack on the Iron Triangle, northwest of Saigon. They launched Operation Deckhouse V, an offensive in the Mekong River delta.
    (AP, 1/6/98) (HN, 1/6/99)

1967        Jan 15, Some 462 Yale faculty members called for an end to the bombing in North Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1967        Jan 29, Thirty-seven civilians were killed by a U.S. helicopter attack in Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1967        Feb 9, The US military said American casualties in the Vietnam War now number 50,529. This included 8,790 killed since January 1, 1960.
    (SSFC, 2/5/17, DB p.54)

1967        Feb 15, Thirteen US helicopters were shot down in one day in Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1967        Feb 22, More than 25,000 US and South Vietnamese troops launched Operation Junction City, aimed at smashing a Vietcong stronghold near the Cambodian border. In order to deny the Vietcong cover, and allow men to see through the dense vegetation, herbicides were dumped on the forests near the South Vietnamese borders as well as Cambodia and Laos. The operation continued to May 14.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Junction_City)(HN, 2/22/99)(AP, 2/22/07)(HN, 2/23/98)

1967        Mar 24, In Vietnam B Battery was replaced at Gio Linh and returned to base camp at JJ Carroll. The entire battalion had been involved in Operation High Rise, the first Operation involving heavy artillery firing at targets in North Vietnam. The firing into North Vietnam proceeded with an intense rate in an effort to stifle the enemy supply channels from the North.

1967        Mar 27, A North Vietnamese spokesman unequivocally rejected a new peace plan proposed by UN Sec. General U Thant (1907-1974) on March 14.

1967        Apr 5, Pres. Johnson appointed Ellsworth Bunker (1894-1984) as the new ambassador to Saigon, South Vietnam. Bunker replaced Lodge and continued as ambassador to 1973.

1967        Apr 11, In the Vietnam War, US planes bombed two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam.

1967        Apr 14, In San Francisco thousands marched from the Ferry building to Kezar Stadium against the Vietnam war. The marchers filled the 40,000 capacity stadium.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)

1967        Apr 17, In Vietnam Lt. Col. Leo Thorsness and “backseater" Harry Johnson shot down 2 MiG fighters. Both men were captured on Apr 28, and spent 6 years as POWs. 
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A9)

1967        Apr 20, U.S. planes bombed Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1967        Apr 28, Gen. William C. Westmoreland told Congress the United States "would prevail in Vietnam."
    (AP, 4/28/97)
1967        Apr 28, Lt. Col. Leo Thorsness and “backseater" Harry Johnson ejected over North Vietnam following an attack by an enemy MiG fighter. They were released along with other POWs in 1973. In Oct, 1973, Thorsness received a Medal of Honor. In 2008 he authored “Surviving Hell: A POWs Journey."
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A9)

1967        May 2, The Stockholm Vietnam Tribunal opened and continued to May 10. The formation of this investigative body immediately followed the 1966 publication of Bertrand Russell's book, “War Crimes in Vietnam." It condemned US aggression in Vietnam and Cambodia. A 2nd session of the tribunal was held at Roskilde, Denmark, Nov 20 – Dec 1, 1967.

1967        May 9, Marine Sgt. James Neil Tycz (22) and three other US servicemen were killed on Hill 665 near Khe Sanh, Vietnam, close to the Laos border. In 2005 three of the men were buried at Arlington National Cemetery on the 38th anniversary of their deaths.
    (AP, 5/8/05)

1967        May 19, The first U.S. air strike on central Hanoi in North Vietnam was launched.
    (HN, 5/19/98)

1967        May 20, 10,000 demonstrated against the war in Vietnam.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1967        May, The American organization known as CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) was formed to coordinate the US civil and military pacification programs in Vietnam.

1967        Jul 2, The U.S. Marine Corps launches Operation Buffalo in response to the North Vietnamese Army's efforts to seize the Marine base at Con Thien.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1967        Jul 3, North Vietnamese soldiers attacked South Vietnam's only producing coal mine at Nong Son.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1967        Jul 25, US Navy Lt. Commander Donald Davis crashed his jet on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Searchers later recovered fragments of his remains for return to the US.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A4)

1967        Jul 29, Fire swept the USS Forrestal in the Gulf of Tonkin, off the coast of Vietnam, killing 134 servicemen with $100 million in damage. One survivor was Navy Lt. Cmdr. John McCain, who later became a US senator.
    (AP, 7/29/07)

1967        Jul 30, General William Westmoreland claimed that he is winning the war in Vietnam but needed more men.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1967        Aug 3, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced plans to send 45,000 more troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1967        Aug 11,  Roy M. Wheat (20) led a team from Company K, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines, providing security for a Navy construction crew on the Liberty Road in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. Lance Corporal Roy Wheat accidentally triggered a well-concealed, bounding type anti-personnel mine. He yelled for team members Lance Corporals Vernon Sorenson and Bernard Cannon to run. Then he flung himself onto the mine as it exploded, absorbing the tremendous impact with his body. Roy Wheat was killed, but his companions were spared certain injury and possible death. Marine Roy M. Wheat was the only Mississippian to earn the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 9/19/01)

1967        Sep 3, Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Thieu was elected president of South Vietnam under a new constitution.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)

1967        Sep 26, Hanoi rejected a U.S. peace proposal.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1967        Sep 23, Soviets signed a pact to send more aid to Hanoi.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1967        Oct 17, American forces of the black Lion battalion walked into an ambush set by NV commander Vo Minh Triet and 61 were killed. In 2003 David Maraniss authored "They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America," which centered on this battle and a protest in Wisconsin on Oct 18.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.82)(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.M3)

1967        Oct 21, Tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters marched in Washington, D.C. 35,000 people assembled outside the Pentagon to protest the war in Vietnam. The "March on the Pentagon," protesting American involvement in Vietnam , drew 50,000 protesters.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1967)(AP, 10/21/97)(HN, 10/21/98)

1967        Oct 26, US Navy pilot John McCain, later US Senator, was shot down in his A-4 over North Vietnam and spent 5 1/2 years in prison, two in solitary confinement. He signed a confession following torture admitting to being a war criminal and in 1999 published the family saga "Faith of My Fathers." The 1995 book "The Nightingale's Song" by Robert Timberg was about McCain.
    (SFC, 8/16/99, p.A1,4) (WSJ, 9/8/99, p.A24)

1967        Oct 31, Nguyen Van Thieu took the oath of office as the first president of South Vietnam's second republic.
    (AP, 10/31/97)

1967        Oct, US Capt. John McCain, bomber pilot, bailed out from his damaged plane and fell into Hanoi's Truc Bach Lake. He was rescued by Main Van On of the People's Army of Vietnam. McCain later became a US senator.
    (SFC, 11/14/96, p.A11)

1967        Nov 5, US troops conquered Loc Ninh South Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1967        Nov 16, Haiphong shipyard in North Vietnam was hit by U.S. planes for the first time.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1967         Nov 19, In Vietnam, the Tiger Force, an elite US Army unit of the 101st Airborne Division, achieved their 327th kill. The unit had killed hundreds of civilians in Hanh Thien, a Central Highland area, over the last seven months. US Army Lt. Col. Gerald Morse had called for 327 kills to match the name of the 327th infantry regiment. In 2006 Michael Sallah and Mitch Weiss authored “Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War." It was based on secret documents from Henry Tufts (d.2002), former head of the Army’s Criminal Investigations Command (CID).
    (AP, 10/25/03)(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.M1)

1967        Nov 24, Cambodian triple agent Inchin Lam was murdered. Special Forces Captain John J. McCarthy was accused and later tried for the murder in a court in Vietnam. Murder charges were later dropped.

1967        Nov 30, The US Military Command announced that more than 15,000 Americans have been killed and more than 109,000 wounded in South Vietnam since January 1961.
    (SSFC, 11/26/17, DB p.54)

1967        Nov, a task force from the 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry, under Maj. Gilbert Dorland, fought a fierce three-day battle at Hill 63 with the North Vietnamese Army's 2nd Battalion, 3rd Regiment. Early in the battle, Dorland was thrown off the APC he was riding on, and then run over by that same vehicle. Because the ground was soft and mushy, Dorland was not crushed instantly, but was injured severely and in great pain. Nonetheless, he remained in command for almost another 24 hours. He later received the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism.
    (HNQ, 2/4/02)

1967        Dec 8, In the biggest battle yet in the Mekong Delta, 365 Vietcong were killed.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1967        Dec 12, The U.S. ended the airlift of 6,500 men in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1967        Dec 20, Some 474,300 US soldiers were stationed in Vietnam.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1967        Dec 23, US Navy SEALs were ambushed during an operation southeast of Saigon.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1967        Dec, In Vietnam Charlie Liteky (d.2017) dragged more than 20 of his injured fellow servicemen after his company came under attack in Bien Hoa province. A year later Pres. Johnson awarded Liteky the Medal of Honor. In July, 1986, he returned his medal in a letter to Pres. Reagan in protest of Reagan’s military policy in Latin America.
    (SFC, 1/23/17, p.C2)

1967        Norman Mailer (1923-2007), American writer, authored “Why Are We in Vietnam."
    (SSFC, 11/11/07, p.A7)
1967        Thich Nhat Hanh was nominated by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. for the Nobel Peace Prize. No winner was selected in this year.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, Z1 p.3)

1968        Jan 13, The U.S. reported shifting most air targets from North Vietnam to Laos.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1968        Jan 14, US forces in Vietnam launched Operation Niagara I to locate enemy units around the Marine base at Khe Sanh.
    {USA, Vietnam}

1968        Jan 19, Cambodia charged that the United States and South Vietnam have crossed the border and killed three Cambodians.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1968        Jan 21, In Vietnam the Battle of Khe Sahn began as North Vietnamese forces attacked a US Marine base; the Americans were able to hold their position until the siege was lifted 2 1/2 months later. It was the longest and bloodiest battle of the Vietnam War. The Battle began at 0530 hours when North Vietnamese Army forces hammered the Marine-occupied Khe Sanh Combat Base with rocket, mortar, artillery, small arms, and automatic weapons fire. Hundreds of 82-mm mortar rounds and 122-mm rockets slammed into the combat base. Virtually all of the base's ammunition stock and a substantial portion of the fuel supplies were destroyed.
    (WSJ, 5/2/02, p.D7)(AP, 1/21/08)(www.vietnam-war.info/battles/siege_of_khe_sanh.php)

1968        Jan 29, A court convened in Vietnam for the murder of Cambodian, triple agent Inchin Lam, by Special Forces Captain John J. McCarthy Jr. Murder charges were later dropped due to exculpatory evidence and proven prosecutorial fraud on the court. A civil action for $1.3 billion in US Federal District Court, Washington D.C. against the CIA and associated agencies was dismissed in 2003.

1968        Jan 30, The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Communist forces launched a surprise offensive on the lunar New Year Tet holiday truce that became known as the Tet Offensive. They struck in a coordinated attack on 36 of South Vietnam’s 44 provincial capitals, and 70 other towns in the country. Although the Communists were beaten back, the offensive was seen as a major setback for the US and its allies.
    (www.ashbrook.org/publicat/dialogue/hayward-tet.html)(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A25)(AP, 1/30/08)

1968        Jan 31, In Vietnam, the Tet Offensive continued as Viet Cong and North Vietnamese soldiers attacked strategic and civilian locations throughout South Vietnam. The Viet Cong, under General Vo Nguyen Giap (b.1911), seized part of the US embassy in Saigon for 6 hours. They attacked more than 100 cities in South Vietnam with many US casualties. Although the Communists were beaten back, the offensive was seen as a major setback for the US and its allies. During the Tet Offensive, the Communist troops who took control of the ancient capital of Hue killed an estimated 6,000 civilians before they again lost control of the city.
    (www.vwam.com/vets/tet/tet.html)(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A25)(AP, 1/30/08)

1968        Feb 1, US troops drove the North Vietnamese out of Tan Son Nhut airport in Saigon. South Vietnam President Nguyen Van Thieu declared martial law. Saigon's police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan executed a Viet Cong officer with a pistol shot to the head in a scene captured by Associated Press photographer Eddie Adams and NBC News.
    (HN, 2/1/99)(SFC, 7/16/98, p.B2)(AP, 2/1/08)

1968        Feb 5, US troops divided Viet Cong at Hue while the Saigon government claimed they would arm loyal citizens. The main assaults at Khe Sanh started.
    (HN, 2/5/99)(http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Siege_of_Khe_Sanh/)

1968        Feb 7, North Vietnamese used 11 Soviet-built light tanks to overrun the US Special Forces camp at Lang Vei at the end of an 18-hour long siege.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1968        Feb 8, Robert F. Kennedy said that the US cannot win the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1968        Feb 13, The US sent 10,500 more combat troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1968        Feb 18, Three US pilots, who had been held by the Vietnamese, arrived in Washington. The Vietnamese people later pressured Hanoi to account for their own 300,000 MIAs.
    (HN, 2/18/98)
1968        Feb 18, Some 10,000 people in West Berlin demonstrated against US in Vietnam War.

1968        Feb 20, A Hue, South Vietnam, army chief ordered all looters to be shot on sight.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1968        Feb 29, Robert McNamara resigned as US Secretary of Defense as a result of the Tet disaster. He was succeeded by Clark Clifford for 9 months who worked to reverse US policy in Vietnam.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A2)

1968        Mar 2, In Vietnam the siege of Khe Sanh ended and the US Marines stationed there were still in control of the mountain top. Gen. John J. Tolson presented a briefing and laid out the concept of what became known as Operation Pegasus. The siege of Khe Sanh was the longest and bloodiest battle of the Vietnam War. During the siege Manny Babbit was wounded. Babbit in 1980 killed a 78-year-old woman in Sacramento, Ca., and was convicted and sentenced to death. He was awarded his Purple Heart while on death row in 1998.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Khe_Sanh)(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A1)

1968        Mar 3, The Tet offensive at Hue, South Vietnam, ended with the crushing of the last Viet Cong resistance. North Vietnamese troops had captured the imperial palace in Hue, South Vietnam. US troops reconquered Hue, Vietnam.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(HN, 2/24/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hue)

1968        Mar 7, The First Battle of Saigon, begun on Jan 30 as part of the Tet Offensive, ended.

1968        Mar 9, General William Westmoreland asked for 206,000 more troops in Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1968        Mar 15, American intelligence noted withdrawal of major NVA units from the Khe Sanh area.

1968        Mar 16, LBJ decided to send 35-50,000 more troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/16/98)
1968        Mar 16, In Vietnam Lt. Calley led 105 men of Company C into My Lai and at least 347 of 700 Vietnamese civilians were killed. Estimates of villagers massacred ranged from 347-504. Other killings by B company occurred nearby. Col. Oran K. Henderson (d.1998 at 77) was on his first day as commanding officer of the new 11th Infantry Brigade and watched from a command helicopter. Hugh Thompson (d.2006), a helicopter pilot, observed the end of the massacre. He landed between some remaining villagers and his fellow soldiers and ordered his gunner to fire on American troops if necessary. With 2 other gunships he airlifted to safety a dozen villagers. He and his gunner were awarded the Soldier's Medal in 1998. The atrocity was exposed by Ron Ridenhour (d.1998 at 52), a door gunner on an observation helicopter, who flew over the village a few days after the event. He waited several months until he was out of the service before reporting the event to state and congressional officials. The Army later charged 25 officers and enlisted men in the massacre but only Lt. Calley was convicted. Gen. Samuel W. Koster (d.2006) was charged with covering up the killings, but criminal charges were eventually dismissed. Koster was censured, stripped of a medal and demoted one rank to brigadier general. John Sack (d.2004), war correspondent, later authored "Lieutenant Calley: His Own Story." In 1999 Trent Angers authored "The Forgotten Hero of My Lai: The Hugh Thompson Story."
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A9)(SFC, 3/16/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/11/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/6/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 11/2/99, p.A24)(SFC, 3/31/04, p.B7)(SFC, 1/6/06, p.B5) (SFC, 2/14/06, p.B7)(AP, 3/16/08)

1968        Mar 17, A peaceful anti-Vietnam War protest in London was followed by a riot outside the US Embassy; more than 80 people were reported injured. Some 20,000 people at the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign in London were mowed down by police on horses as they marched.
    (AP, 3/17/08)(SFC, 5/22/98, p.C12)(www.springerlink.com/content/qg812p1147300117/)

1968        Mar 22, Gen'l. William Westmoreland (1914-2005) was relieved of his duties in the wake of the Tet disaster. Troop strength under Westmoreland had reached over 500,000 and he wanted more. He was succeeded by Gen'l. Creighton Abrams. Abrams reversed Westmoreland's strategy. He ended major "search and destroy" missions and focused on protecting population centers. William Colby took charge of the pacification campaign. President Lyndon B. Johnson named Gen. William C. Westmoreland to be the Army's new Chief of Staff.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 6/23/99, p.A24)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.79)(AP, 3/22/08)

1968        Mar 31, Pres. Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election and declared a partial bombing halt in Vietnam. The stock market soared. Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(TMC, 1994, p.1968)(SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.4)(AP, 3/31/97)

1968        Apr 1, In Vietnam the U.S. Army launched Operation Pegasus to reopen a land route to the besieged Khe Sanh Marine base.
    (HN, 4/1/99)(www.geocities.com/Pentagon/4867/timeline.html)

1968        Apr 3, North Vietnam agreed to meet with US representatives to set up preliminary peace talks.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1968        Apr 5, In Vietnam the siege of Khe Sahn ended after 76 days.
    (HN, 5/5/97)

1968        Apr 8, In Vietnam Khe Sanh was officially relieved after 77 days by the US 2nd Cavalry.   U.S. forces in Operation Pegasus finally retook Route 9, ending the siege of Khe Sanh. Khe Sanh had been the biggest single battle of the Vietnam War to that point. The official assessment of the North Vietnamese Army dead was just over 1,600 killed, with two divisions all but annihilated. Thousands more were probably killed by American bombing.

1968        Apr 10, President Johnson replaced General Westmoreland with General Creighton Abrams in Vietnam [see Mar 22].
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1968        Apr 16, The Pentagon announced the "Vietnamization" of the war; troops will begin coming home.
    (HN, 4/16/99)

1968        Apr 30, US Marines attacked a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1968        May 1, In a second day of battle, US Marines, with the support of naval fire, continued their attack on a North Vietnamese Division at Dai Do.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1968        May 2, The US Army attacked Nhi Ha in South Vietnam and began a fourteen-day battle to wrestle it away from Vietnamese Communists.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1968        May 3, After three days of battle, the US Marines retook Dai Do complex in Vietnam, only to find the North Vietnamese had evacuated the area.
    (HN, 5/3/99)

1968        May 5, US Air Force planes hit Nhi Ha, South Vietnam, in support of attacking infantrymen.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1968        May 10, Preliminary Vietnam peace talks began in Paris.
    (AP, 5/10/97)

1968        May 13, Peace talks between the US and North Vietnam began in Paris.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(HN, 5/13/98)

1968        May 15, US Marines relieved army troops in Nhi Ha, South Vietnam, after a fourteen-day battle.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1968        Jun 7, In South Vietnam the week long Operation Swift Saber began. US Marines swept an area 10 miles northwest of Danang.

1968        Aug 11, Eight US troops were killed and 50 wounded when an Air Force F100 fighter accidentally bombed a US unit near Ta Bat, northeast of Saigon. The fighter intended on hitting Viet Cong who were located in front of the troops.

1968        Sep 19, Marine Capt. Robert A. Holt and Capt. John A. Lavoo were killed when their F-4B Phantom jet crashed during combat a mission over Quang Binh Province. Their remains were identified and returned to the US in 1999.
    (SFC, 6/8/99, p.A9)

1968        Oct 4, Cambodia admitted that the Viet Cong used their country for sanctuary.

1968        Oct 8, US forces in Vietnam launched Operation Sealord, an attack on North Vietnamese supply lines and base areas.

1968        Oct 31, President Johnson announced a halt to all US bombing of North Vietnam, effective the next morning, saying he hoped for fruitful peace negotiations.

1968        Nov 1, Lyndon B. Johnson's halt to bombing in Vietnam went into effect at 8 AM, Washington time.

1968        Nov 14, In the US "National Turn in Your Draft Card Day" featured draft card burning as the Vietnam death toll approached 30,000 and US troop strength in Vietnam reached its peak of 550,000.

1968        Dec 8, South Vietnam's vice president Nguyen Cao Ky arrived in Paris for peace talks.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1968        The US military "Project Urgency" returned some North Vietnamese prisoners with hidden incriminating evidence, so they would appear as US agents.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.D4)

1968-1970    Chuck Mawhinney, one of the United States Marine Corps' most accomplished snipers, served a 13-month tour in Vietnam and two six-month extensions. During that time he was credited with 103 confirmed kills and 216 probables.
    (HNQ, 12/16/02)

1969        Jan 1, President Nixon nominated Henry Cabot Lodge as negotiator at the Paris Peace Talks.

1969        Jan 5, Henry Cabot Lodge replaced Harriman as chief US negotiator at Paris.

1969        Jan 25, US-North Vietnamese peace talks began in Paris.

1969        Feb 23, Pres. Nixon approved the bombing of Cambodia. [see Mar 18]
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1969        Feb 25, In Vietnam Navy Lt. Bob Kerry (25) took part in a SEAL raid in the Mekong Delta where over a dozen women, children and old men were killed in the village of Thanh Phong. Kerry received a Bronze Star for the raid and later strongly regretted his actions. Soon after the raid Kerry lost a leg at Hon Tam Island and was later awarded a Congressional medal of Honor. In 2001 Kerry, former Gov. and Senator from Nebraska, made public his participation in the raid. In 2001 Bui Thi Luom of Thanh Phong, the only survivor from her hut of 16, said 20 people were killed "Only civilians, women and children." Kerry described the event in his 2002 memoir "When I Was a Young Man." In 2002 Gregory L. Vistica authored: "The Education of Lieutenant Kerry."
    (SFC, 4/26/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/27/01, p.A3)(SSFC, 4/29/01, p.A12)(SFC, 6/1/02, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/23/03, p.D14)

1969        Mar 13, In Vietnam Navy Lt. John Kerry rescued Jim Rassman on the Bay Hap River while under Viet Cong fire. In 2004 Kerry became the Democratic nominee for President.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A1)

1969        Mar 18, President Richard M. Nixon authorized Operation Menu, the 'secret' bombing of Cambodia [see Feb 23].

1969        Apr 30, US troops in Vietnam peaked at 543,000. Over 33,000 had already been killed.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)

1969        May 10, The Battle of Hamburger Hill began and lasted to May 20. In Vietnam US military strength peaked in this year with 550,000 men. Identified on American battle maps as Hill 937 the battle for Hamburger Hill, actually Ap Bia Mountain, which cost Americans 46 killed and 400 wounded, was one of the most significant battles of the Vietnam War as it spelled the end of major American ground combat operations. The ground gained in the battle was soon abandoned to the North Vietnamese Army, which lost some 633 soldiers killed in the fight. The American losses at Hamburger Hill, though not the most in one single action of the war, set off a firestorm of protest in the US [see May 20].
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A15)(HNQ, 4/4/99)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A18)

1969        May 12, Viet Cong sappers tried, unsuccessfully, to overrun Landing Zone Snoopy in Vietnam.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1969        May 14, Three companies of the 101st Airborne Division failed to push North Vietnamese forces off Hill 937 (Hamburger Hill) in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 5/14/01)

1969        May 18, In Vietnam two battalions of the 101st Airborne Division assaulted Hill 937 (Hamburger Hill) but could not reach the top because of muddy conditions.
    (HN, 5/18/00)

1969        May 20, U.S. troops of the 101st Airborne Division and South Vietnamese forces captured Ap Bia Mountain, Hill 937, after nine days of fighting entrenched North Vietnamese forces. Ap Bia was referred to as Hamburger Hill by the Americans, following one of the bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 5/20/02)(AP, 5/20/08)

1969        Jun 2, Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne sliced the destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half off the shore of South Vietnam. 74 people were killed.
    (HN, 6/2/98)(SC, 6/2/02)

1969        Jun 8, President Nixon met with Nguyen Van Thieu, President of South Vietnam, and informed him that US troop levels were going to be sharply reduced. During a joint press conference with Thieu, Nixon announced a policy of 'Vietnamization' of the war and a reduction of US troops in Vietnam. The first phase of 'Vietnamization' was to include the withdrawal of 25,000 American military personnel.

1969        Jul 7, The first U.S. troops to withdraw from South Vietnam left Saigon.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1969        Jul 16, Vu Ngoc Nha (d.2002), top aide to presidents Ngo Dinh Diem and Nguyen Van Thieu, was arrested in Saigon. The CIA uncovered him as the head of a Communist espionage ring. He and 2 others were convicted of treason  and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 8/13/02, p.A20)

1969        Jul 25, The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense [see Nov 3, 1969].

1969        Aug 12, American installations at Quan-Loi, Vietnam, came under Viet Cong attack.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1969        Aug 28, In Quang Nam province Corporal Jose Francisco Jimenez died of wounds after leading an attack that took out an antiaircraft weapon and an entrenchment of automatic weapons fire.
    (WSJ, 11/11/96, p.A14)

1969        Sep 2, North Vietnamese president Ho Chi Minh died. The son of a poor scholar, Ho Chi Minh led the nationalist movement of his country for three decades. Ho Chi Minh became an active socialist while in France where he petitioned for colonial reforms following World War I. His involvement with the international communist movement continued into the 1920s, meeting and working with communist leaders in Europe and the newly formed Soviet Union. He formed the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and its successor, the Viet-Minh, in 1941, going on to serve as president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1945 until his death.
    (AP, 9/2/97)(www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/hochiminh4.html)

1969        Sep 16, President Nixon ordered the withdrawal of 35,000 soldiers from Vietnam and reduced the number required to be drafted.

1969        Oct 15, Peace demonstrators staged activities across the US, including a candlelight march around the White House, as part Vietnam Moratorium Day.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1969)

1969        Nov 3, Pres. Nixon elaborated his Nixon Doctrine in a televised speech. He stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. At the end of the speech, Nixon asked for the support of the "great silent majority" of Americans. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies [see Jul 25, 1969].

1969        Nov 12, Free-lance reporter Seymour Hersh first broke the story of the Mar 16, 1968, massacre at My Lai. The US Army admitted to the massacre of civilians at My Lai and announced an investigation of Lt William Calley. The number of civilians who were killed numbered at least 100. Lt. Calley was later found guilty of murder, and sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labor. Calley was the only person ever charged in connection with the events at My Lai. The nation was shocked and divided by the claims from Calley that he was following orders and that he was a scapegoat. President Richard Nixon in 1971 ordered him released from prison and placed under house arrest, and finally a federal judge threw out all charges against Calley and ordered him freed. Although the charges were later re-instated on appeal, he served no more jail time for the massacre at My Lai.
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Lai_massacre)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1969        Nov 24, Gen. William Westmoreland assigned Lt. Gen. William R. Peers to investigate the My Lai incident (March 16, 1968).

1969        David Halberstam (1934-2007), American journalist, authored "The Best and the Brightest," a book about the men who managed the US war in Vietnam.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A24)

1969        Tran Van Lam (d.2001 at 88) became the foreign affairs minister. He was replaced in 1973 by Pres. Thieu and went to the South Vietnamese Senate. He settled in Australia after the fall of Saigon.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A26)
1969        At their peak in 1969, 68,889 combat troops from Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Thailand and the Philippines fought alongside the US in Vietnam.
    (HNQ, 4/14/00)

1969-1975    In 1998 the Library of Congress issued a 2-volume collection of American journalism from the Vietnam War, "Reporting Vietnam." This period was covered in Vol. 2.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

1970        Jan 17, In Vietnam Donald Sloat was killed in action as he used his body to cover a hand grenade saving three fellow soldiers. In 2014 Sloat was awarded the Medal of Honor.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pc7364y)(SFC, 9/16/14, p.A7)

1970        Feb 21, Secret peace talks were held between US Sec. of State Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1970        Feb 26, Five Marines were arrested on charges of murdering 11 South Vietnamese women and children.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1970        Mar 13, Cambodia ordered Hanoi and Viet Cong troops to get out.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1970        Mar 17, The US Army charged 14 officers with suppression of facts in the My Lai massacre case.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1970        Mar 31, The U.S. forces in Vietnam downed a MIG-21, the first since September 1968.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1970        Apr 1, U.S. Army charged Captain Ernest Medina in My Lai massacre.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1970        Apr 29, 50,000 US and South Vietnamese troops invaded Cambodia [see Apr 30].
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(www.democraticcentral.com/showDiary.do?diaryId=1972)

1970        Apr 30, President Nixon announced the United States was sending troops into Cambodia, an action that sparked widespread protest. Nixon widened the war to Cambodia and protests increased. U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. U.S. President Richard Nixon announced to a national TV audience American troop movements into Cambodia to attack Communist border sanctuaries. Calling the joint U.S.-South Vietnamese operation "indispensable," some 32,000 American and 48,000 South Vietnamese troops captured large caches of supplies, but most Communist forces had already been withdrawn. A storm of protest against expansion of the war swept the United States and four days later four student protesters at Ohio's Kent State University were shot dead by National Guardsmen.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1970)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNQ, 5/3/98)

1970        May 4, A dispatch filed from Saigon described looting by US soldiers at the Cambodian town of Snuol. The mention of looting was removed by an editor in New York before the story was transmitted to newspapers in the United States.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

1970        May 8, Anti-war protests took place across the United States and around the world. Construction workers broke up an anti-war protest on New York City's Wall Street.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

1970        May 20, Some 100,000 people demonstrated in New York's Wall Street district in support of U.S. policy in Vietnam and Cambodia.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/98)

1970        Jun 10, A fifteen-man group of special forces troops began training for Operation Kingpin, a POW rescue mission in North Vietnam. Almost flawless in execution, the daring rescue raid at the Son Tay prison camp deep within North Vietnam lacked only one essential ingredient--POWs. [see Nov 21]
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1970        Jun 17, North Vietnamese troops cut the last operating rail line in Cambodia.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1970        Jun 22, In Vietnam surgeon Dang Thuy Tram (27) died after refusing to surrender to US troops during a skirmish. Officer Frederick Whitehurst retrieved her the diaries from her gutted field hospital, and decided at his translator's urging not to burn them. The work was translated and published in 2006.
    (AP, 4/3/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dang_Thuy_Tram)

1970        Jun 24, The US Senate voted overwhelmingly to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. With fresh evidence later available, claims that the Tonkin Gulf incident was deliberately provoked gained new plausibility.
    (HN, 6/24/98)(http://tinyurl.com/4x8keb)

1970        Sep 9, U.S. Marines launched Operation Dubois Square, a 10-day search for North Vietnamese troops near DaNang. Marine pilots in their diminutive Douglas A-4 Skyhawks provided vital close air support for ground forces in Vietnam.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1970        Sep 11, In Laos the US Operation Tailwind began with the objectives of reconnaissance, intelligence collection, and a diversion for a larger operation to the north. In 1998 it was reported that the secret raid called Operation Tailwind by a Special Forces unit called the Studies and Observations Group (SOG) used the nerve gas sarin in Laos to kill American armed service members who had defected. A report in 1998 allegedly confirmed that over 100 people were killed including up to 20 American military defectors. Adm. Thomas Moorer (1912-2004), the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the time (1970-1974), confirmed in 1998 that nerve gas was used. CNN and Time magazine later recanted the story due to insufficient evidence.
    (www.scarface-usmc.org/tailwind.htm)(SFC, 6/8/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W13)(SFC, 7/3/98, p.A1)(SFC, 2/7/04, p.A21)

1970        Oct 7, Pres. Nixon in a televised speech proposed a cease-fire-in-place for Indochina and the negotiated withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam.
    (http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/keyevents/Nixon)(WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)

1970        Oct 12, President Richard Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas.
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1970        Nov 3, President Nixon promised gradual troop removal from Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/3/01)
1970        Nov 3, An Australian bomber crashed in Vietnam near the Laos border. The bodies of Flying Officer Michael Herbert (24) and navigator, Pilot Officer Robert Carver (24), were listed as missing until their remains were discovered in 2009. They were the last of Australia’s Vietnam era MIAs.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

1970        Nov 21, US Army Special Forces raided the Son Tay prison camp in North Vietnam but found no prisoners. It would be later learned that the POWs had been relocated to Dong Hoi, on July 14. The POWs were moved because the well in the compound had dried up and the nearby Song Con River had begun to overflow its banks. This flooding problem, not a security leak, resulted in the prisoners being transported to Dong Hoi to a new prison nicknamed "Camp Faith." US planes conduct widespread bombing raids in North Vietnam.
    (www.psywarrior.com/sontay.html)(HN, 11/21/99)

1970        Dec 24, Nine GIs were killed and nine wounded by friendly fire in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1970        In Cambodia Prince Sihanouk was toppled in a right-wing coup and he joined the Khmer Rouge in a resistance war. The US and Vietnamese forces invaded and drove the Viet Cong from border sanctuaries deep into Cambodia where they joined with the weak and isolated Khmer Rouge. A full scale civil war began.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)

1970        In Laos the introduction of Soviet-made long-range 130mm artillery pieces onto the battlefield allowed the Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese to neutralize to some extent the Royal Lao Army's advantage of air superiority.

1970        The US sent a 5-dolphin team to Vietnam to guard the Army munitions pier at Cam Ranh Bay. The dolphins were in Vietnam for 6 months and the pier remained safe. It was blown up after they left.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.D1)(SFC, 5/18/10, p.C3)

1971        Jan 1, The United States began a second decade of involvement in Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1971        Jan 6, The 1964 Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war against Vietnam, was repealed by Congress. US Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska share the distinction of casting the only votes against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964. The resolution supported President Lyndon Johnson's military actions against North Vietnam in retaliation for its attack on a US spy ship in the Tonkin Gulf. The resolution passed in the House 414-0 and the Senate 88-2.

1971        Feb 8, South Vietnamese ground forces, backed by American air power, began Operation Lam Son 719, a 17,000 man incursion into Laos that ended three weeks later in a disaster.
    (HN, 2/8/98)(http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1971-2/1971-02-08-ABC-2.html)

1971        Mar 8, Radio Hanoi broadcast Jimi Hendrix's "Star Spangled Banner."

1971        Mar 18, U.S. helicopters airlifted 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers out of Laos.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1971        Mar 21, Two US platoons in Vietnam refused their orders to advance.
    (HN, 3/21/98)(www.isreview.org/issues/09/soldiers_revolt.shtml)
1971        Mar 21, In Laos South Vietnamese Marines at FSB Delta, south of Route 9, came under intense ground and artillery attacks. During an attempted extraction of the force, seven helicopters were shot down and another 50 were damaged, ending the evacuation attempt.

1971        Mar 29, Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr. (b.1943) was convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the March 16, 1968, My Lai massacre. Calley ended up spending three years under house arrest.

1971        Mar 31, US Lt. William Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre.

1971        Apr 1, President Richard M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.

1971        Apr 7, President Nixon pledged a withdrawal of 100,000 more men from Vietnam by December.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1971        Apr 15, North Vietnamese troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American troops were on a rescue mission.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1971        Apr 17, In Vietnam Lance Corporal John Gillespie (24), an Australian army medic, died when his helicopter crashed and caught ablaze after coming under fire during a medical evacuation in the Minh Dam Mountains of southern Phuoc Tuy province. His remains were returned to Australia in 2007.
    (Reuters, 12/18/07)

1971        Jun, Vietnam War records were given to the US National Archives for safe keeping by three former defense analysts.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)

1971        Jul 6, US Army Maj. Donald Carr, a Green Beret from San Antonio, Texas, crashed during a reconnaissance flight in Vietnam's Kon Tum province. In 2018 his remains were recovered and identified through DNA.
    (SFC, 5/9/18, p.A4)

1971        Jul 9, The United States turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1971        Aug 20-1971 Aug 21, In Vietnam heavy rains flooded the Red River delta and some 100,000 people were killed.

1971        Oct 11, Switzerland established diplomatic relations with North Vietnam.

1971        Oct 31, Saigon began the release of 1,938 Hanoi POW's.
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1971        Nov 8, Gen'l. John D. Lavelle, Seventh Air Force Commander in Vietnam, markedly increased the number of bombing raids against North Vietnam. The raids lasted until Mar 8, 1972, when he became the target of a congressional investigation.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.8)

1971        Nov 12, Pres. Nixon announced that he would withdraw 45,000 more troops from Vietnam by Feb, 1972.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(HN, 11/12/98)

1971        Dec 18, North Vietnamese troops captured the Plain of Jars in Laos. Throughout the Vietnam War, the Plain of Jars was a contested area between Lao tribesmen and Vietnam's communist allies, the Pathet Lao. The area was long controlled by the Pathet Lao and a continual effort had been made by the secret CIA-directed force of some 30,000 indigenous tribesmen to strengthen anti-communist strongholds there. The US committed hundreds of millions of dollars to the war effort in Laos. Details of this secret operation were not released until August 1971.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.arlingtoncemetery.net/aircrew-04191971.htm)

1971        Pres. Nguyen Van Thieu was re-elected president of South Vietnam in a rigged election.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)

1971        Philip Jones Griffiths (1936-2008, Welsh photographer, published "Vietnam Inc," a collection of black-and-white photos from his 3 years there as a freelancer.
    (SSFM, 4/20/03, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Jones_Griffiths)
1971        In 1998 Jerry Lembcke authored "The Spitting Image: Myth, Memory and Legacy of Vietnam that reflected on this period.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, BR p.7)
1971        John Kerry testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about hearing from fellow veterans about war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
    (SFC, 9/11/04, p.A5)

1972        Jan 25, Pres. Nixon made public the secret talks from May 31, 1971 that included a cease-fire-in-place, US withdrawal, and the return of prisoners. He made a revised offer with the concurrence of South Vietnam's Pres. Thieu. Nixon aired the eight-point peace plan for Vietnam, asking for POW release in return for withdrawal.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(HN, 1/25/99)

1972        Feb 13, Enemy attacks, in Vietnam, declined for the third day as the U.S. continued its intensive bombing strategy. The F-105 Thunderchief or the "Thud" was the Air Force's war-horse in Vietnam when it came to bombing campaigns.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1972        Feb 24, Hanoi negotiators walked out of the peace talks in Paris to protest U.S. air raids on North Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1972        Mar 8, Gen'l. John D. Lavelle, Seventh Air Force Commander in Vietnam, decreased the bombing raids against North Vietnam when he became the target of a congressional investigation.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.8)

1972        Mar 24, The U.S. announces a boycott of the Paris peace talks as President Nixon accuses Hanoi of refusing to "negotiate seriously."

1972        Mar 30, Hanoi launched its heaviest attack in four years, crossing the DMZ in the Easter offensive. 200,000 North Vietnamese soldiers under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap wage an all-out attempt to conquer South Vietnam. The offensive is a tremendous gamble by Giap and is undertaken as a result of US troop withdrawal, the strength of the anti-war movement in America likely preventing a US retaliatory response, and the poor performance of South Vietnam's Army during Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971. The Communist Easter invasion in South Vietnam was defeated.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1972        Apr 2, In response to the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive, President Nixon authorized the US 7th Fleet to target NVA troops massed around the Demilitarized Zone with air strikes and naval gunfire.

1972        Apr 4, In further response to the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive, US President Nixon authorized a massive bombing campaign targeting all NVA troops invading South Vietnam along with B-52 air strikes against North Vietnam. "The bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time," Nixon privately declares.

1972        Apr 6, Six US helicopter crew members were killed in Vietnam during a heroic rescue attempt of Air Force Lt. Col. Iceal Hambleton (1918-2004), who had been shot down on April 2. Five aircraft crews were shot down during the rescue attempts. The 1988 film "Bat-21" was about their mission. Hambleton was rescued on April 13.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.A3)(SFC, 5/29/03, p.A19)(www.taskforceomegainc.org/g095.html)
1972        Apr 6, US Capt. John W. Ripley (d.2008 at 69) helped stop a column of North Vietnamese tanks by blowing up a pair of bridges at Dong Ha during the 1972 Easter Offensive of the Vietnam War.

1972        May 1, South Vietnamese abandoned Quang Tri City to the NVA.

1972        May 2, Camp Carroll was officially surrendered to the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong. This was the first major victory for the North Vietnamese Army during the Nguyen Hue Offensive. The Viet Cong's Provisional Revolutionary Government immediately imposed their authority in the province, as collective farms were set up and strict rules instilled by the Viet Cong were forced on the villagers.

1972        May 8, In response to the ongoing NVA Easter Offensive, President Nixon announced Operation Linebacker I, the mining of North Vietnam's harbors along with intensified bombing of roads, bridges, and oil facilities. The announcement brought international condemnation of the US and ignited more anti-war protests in America.

1972        May 10, US Navy pilot Duke Cunningham shot down 3 North Vietnamese MiGs before finessing his badly damaged and burning F-4 out of enemy territory and over safe waters where he and his co-pilot could eject. In 2005 as a US Congressman from San Diego, he pleaded guilty to bribery charges in defense deals.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.B10)

1972        May 11, US pilot First Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie (b.1948) was shot down by anti-aircraft fire after having logged 137 combat missions. His remains were entombed on Memorial Day, 1984, at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington. In 1998 his remains were exhumed and identified by DNA testing.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Blassie)

1972        Jun 1, Hanoi admits that the US Operation Linebacker I is causing severe disruptions.

1972        Jun 2, Pres. Nixon in discussion with aide Charles Colson said: We want to decimate the god-damned place… North Vietnam is going to get reordered… it's about time. It's what should have been done years ago."
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A3)

1972        Jun 6, The US aircraft carrier Coral Sea (CVA 43) launched three Marine A-6 Intruders and six Navy A-7 Corsair attack planes toward the coast of North Vietnam. Shortly afterward, the naval aircraft laid strings of thirty-six 1,000-pound Mark 52 mines in the water approaches to Haiphong, through which most of North Vietnam's imported war material and all of its fuel supply passed.

1972        Jun 8, John Plummer, helicopter pilot and operations officer in Vietnam, ordered the bombing of the village of Trang Bang. He did not know that villagers had taken refuge there. AP photographer Nick Ut took a photo of screaming children struck by napalm that showed 9-year-old Phan Thi Kim Phuc standing naked in agony. Alan Downes (1938-1996) filmed live TV footage of 9-year-old Kim Phuc and other children as they fled down Highway One in South Vietnam to escape a village under US napalm attack. On Nov 11, 1996 Plummer met with Phan Thi Kim at the Vietnam memorial in Washington in reconciliation. It was later disclosed that the actual pilot responsible was a South Vietnamese air force officer. In 2000 Denise Chong authored "The Girl in the Picture: The Story of Kim Phuc and the Photograph That Changed the course of the Vietnam War."
    (SFC, 10/11/96, p.A24)(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A3)(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.A1,12)(SFC,12/18/97, p.A3)(SFEC, 8/20/00, BR p.1)

1972        Jun 9, John Paul Vann, American military adviser, was killed in a helicopter accident in South Vietnam. He posthumously was awarded the highest American civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
    (HNQ, 9/27/01)

1972        Jun 28, US Pres. Nixon announced that no new draftees will be sent to Vietnam. South Vietnamese troops began a counter-offensive to retake Quang Tri Province, aided by US Navy gunfire and B-52 bombardments.
    (www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)(HN, 6/28/98)

1972        Jul 11, American forces broke the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1972        Jul 14, The US State Department criticized actress Jane Fonda for making antiwar radio broadcasts in Hanoi, calling them "distressing."
    (AP, 7/14/00)

1972        Jul, Actress Jane Fonda traveled to North Vietnam and posed for a photograph with North Vietnamese soldiers. This sealed her reputation as "Hanoi Jane." She later regretted the photo.
    (SFC, 6/21/00, p.E5)

1972        Aug 12, As the last US ground troops left Vietnam, B-52's made their largest strike of the war.
    (HN, 8/12/98)(AP, 8/12/01)

1972        Aug 27, US bombed Haiphong, North Vietnam.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1972        Sep 16, South Vietnamese troops recaptured Quang Tri province in South Vietnam from the North Vietnamese Army.
    (www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)(HN, 9/16/98)

1972        Oct 11, A French mission in Vietnam was destroyed by a U.S. bombing raid.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1972        Oct 17, Peace talks between Pathet Lao and Royal Lao government began in Vietnam.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1972        Oct 21, Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho reached a cease-fire agreement. It was signed Jan 27, 1973.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1972        Oct 22, Operation Linebacker I, the bombing of North Vietnam with B-52 bombers, ended. U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons of bombs during the bombing campaign which effectively disrupted North Vietnam's Easter Offensive. During the failed offensive, the North suffered an estimated 100,000 military casualties and lost half its tanks and artillery. Leader of the offensive, legendary General Vo Nguyen Giap, the victor at Dien Bien Phu, was then quietly ousted in favor of his deputy Gen. Van Tien Dung. 40,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died stopping the offensive, in the heaviest fighting of the entire war.
    (www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)(HN, 10/22/98)

1972        Oct 24, Henry Kissinger in secret unauthorized talks in Paris proposed to end the war in Vietnam by this date, but was urged by Pres. Nixon to stretch the timing a few months so as to insure re-election in Nov. A drama was made in 1995 depicting these events based on the book by Walter Isaacson: “Kissinger: A Biography." The peace agreement allowed North Vietnam to keep its army in the South.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-15)

1972        Oct 26, National security adviser Henry Kissinger declared, "Peace is at hand" in Vietnam.
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1972        Oct, Hanoi dropped all its political demands for dismantling the South Vietnamese government.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)

1972        Nov 11, The US Army turned over its base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese army, symbolizing the end of direct US military involvement in the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 11/11/97)

1972        Nov 30, American troop withdrawal from Vietnam was completed, although 16,000 Army advisors and administrators remained to assist South Vietnam's military forces.

1972        Dec 11, In Paris peace negotiations between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho collapsed after Kissinger presented a list of 69 changes demanded by South Vietnamese President Thieu. President Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam that serious negotiations must resume within 72 hours. Hanoi does not respond. As a result Nixon ordered Operation Linebacker II (see Dec 18), eleven days and nights of maximum force bombing against military targets in Hanoi by B-52 bombers.

1972        Dec 18, The heaviest bombing of North Vietnam, under orders from US Pres. Nixon, began over Hanoi. “Operation Linebacker II" lasted 11 days and killed over 1600 civilians with 70 US airmen killed or captured. The bombardment ended 12 days later. President Nixon declared that the bombing of North Vietnam would continue until an accord was reached. In 2002 Marshall L. Michel III authored “The 11 Days of Christmas," an account of the B-52 bombings.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)(AP, 12/18/97)(HN, 12/18/98)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A18)

1972        Dec 22, Bac Mai hospital was bombed by American B-52s when they missed an air base on the outskirts of Hanoi. 18 hospital workers and patients were killed.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)

1972        Dec 24, Hanoi barred all peace talks with the U.S. until the air raids stopped.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1972        Dec 26, In Vietnam the bombing over Hanoi resumed after one day of respite and bombs hit a residential street killing 283 civilians. North Vietnam agreed to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1972        Dec 29, US Operation Linebacker II ended what had been the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire war with over 100,000 bombs dropped on Hanoi and Haiphong. Fifteen of the 121 B-52s participating were shot down by the North Vietnamese who fired 1200 SAMs. There were 1318 civilian deaths from the bombing, according to Hanoi.

1972        Dec, An American commando group planted a tap on a communications link at Vinh, north of the DMZ, and later pulled details of the North Vietnamese positions at the Paris peace talks.
    (WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A33)
1972        Dec, American folk singer Joan Baez travelled to North Vietnam with 3 other Americans, both to address human rights in the region, and to deliver Christmas mail to American prisoners of war. During her time there, she was caught in the US military's "Christmas bombing" of Hanoi.
    (SFC, 4/11/13, p.A4)

1972        Francis FitzGerald (b.1940) authored "Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam." Her book won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award.
    {Books, Writer, USA, Vietnam}
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_FitzGerald)
1972        Six US helicopter crew members were killed in Vietnam during a heroic rescue attempt of Air Force Lt. Col. Iceal Hambleton. The 1988 film "Bat-21" was about their mission.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.A3)(SFC, 5/29/03, p.A19)
1972        The US mined Haiphong harbor.
    (WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1973        Jan 2, The United States admitted the accidental bombing of a Hanoi hospital.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1973        Jan 8, Secret peace talks between the US and North Vietnam resumed near Paris.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1973        Jan 9, All remaining differences were resolved between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, which still allows North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam. Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam.

1973        Jan 15, President Nixon announced the suspension of all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam, citing progress in peace negotiations.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1973        Jan 23, President Nixon claimed that Vietnam peace had been reached in Paris and that the POWs would be home in 60 days, claiming the agreement will "end the war and bring peace with honor."
    (AP, 1/23/98)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1973        Jan 27, The Paris Agreement froze the status quo on the ground in South Vietnam. The agreement by the United States and North Vietnam included a ban on infiltration of arms or personnel to reinforce North Vietnamese troops in the South, as well as a ban on the use of Laotian or Cambodian territory for that purpose. The Paris Agreement provided for continued US supply of the army of the Republic of Vietnam. Peace Accords were signed in Paris over events in Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(HN, 1/27/99)
1973        Jan 27, Lt. Col. William B. Nolde was killed, the last American soldier to die in combat in Vietnam.

1973        Jan 28, A cease-fire officially went into effect in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet Cong), and 2 million civilians. In 2001 Gerald Nicosia authored "Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veteran’s Movement."
    (AP, 1/28/04)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.68)

1973        Feb 5, Services were held at Arlington National Cemetery for Army Lt. Col. William B. Nolde, the last American soldier killed before the Vietnam cease-fire.
    (AP, 2/5/04)

1973        Feb 12, Operation Homecoming began as the first release of American prisoners of war from the Vietnam conflict took place.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1973        Feb 14, The US and Hanoi set up a group to channel reconstruction aid directly to Hanoi. In 1972 the US had begun to "de-Americanize" the Vietnam war. It was a policy of gradual withdrawal.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1973        Mar 14, John McCain, later US Senator, was released as a POW in Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 2/12/06, Par p.12)

1973        Mar 17, First POWs were released from the "Hanoi Hilton" in Hanoi, North Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1973         Mar 30, Ellsworth Bunker resigned as US ambassador to South Vietnam. He was succeeded by Graham A. Martin.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1973        Apr 1, Captain Robert White, the last known American POW in Vietnam, was released.

1973        Apr 12, Viet Nam and France officially established diplomatic relations.

1973        Jun 19, The US Congress passed the Case-Church Amendment which forbade any further US military involvement in Southeast Asia, effective August 15, 1973. The veto-proof vote was 278-124 in the House and 64-26 in the Senate. The Amendment paved the way for North Vietnam to wage yet another invasion of the South, this time without fear of US bombing.

1973        Oct 16, Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State (1973-77), and Le Duc Tho were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize; however, the Vietnamese official declined the award.
    (AP, 10/16/98)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1973/press.html)

1973        Nov 7, Partly in response to the Vietnam debacle, the US Congress passed the War Powers Resolution requiring the President to obtain the support of Congress within 90 days of sending American troops abroad. Congress overrode President Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act, which limited a chief executive's power to wage war without congressional approval. The act allowed Congress to bring troops home within 60 days unless deployment was approved or war was declared.
    (AP, 11/7/98)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1973        The Vietnam War (1959-1973) resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 [1.2] million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet cong), and 2 million civilians. In 2002 the book "War Torn: Stories of War From the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam" was published. The reporters included Tad Bartimus, Denby Fawcett, Jurate Kazickas, Edie Lederer, Ann Moriano, Anne Merrick, Laura Palmer, Kate Webb, and Tracy Wood.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.M3)

1973        US military drug problems peaked this year. An estimated 34 percent of American soldiers in Vietnam had commonly used heroin.
    (HNQ, 12/9/02)

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