Timeline South Dakota

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 The area of South Dakota  is 77,047 sq. miles and the capital is Pierre.
 (WUD, 1994, p.1360)

Facts: http://www.50states.com/sdakota.htm
SD History: http://history.sd.gov/
State site: http://sd.gov

80Mil BC    Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation in Montana, Wyoming and S. Dakota has fossils of Pachycephalosaurus (thick-headed lizards). They stood on two feet and were herbivorous. They had a dome-like development on the skull made of solid bone, most likely used in combat as a battering ram. It stood 5m and had spikes on its nose and around the back of its skull.
    (TE-JB, p.91)(Econ, 10/27/12, p.81)

c65 Million BC    T. rex "Sue" ate a Duckbill dinosaur and was herself mauled by another T. rex. She died in a slow moving stream near the shore of a vast inland sea that bisected North America, and was buried under a protective layer of sand.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A4)

1861        Mar 2, The Territory of Nevada was created by an act of Congress. The first elected governor of the state was Henry G. Blasdel. US Congress created the Dakota & Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska & Utah territories
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.1B)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SC, 3/2/02)

1868        Apr 29, The US government and the Sioux Indians signed another treaty that ended Red Clouds War, but it did not last long. The treaty at Fort Laramie (Wyoming) made the Black Hills part of the Great Sioux Reservation.
    (www.suite101.com/lesson.cfm/17638/1146/8)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.37)(AH, 6/03, p.36)

1870s        Some 400 Hutterites, a sect of Anabaptists, migrated from Europe to the US. They settled on three communal farms in South Dakota.
    (NH, 9/98, p.14)

1874        Jul 2, Colonel Custer departed from Fort Abraham Lincoln with some 1,000 soldiers and 70 Indian scouts on a 1200 mile expedition to chart the Black Hills of eastern Wyoming western South Dakota, land which belonged to the Sioux. The expedition returned on August 30.
    (AH, 6/03, p.37)

1874        Aug 2, Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of western South Dakota during an expedition led by Colonel Custer. The land belonged to the Sioux but was invaded by prospectors. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull retaliated.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(AH, 6/03, p.37)

1876        Jun 25-26, In the Battle of the Little Bighorn, S.D. [Mont.], Gen. George A. Custer and some 250 men in his 7th Cavalry were massacred by the Sioux Indians and allies. The site is near a region where paleontologist Prof. Edward Drinker Cope dug for dinosaur fossils just a few days after the massacre. Custer and his cavalrymen had attacked an encampment of 2,000 to 4,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and other Indians.
    (WSJ, 11/1/94, J.E. Bishop, p.1)(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A5)(AP, 6/25/97)

1876        Aug 2, Frontiersman Wild Bill Hickok, holding aces over eights, was shot and killed from behind by Crooked Nose Jack McCall, while playing poker at a saloon in Deadwood, S.D.
    (AP, 8/2/97)(MC, 8/2/02)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.32)

1876        Aug 15, US law removed Indians from Black Hills after a gold find. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led their warriors to protect their lands from invasion by prospectors following the discovery of gold. This led to the Great Sioux Campaign staged from Fort Laramie. Gold was discovered in Deadwood in the Dakota territory by Quebec brothers Fred and Moses Manuel. The mine was incorporated in California on Nov 5, 1877, as the Homestake Mining Company.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)(MC, 8/15/02)

1876        George V. Ayres (1852-1939) arrived in the Black Hills at the beginning of the gold rush there and within a year began working at the R.C. Lake Hardware Store in Deadwood, SD. By the mid 1880s he owned the store and later moved it to the main floor of the Bullock Hotel, built in the mid-1890s.
    (SFC, 1/24/07, p.G7)

1876        Moses Manuel staked a claim at the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD.
    (SFC, 6/26/01, p.B1)

1877        Nov 5,    The Homestake Mining Company was incorporated in California based on the gold discovered in Deadwood in the Dakota territory by Quebec brothers Fred and Moses Manuel in 1876.
    (WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)

1877        The U.S. seized the South Dakota Black Hills of the Sioux Indians. [see Jun 13, 1979]
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1878        Calamity Jane served as a devoted nurse to several ailing Deadwood residents during the smallpox epidemic of 1878.
    (HNPD, 8/28/99)

1881        Frank Baum, publisher of the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer, called for the extermination of American Indians. "Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the Earth." Baum later authored "The Wizard of Oz."
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A2)

1883        The US Supreme Court ruled that the Dakota Territory court had no jurisdiction in a case in which a member of the Lakota nation killed a fellow member on tribal land. The decision overturned a death sentence and effectively gave exclusive jurisdiction for crimes to tribes. In 1885 US Congress passed the Major Crimes Act taking away the tribes authority to prosecute serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and rape.
    (WSJ, 8/13/07, p.A12)

1884        Aug 28, The 1st known photograph of a tornado was made near Howard, SD.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1885        Mar 3, The United States Congress passed the Major Crimes Act (18 U.S.C. 1153). It placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American in Native territory regardless of whether the victim of the crime was Native.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/us/437/634/)

1888        Jan 12, A major blizzard hit South Dakota and left hundreds of children and adults dead. In 2004 David Laskin authored The Childrens Blizzard.
    (WSJ, 11/24/04, p.D10)

1888        In South Dakota Jesuits founded Red Cloud, a private Catholic school, at the request of Oglala Lakota chief Red Cloud.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)

1889        Feb 22, President Cleveland signed a bill to admit the Dakotas, Montana and Washington state to the Union. The "omnibus bill" was an act dividing the Dakota Territory into the states of North and South Dakota, and enabling the two Dakotas to formulate constitutions. A constitutional convention was held at Bismarck beginning July 4, 1889. A constitution was formulated and submitted to a vote of the people of the State of North Dakota on October 1, 1889, and was adopted.
    (AP, 2/22/99)(www.court.state.nd.us/court/history/dakotaterritory.htm)

1889        Nov 2, South Dakota became the 40th state.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/2/97)

1889        The Great Sioux Reservation of the Dakotas was dismembered into 6 parts.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.34)
1889        In South Dakota alcohol was banned on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation. The ban continued except for a few months in the 1970s. As of 2017 two-thirds adults on the reservation were alcoholics as many purchased alcohol in Whiteclay, a short walk across the state line in Nebraska.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)

1889-1890    Sioux warrior Kicking Bear became the leading spokesman for the new Indian religion, the "Ghost Dance," which promised a return to ancient ways for a people disheartened by reservation life. Kicking Bear continued to resist the U.S. Army for several weeks after many of his fellow Sioux were killed in the Massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1990. Kicking Bird was a Kiowa Chief. Bears Head was a Crow chief.
    (HNQ, 12/24/99)

1890        Dec 15, Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull and 11 other tribe members were killed in Grand River, S.D., during a fracas with Indian police [US troops]. In an attempt to arrest Sitting Bull at his Standing Rock, South Dakota, cabin, shooting broke out and Lt. Bullhead shot the great Sioux leader.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1680)(AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)

1890        Dec 29, The last major conflict of the Indian wars took place at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota after Colonel James W. Forsyth of the 7th Cavalry tried to disarm Chief Big Foot and his followers. Seventy-year-old Sioux chief Big Foot was killed by the 7th U.S. Cavalry during the massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Three days later his body was found frozen where he had been killed. The South Dakota reservation had been left in disarray when Sioux leader Sitting Bull was killed by Indian police on December 15, and as Big Foot led his tribe away from the reservation on December 28, they were surrounded by 7th Cavalry troops. The next morning, when the cavalry tried to disarm the Sioux, shots broke out and during the next 6 hours, 146 Sioux men, women and children were killed. The 7th Cavalry lost 30 killed. The Wounded Knee massacre took place in South Dakota as some 300 Sioux Indians were killed by U.S. troops sent to disarm them.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(HNPD, 12/29/98)

1890        L. Frank Baum (1856-1919) campaigned for an American Indian genocide. In an article for the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer of South Dakota He wrote: Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; its better that they should die than live the miserable wretches that they are. In 1919 Baum authored The Wonderful World of Oz.
    (SFC, 2/7/15, p.A7)

1892        Buffalo Bill Codys Wild West Show toured in England with Sioux Chief Long Wolf (59) and 7-year-old White Star, a girl whose real name was Rose Ghost Dog. They both died on tour, he of pneumonia and she of a riding accident. Their bodies were returned to Wolf Creek, South Dakota, in 1997 and reburied.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.A8)

1892        In Mitchell, South Dakota, a small, 12-year-old city of 3,000 inhabitants, the worlds only Corn Palace was established on the citys Main Street. It was replaced in 1905 and agin in 1921.
    (www.cornpalace.org/Information/corn-palace-history.php)

1896        Jun 11, US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota, was authorized.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1898        South Dakota became the first US state to allow voter initiatives.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.47)

1903        Aug, Calamity Jane died of alcoholism and was buried in Deadwoods Mount Moriah Cemetery, next to the grave of Wild Bill.
    (HNPD, 8/28/99)

1919        US Sen. Peter Norbeck founded the 73,000 acre Custer State Park, 20 miles south of Keystone, South Dakota.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C11)

1921        Alexander Pell (formerly known as Sergei Degaev), the 1st math prof. at the Univ. of South Dakota, died. In 1883 Sergei Degaev (26) had shot and killed Lt. Col. Georgii Sudeikin, security chief of Czar Alexander III. The 2 men had conspired to undermine both the government and the Revolutionary Peoples Will. Degaev fled Russia to the US where he earned a Ph.D. in mathematics at Johns Hopkins. In 2003 Richard Pipes authored "The Degaev Affair."
    (WSJ, 4/17/03, p.D8)

1922        Jul 19, George McGovern, 1972 Democratic candidate for president of the United States, South Dakota senator, was born.
    (HN, 7/19/98)

1923        In South Dakota Gov. William McMaster bought cut rate gas from a Chicago distributor and began selling it at a state depot for 16 cents a gallon. Standard Oil was charging 26.6 cents (equal to about $3.16 in 2008), which he called highway robbery. Standard oil cut its price to 16.6 cents and other states began to demand the same price. McMaster and Standard eventually negotiated a price of 20 cents a gallon.
    (WSJ, 3/31/08, p.B1)

1923        Doane Robinson, the aging superintendent of the South Dakota State Historical Society, proposed a massive mountain memorial carved from stone so large it would put South Dakota on the map.
    (www.ohranger.com/mount-rushmore/making-mount-rushmore)

1927        Aug 10, Pres. Calvin Coolidge took part in the formal dedication of Mount Rushmore. Gutzon Borglum began work and the Mount Rushmore project was completed in 1941. When South Dakota officials invited Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941) to design a sculpture on the face of the Black Hills, he declared, "American history shall march along that skyline." Bor-glums son Lincoln (d.1986) led the completion of the project created by some 400 workers.
    (www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/texte/mount_rushmore.htm)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)(ON, 2/11, p.10)

1929        Feb 22, with the influence of Congressman William Williamson and Senator Peter Norbeck pushing Congress for approval of the bill and President Coolidge ready to sign it into law, Public Law 805 was passed and the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission was established.
    (http://moh.tie.net/content/docs/WhySD.pdf)

1931        Jul 27, Grasshoppers in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota destroyed thousands of acres of crops.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1933        Mar 3, Mount Rushmore was dedicated.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1934        Feb 22, George "Sparky" Anderson, baseball manager (Reds, Tigers), was born in SD.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1935        Nov 11, Albert Anderson and Orvil Anderson set a new altitude record in South Dakota, when they floated to 74,000 feet in a balloon.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1938        Clarence "Pappy" Hoel, a motorcycle shop owner in Sturgis, organized a motorcycle rally that attracted 200 riders and became an annual event. In 2000 the rally attracted some 600,000 people for its 60th anniversary.
    (WT-NWA, 7/01, p.46)

1941        Mar 6, John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (b.1867), sculptor (Mount Rushmore), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutzon_Borglum)

1941        Oct 31, The Mt. Rushmore sculpture was completed after 14 years of work. [see 1927]
    (HFA, '96, p.40)(HN, 10/31/01)

1947        The Fort Pierre Livestock Auction in South Dakota began business.
    (WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)

1948        Jun 3, Korczak Ziolkowski (1908-1982), a self-taught sculptor, began blasting a figure of Crazy Horse into rock in the Black Hills of South Dakota under an invitation by the Lakota Sioux. Ziolkowski had worked under Gutzon Borglum at the Mount Rushmore site. The face of Crazy Horse, at the site known as Thunder Mountain, was completed and dedicated in 1998.
    {Artist, Amerindian, South Dakota}
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.11)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)

1955-1959    Joe Foss (1915-2002), WW II fighter pilot, served as governor of South Dakota. He hosted ABC TVs "The American Sportsman from 1964-1967, and produced and hosted the syndicated TV show "The Outdoorsman Joe Foss" from 1967-1974.
    (SFC, 1/2/03, p.A16)

1962        The Lake Oahe reservoir in South Dakota, created by the US Army Corps of Engineers, reduced the Cheyenne River reservation of the Sioux Indians by 100,000 acres.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.34)

1963        Sep 14, Mary Ann Fischer of Aberdeen, S.D., gave birth to four girls and a boy, the first surviving quintuplets in the United States.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

1966        Oct 15, South Dakotas Mount Rushmore was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Rushmore)

1970        Dee Brown (1908-2002), American writer, published "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee,"  a history of Native Americans in the American West in the late nineteenth century and their displacement and slaughter by the United States federal government.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bury_My_Heart_at_Wounded_Knee)

1971        May, In South Dakota two girls disappeared on their way to an end of school year party. In 2013 the remains of Cheryl Miller and Pamella Jackson were found in a creek in their 1960 Studebaker.
    (SFC, 4/18/14, p.A7)

1973        Feb 27, Members of the American Indian Movement occupied the hamlet of Wounded Knee in South Dakota, the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux men, women and children. They protested illegal and discriminatory acts on the part of the Pine Ridge Sioux Tribal Council. The FBI was called in and a siege lasted for 69 days with 2 AIM leaders killed. The story is told in the 1996 book "Like A Hurricane, The Indian Movement From Alcatraz to Wounded Knee" by Paul Chaat Smith and Robert Allen Warrior.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p.A19)(AP, 2/27/98)(SFC, 12/30/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.8)

1973        Mar 2, Federal forces surrounded Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which was occupied by members of the militant American Indian Movement who were holding at least 10 hostages.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1973        Mar 11, An FBI agent was shot at Wounded Knee in South Dakota.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1973        May 8, Militant American Indians who had held the South Dakota hamlet of Wounded Knee for 10 weeks surrendered.
    (AP, 5/8/97)

1975        Jun 26, There was a firefight on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota as FBI agents pursued a robbery suspect. In 1977 Leonard Peltier, an Ojibwa-Sioux Indian, was found guilty of murdering 2 FBI agents, Ronald Williams and Jack Coler as they lay wounded. In 1983 Peter Matthiessen wrote "In the Spirit of Crazy Horse," that described the related events. The book was pulled out of bookstores after an FBI agent and a former governor sued him for libel. Matthiessen claims to have spoken to the man who actually shot the agents.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D1)(SFEC,12/797, p.B11)(SFC, 11/9/99, p.A10)(SFC, 6/26/00, p.A4)

1975        Dec 12, In South Dakota Anna Mae Pictou Aquash (b.1945) was shot to death. American Indian Movement (AIM) members suspected her of being an FBI informant. Her body was found on Feb 24, 1976, on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. In 2003 Arlo Looking Cloud (50) was convicted in the murder. John Graham, a Canadian, and Fritz Arlo Looking Cloud, a US citizen, were indicted in 2003 in the United States for Aquash's murder. In 2007 a Canadian court ruled that Graham should be extradited to the United States to face trial. In 2011 Graham was sentenced to serve life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/7/04, p.A3)(Reuters, 6/26/07)(www.dickshovel.com/time.html#1976)(SFC, 1/25/11, p.A6)

1979        Jun 13, Sioux Indians were awarded $105 million in compensation for the U.S. seizure in 1877 of their Black Hills in South Dakota.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1981        Jul 1, Tim Giago, an Oglala Sioux writer from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, launched The Lakota Times, the first independently owned Indian newspaper in the US.
    (SSFC, 12/23/07, p.F1)

1990        A 50-foot female T. rex, 65 million years old, was discovered on a Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota by Sue Hendrickson. The government seized the skeleton in 1992 and in 1997 it was put up for auction by Sothebys on behalf of Maurice Williams, a Sioux Indian and owner of the ranch where it was found. The proceeds will be held in trust by the government. Backers of the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History paid $8.36 million.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A13)(SFC,12/897, p.A3)

1992        Feb 25, President Bush won the South Dakota Republican primary, Bob Kerrey the Democratic primary.
    (AP, 2/25/02)

1992        Mar 8, In South Dakota Donnivan Schaeffer (22) was delivering supplies to a doughnut shop where he worked when a former co-worker, who was in the middle of burglarizing the place ambushed him, stabbing him in the stomach. Schaeffer begged to be taken to a hospital, vowing to keep silent about the crime; instead, he was forced into a storeroom, tied up and stabbed to death. In 2019 Charles Rhines (63) was executed for the murder at Dig 'Em Donuts.
    (AP, 11/2/19)(Independent, 11/5/19)

1993        Apr 19, South Dakota Gov. George S. Mickelson (52) died in an Iowa plane crash.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1998        May 30, A tornado tore through Spencer, S.D., killing six people. It destroyed 90% of the town.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/30/99)

1998        May, In Rapid City Benjamin Long Wolf was found dead in Rapid Creek. Over the next 14 months 7 more men, were found dead in the creek, most with high levels of alcohol.
    (SFC, 6/12/00, p.A3)

1998        Jun 3, An 87-foot memorial to Crazy Horse, sculpted into rock near Custer in the South Dakota Black Hills by Korczak Ziolkowski (d.1982), was dedicated after 50 years of work.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A5)(SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.11)

1998        Nov 10, A heavy snow storm hit the northern Midwest. Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas suffered loss of power, heavy snow and violent winds.
    (SFC, 11/11/98, p.A3)

1999        Jul, In Mobridge 4 white youths were charged in the death of Robert Many Horses.
    (WSJ, 8/27/99, p.A1)

2000        Jan 16, A group of some 100 took control of the tribal building at Pine Ridge Reservation. They called for the immediate resignation of Treasurer Wesley "Chuck" Jacobs and all 17 members of the tribal council and a full audit of all records.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A5)

2000        Ian Frazier authored "On the Rez," a focus on the Ogallala Sioux Reservation in Pine Ridge, S.D.
    (WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W10)

2003        Jan 1, Joe Foss (87), former South Dakota Gov. and World War II hero who also served as president of the National Rifle Association and commissioner of the American Football League, died at an Arizona hospital.
    (AP, 1/1/04)

2003        Aug 16, Bill Janklow (64), US Congressional Representative and former South Dakota governor, ran a stop sign and killed motorcyclist Randolph E. Scott (55) near Flandreau, SD. On Aug 29 Janklow was charged with manslaughter. Janklow was found guilty of felony manslaughter on Dec 8 and announced his resignation effective Jan 20. Janklow was sentenced to serve 100 days in a county jail.
    (SFC, 8/30/03, p.A3)(SFC, 12/9/03, p.A5)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A3)

2003        Aug 29, Rep. Bill Janklow, R-S.D., was charged with felony manslaughter in a car accident that claimed the life of motorcyclist Randolph E. Scott. Janklow was later convicted and served 100 days in jail.
    (AP, 8/29/04)

2003        Dec 1, US Rep. Bill Janklow went on trial in Flandreau, S.D., charged with manslaughter in the death of a motorcyclist who'd collided with his automobile. Janklow was convicted and served 100 days in jail.
    (AP, 12/1/04)

2003        Dec 8, US Rep. Bill Janklow, R-S.D., resigned after being convicted in the traffic death of a motorcyclist, Randy Scott.
    (AP, 12/8/04)

2004        Jan 2, The Fort Pierre Livestock Auction in South Dakota managed to auction beef calves at around 92.5 cents a pound. This was 15-20% below mid-December prices due to the recent mad cow scare.
    (WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, South Dakotans elected Democrat Stephanie Herseth to Rep. Janklows seat.
    (WSJ, 6/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, Republicans tightened their grip on the US Senate capturing a string of seats across the South. Democratic Leader Tom Daschle of South Dakota lost to Rep. John Thune.
    (AP, 11/3/04)

2004        Dec, Cecilia Fire Thunder (58) took office as chairwoman of the 46,000 member Ogallala Sioux on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.32)

2005        Aug 18, It was reported that an anthrax outbreak had killed hundreds of cattle in parts of the Great Plains, forcing quarantines and devastating Dakota ranchers who worry how they will recover financially. Two ranches in Texas were quarantined last month after anthrax was found in cattle, horses and deer.
    (AP, 8/18/05)

2005        Nov 29, Broad areas of the Dakotas remained shut down by the Plains' first blizzard of the season, with highways closed by blowing, drifting snow and thousands of people without electricity as temperatures hit the low teens.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2006        Feb 11, It was reported that the town of Hull was one of many in central Iowa whose groundwater has been contaminated by farm chemicals. It pinned hopes for its future water supply on the new Lewis and Clark Rural Water System, due to open in 2018. The system planned to pump Missouri River water across South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.33)

2006        Feb 22, South Dakotas Senate advanced a law banning abortion in virtually all cases, with the intention of forcing the Supreme Court to reconsider its 1973 decision legalizing the procedure. The law, which would punish doctors who perform the operation with a five-year prison term and a $5,000 fine, awaits the signature of Republican Gov. Michael Rounds and people on both sides of the issue say he is unlikely to veto it.
    (Reuters, 2/22/06)(WSJ, 2/23/06, p.A1)

2006        Feb 24, South Dakota lawmakers approved a ban on nearly all abortions.
    (AP, 2/24/07)

2006        Mar 6, Gov. Mike Rounds of South Dakota signed a sweeping state abortion ban. It was an intentional provocation to set up a legal challenge to the 1973 Supreme Court Roe vs. Wade decision that made abortion legal. Abortion-rights groups were able to get enough signatures to put the measure to a vote, and the ban was rejected in the November election.
    (SFC, 3/7/06, p.A8)(AP, 3/6/07)

2006        Mar 12-2006 Mar 13, Swarms of tornadoes killed at least 10 people across the Midwest states of Indiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin. It caused so much damage in Springfield, Ill., that the mayor compared it to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Apr 2, It was reported that Cecilia Fire Thunder, president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe in South Dakota, had joined with 14 co-chairs to form the South Dakota Campaign for Healthy Families. The group planned a referendum in favor of abortion.
    (SSFC, 4/2/06, p.A4)

2006        May, The tribal council of the Oglala Sioux Tribe in South Dakota voted to ban all abortions and to temporarily suspend Cecilia Fire Thunder for soliciting donations for an abortion clinic without council approval.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.31)

2006        Jun 6, In South Dakota Bill Nguyen and his wife, Tina, stepped forward with the winning ticket for a nearly $117 million Powerball lottery jackpot, beating 1-in-146 million odds.
    (AP, 6/7/06)

2006        Jun 29, The tribal council of the Oglala Sioux Tribe in South Dakota impeached Cecilia Fire Thunder for soliciting donations for an abortion clinic without council approval. The Council replaced her with Alex White Plume.
    (AP, 6/30/06)

2006        Nov 7, South Dakota rejected a law that would have banned virtually all abortions.
    (AP, 11/8/06)

2008        Jun 3, Barack Obama sealed the US Democratic presidential nomination. Hillary Clinton did not give up yet, but said shed be interested in the No. 2 spot. Obama won the Montana primary, while Clinton won the South Dakota primary.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(SFC, 6/4/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.35)

2009        Mar 19, South Dakota Gov. Mike rounds signed legislation banning smoking from all indoor public places.
    (SFC, 3/20/09, p.A8)

2009        Jun 5, Neal Wanless (23) accepted his multi-million Powerball check at a ceremony in Pierre, South Dakota. Wanless bought $15 worth of tickets to the May 27 thirty-state drawing for $232 million at a convenience store in Winner during a trip to buy livestock feed. He will take home a lump sum of $88.5 million after taxes are deducted.
    (AP, 6/6/09)

2009        Jun 17, The number of Nebraska cattle herds quarantined because of bovine tuberculosis concerns jumped to 42 and Colorado and South Dakota were warned the disease may have already spread there.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Lead, South Dakota, scientists, politicians and other officials gathered for a groundbreaking of sorts at a lab 4,850 foot below the surface of an old gold mine that was once the site of Nobel Prize-winning physics research, a place uniquely suited to scientists' quest for mysterious particles known as dark matter.
    (AP, 6/23/09)

2009        Nov 27, Bison returned to Mexico for the first time since the 1800s, with Mexican authorities releasing 23 donated US animals in northern Chihuahua state. The donated bison came from the Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota.
    (AP, 11/27/09)

2009        Dec 3, The IRS auctioned 7,100 acres of Crow creek Sioux tribal land near Pierre, South Dakota to help pay off over $3 million in back taxes. The land sold for $2.6 million.
    (SFC, 12/4/09, p.A15)

2011        Jan 8, In South Dakota Republican Dennis Daugaard (b.1953) began serving as state governor. By Fall of 2014 he repealed 3,724 regulations.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Daugaard)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.27)

2011        Apr 13, South Dakota inmates Eric Robert (48) and Rodney Berget (48) were charged with first degree felony murder. They had attacked prison guard Ronald Johnson (63), wrapped his head in plastic shrink wrap and left him to die as they used his uniform in an unsuccessful escape attempt.
    (SFC, 4/14/11, p.A5)

2012        Feb 9, The Oglala Sioux Tribe of South Dakota sued some of the worlds largest beer makers for $500 million claiming they knowingly contributed to alcohol-related problems on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
    (SFC, 2/10/12, p.A14)

2012        Jul 1, In South Dakota a C-130 Air Force air tanker from North Carolina crashed with a crew of 6 while fighting a fire in the Black Hills. At least one crew member was killed. Officials put 7 other tankers on operational hold. Five USAF C-130s returned to the flight line on July 3.
    (SFC, 7/3/12, p.A7)(SFC, 7/3/12, p.A7)

2012        Aug 6, Thousands of fish were reported dying in the Midwest as the hot, dry summer dries up rivers and causes water temperatures to climb in some spots to nearly 100 degrees. About 40,000 shovelnose sturgeon were killed in Iowa last week as water temperatures reached 97 degrees. Nebraska fishery officials said they've seen thousands of dead sturgeon, catfish, carp, and other species in the Lower Platte River. Illinois biologists said the hot weather has killed tens of thousands of large- and smallmouth bass and channel catfish. Kansas has seen declining water levels that pulled younger, smaller game fish away from the vegetation-rich shore lines and forced them to cluster, making them easier targets for predators. In South Dakota there have been reports of isolated fish kills in its manmade lakes on the Missouri River.
    (AP, 8/6/12)

2012        Oct 15, South Dakota executed Eric Robert (50), the 1st person to be executed here since 2007. He had killed a prison guard during a failed escape attempt in 2011.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A4)

2012        Oct 21, George McGovern (90), former US Senator and presidential candidate, died at a hospice in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Oct 22, Russell Means (b.1939), Oglala Sioux leader of the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee, SD, died at his ranch in Porcupine, SD.
    (SFC, 10/23/12, p.A7)

2013        Mar 8, South Dakota Gov. Dennis Daugaard signed a bill that will allow teachers to carry guns in the classroom.
    (SFC, 3/9/13, p.A4)

2013        Oct 7, A record-breaking storm dropped 4 feet of snow in parts of South Dakota and left over 22,000 homes and businesses without electricity. Tens of thousands of cattle died in South Dakota. The storm also buried parts of Wyoming and Colorado and spawned tornadoes in Nebraska and Iowa. At least 4 people died due to the storm.
    (SFC, 10/8/13, p.A5)(SFC, 10/14/13, p.A4)

2014        Nov 18, A South Dakota a girl (8) was attacked and killed by a pack of dogs on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Oglala Sioux officials rounded up a horse trailer full of dogs  and killed them on Nov 20.
    (SFC, 11/22/14, p.A5)

2014        Nov 22, In South Dakota Colter Richard Arbach (22) killed 3 people and wounded a 4th on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation.
    (SSFC, 11/23/14, p.A12)

2015        Jan 12, A US federal judge declared South Dakotas ban on same-sex marriage to be illegal, but stayed the decision pending appeal.
    (SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)

2015        Apr 11, US federal officials confirmed that the H5N2 strain of avian bird flu was found among 38,000 turkeys at a commercial farm in Minnesota. A day earlier bird flu was confirmed at two farms in South Dakota.
    (SSFC, 4/12/15, p.A10)

2015        Sep 17, In South Dakota the bodies of 6 members of the Westerhuis family were found in their burned home in Platte. Authorities believed that Scot Westerhuis shot and killed his wife and four children before turning a gun on himself.
    (SFC, 9/23/15, p.A8)

2016        Jan, In South Dakota the Flandreau Santee Siouz, amid fears of a federal raid, destroyed their crop of marijuana abandoning a scheme to develop the nations first marijuana resort.
    (SFC, 8/4/16, p.A5)

2016        Jun 7, The last major primaries of the 2016 White House race kicked off in California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota and South Dakota hours after US delegate counts showed Hillary Clinton clinching the Democratic nomination.
    (AP, 6/7/16)(SFC, 6/8/16, p.A1)

2016        Jul 28, Dakota Lions Sight & Health, a South Dakota-based eye and tissue bank, said it isn't responsible for injuries caused by infected corneas that were shipped to the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 7/28/16)

2016        Dec 25, Almost all of North and South Dakota were under blizzard, ice storm or winter storm warnings as wintry weather was forecast to hit the Central US.
    (Reuters, 12/25/16)

2016        South Dakota narrowly topped Oregon as the state with the highest percentage of inbound moves.
    (SFC, 1/6/17, p.A5)

2017        Jan 23, South Dakota Rep. Mathew Wollman (R) resigned after admitting that he had sexual contact with two interns. He said both interns were over 21 and that the sex was consensual.
    (SFC, 1/24/17, p.A5)

2017        Jun 14, Polygamous sect leader Lyle Jeffs was captured in South Dakota, after being on the run for nearly a year when he escaped confinement in USA pending trial on a multi-million-dollar food stamp fraud scheme.
    (SFC, 6/16/17, p.A5)

2017        Jun 22, Californias Attorney General Xavier Becerra added four more US states subject to its state-sponsored travel ban for alleged discrimination against the LGBT community. Alabama, Kentucky, South Dakota and Texas joined Kansas, Mississippi, North Carolina and Tennessee.
    (SFC, 6/23/17, p.D1)

2017        Jun 28, ABC and South Dakota meat producer Dakota Dunes-based Beef Products Inc. announced a settlement in a $1.9 billion lawsuit dating back to 2012 against the network over its reports on a beef product dubbed pink slime.
    (SFC, 6/29/17, p.A5)

2017        Jul 8, In South Dakota four children and an adult were killed in a traffic crash on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
    (SFC, 7/11/17, p.A6)

2017        Nov 16, In South Dakota TransCanada Corp. shut down its Keystone pipeline after a drop in pressure was detected from a leak. An estimated 210,000 gallons of oil spilled onto agricultural land.
    (SFC, 11/17/17, p.A6)(SFC, 11/18/17, p.A6)

2018        Aug 3, In South Dakota the annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally got under way for a ten day run.
    (SSFC, 8/5/18, p.A9)

2018        Oct 29, In South Dakota Rodney Berget (56) was executed for the 2011 slaying of prison guard Ronald Johnson at the state penitentiary in Sioux Falls.
    (SFC, 10/30/18, p.A5)

2019        Apr 11, In the US heavy snow and strong winds hit Minnesota, Nebraska and South Dakota and began moving into the Great Lakes region a day after pummeling Colorado.
    (SFC, 4/12/19, p.A5)

2019        Sep 17, A US federal judge sentenced Emery Arapahoe (19) of South Dakota to nearly 32 years in prison for randomly killing a man with an ax and setting fire to the mobile home where the victim was sleeping. Arapahoe was sentenced after pleading guilty to 2nd-degree murder for killing Raymond Waters Jr. (24), and to arson for setting the trailer on fire in October 2017 in Allen.
    (AP, 9/18/19)

2019        Nov 4, In South Dakota Charles Rhines (63) was executed by lethal injection at the state penitentiary in Sioux Falls. He had been found guilty of murdering Donnivan Schaefer (22) in 1992 after Schaefer surprised him while he was burgling the Rapid City doughnut shop where Schaefer worked and Rhines was had been fired from weeks earlier.
    (Independent, 11/5/19)

2019        Nov 30, In South Dakota nine people died and three more were injured when a single-engine plane bound for Idaho crashed shortly after takeoff in Chamberlain.
    (AP, 11/30/19)

2020        Mar 25, A US federal judge ordered the US Army Corps of Engineers to conduct a full environmental review of the Dakota Access pipeline, nearly three years after it began carrying oil in June, 2017.
    (SFC, 3/26/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 6, South Dakota, Gov. Kristi Noem issued a limited stay-at-home mandate that applies only to people in the two hardest-hit counties who are older than 65 or who have chronic health conditions. North Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa and Arkansas were the only US states where no one is under a stay-at-home order.
    (AP, 4/7/20)

2020        Apr 9, Smithfield Foods Inc, the world's biggest pork processor, said it is temporarily closing a plant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, because of the new coronavirus, the latest disruption to the US food supply chain from the outbreak. The outbreak infected more than 800 employees. The Sioux Falls plants began reopening on May 4.
    (AP, 4/9/20)(SFC, 5/5/20, p.A6)

2020        Apr 28, In South Dakota federal inmate Andrea Circle Bear, who gave birth while on a ventilator four weeks ago, died from the coronavirus. She was serving a 26-month sentence for maintaining a drug-involved premises.
    (AP, 4/29/20)

2020        May 31, South Dakota Gov. Governor Kristi Noem activated the National Guard after protests in Sioux Fall turned violent over the death of George Floyd.
    (AP, 6/1/20)

2020        Jul 3, In South Dakota President Donald Trump dug deeper into America's divisions by accusing protesters who have pushed for racial justice of engaging in a merciless campaign to wipe out our history during a speech at Mount Rushmore. Trump said he will establish a National Garden of American Heroes a vast outdoor park that will feature the statues of the greatest Americans who ever lived. Supporters, most of them maskless flouted public health guidelines that recommend not gathering in large groups.
    (AP, 7/3/20)

2020        Jul 10, A South Dakota teenager (17) was sentenced to 55 years in prison after admitting he fatally shot a Wyoming girl last fall. Shayna Ritthaler (16) went missing Oct. 3 after being seen getting into a Jeep-like vehicle at a coffee shop in Moorcroft, Wyoming. She was found Oct. 7 in the basement of the home the boy shared with his mother east of Sturgis.
    (AP, 7/10/20)

2020        Aug 2, South Dakota health officials reported 88 newly confirmed cases of the coronavirus and one new death. The state death toll is now 135 with total cases at 8,955.
    (SFC, 8/4/20, p.A6)

2020        Aug 7, Thousands of bikers poured into the small South Dakota city of Sturgis as the 80th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally rumbled to life despite fears it could lead to a massive coronavirus outbreak. Daily virus cases have been trending upward in South Dakota, but the seven-day average is still only around 84, with fewer than two deaths per day.
    (AP, 8/7/20)

2020        Aug 18, South Dakota transportation officials said that this years Sturgis Motorcycle Rally drew more than 460,000 vehicles during the 10-day event. The South Dakota Department of Health issued a warning that one person who spent several hours at a bar on Main Street in Sturgis has tested positive for COVID-19 and may have spread it to others. The city plans to conduct mass COVID-19 testing in an effort to catch outbreaks.
    (AP, 8/18/20)

2020        Aug 21, In South Dakota the city of Sturgis began testing all city employees along with some first responders following the massive annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. At least 15 cases in Minnesota have been linked to the rally.
    (Good Morning America, 8/22/20)

2020        Sep 8, South Dakota Gov. Kristi Noems administration announced that it is using federal coronavirus relief funds to pay for a $5 million tourism ad campaign aimed at drawing people to the state, even as it emerges as one of the nations top hot spots for COVID-19 infections.
    (AP, 9/8/20)

2020        Sep 12, It was reported that coronavirus infections in the Dakotas are growing faster than anywhere else in the nation, fueling impassioned debates over masks and personal freedom after months in which the two states avoided the worst of the pandemic.
    (AP, 9/12/20)
2020        Sep 12, South Dakota Attorney General Jason Ravnsborg struck and killed a man walking along a rural stretch of highway. He returned to the scene the next day and discovered the body. On Feb. 18, 2021, Ravnsborg was charged with three misdemeanors. on August 26  he pleaded no contest  to two misdemeanor traffic charges and was fined $500 for each count.
    (AP, 9/14/20)(SFC, 2/20/21, p.A4)(SFC, 8/27/21, p.A11)

2020        Sep 24, Three US states reported record one-day increases in new COVID-19 cases. Montana reported 330 new coronavirus cases, South Dakota recorded 463 new cases. Utah's governor said the state set a one-day record with 1,198 new cases.
    (Reuters, 9/24/20)

2020        Sep 26, Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, and Wisconsin all reported record one-day increases in coronavirus cases, as COVID-19 infections continued to surge in the Midwest and rose nationally for the second straight week.
    (The Week, 9/27/20)

2020        Oct 23, In South Dakota the Oglala Sioux Tribe ordered a one-week lockdown of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in response to a surging number of COVID-19 cases in the state.
    (AP, 10/24/20)

2020        Nov 3, New Jersey, South Dakota and Arizona voted to legalize recreational marijuana, and Oregon became the first state to decriminalize possessing a small amount of any street drug.
    (NY Times, 11/4/20)

2020        Nov 7, It was reported that North Dakota and South Dakota have the nation's worst rate of deaths per capita over the last 30 days. Despite advances in treating COVID-19 patients, hundreds more people have died in recent weeks than during any other period a grim exclamation point on the virus outbreak slamming the northern Plains and Upper Midwest.
    (AP, 11/7/20)

2021        Feb 25, A compound in South Dakotas Black Hills that was owned by a secretive polygamous cult was sold at auction to three former members who broke with the sect years ago. Blue Mountain Ranch LLC paid $750,000 for the Fundamentalist Church of Latter-Day Saints' 140-acre (57-hectare) compound at a Custer County sheriff's auction. The county had valued the nine-parcel property at more than $9 million.
    (AP, 2/26/21)

2021        Jun 21, CNH Industrial said it expects its $2.1 billion purchase of South Dakota based Raven Industries Inc. will give it an edge in innovating autonomous technology in agriculture vehicles. The Italian-American agriculture vehicle manufacturer said it has acquired 100% of the capital stock of Raven Industries for $58 per share.
    (AP, 6/21/21)

2021        Jun 29, South Dakota Gov. Kristi Noem announced that she will join a growing list of Republican governors sending law enforcement officers to the US border with Mexico.
    (AP, 6/29/21)

2021        Jul 22, South Dakota-based Sanford Health said it is requiring all workers to get COVID-19 vaccinations by Nov. 1.
    (SFC, 7/23/21, p.A6)

2021        Aug 8, In South Dakota motorcycle riders began gathering in Sturgis for a 10-day biker rally amid a rise in COVID-19 cases in the state.
    (SFC, 8/9/21, p.A4)

2021        Aug 28, South Dakota health officials have so far reported 63 cases among state residents who attended Sturgis Motorcycle Rally three weeks ago. Contact tracers have reported 178 COVID-19 cases across five states.
    (AP, 8/28/21)

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