Timeline of Fashion
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Richard Avedon, American fashion photographer: I
think charm is the ability to be truly interested in other people.
Stephen Jay Gould (d.2002): In the heat of immediate enthusiasm, we
often mistake transient fashion for permanent enlightenment.
(NH, 6/97, p.20)
c500-400BC Before the rise of
Rome, the Etruscans had the most powerful nation in ancient Italy.
The Etruscans (who called themselves the Rasenna) inhabited central
Italy and greatly influenced the Romans in terms of language,
architecture and even fashion (evidence points to the toga as an
Etruscan invention). Unfortunately, no Etruscan literary works
survive, so most documentation comes from Greek and Roman literary
sources as well as archaeological evidence. Their military and
political power was eroded over the course of the 5th century BC
with Rome rising as the dominant power on the peninsula in the 4th
3627BC-3377BC In Armenia a leather shoe dating to
this period was found in 2010 in a pit outside a cave.
1310 May 20, Shoes began to be
made for both right and left feet.
1553 Apr 29, A Flemish woman
introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam
Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
1715 May 4, A French
manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam
Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
1746 Britain’s King George II
banned the kilt in Scotland following the Jacobite rebellion.
(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)
1778 Jun 7, George Byran "Beau"
Brummell, English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and
introduced trouser to replace breeches.
1784 Jun 16, Holland forbade
1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without
knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French
to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the
dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length
trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to
refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the
Revolutionary army during the early years of the French
Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of
1806 In England the tailor
Norton & Sons was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.136)
1809 Mar 4, Madison became 1st
President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
1818 May 27, American reformer
Amelia Jenks Bloomer, who popularized the "bloomers" garment that
bears her name, was born in Homer, N.Y.
1818 Henry Sands Brooks began
H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became
a key military supplier during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in
1928 and operations grew to the well known chain known as Brooks
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)(SFC, 6/29/01, p.A8)(NW,
1818 The first modern use for
rubber was discovered by British medical student James Syme. He used
it to waterproof cloth in order to make the first raincoats, a
process patented in 1823 by Charles Macintosh.
1819 Jul 9, Elias Howe
(d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass.
Howe, a machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and
patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short,
straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their
jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to
Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847.
Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his
patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine
manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle,
Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales
made him a wealthy man.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)(HN, 7/9/99)(MC, 7/9/02)
1826 May 29, Ebenezer
Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
1837 Thierry Hermes
(1801-1878), French saddle maker, established the Hermes company as
a harness workshop. It grew to become a maker of high fashion
leather goods. The company went public in 1993.
1840 Mar 30, "Beau" Brummell
(b.1778), English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent,
died of syphilis in a French lunatic asylum for paupers. In 2005 Ian
Kelly authored the biography “Beau Brummel: The Ultimate Dandy.”
1846 Lt. Harry Lumsden in the
heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of
cotton and called khaki in Hindi.
(NH, 6/96, p.7)
1848 Britain introduced khaki
uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)
1849 Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a
mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100.
Hunt’s other inventions included a new stove, paper collar,
ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)(SFC, 4/1/00, p.B4)(MC,
1851 Fruit of the Loom was
founded in Rhode Island as the B.B and R Knight Corporation and
changed its name in 1856. Robert Knight, a textile mill owner,
visited his friend, Rufus Skeel. Mr. Skeel owned a small shop in
Providence, Rhode Island that sold cloth from Mr. Knight's mill. Mr.
Skeel's daughter painted images of apples and applied them to the
bolts of cloth. The ones with the apple emblems proved most popular.
Mr. Knight thought the labels would be the perfect symbol for his
trade name, Fruit of the Loom.
1853 The US government asked
its diplomats not to wear court dress frippery. Diplomats in dark
tailcoats were then sometimes confused with butlers.
(Econ, 11/23/13, p.13)
1853 Levi Strauss,
Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He
got his start peddling tough canvas pants to California gold miners.
When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which evolved
into denim. [See 1873, 1874]
(SFC, 1/23/96, p.C4)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.D3)(CHA,
1856 Thomas Burberry founded a
clothing firm to sell raincoats.
(Economist, 9/22/12, p.76)
1857 Apr 21, Alexander Douglas
patented the bustle.
1857 Jun 2, James Gibbs, Va.,
patented a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
1866 Henry Wickham (1846-1928)
ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds
and ship home feathers for lady’s hats. This venture failed as the
birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon
region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree,
which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated,
but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and
Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
(WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)
1871 Robert Knight, Rhode
Island textile mill owner, secured patent number 418 for the brand
Fruit of the Loom.
1873 May 20, Levi Strauss
(b.1829), a Bavarian-born merchant in San Francisco, and Jacob Davis
of Reno, Nevada, received a US patent their miners' work pants
reinforced with copper rivets. They soon began marketing them at
$13.50 per doz.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A10)(SFC,
8/28/98, p.B4)(ON, 4/05, p.12)
1875 Jul 23, Isaac Merritt
Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
1876 Samuel T. Cooper purchased
six hand-operated knitting machines and with his sons founds S.T.
Cooper & Sons, a hosiery manufacturer located in Ludington,
Michigan. At the turn of the century the company moved to Kenosha,
1876 Woman’s underwear began to
be sold in stores.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)
1877-1957 Edna Woodman Chase, American fashion
editor: Fashion can be bought. Style one must possess.
1882 Jun 6, An electric iron
was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
1883 Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco"
Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends,
there are no friends."
(HN, 8/19/00)(AP, 7/26/99)
1885 May 19, Jan Matzeliger
began the 1st mass production of shoes in Lynn,
1887 Mar 13, Chester Greenwood
of Maine patented earmuffs.
1891 In Mexico the El Palacio
de Hierro (The Iron Palace) chain of stores was founded to bring
Parisian fashion to posh ladies of the new world.
(Econ, 12/8/12, p.67)
1892 Abercrombie & Fitch,
clothing retailers, began operations.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.11)
1894 The Ottoman governor of
Smyrna, later known as Ismir, banned baggy trousers worn by mountain
zeybeks (militias), because he found them uncouth.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.66)
1895 May 24, Samuel I.
Newhouse, US millionaire publisher (Parade, Vogue, Glamour), was
1896 Mar 31, Whitcomb Judson
patented a hookless fastening (zipper) in Chicago.
1896 Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli,
French fashion designer, was born.
1896 Brooks Brothers introduced
button down collars after observing polo players button down their
collar points to keep them from flapping during play.
(WSJ, 6/23/03, p.B1)
1899 Jan 24, The rubber heel
was patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan.
1904 Aug 18, [Francis] Max
Factor (d.1996), cosmetics manufacturer (Max Factor), was born. His
father, Max Factor (d.1938), was born in Lodz, Russia, in 1877 and
came to the US with his family in 1902.
1904-1980 Cecil Beaton, English fashion
photographer and costume designer: "The truly fashionable are beyond
1905 Jan 21, Christian Dior,
fashion designer (long-skirted look), was born in Normandy, France.
1905 Jul 2, Jean-Rene Lacoste,
tennis champ, alligator shirt designer, was born in France.
1905-1914 The great ostrich feather craze for the
adornment of women’s hats, gowns, capes, gloves and shoes took place
over this period. In 2008 Sarah Stein authored “Plumes: Ostrich
Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce.”
(WSJ, 11/19/08, p.A19)
1906 Nov 9, President Theodore
Roosevelt left Washington D.C. for a 17 day trip to Panama and
Puerto Rico, becoming the first president to make an official visit
outside of the US. His trip popularized the Panama hat, a product
actually made in Ecuador and shipped since the 1840s to prospective
gold diggers in Panama. The toquilla straw hats had been made in
Ecuador as long ago as the 17th century.
(HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.33)
1907 Oct 28, Edith Head,
fashion designer for MGM, was born.
1907 Oct, By general agreement
the first mention of the word “brassiere” appeared in Vogue
(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.E1)
1907 In France Eugene Schuller
created a hair dye in the kitchen of his Paris apartment and named
it Aureale. In 1939 the business was renamed L’Oreal.
(SFC, 9/22/17 p.D8)
1908 Jul 1, Estee Lauder, CEO
of Estee Lauder's cosmetics, was born.
1908 Marquis Mills Converse
founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball
shoe was introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor
All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)
1908 Gideon Sundback,
Swedish-born engineer working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of
Hoboken, New Jersey, designed a new fastener, the “Plako,” for use
in the placket of a woman’s skirt.
(ON, 7/04, p.5)
1909 Gabrielle "Coco"
Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.A1)
1910 Coco Chanel (1883-1971),
French fashion designer, moved to Rue Cambon, Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1910 In Italy Ermenegildo Zegna
(d.1966 at 74) began his fashion house in Trivero, in the Alpine
1914 May 18, Pierre A Balmain,
fashion designer (1940's "New Look"), was born in France.
1914 Nov 20, Emilio Pucci,
fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
1917 Jun 16, Irving Penn,
fashion photographer, brother of film director Arthur Penn, was
1917 The wrist watch became
popular as US servicemen found that their uniforms had no handy
places for watches.
(SSFC, 5/7/17, DB p.54)
1919 May 25, Madame C.J. Walker
(51), wealthy cosmetics manufacturer, died. In 2003 Beverly Lowry
authored "Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J.
(SC, 5/25/02)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)
1921 Guccio Gucci (1881-1953)
and his wife, Aida, opened their 1st store in Florence following a
number of years in London. Their son, Aldo, later built the Gucci
brand into a global snob-appeal powerhouse. In 2000 Sara Gay Forden
authored "The House of Gucci."
(WSJ, 9/1/00, p.W1)(WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)
1922 Jun 22, Bill Blass
(d.2002), fashion designer, was born in Fort Wayne, Ind.
(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A23)
1922 Jul 7, Pierre Cardin,
fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
(AP, 7/7/02)(MC, 7/7/02)
1922 Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich,
designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born in
1922 Ida Rosenthal (1860-1973),
Belarus-born immigrant and Manhattan dressmaker, came up with the
first Maidenform bra.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Rosenthal)(SSFC, 12/29/13, Par
1923 May 25, John Weitz, spy,
author, fashion designer (Friends in High Places), was born.
1923 May 28, US Attorney
General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
1923 Aug 3, Anne Klein, fashion
designer (Anne Klein II), was born.
1923 Coco Chanel launched
Chanel No. 5 perfume in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1923 Barney Pressman pawned his
wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling
discounted men's suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million
Madison Ave. showcase store.
(WSJ, 2/11/04, p.B1)
1923 The Converse shoe company,
founded in 1908, renamed its All-Stars basketball shoe to Chuck
Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)(SFC, 12/10/04, p.D1)
1924 Feb 20, Gloria Vanderbilt,
fashion designer, was born. In 2004 she published her memoir “It
Seemed Important At the Time.”
(HN, 2/20/98)(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.W7)
1924 French fashion designer
Coco Chanel sold control of her Chanel No. 5 perfume to the
Wertheimer family for a fortune.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1927 Feb 21, Hubert de
Givenchy, fashion designer, was born in Beauvais, France.
1927 Aug 30, Geoffrey Beene,
dress designer (8 Coty Awards), was born in Louisiana.
1928 Jan 17, Vidal Sassoon,
hair stylist/CEO (Vidal Sassoon), was born in London.
1928 Dec 13, The clip-on tie
1928 The John H. Daniel Co. was
founded in Knoxville, Tennessee, for producing men’s suits. By 2004
global competition led the company to import tailors from Turkey.
(WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A1)
1928 "Levi's" became a
trademark. Walter Haas Sr. succeeded Sigmund Stern, the nephew of
Levi Strauss, as president.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1929 Jan 26, San Francisco
police took Frances Orlando (19) to the Bush Police Station because
she was dressed in men's clothing.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.E3)
1931 Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at
91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and
sale at his family’s store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the
aloha shirt name in 1936.
(SFC, 6/8/00, p.C7)(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.B13)(SSFC,
1931 Willis & Geiger
Outfitters were awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2
(NH, 9/96, p.17)
1931 A rubber called Lastex
came on the market and changed the bra industry.
(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.E3)
1932 Apr 23, Halston, [R
Halston Frowick], fashion designer (1972 Hall of Fame), was born.
1932 Sep 11, Valentino, fashion
designer for Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, was born in Milan, Italy.
1933 Rene Lacoste (b.1905),
French tennis player, founded the Lacoste apparel company. He
applied a crocodile insignia to polo shirts after his nickname, “Le
Crocodile.” His son Bernard Lacoste (1931-2006) succeeded as
president in 1963.
(SFC, 3/23/06, p.B7)
1934 Feb 11, Mary Quant,
fashion designer (Chelsea Look, Mod Look), was born in Kent,
1934 May 23, Wallace Carothers
manufactured the 1st nylon, polymer 66.
1934 A postcard of a man in
bikini shorts inspired a Wisconsin-based Cooper’s Inc. designer to
invent Jockey Shorts, the first pair of briefs.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)
1935 Jan 19, The first pair of
Jockey briefs showed up in a Marshall Field’s window in Chicago.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)
1937 Feb 16, Wallace H.
Carothers, a research chemist for Du Pont who invented nylon,
received a patent for the synthetic fiber. It would replace silk in
a number of products and reduce costs. [see 1930] In 2000 Susannah
Handley authored "Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution."
(HN, 2/16/98)(AP, 2/16/98)(WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W8)
1938 Levi Strauss & Co.
registered its cloth pocket tab as its trademark.
(SFC, 11/1/02, p.E7)
1939 Oct 14, Ralph Lauren,
fashion designer (Chaps), was born.
1939 Oct 24, Nylon stockings,
made from nylon developed by DuPont Chemical, were sold publicly for
the first time, in Wilmington, Del.
(AP, 10/24/97)(SSFC, 1/26/14, DB p.42)
1939 Bra makers first started
using cup sizes.
(SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)
1940 May 15, Nylon stockings
went on general sale for the first time in the United States. [see
Oct 24, 1939]
1942 Nov 19, Calvin Klein,
fashion designer (Calvin Klein Jeans, CK), was born in Bronx, NYC.
1944 A Germany general sent
French fashion designer Coco Chanel to Madrid to initiate talks
through the British Embassy in a plan code-named “Operation
Modelhut.” A travel companion denounced her as an enemy agent and
the British ignored her.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1945 Jun 27, Norma Kamali,
dress designer (Costumes for the Wiz), was born in NYC.
1945 Peter Haas Sr. joined
Levi. He later became president.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1946 Jul 5, The bikini bathing
suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut
during a fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline
Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name correlated
with the July 1 American atom bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard
wanted his design to have a similar explosive affect. According to
New York Times columnist William Safire, the swimsuit caused more
debate, concern and condemnation than the atomic bomb.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.D17)(TMC, 1994, p.1946)(AP,
7/5/97)(SFEC, 1/17/99, Z1 p.1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
1946 Dec 2, Gianni Versace,
fashion designer (Versace), was born.
1947 Christian Dior premiered
his 1st post was collection. It was dubbed "The New Look" and "Bar"
suit for women.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1948 Oct 2, Donna Karan,
fashion designer (Coty Award-1977), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
1950 Hazel Bishop (d.1998 at
92) formed Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her kiss
proof lipstick. It was introduced in the summer at $1 a tube.
(SFC, 12/12/98, p.A25)
1950 Martha Matilda Harper
(b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was
probably the 1st person to perfect the franchise system of business
(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)
1951 May 8, Dacron men's suits
1951 Armi Ratia, Finnish
designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a
fashionable "total work of art" business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)
1952 Emilie Flöge, Viennese
fashion designer, died. She was a long time companion of Gustav
Klimt. Dr. Wolfgang Fischer later authored "Gustav Klimt and Emilie
Flöge, An Artist and His Muse."
(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)
1953 Jan 17, In SF 40 leading
fashion models formed the Professional Fashion Models of SF and
demanded a $5 fee for fitting time and rehearsals.
(SFC, 1/17/03, p.E8)
1953 Poppit beads, small
plastic ball-and-socket units, were first created in England. They
were later sold under the names Poppit, Snapit or Lockit and sold as
beads for necklaces.
(SFC, 4/16/08, p.G3)
1954 Cecil Beaton authored “The
Glass of Fashion,” a history of style.
(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)
1957 Oct 24, Christian Dior
(52), French fashion magnate and inventor of the postwar "New Look,"
died in Italy. He was succeeded by his favorite assistant, Yves
(SFC, 1/9/97, p.E7)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D3)(MC,
1960 Marc Bohan took over Dior
as a fashion designer for jet setters.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1960 A Vatican rule that
required women to wear head coverings in Catholic churches was
(WSJ, 10/8/97, p.A1)
1962 Mar 1, K-Mart opened.
1962 Havaianas, a brand
of rubber and plastic flip-flops, were introduced in brazil. In 1994
Havaianas introduced a new line of one-shade sandals in black, royal
blue, pink and purple and the brand began to gather worldwide
1963 In Spain Amancio Ortega
Gaona began to trade garments. He later founded Inditex, a holding
company of retail brands, which included Zara. By 2005 Inditex had
emerged as one of the world’s fastest-expanding makers of affordable
(Econ, 6/18/05, p.57)
1964 Jun 19, In SF publicist
Davey Rosenberg (1937-1986) persuaded waitress Carol Doda (b.1937)
to don a Rudi Gernreich topless bathing suit at the Condor Club. She
soon had her size-34 breast injected with silicon, and her bust came
to be known as Doda's "twin-44s" and "the new Twin Peaks of SF." Her
fame prompted the club to erect a neon sign with blinking nipples
that lasted to 1991.
8/1/99, DB p.32)(SSFC, 9/11/11, DB p.46)
1964 Rudi Gernreich designed
his notorious topless bathing suit, dubbed the "monokini". The bold
design catapulted both Gernreich and Peggy Moffitt to stardom, as
Moffitt was one of the few models bold enough at the time to model
it, but never in public. Photographer William Claxton, Moffit’s
husband, maintained control of the pictures.
1964 George Barrie, founder of
Caryl Richards hair care products, bought Faberge. He soon
introduced the Brut men’s cologne.
(SFC, 1/24/07, p.G7)
1964 In Italy the five sisters
opened the first Fendi store in Rome's historic center. A year later
they hired a young designer named Karl Lagerfeld who helped catapult
the Italian brand into global fame, with a focus on designing luxury
1965 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein
(89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead
authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth
Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Rubinstein)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)
1966 Oct 19, Elizabeth Arden,
US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead
authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth
Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Arden)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)
1966 In Hawaii Aloha Friday, a
tradition of wearing Hawaiian fashion, became official.
(WSJ, 1/24/08, p.A12)
1968 Calvin Klein founded
Calvin Klein Ltd. in NYC for $10,000.
1969 Mar 11, Levi-Strauss
started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
1969 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein
(89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died.
1969 Aug 31, Andrew Phillip
Cunanan, serial killer, was born. His victims included fashion
designer Gianni Versache.
1969 Katherine Hepburn starred
in "Coco," a Broadway musical based on Coco Chanel's life.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1969 Donald and Doris Fisher
founded the Gap in San Francisco. In 2004 Fisher authored "Falling
Into the Gap: The Story of Donald Fisher and the Apparel Icon He
(SSFC, 2/15/04, p.I1)
1970 Aug 25, Claudia Schiffer,
German fashion model, was born.
1970 Madge Short (d.1998 at 80)
and Jane Saunders (50) co-founded The Body Shop in Berkeley. The
name was sold to Britain’s Anita Roddick in 1987 for $3.5 million.
(SFC, 1/5/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 5/16/04, p.F6)
1971 Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco"
Chanel (b.1883), French fashion designer, died in Paris. In 2011 Hal
Vaughan authored “Sleeping With the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret
1971 Mar 3, Levi Strauss &
Co., SF-based jeans maker, went public.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(http://tinyurl.com/5wnfjx)
1971 Bebe, the SF-based women’s
fashion retailer, was founded as a boutique.
1971 The first Ralph Lauren
Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM,
1972 Elizabeth Ewing authored
“Underwear: A History.”
(SSFC, 12/31/06, p.E3)
1972 A Stetson Hat Factory
moved to St. Joseph, Mo. The handmade hats took 43 steps to produce.
(SFC, 7/31/98, p.A14)
1972 Nike Shoes began
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
1973 Nov 13, Elsa Schiaparelli
(b.1890), Italian fashion designer, died in France. In 2014 Meryle
Secrest authored “Elsa Schiaparelli: A Biography.”
1974 Rudi Gernreich, Austrian
engineer, introduced the first "thong bikini."
1974 Nov 1, Yuko Shimizu,
Sanrio designer and creator Hello Kitty set Nov 1 as her birthdate
and her parents as George and Mary White of London.
(SSFC, 12/26/04, p.M2)
1975 Aug 24, Charles H. Revson
(b.1906), US cosmetic magnate, died.
1975 Foot Locker, a division of
Woolworth Stores, opened its 1st outlet.
(WSJ, 5/13/03, p.A1)
1975 Rosalia Mera (1944-2013),
a seamstress, and her husband, Armancio Ortega, co-founded a
clothing store in La Coruna, Spain. It grew into Zara, one of the
world's largest retail chains.
1977 Yves St. Laurent launched
the perfume Opium.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.11)
1978 Apr 2, Velcro was 1st put
on the market.
1981 Giorgio Beverly Hills,
owned by Fred Hayman (1925-2016), introduced the signature fragrance
Giorgio. Hayman’s life was later recounted in “Fred Hayman, The
Extraordinary Difference: The Story of Rodeo Drive, Hollywood
Glamour and the Showman Who Sold It All” (2011) by Rose Apodaca.
(SSFC, 4/17/16, p.C9)
1983 Karl Lagerfeld became a
designer for Chanel.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.A1)
1984 Levi introduced its "501
Blues" ad to jump-start jeans sales under CEO Robert Haas, the
great-great-grandnephew of founded Levi Strauss.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1984 Nike signed a 5-year
contract with Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan basketball shoe was
released in 1985 for $65.
(WSJ, 11/11/03, p.B1)
1984 France-based Hermes
introduced its Birkin handbag, named after British actress Jane
Birkin, at a starting price of around $7,000. In 2008 Michael
Tonello authored “Bringing Home the Birkin.”
1985 Apr 21, Rudi Gernreich
(62), US designer (miniskirt), died.
1985 Bernard Arnault bought
Dior and took the company out of bankruptcy court.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1986 Naomi Sims (1948-2009)
authored “All About Health and Beauty for the Black Woman.” Her 1968
cover shot on the Ladies’ Home Journal was a breakthrough for black
1986 Levi Strauss & Co.
introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)
1986 Bikinis began to be worn
in China when an int’l. bodybuilding contest required female
contestants to wear them.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.36)
1987 Mar 17, Antonio Lopez
(b.1943), fashion illustrator, died in Los Angeles from AIDS. In
2018 the documentary "Antonio Lopez 1970: Sex Fashion &
Disco," directed by James Crump, was released.
1987 LVMH, a fashion and luxury
goods group, was created. Its initials stood for Louis Vuitton
(leather luggage), Moet (champagne) and Hennessy (cognac).
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.6)
1990 Mar 26, Designer Halston
died in San Francisco at age 57.
1990 Jun 2, Frederick Mellinger
(76), founder of Fredericks of Hollywood, died.
1990 Jun 22, Florida passed a
law that prohibited wearing a thong bathing suit.
1992 Nov 29, Emilio Pucci (78),
Italian fashion designer (Jackie Kennedy), died. In 2000 his firm
was acquired by LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton.
(MC, 11/29/01)(WSJ, 8/22/03, p.B1)
1993 Maurizio Gucci sold his
remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
(WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)
1994 Victoria’s Secrets
introduced the Miracle Bra, a bottom padded push up bra designed by
Linda Wachner of Warnaco.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A1)
1994 The Wonderbra was launched
in America. The Wonderbra name was first trademarked in the US in
1935 Sara Lee Corporation redesigned the push-up style for the
reintroduction of the Wonderbra to the US market.
1994 The Gap opened its Old
Navy discount clothing store in Colma, Ca.
(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.I1)
1994 In Malawi a ban on women
wearing pants ended following the end of the long dictatorship of
1995 Mar 27, In Italy Maurizio
Gucci (46), businessman, was shot to death in Milan. He was the last
family member to have held shares in the Gucci fashion company, now
part of the Bahrain-based Investcorp. In 1997 police arrested his
former wife, a psychic, a doorman, and two hitmen for their roles in
the murder. In 1998 Patrizia Reggiani Martinelli (50) was convicted
and sentenced to 29 years in prison. The psychic got 25, the doorman
got 26, the driver got 29 and the gunman got life.
(SFC, 2/1/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/4/98, p.A13)
1995 Feb 3, IBM in fashion shed
its dress code in favor of casual wear.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.C1)
1995 Oct 10, Paolo Gucci,
entrepreneur and accessories designer, died at 64.
1996 Jun 7, Max Factor,
hairstylist, died at age 91. He started the Max Factor makeup
company that was bought out by Proctor and Gamble in 1991. In March
‘96, the Max Factor Museum of Beauty in Hollywood shut down.
(SFC, 6/8/96, p.A17)(www.deadoraliveinfo.com)
1996 Aug 28, In Poland
Agnieszka Kotlarska, fashion model, was knifed and killed by a thief
outside her home.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)
1996 John Galliano, British
designer, became chief designer for Dior. In 1999 he introduced the
saddle bag handbag.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1996 Levi Strauss & Co.
went private again after the company bought nearly 1/3 of its stock
for $4.3 billion.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1997 Feb, Tattooing was
re-legalized in NYC after a 36-year ban caused by fears of
1997 Jul 15, Gianni Versace,
Italian fashion designer, was shot to death outside his home in
Miami Beach, Fla. Police were searching for Andrew Philip Cunanan,
27, of San Diego as the primary suspect. Suspected serial killer
Andrew Phillip Cunanan, was found dead eight days later.
(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/15/98)
1997 Jul 22, More than 2,000
people gathered in Milan, Italy, for a memorial Mass for slain
fashion designer Gianni Versace; the mourners included Princess
Diana and singer-songwriter Elton John.
1997 Jul 23, The search for
Andrew Cunanan, the suspected killer of designer Gianni Versace and
others, ended as police found his body on a houseboat in Miami
Beach, Fla., an apparent suicide.
(SFC, 7/24/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/98)
1999 Feb 22, Levi Strauss,
falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would
close 11 of 22 US plants and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/22/00)
1999 Jun 8, The WSJ covered the
thong as a fashion statement on page 1.
(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A1)
1999 Aug 9, Four large apparel
corporations settled out of court in a suit to end sweatshop labor
in Saipan. Nordstrom, J. Crew, Cutter & Buck and Gymboree agreed
to pay $1.25 million to reimburse workers for recruitment fees and
to set up a program to monitor island contractors.
(SFC, 8/10/99, p.A1)
1999 Karen Kozlowski and Meg
Cohen Ragas authored "Read My Lips: A Cultural History of Lipstick."
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.5)
1999 Gucci under CEO Domenico
De Sole purchased Yves St. Laurent for $1 billion. Gucci invited
Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR), a French retail group, to buy a
substantial stake in the company to prevent a hostile takeover.
(Econ, 11/8/03, p.62)
2000 Aug 17, India opened its
first fashion show in Mumbai, Lakme India Fashion Week.
2001 Oct 1, Conde Nast said it
would its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published
for the last time in November.
(SFC, 10/2/01, p.C1)
2002 Jan, In NYC the “No Pants
Subway Ride” began as a stunt and continued over the years as an
“int’l celebration of silliness.”
(SFC, 1/10/15, p.A2)
2002 Jun 12, Bill Blass (79),
fashion designer, died in New Preston, Conn.
(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A23)
2002 In France Paris Mayor
Bertand Delanoe inaugurated Paris Plages, filling sections of the
left and right banks of the Seine with sand and installing spray
misters, hammocks, parasols and other beach-style accoutrements. In
2006 Paris City Hall banned thong bikinis, topless sunbathing and
nudity at the summer sand-in-the-city event.
2003 Mar 5, Sir Hardy
Amies (93), Savile Row designer and self-described snob, died.
(SFC, 3/6/03, p.A19)
2003 Mar 11, Benetton,
an Italian retailer, said it planned to attach salt-grain sized
microchip transmitters to clothing at its 5,000 stores.
(SFC, 3/12/03, p.B1)
2003 Jul 9, It was reported
that processed fish skin was making it in the fashion world. The
Scottish fashion company Skini recently launched a line of
(WSJ, 7/9/03, p.A1)
2003 Sep, Carlo Benetton sold
his 11,000 acre Buffalo Ranch to the state of Texas for use by the
(Econ, 9/27/03, p.30)
2003 Michael J. Silverstein and
Neil Fiske authored "Trading Up: The New American Luxury." It
described a "new kind of emotional engagement" for consumers and
(WSJ, 10/15/03, p.D14)
2003 Gladys Perint Palmer
authored "Fashion People."
(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.E7)
2004 Jan 24, Helmut Newton
(83), fashion photographer, died in a car accident in LA.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A2)
2004 Feb 22, Giorgio Armani
signed a $1 billion hotel venture with Dubai’s Emaar Properties.
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.61)
2004 Feb 25, Tom Ford presented
his last Gucci collection.
(SSFC, 2/07/04, p.E1)
2004 Apr 24, Estee Lauder
(b.1906), cosmetics pioneer whose pots of potions and tubs of
moisturizers have turned the clock back for millions of faces across
the globe, died in NYC.
2004 Jun 11, Egon von
Furstenberg (57), a Swiss-born aristocrat known as the "prince of
high fashion,” died in Rome.
2004 Jun 18, The Hanky Panky
thong model 4811 was described as the top seller in its category. In
2003 thongs accounted for a quarter of the $2.6 billion panty
market. Gale Epstein and Lida Orzeck began Hanky Panky in the late
(WSJ, 6/18/04, p.A1)
2004 Sep 27, it was reported
that Levi had signed a letter of intent to sell its Dockers brand to
Vestar Capital Partners from $800 million.
(WSJ, 9/27/04, p.AB6)
2004 Sep 28, Geoffrey Beene
(77), the award-winning designer whose simple, classic styles for
men and women put him at the forefront of American fashion, died.
2004 Oct 1, Richard Avedon
(81), fashion photographer, died.
(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A1)
2004 Oct 29, It was reported
that US teen fashions had veered away from grunge and hip-hop looks
toward a more preppy attire and that Axe, a deodorant body spray,
was becoming popular among young boys.
(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A1)
2004 Hair stylist began
providing crystal extensions dubbed “hair bling.” Bling was a
hip-hop term for flashy dressing and accessories.
(WSJ, 7/16/04, p.W1)
2005 North Korea’s government
urged its women to refrain from wearing trousers, saying Western
clothing dampen the revolutionary spirit and blur national pride.
2007 Jun 17, In Italy
Gianfranco Ferre (b.1944), known as the "architect of fashion," died
in Milan. He was the top designer for Christian Dior from 1989-1996.
(SFC, 6/18/07, p.A2)(AP, 6/17/08)
2007 Oct 11, Campaign for Safe
Cosmetics, a US consumer rights group, said more than half the
lipsticks it had tested were found to contain lead and some popular
brands including Cover Girl, L'Oreal and Christian Dior had more
lead than others.
2008 Apr 11, It was reported
that clubbers across Europe were doing a dance called “tecktonik,” a
mix of rave and breakdancing.
(WSJ, 4/11/08, p.W10)
2008 Jun 1, Yves Saint Laurent
(b.1936, one of the most influential and enduring designers of the
20th century, died in Paris.
2008 Aug 13, Jack Weil (107),
patriarch of western clothing, died. He created the western style
shirt which sold after 1946 through his Denver-based company
Rockmount Ranch Wear.
(Econ, 8/30/08, p.82)
2008 Sep 5, Mila Schoen
(b.1916), an Italian designer of elegant, impeccably tailored
clothes, died at her villa in northern Italy.
2008 Sep 16, Local media
reported that a Florida judge has deemed unconstitutional a law
banning baggy pants that show off the wearer's underwear.
2008 Oct 11, William Claxton
(b.1927), music and fashion photographer, died in Los Angeles. He
had photographed his wife in 1964 in the Rudi Gernreich designed
topless bathing suit and achieved recognition for his photos of jazz
(SFC, 10/14/08, p.B5)
2008 Oct 19, Richard Blackwell
(86), actor turned fashion designer, died in Los Angeles. He claimed
to be the first to make designer jeans for women. In 1960 he issued
his first tongue-in-cheek criticism of Hollywood fashion disasters.
(SFC, 10/21/08, p.B5)
2008 Dec 29, Ted Lapidus
(b.1929), French fashion designer who redefined chic with the 1960s
unisex look, died. Lapidus created his label in 1951, and in 1963
became a member of the prestigious Paris fashion club that runs
haute-couture, La Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture.
2008 Dec 22, Alfred Shaheen
(b.1922), the dean of Hawaiian couture, died. In 1948 he started
manufacturing rayon Hawaiian shirts in a Quonset hut left over from
the war. Within a decade annual revenue grew to $4 million.
(WSJ, 1/24/08, p.A12)
2008 In Germany David Schneider
and Robert Gentz, the founders of Zalando, started selling flipflops
online from the Berlin flat. By 2016 the online company was Europe’s
largest vendor of clothing and footwear.
(Econ, 9/3/16, p.59)
2009 Feb 14, Sir Bernard Ashley
(82), British businessman, died. He teamed up with his wife to build
the Laura Ashley (d.1985) fashion and home furnishing brand into a
2009 May 8, In London Marks
& Spencer admitted it had "boobed" in a row over larger bras,
agreeing to slash the prices of its DD-plus cup sizes to bring them
in line with smaller models.
2009 May, In France fashion
house of Christian Lacroix filed for bankruptcy. It had been founded
inside LVMH, a luxury goods group in 1987 and lost money every year
(Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)
2009 Jun 22, French President
Nicolas Sarkozy declared that the Islamic burqa is not welcome in
France, branding the face-covering, body-length gown as a symbol of
subservience that suppresses women's identities.
2009 Jun 23, The French
parliament created a commission to study the wearing of
body-covering burqas and niqabs in France, a day after President
Nicolas Sarkozy said the Islamic garment turns women into prisoners.
2009 Jul 26, Gaza's top judge
said that he has ordered female lawyers to wear Muslim headscarves
when they appear in court, the latest sign that the Islamic militant
group is increasingly imposing its strict interpretation of Islamic
law on residents of the coastal strip.
2009 Jul 30, Japanese astronaut
Koichi Wakata described his test of new underwear, called J-Wear, as
the shuttle Endeavour prepared to come home after over 2 weeks
aloft. Wakata tested the high-tech underwear for a month at a time
during his 4½ months aboard the ISS.
(SFC, 7/31/09, p.A9)
2009 Aug 31, In southern
California fashion designer Anand Jon Alexander was sentenced to 59
years to life in prison for sexually assaulting aspiring models he
lured to Los Angeles.
2009 Sep 7, A Sudanese judge
convicted Lubna Hussein, a woman journalist, for violating the
public indecency law by wearing trousers outdoors and fined her
$200, but did not impose a feared flogging penalty. Hussein said she
will not pay a penny while still in court custody, wearing the same
trousers that had sparked her arrest.
2009 Sep 8, Sudanese journalist
Lubna Ahmed Hussein, who spent a day in jail for refusing to pay a
fine for wearing "indecent trousers," vowed on her release to keep
up the battle against the law. The UN’s human rights office said
Sudan's conviction Hussein for indecency for wearing trousers
violates international law and is emblematic of wider gender
discrimination in the Islamic country.
(AFP, 9/8/09)(Reuters, 9/8/09)
2009 Sep 23, Iranian police
warned shop owners against displaying female mannequins wearing
underwear or showing off their curves as part of a government
campaign against Western influence. Azar Mansouri, a senior leader
from reformist political party, Islamic Iran Participation Front,
was arrested during a widespread crackdown on opposition supporters
who challenged the re-election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in
June 2009. In March 2010 Mansouri was sentenced to three years in
jail for plotting to harm national security.
2009 Sep, In Israel Rabbi Yosef
Shalom Elyashiv (99) outlawed the use of elevators. Jewish law, or
halacha, forbids the use of electrical items on the Sabbath. He also
has proclaimed that Jews could not wear Crocs shoes on Yom Kippur,
the Day of Atonement, because they were deemed too comfortable for
the somber fasting holiday.
2009 Oct 6, Syria held its
first ever fashion design competition, meant to encourage young
Syrian talents and local products.
2009 Oct 7, Irving Penn
(b.1917), American fashion photographer, died in NYC. He began
contributing to Vogue magazine in 1943. His younger brother Arthur
Penn (b.1922) gained renown as a film director and producer.
(SFC, 10/8/09, p.A8)
2009 Oct 9, Egypt's top Islamic
cleric said that students and teachers will not be allowed to wear
face veils in classrooms and dormitories of Sunni Islam's premier
institute of learning, al-Azhar, part of a government effort to curb
radical Islamic practices.
2009 Oct 22, A Sudanese court
sentenced two women to 20 lashes for dressing "indecently." Judge
Hassan Mohammed Ali said: "The two women wore trousers and no
headscarf. The court therefore finds them guilty according the
public order laws." Last year nearly 43,000 women were detained for
indecent clothing offences in Khartoum region, where five million
2009 Oct 28, Kuwait's highest
court ruled that women lawmakers are not obliged by law to wear the
headscarf, a blow to Muslim fundamentalists who want to fully impose
Islamic Sharia law in this small oil-rich state.
2009 Nov 8, Brazil’s private
Bandeirante University in Sao Bernardo do Campo, outside Sao Paulo,
expelled Geisy Arruda (20) for wearing a short, pink dress to class,
publicly accusing her of immorality. Arruda made headlines after an
Oct. 22 incident, in which she had to be escorted away by police
after wearing the mini-dress to class. The dean of the private
college in suburban Sao Paulo released the next day announcing a
decision to reinstate her.
(AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/10/09)
2009 Nov 19, In France South
Korean model Daul Kim (20), a fashion week regular in New York,
Milan and Paris, was been found hanged in her Paris apartment.
2009 Nov 21, In Sudan Silva
Kashif (16), a girl from south Sudan, was arrested convicted and
lashed 50 times after a Khartoum judge ruled her knee-length skirt
was indecent. Her mother, Jenty Doro, later said she planned to sue
the police who made the arrest and the judge who imposed the
sentence, as her daughter was underage and a Christian.
(Reuters, 11/27/09)(AFP, 11/28/09)
2009 Dec 4, North Korea made an
unlikely foray into designer denim as the "Noko Jeans" label was
launched in Sweden. The brand is Swedish but the black jeans are
manufactured in North Korea, an experiment its creators described as
a way to open doors to the reclusive communist country. The next day
Stockholm’s PUB department store removed the new line of designer
jeans from its shelves, saying it wants to avoid courting
controversy through ties with the isolated communist nation. Noko
Jeans founders said they will continue to sell the jeans on their
Web site and that retailer Aplace will continue to sell them on
their Web site.
(AP, 12/4/09)(AP, 12/5/09)
2009 Marnia Lazreg,
Algerian-born professor of sociology at City Univ. of New York,
authored “Questioning the Veil: Open Letter to Muslim Women.”
(Econ, 9/5/09, p.92)
2009 Silly Bandz, rubber band
bracelets of various shapes, became a fad among kids in Alabama and
then across the nation. Robert Croak of Ohio began manufacturing and
marketing the product after seeing a similar product from Japan in
2007. A pack of 24 was priced at around $5.
(SSFC, 7/11/10, Par
2010 Jan 13, Edgar Vos (78),
"the emperor of Dutch fashion," died of a heart attack while on
vacation in Florida. Vos built a chain of 15 stores across the
Netherlands, where he sold designer clothes cut to bring out the
best from all figures and tailored to most budgets.
2010 Jan 27, It was reported
that Italian fashion house Armani has stopped selling online a
T-shirt bearing a logo similar to Indonesia's national symbol,
Garuda Pancasila, after some bloggers protested and other people
called for the label to be sued.
2010 Jan 28, Denmark's
government said that face-covering Muslim veils don't belong in
Danish society but no ban is needed because their use can be limited
under existing rules.
2010 Jan 28, In Spain
prosecutors say charges have been filed against Mohamed Benbrahim, a
Muslim imam, for threatening a woman in Cunit, Catalonia, who
refused to wear an Islamic headscarf.
2010 Feb 11, British fashion
designer Alexander McQueen (40) was found dead at his London home.
McQueen received recognition from Queen Elizabeth II in 2003, when
she made him a Commander of the British Empire for his fashion
leadership. A Feb 17 coroner’s report gave the cause of the fashion
designer's death as asphyxiation and hanging.
(AP, 2/11/10)(AP, 2/17/10)
2010 Mar 31, In Belgium a
parliamentary committee unanimously voted to ban the wearing of
face-covering veils in public, a major step in the legislative
process that could make Belgium the first European country to impose
such a religious prohibition.
2010 Apr 29, Belgium's lower
house of parliament banned burqa-type Islamic dress in public, but
the measure faced a challenge in the Senate which will delay early
enactment of the law. There were two abstentions. No one voted
2010 May 27, In Indonesia
authorities in a devoutly Islamic district of Aceh province have
distributed 20,000 long skirts and prohibited shops from selling
tight dresses as a regulation banning Muslim women from wearing
revealing clothing took effect.
2010 May 28, The Spanish city
of Lleida, population of 135,000, barred women from wearing
face-covering Islamic veils inside its municipal buildings.
2010 Jun 14, In Spain Barcelona
City Mayor Jordi Hereu announced a measure to bar the use of
face-covering Islamic veils in municipal buildings. He insisted it
was not specifically religious saying it is aimed at all dress that
impedes identification, and thus includes motorcycle helmets and ski
2010 Jun 21, An Iranian
newspaper said police have issued warnings to 62,000 women who were
"badly veiled" in the Shiite holy province of Qom as part of a
clampdown on dress and behavior.
2010 Jul 18, Syria announced a
ban on the niqab, the face-covering Islamic veil, from the country's
2010 Jul 20, Spain's Parliament
rejected a proposal to ban women from wearing in public places
Islamic veils that reveal only the eyes.
2010 Aug 22, A Bangladesh
lawyer said high court judges have passed an order directing that
wearing religious attire should be the personal choice of the
students or the employees. No one can be forced to wear them.
2010 Sep 14, In North Carolina
Ariana Iacono (14) went back to school with her mother and her nose
ring, after her first suspension for a nose piercing ended. She was
suspended again for five days because her nose ring violated the
Johnston County school system's dress code. If she comes back to
school on Sept. 21 with the nose stud, she'll face a 10-day
suspension or referral to "alternative schooling." A similar
situation went to the courts in 2002, when a woman was fired from
her job at a Costco store over her eyebrow ring. The woman was also
a member of the Church of Body Modification, but the courts
eventually ruled that her religious beliefs did not require her to
always wear her jewelry.
2010 Sep 14, France introduced
a law against face-covering. It became commonly known as the burqa
2010 Oct 6, In Cuba a
resolution from the Foreign Relations Ministry was published into
law making the guayabera Cuba's official formal dress garment and
mandating that government officials wear them at state functions.
2010 Oct 6, Local media
reported that Ukraine has adopted a dress code for government
workers. The code called on men working at the Cabinet of Ministers
to wear mostly gray and dark blue suits and not wear the same suit
to work two days in a row. Women were asked to stick to business
suits and low-heeled shoes, as well as refrain from excessive makeup
2011 Jan 18, A court in the
northeastern Spanish region of Catalonia suspended a ban by the city
of Lleida on face-covering Islamic veils in municipal buildings. The
ban was suspended while the court studies an appeal lodged by a
Muslim association. Only about 3 percent of Lleida's population is
Muslim and only a handful of women actually wear body-covering
burqas or face-covering niqab garments.
2011 Mar 1, French fashion
house Christian Dior said John Galliano has been immediately laid
off, just days after he was suspended as its creative director
pending an investigation into an alleged anti-Semitic incident in a
Paris cafe last week.
2011 Mar 7, French fashion
colossus LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton announced that it has
agreed to buy Rome-based jeweler Bulgari SpA in a cash-and-shares
deal worth euro4.3 billion ($6 billion).
2011 Apr 11, In France a law
went into effect banning women from wearing full-face veils in
public places. Several women appeared veiled in front of Paris'
Notre Dame Cathedral and two were detained for taking part in an
unauthorized protest. The $214 burqa fine also included mandatory
lessons on being French.
(SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)(AP, 4/11/11)
2011 May 11, India said it had
lodged a complaint with the Australian government over swimwear
carrying the image of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi that has sparked
protests. Fashion house Lisa Blue promised to halt production
immediately and apologized for any offence the design may have
2011 May 22, Auction site eBay
said a bidder paid £81,100 ($131,648) for a silk bow hat worn by
Princess Beatrice to last month’s royal wedding. The Philip Treacy
creation was put on sale to raise money for UNICEF and Children in
(SFC, 5/23/11, p.A2)
2011 May 28, Thousands of
people turned out for Australia's first "SlutWalk," protesting for
women to be able to wear whatever they like without fear of being
sexually assaulted. SlutWalk began in Canada in April after a
Toronto police official said that "women should avoid dressing like
sluts in order not to be victimized."
2011 Jun 16, In SF Deshon
Marman (20), a college football player, was arrested and thrown off
a US Airways jet in a dispute over his sagging pants. Marmon was in
the city attending the funeral of his best friend, David Henderson,
who was fatally wounded last month.
(SFC, 6/18/11, p.C4)
2011 Aug 13, Fashion designer
Jesus del Pozo (65), one of Spain's most influential style
modernizers, died. Del Pozo opened his first outlet in Madrid in
1974, making him a contemporary of Antonio Miro and Adolfo
Dominguez. His first collection was unveiled in 1976.
2011 Aug 16, Romania’s
controversial Tourism Minister Elena Udrea sparked outrage with a
frock she admitted cost as much as many Romanians make in more than
a month. She defended the $1290 dress, insisting it cost less than
the thousands of euros that media has reported.
2011 Aug 20, In South Africa
some 2,000 women draped sexy lingerie over their street clothes and
marched through Cape Town, bringing the international "SlutWalks"
campaign against the notion that a woman's appearance can excuse
attacks to a country where rape is seen as a national crisis.
2011 Sep 8, British fashion
icon John Galliano (50) was convicted of anti-Semitism for hurling
abuse at bar patrons in Paris' Jewish quarter in a career-breaking
outburst he has blamed on drink and drugs. In the French trial in
July Galliano apologized for his conduct. He received suspended
fines totaling 6,000-euro (£5,200, $8,400).
2011 Sep 16, In Indonesia
Jakarta city governor Fauzi Bowo called on women not to wear
miniskirts when riding on public transport in the capital after a
27-year-old woman was attacked in a public minivan early this month.
The next day Governor Bowo apologized for his remarks as some 50
women donned miniskirts to protest his remarks.
2011 Sep 24, In San Francisco
40 or so naked men and one woman staged a nude-in at Castro and 17th
streets to support their right to wander in the buff.
(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.D3)
2011 Sep 24, In Utah thousands
of people stripped to their underwear and ran through Salt Lake City
to protest what they called the "uptight" laws of Utah. Guiness
World Records later said 2,270 people participated breaking a
previous record of 550 set last year in Great Britain.
(AP, 9/25/11)(SFC, 10/7/11, p.A6)
2011 Oct 24, In Denmark fashion
icon Margit Brandt (66) died. Her simple cuts and 1960s miniskirts
marked one of the first international breakthroughs for Danish
2011 Nov 28, In Tunisia a group
of students, who were for the most part not enrolled at Manouba
university, camped out to demand the right for women students to
wear the full veil, known as the niqab. They also demanded a place
of prayer on campus.
2011 In China the city of
Yining became the first part of Xinjiang province to ban the wearing
of face-covering veils in public.
(Econ, 11/7/15, p.40)
2012 Jan 18, Five Tunisian
students said they went on hunger strike against a ban on niqab
veils imposed by Manouba university, upping the ante in a dispute
which began in November.
2012 Jan 20, In Malawi hundreds
of outraged girls and women, among them prominent politicians,
protested the recent public stripping of women of their miniskirts
and pants. Many wore pants or miniskirts and T-shirts emblazoned
with such slogans as: "Real men don't harass women." Men also took
2012 Jan 24, Tunisian police
ended a weeks-long sit-in by conservative Muslims at Manouba
university that banned the full-face veil.
2012 Feb 8, An Egyptian
production company said "the student members of the Muslim
Brotherhood at Ain Shams University had prevented the film crew from
the 'Dhat' TV series from shooting the scenes set at the
university." The series, adapted from the novel "Dhat" by Egyptian
author Sonallah Ibrahim, takes place in the 1970s, "when women wore
2012 Mar 19, Israeli passed a
new law that bans the showing overly thin models from local
advertising in an attempt to fight the spread of eating disorders.
2012 Mar 24, Chechnya's first
lady, Medni Kadyrova, displayed her Islamic fashion collection to a
captivated audience in Dubai, faithful to the politics of her
husband who has sought to impose Islamic dress codes in the Caucasus
2012 May 30, Iranian media
reported that female booth attendants at an international trade fair
and shops selling men's ties have become targets in a strict
crackdown by Tehran police on clothing deemed un-Islamic.
2012 Jul 18, Austria’s
University of Innsbruck said that archeologists found four linen
bras dating from the Middle Ages in an Austrian castle. Fashion
experts described the find as surprising because the bra had
commonly been thought to be only little more than 100 years old as
women abandoned the tight corset.
2012 Sep 2, Egypt's state TV
lifted a decades-long ban on veiled female news presenters whom
successive secular-leaning regimes have barred from going on air.
2012 Oct 2,Designer brands were
reported to be abandoning Argentina. Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy,
owner of the Japanese label Kenzo, issued a statement blaming
Argentina's "complex economic context" for the closure of its store
on Oct 10. Top labels have become collateral damage as the
government tightens its hold on the economy with measures aiming to
encourage domestic production and capture more wealth to aid the
2012 Oct 17, Scotland Yard
confirmed in a statement that the Metropolitan Police will no longer
permit tattoos on the face, hands or which appear above the collar
2013 Jan 4, A small plane
disappeared off the Venezuelan coast with six people aboard,
including Vittorio Missoni (58), a top executive in Italy's Missoni
fashion house. Wreckage of the plane was found in June.
(AP, 1/5/13)(AP, 6/27/13)
2013 Feb 13, British fashion
retailer Republic became the latest casualty of the economic
downturn, seeking protection from creditors and putting around 2,500
jobs at risk.
2013 Apr 23, It was reported
that the authrities in Ras al-Khaimah, the northernmost emirate in
the UAE, have posted signs on public beaches warning of possible
fines for revealing swimwear.
(SFC, 4/23/13, p.A2)
2013 May 9, In northern
Italy Ottavio Missoni (b.1921), the patriarch of the iconic fashion
brand of zigzag-patterned knitwear, died.
2013 May, In Myanmar Famoso
Clothing, a Japanese owned operation set up in Yangon in 2002, paid
its workers about $100 per month to make men’s suits. It was in the
process of closing its last Chinese factory where wages had become
four times as high.
(Econ, 5/25/13, SR p.8)
2013 Jul 20, In France 6 people
were arrested after overnight violence that erupted in Trappes near
Versailles. The trouble began two days earlier when police checked
the identity of a woman wearing a Muslim veil and engaged in a
scuffle with her husband. It is illegal in France for women to wear
full face veils in public but the law is contested in the mainly
Muslim suburbs that ring major cities.
(Reuters, 7/20/13)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)
2013 Sep 22, Switzerland's
Italian-speaking region was on course to ban the wearing of a
full-face veil, projected results from a referendum showed.
2013 Sep 23, Clothing retailer
Abercrombie & Fitch announced a settlement to pay $71,000 to two
SF Bay Area Muslim women who lost job opportunitioes because of
(SFC, 9/24/13, p.C1)
2013 Sep 30, Turkish PM Recep
Tayyip Erdogan announced that his government would lift a ban on
wearing headscarves in public institutions as part of reforms to
2013 Oct 8, Turkey lifted a
90-year-old ban on Islamic headscarves in the civil service as part
of wide-ranging reforms driven by the Islamic-rooted government.
(AFP, 10/8/13)(SFC, 10/9/13, p.A2)
2013 Nov 13, Turkey's
parliament lifted a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in the
assembly, in a further liberalization of dress rules following a
landmark decision to allow female deputies to wear the Islamic
2014 Feb 16, In Almaty,
Kazakhstan, protesters waived their knickers in a protest
ostensibly over a rule regulating synthetic underwear. The “pantie
protesters” were rounded up and led away. The real anger was over
the recent devaluation of the country’s currency.
(Econ, 2/22/14, p.35)
2014 Mar 7, Macedonian police
said they have arrested 13 people, including the head of a customs
office at the Macedonia-Bulgaria border crossing, on suspicion of
participating in a ring smuggling designer clothing from Greece and
2014 Mar 17, In London fashion
designer L'Wren Scott, the girlfriend of Mick Jagger, died of an
apparent suicide. Her LS Fashion Ltd. company was heavily in debt at
the time it filed its most recent accounts.
2014 Apr 30, In Italy fashion
designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana were sentenced to one
year and six months each in jail, over charges of hiding hundreds of
millions of euros from tax authorities.
2014 Jul 1, The European Court
of Human Rights upheld France's law banning face-covering Muslim
veils from the streets.
2014 Sep 24, A German federal
court ruled that church-run institutions are within their rights to
refuse to allow Muslim employees to wear headscarves at work.
2014 Oct 20, Legendary fashion
designer Oscar de la Renta (b.1932) died at his home in Connecticut.
His beautiful clothes defined American elegance for generations and
were beloved by first ladies and Hollywood stars.
2014 Oct 20, Australia's
Parliament House lifted a short-lived ban on facial coverings
including burqas and niqabs after the prime minister intervened.
2014 Nov 17, In Kenya nearly
1,000 people marched through the streets of Nairobi to protest a
recent rash of attacks by mobs of men on women who have been deemed
too provocatively dressed.
2014 Iran conducted a study
that found 49.8% of men and women considered the Islamic veil a
private matter and that the government should have no say in it. The
study was only made public in 2018.
(SFC, 2/6/18, p.A4)
2014 In Malaysia Mamapride
trousers went on sale in response to religious scholars concerned
about women being exposed to male doctors and interns. They were
developed by a team of 19 health care workers, five of them women,
from the Malaysian medical charity Papisma.
2015 Mar 13, Germany’s top
court ruled that Muslim women teachers can wear headscarves as long
as it does not cause disruption in school overturning its own 2003
2015 Jul 1, Chad banned the
wearing of the burqa, the Muslim woman’s covering that hides even
the eyes, two days after suicide bombers killed more than 30 people.
(Econ, 2/13/15, p.40)
2015 Aug, Cameroon banned the
wearing of the burqa in its northern-most region following
suicide-bombings by people clad in burqas.
(Econ, 2/13/15, p.40)
2015 Sep 10, Irish retailer
Primark, owned by Associated British Foods (ABF) opened its first
shop in America with a flagship store in Boston.
(http://tinyurl.com/peo64ze)(Econ, 9/5/15, p.65)
2015 Oct 2, The head of Egypt's
Cairo University said a recent decision to ban female staff from
wearing the full face veil aims to put an end to student complaints
of "poor communication" in class.
2015 Dana Thomas authored “Gods
and Kings: The Rise and Fall of Alexander McQueen and John
(Econ., 3/7/15, p.88)
2016 May 15, Iran’s Tasnim news
agency said eight members of a modeling network have been arrested
and accused of publishing photos of women without the obligatory
hijab headscarf on the picture-sharing application Instagram.
2016 Jul 7, Cambodia said
tourists showing cleavage or wearing skimpy clothes will be banned
from the famed Angkor temple complex, after a slew of photos emerged
of scantily-clad visitors at the sacred site.
2016 Aug 25, Sonia Rykiel (86),
the French fashion designer known as the Queen of Knitwear, died in
Paris after a long battle with Parkinson's disease.
2016 Aug 26, A top French court
suspended a ban on full-body burkini swimsuits that has angered
Muslims, feminists and civil liberties campaigners.
2016 Nov 25, In Hungary
far-right Asotthalom mayor Laszlo Toroczkai said councilors have
voted to ban the construction of mosques and the activity of
muezzins, as well as the use of veils and headscarves like burqas,
chadors and burkinis worn by Muslim women.
2016 Nov 29, The Dutch
parliament voted to ban face veils in some public places, a law the
government said was essential for security but which opponents said
pandered to anti-Muslim sentiment.
2016 Dec 6, Germany’s
Chancellor Angela Merkel called for a ban on full-face Muslim veils
"wherever legally possible".
2016 Dec 12, Police in the
Saudi capital said they had arrested a woman for taking off her veil
in public and posting pictures of her daring action on Twitter.
Several websites identified her as Malak al-Shehri, who triggered a
huge backlash on social media after posing without the hijab in a
main Riyadh street last month.
2017 Jan 10, A European court
rejected an appeal by a Turkish-born couple who were fined in
Switzerland for keeping their daughters out of mixed-gender,
mandatory public school swimming lessons for reasons linked to their
2017 Feb 22, Turkey’s defense
ministry officials said they will allow female soldiers to wear a
headscarf with their uniforms, marking a symbolic shift for a
military that has traditionally seen itself as a guardian of state
2017 Mar 14, The European
Union's top court ruled that companies may bar staff from wearing
Islamic headscarves and other visible religious symbols under
certain conditions, setting off a storm of complaint from rights
groups and religious leaders.
2017 May 16, Austria’s
parliament approved new legislation banning the wearing of full
facial veils in public places to become effective in October.
Violators would face fines of about $167.
(SFC, 5/18/17, p.A3)
2017 Jun 9, New Austrian
legislation came into force today that will ban the full-face
Islamic veil in public places from October 1.
2017 Jun 19, In Italy Carla
Fendi (79), one of the five sisters who transformed the family
leather goods business into a global luxury fashion house long known
for its furs, died following a long illness.
2017 Jun 29, Leading global
fashion brands and trade unions agreed to continue a safety program
involving thousands of garment factories in Bangladesh for another
three years. Swiss-based global trade unions — IndustriALL Global
Union and UNIGlobal Union — and brand representatives announced the
agreement in Paris.
2017 Jun 29, The British
parliament scrapped a requirement for male lawmakers to wear ties, a
move greeted with both concern and celebration at Westminster.
2017 Jul 18, Saudi police said
they were questioning a woman who appeared in an online video over
the weekend in a miniskirt and crop top walking through a historic
site in the ultraconservative kingdom.
2017 Jul 25, It was reported
that American fashion brand Michael Kors is buying luxury shoemaker
Jimmy Choo in a deal worth $1.35 billion (896 million pounds).
2017 Jul 29, Hundreds of
Turkish women marched in Istanbul to protest against the violence
and animosity they face from men demanding they dress more
2017 Aug 24, In North Carolina
the Durham Public Schools’ board voted unanimously to revise its
dress code to prohibit the Confederate flag, Ku Klux Klan symbols
(SFC, 8/26/17, p.A5)
2017 Aug 27, In Abu Dhabi a
Singaporean man and his transgender friend facing jail for dressing
in a "feminine" way had their sentences reduced to a fine and
deportation. Singaporean fashion photographer Muhammad Fadli bin
Abdul Rahman and his transgender friend Noor Vitriya Kistina Ibrahim
were arrested earlier this month at an Abu Dhabi shopping mall.
2017 Aug 29, Hong Kong-based
David Tang (63), the flamboyant and outspoken socialite and
entrepreneur who founded the Shanghai Tang fashion brand, died in
London after a long battle with cancer.
2017 Sep 6, French corporations
LVMH and Kering signed a joint charter on working conditions in the
fashion models industry aiming to protect the health of models. The
agreement will take effect this month, in time for the spring-summer
ready-to-wear runway collections.
2017 Sep 8, French fashion
tycoon Pierre Bergé (86), the business brains behind the Yves Saint
Laurent empire, died at his home at Saint-Remy-de-Provence.
(AFP, 9/8/17)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.79)
2017 Sep 25, Vietnamese
authorities used water cannon and electric rods to end a five-month
long protest by villagers blockading a textile plant that serves
global fashion brands.
2017 Oct 1, In Austria law
prohibiting any kind of full-face covering, known popularly as the
"Burqa Ban," took effect. Parties campaigning on an anti-migrant
message are poised to win on Oct. 15 and to form a coalition
2017 Oct 18, In Canada
legislators in Quebec passed a religious neutrality bill that will
oblige citizens to uncover their faces while giving and receiving
(SFC, 10/19/17, p.A2)
2017 Oct 27, In China Vlada
Dzyuba (14), a Russian model, died after working on a photo shoot in
Yiwu, about 300 km (186 miles) south of Shanghai. A Chinese modeling
agency that hired the girl denied media reports that a "slave
contract" contributed to the teen's sudden death.
2017 Nov 18, French-Tunisian
fashion designer Azzedine Alaia (b.1935) died in Paris after winning
a worldwide following.
2017 Dec 1, A Canadian judge
suspended part of a Quebec law banning people from wearing full-face
veils when giving or receiving public services, handing a
provisional victory to civil liberties groups who argued that the
law is unconstitutional and discriminates against Muslim women.
2017 Dec 26, Police in New York
arrested a father (55) and his two sons (22 and 18) who had $25
million worth of counterfeit designer accessories in their
possession. The knockoff Chinese merchandise was shipped to Kennedy
Airport before being distributed to street vendors.
2017 Dec 27, Tehran's police
chief said Iranian police are taking a softer approach to breaches
of Islamic rules, opting for education over punishment. Police will
no longer arrest women for failing to observe the Islamic dress code
imposed since 1979. Violators will be made to attend classes.
(AFP, 12/27/17)(SFC, 12/29/17, p.A2)
2018 Feb 6, The Danish
government proposed a ban on Islamic full-face veils such as the
niqab and burqa in public spaces, making it likely to become the
next European country to restrict the wearing of the religious
2018 Feb 9, In Saudi Arabia a
senior member of the top Muslim clerical body said Saudi women need
not wear the abaya - the loose-fitting, full-length robes symbolic
of religious faith, another indication of the Kingdom's efforts
2018 Feb 23, In Iran a video
showing a policeman shoving a woman protesting against mandatory
headscarves off her makeshift podium in a busy Tehran street sparked
criticism on social media.
2018 Mar 12, French couturier
Hubert de Givenchy (91), a pioneer of ready-to-wear who designed
Audrey Hepburn's little black dress in "Breakfast at Tiffany's,"
2018 Apr 4, Austria's
right-wing government announced plans to ban girls from wearing
headscarves in kindergarten and primary schools to combat what it
sees as a threat to Austrian mainstream culture from some Muslims.
2018 Apr 19, Iran's
semi-official ISNA news agency reported that Interior Minister
Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli has requested an investigation after a video
surfaced showing police pushing and pulling a young woman who was
resisting arrest for not adhering to the Islamic dress code.
2018 Apr 20, Saudi sports
authorities shut down a female fitness center in Riyadh over a
contentious promotional video that appeared to show a woman in
figure-hugging workout attire.
2018 May 9, In Dubai the sixth
edition of Arab Fashion Week opened with fallen angels, Rococo
corsets, cupcake headbands and nary a kaftan in sight.
2018 May 27, China granted the
Ivanka Trump's company final approval for its 13th trademark in the
last three months. Over the same period, the Chinese government has
granted her company provisional approval for another eight
trademarks, which can be finalized if no objections are raised
during a three-month comment period.
2018 May 31, Denmark became the
latest European country to ban the Islamic full-face veil in public
spaces in a move slammed by human rights campaigners as "a violation
of women's rights".
2018 Jun 5, American fashion
designer Kate Spade (55) was found dead in her NYC apartment in an
2018 Jun 12, The European
Union's top court defended French fashion designer Christian
Louboutin's claim to trademark red soled high-heel shoes.
2018 Jun 15, Italy's
family-owned Missoni fashion house announced that Italian investment
fund FSI will take a 41.2 percent stake in the firm to help expand
the business and help usher the house toward an eventual public
2018 Jun 26, In China three
China Labor Watch activists arrested last year while investigating
abuses at Chinese suppliers for Ivanka Trump's fashion brand were
released from bail.
2018 Jun 26, The Dutch Upper
House of parliament passed a law banning the wearing of
face-covering veils in public buildings, such as schools, government
offices and hospitals.
2018 Aug 1, Denmark's ban on
the Islamic full-face veil in public spaces came into force, with
anyone wearing a garment that hides the face in public risking a
2018 Aug 3, Danish police were
called to a shopping center in Horsholm, a city of some 46,000
inhabitants to confront a woman (28) wearing a niqab garment
covering her face. The woman was slapped with a fine of 1,000 Danish
kroner ($156) and requested to either remove the veil or leave the
premises. She opted to leave.
2018 Sep 18, Lithuanian
authorities said Walmart has agreed to remove shirts with Soviet
emblems from its online shop after three Baltic countries complained
about the clothing.
2018 Sep 23, Swiss voters in
St. Gallen approved by a two-thirds majority a ban on facial
coverings such as the burqa, becoming the second Swiss canton to do
2018 Sep 25, It was reported
that NY-based Michael Kors is buying the Italian fashion house
Gianni Versace in a deal worth more than $2 billion.
2018 Oct 23, The UN Human
Rights Committee said that France's ban on the niqab, the full-body
Islamic veil, was a violation of human rights and called on it to
review the legislation. It gave Paris 180 days to report back to say
what actions it had taken.
2018 Nov 21, The Italian luxury
fashion house Dolce&Gabbana apologized for insulting remarks
about China it allegedly made in exchanges on Instagram but claimed
its accounts had been hacked.
2018 Nov 22, In China
Dolce&Gabbana goods disappeared from Chinese e-commerce sites as
the fallout grew over remarks insulting to China that were
apparently made by two of its Instagram accounts.
2018 Nov 23, The co-founders of
Dolce&Gabbana apologized in a video on Chinese social media
after promotional videos seen as racist and subsequent Instagram
messages stoked a furor in one of the world's largest markets for
2018 Dec 20, Uzbek imam
Fazliddin Parpiyev, who ran into trouble for urging President
Shavkat Mirziyoyev to lift a school headscarf ban, said he has left
the mainly Muslim nation due to pressure from security services.
2019 Jan 9, A US supplier of
T-shirts and other team apparel to college bookstores cut its ties
with a Chinese company that drew workers from an internment camp
holding targeted members of ethnic minority groups.
Subject = Fashion
End of file